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Beginnings of an American Identity 1689 1763

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					Beginnings of an
American Identity
  1689-1763
     Chapter 5
                Education




Economy                          Religion




             American Identity




Publishing                         War




              Political Ideas
CRO
Majority
  Rule
Land, Rights, and Wealth
            • Land ownership gave
              colonists :
               – political rights
               – wealth
               – social position


            • received the best seats
              in church, were treated
              with respect from
              others
          Colonial Social Rank
• HIGH
  –    large landowners
  –   church officials
  –   government officials
  –   wealthy merchants
• UPPER MIDDLE
  – small farmers
  – tradespeople
• LOWER MIDDLE
  – renters
  – unskilled workers
• LOW
  – indentured servants
  – slaves
Women and the Economy
• Most white women
  were farm wives
• They cooked,
  cleaned, churned
  butter, made soap
  and candles, spun
  fibers, wove cloth,
  sewed and knitted
  clothes, and did
  many other chores.
•At harvest time, they often
worked in the fields with the
men and children.
•Women in towns did most of
the same chores
• Women did not have
  many rights.
• Women could not
  vote, preach or hold
  office
• A married woman
  could not own
  property without her
  husband’s permission.
• By law, the money a
  woman earned
  belonged to her
  husband.
Apprentice – a beginner who learns a trade or craft from an
experienced master
         Young People at Work
    • Children’s work supported the colonial
      economy.
    • Families were large (most had 6 to 8 children)
    • around age six, boys were “breeched” or
      given a pair of pants and began to help
      their fathers at work
    • around age 11, boys began to become
      apprentice
• Girls rarely were apprenticed
• Learned sewing and other
  household skills from their
  mothers
• Girls of 13 and 14 were sent to
  other households to learn
  specialized skills
American Identity




     Economy
  Better economic
opportunities; more
 chance of owning
        land
     Colonial Schooling
• Most children were taught to read so
  they could understand the Bible
• only children from wealthy families
  went beyond reading to learn
  writing and arithmetic
• wealthy families sent children to
  private schools or hired private
  tutors
• poorer children were taught by their
  mothers
• some attended “dame schools”
  where women taught the alphabet
  and the Bible
• most children were finished with
  school by age seven
• children’s textbooks emphasized
  religion
• Colonial America had a high literacy
  rate
     Economy
  Better economic
opportunities; more
 chance of owning
        land




American Identity




     Education
 High reading rate;
children educated to
   read the Bible
       Newspapers and Books
• Many newspapers!
• Colonists began to publish their own
  books
• Almanacs were very popular.
• Published poetry, regional history,
  autobiographies
• “Captive Narrative” was a unique form
  of literature found in the colonies
• It told the stories of people captured by
  Indians
                         Economy
                      Better economic
                    opportunities; more
                     chance of owning
                            land




                    American Identity



   Publishing                                  Education
Colonists publish                          High reading rate;
own newspapers                            children educated to
   and books                                 read the Bible
Great Awakening – a revival of religious
feeling in theThe Great Awakening and 1740s
              American colonies during the 1730s

   • In the 1730s and 1740s
   • a religious movement swept through
     the colonies
   • preached religious beliefs were more
     important than behavior
   • Jonathan Edwards one of the best
     known preachers
      – he frightened his listeners with hell
        fire and brimstone sermons
Effects of the Great Awakening
• Congregations split apart
• people left the old churches and joined
  new ones
• churches gained many new members
• inspired colonists to help others (George
  Whitefield started a home for orphans)
• encouraged ideas of equality and the
  right to challenge authority
• contributed to the revolution
                           Economy
                        Better economic
                      opportunities; more
                       chance of owning
                              land




     Religion
Religion important;                              Education
 Great Awakening                             High reading rate;
                       American Identity
 spread religious                           children educated to
  feeling across                               read the Bible
     colonies




                          Publishing
                       Colonists publish
                      own newspapers and
                            books
                – an 18th-century movement that
Enlightenment The Enlightenment emphasized
the use of reason and the scientific method to obtain
knowledge
    • Emphasized reason and science as paths to
      knowledge
    • Ben Franklin famous Enlightenment figure
    • intellectual movement
    • John Locke argued people have natural
      rights- life, liberty and property
       – people create government to protect their
         rights
       – if government fails, people have right to
         change it
      Vocabulary Check
• Apprentice – a beginner who learns a trade or craft from an
  experienced master
• Great Awakening – a revival of religious feeling in the American
  colonies during the 1730s and 1740s
• Jonathan Edwards – one of the best-known preachers who
  terrified listeners with images of God’s anger but promised they
  could be saved
• George Whitefield – drew thousands of people with his sermons
  and raised funds to start a home for orphans
• Enlightenment – an 18th-century movement that emphasized the
  use of reason and the scientific method to obtain knowledge
• Benjamin Franklin – a businessperson and inventor who became
  one of the best known political thinkers in the colonies
• John Locke – an English philosopher who argued that people
  have natural rights
1.   A religious movement that
     swept through the colonies in
     the 1730s and 1740s
2.   A traveling minister who           A. Jonathan Edwards
     drew thousands with his            B. Enlightenment
     sermons and started a home
     for orphans                        C. Benjamin Franklin
3.   A businessperson and
     inventor who became one of         D. Great Awakening
     the best known political
     thinkers in the colonies           E. John Locke
4.   An English philosopher who         F. George Whitefield
     argued that people have
     natural rights to life, liberty,
     and property
5.   A movement that emphasized
     reason and science as the
     paths to knowledge
   Roots of
Representative
  Government
    Section 2
     Magna Carta
• Magna Carta (Great Charter)
• written in 1215
• signed by King John
• most important document in
  English law
• limited the power of the king
  for the first time
• listed the rights of the
  Parliament and Colonial
         Government
• One of the most important rights
  was to elect representatives to
  government
• Colonists set up their own
  representative governments modeled
  after Parliament
• Parliament had no representatives
  from the colonies, but the laws they
  passed affected the colonies.
http://www.lawsch.uga.edu/~glorious/
       Glorious Revolution
• The English Parliament decided to
  overthrow King James for not
  respecting its rights.
• Parliament offered the throne to his
  daughter, Mary and her husband
  William. James fled and Mary and
  William became the new monarchs!
• This change in leadership is known
  as the Glorious Revolution.
  English Bill of Rights
• 1689
• spelled out the rights of English
  citizens
• gave Parliament, NOT the king the
  right to make laws
• established the principle: the
  government was to be based on laws
  made by Parliament, not on the
  desires of a ruler!
http://www.lawsch.uga.ed
u/~glorious/
   Shared Power in the Colonies
• The royal
  governor, his
  council and the
  colonial assembly
  shared power.
• During the first
  half of the 1700’s,
  England
  interfered very
  little in colonial
  affairs.
• This hands-off
  policy was called
  salutary neglect.
• Parliament
  made many laws
  regulating the
  colonies but the
  governors
  ignored the laws
  and the colonists
  got use to acting
  on their own!
                                         Economy
                                      Better economic
                                    opportunities; more
                                     chance of owning
                                            land

  Political Ideas
 Colonists expect
     “rights of                                                              Education
  Englishmen”;                                                           High reading rate;
 Enlightenment –                                                        children educated to
people can improve                                                         read the Bible
  or change their
   government                       American Identity




                   Religion
              Religion important;                            Publishing
               Great Awakening                            Colonists publish
               spread religious                           own newspapers
                feeling across                               and books
                   colonies
    The Zenger Trial
• 1735
• John Peter Zenger was tried for
  printing criticism of the New York
  governor.
• The jury found him NOT-GUILTY
  stating that people had the right to
  speak the truth.
• The right of freedom of the press in
  the colonies was established!
http://www.law.umkc.edu/
faculty/projects/ftrials/zen
ger/images.html
The burning of Zenger's New York Weekly Journal (Bettman Archive)
      Vocabulary Check
• Magna Carta – “Great Charter”; a document guaranteeing basic
  political rights in England, approve by King John in 1215
• Parliament – England’s chief lawmaking body
• Edmund Andros – the royal governor of New England who
  angered colonists by ending their representative government
• Glorious Revolution – the overthrow of English King James II in
  1688 and his replacement by William and Mary
• English Bill of Rights – an agreement signed by William and
  Mary to respect the rights of English citizens and of Parliament,
  including the right to free elections
• Salutary neglect – a hands off policy of England toward its
  American colonies during the first half of the 1700s
• John Peter Zenger – publisher of the New-York Weekly Journal
  who stood trial for printing criticism of New York’s governor
1.    The first steps to limit the power of England’s king were taken in
      the
     A.   Parliament
     B.   Magna Carta
2.    British laws that affected the colonies were made by
     A.   The king
     B.   The Parliament
3.    The ruling family of England changed as a result of
     A.   The Glorious Revolution
     B.   The Magna Carta
4.    The principle that government should be based on laws and not on
      the whims of a ruler was established by
     A.   The Parliament
     B.   The Magna Carta
5.    The English policy of interfering very little in colonial affairs was
      called
     A.   The Bill of Rights
     B.   Salutary neglect
The French and
  Indian War
   Section 3
       Make this chart in your notes
Date          Incident            Victor
              Seizure of Fort
              Duquesne

              Surrender of Fort
              Necessity

              Braddock’s
              defeat

              Battle of Quebec
VERY VERY VERY
  IMPORTANT!!!!
French and Indian War – a
• The French and Indian War was
  NOT between the French and
conflict in North America
  Indians!!!!!!!!!!!!! that was part
from, 1754-1763
• IT was a war between the BRITISH
of a worldwide struggle
  and the France and Britain;
betweenFRENCH and their INDIAN
  allies!!!!!!!!!!
Britain defeated France and
• It was for control of North America.
gained French Canada
French and Indian War
     1754-1763
• 1753 George Washington tells the
  French settlers to leave the Ohio
  River Valley and then builds a fort
  there
• 1754 French settlers and Native
  Americans seize the fort, which
  signals the beginning of the war
        Make this chart in your notes
Date           Incident            Victor
April 1754     Seizure of Fort     French
               Duquesne

               Surrender of Fort
               Necessity

               Braddock’s
               defeat

               Battle of Quebec
MSN Encarta
                                  George
                                  Washington built
                                  Fort Necessity
The first battle of the French
                                  which was attacked
and Indian War took place when
                                  in July of 1754.
the French attacked Fort
                                  Washington
Necessity. After the surrender,
                                  surrendered the
Washington resigned from the
                                  fort to the French.
British Army and joined the
Virginia militia.
        Make this chart in your notes
Date           Incident           Victor
April 1754     Seizure of Fort    French
               Duquesne

July 1754      Surrender of Fort French
               Necessity

               Braddock’s
               defeat

               Battle of Quebec
     Albany Plan of Union
Albany Plan of Union – the first formal proposal to unite
the American colonies, put forth by Benjamin Franklin

 • While Washington was busy fighting,
   Benjamin Franklin suggested the
   colonies band together for defense.
 • The Albany Plan of union was the first
   formal written proposal to unite the
   colonies.
 • The colonial legislatures did not pass it!
                                The British sent General
                                Edward Braddock to
                                save the day on the
                                Western Frontier.
                                George Washington
                                volunteered to fight
                                along side of him. The
                                British fought the
                                French in the pouring
                                rain. General Braddock
                                was mortally wounded
                                and Washington took
                                command for him. But,
Washington earned a             the British lost the
reputation as a great leader!   battle.
        Make this chart in your notes
Date           Incident           Victor
April 1754     Seizure of Fort    French
               Duquesne

July 1754      Surrender of Fort French
               Necessity

July 1755      Braddock’s         French
               defeat

               Battle of Quebec
        The Battle of Quebec

• The turning point of the war.
• The British surprised the French
  and surrendered Quebec to the
  English.
  Battle of Quebec – a battle won by the British over
  the French, and the turning point in the French and
  Indian War
MSN Encarta
        Make this chart in your notes
Date             Incident          Victor
April 1754       Seizure of Fort   French
                 Duquesne

July 1754        Surrender of Fort French
                 Necessity

July 1755        Braddock’s        French
                 defeat

September 1759   Battle of Quebec British
    The Treaty of Paris
• Ended the French and Indian War
  in 1763
• Britain claimed all of North
  America east of the Mississippi
  River.
• France gave Spain New Orleans
  and Louisiana for helping them.
• Britain got Florida.
       Effects of the war
• Britain won the war!!
• Britain gained all of North
  America east of the Mississippi
  River
• French power was forever ended in
  North America
    Pontiac’s Uprising
• Britain took over French forts and
  refused to give supplies to the Native
  Americans like the French had done.
• Native Americans attacked settlers and
  destroyed almost every British fort west
  of the Appalachians.
• The British retaliated by giving Indian
  leaders blankets contaminated with small
  pox. This started a deadly outbreak.
MSN Encarta
     Proclamation of 1763
• The uprising made the British
  government see that defending
  Western lands would be costly.
• The government issued the
  Proclamation of 1763 which
  forbade colonists to settle west of
  the Appalachians.
• The colonists were angry!!
      Vocabulary Check
• French and Indian War – a conflict in North America from,
  1754-1763 that was part of a worldwide struggle between France
  and Britain; Britain defeated France and gained French Canada
• Albany Plan of Union – the first formal proposal to unite the
  American colonies, put forth by Benjamin Franklin
• Battle of Quebec – a battle won by the British over the French,
  and the turning point in the French and Indian War
• Treaty of Paris – the 1763 treaty that ended the French and
  Indian War; Britain gained all of North America east of the
  Mississippi River
• Pontiac’s Rebellion – a revolt against British forts and American
  settlers in 1763, let in part by Ottawa war leader Pontiac, in
  response to settlers’ claims of Native American land and to harsh
  treatment by British soldiers
• Proclamation of 1763 – an order in which Britain prohibited its
  American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian
  Mountains
                  Quiz 5.3
1. This forbade the English colonists       A.   Albany Plan
   from settling on lands west of the            of Union
   Appalachian Mountains.                   B.   Battle of
                                                 Quebec
2. Conflicts over land and fur trade        C.   French and
   caused this.                                  Indian War
3. This was the turning point of the        D.   Pontiac’s
                                                 Uprising
   French and Indian War.                   E.   Proclamation
4. Benjamin Franklin first proposed this.        of 1763
                                            F.   Treaty of
5. This led to the Proclamation of 1763.         Paris

				
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