# Pflugerville Independent School District Home

Document Sample

```					6th Grade Science

Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD   Cite: http://revolution.3-cities.com/~dunigan/moving_car.gif
Unit 1
Matter and Motion
Chapter 2: The Properties of Matter
Section 1: What Is Matter?
Section 2: Describing Matter

Chapter 3: States of Matter
Review the States of Matter

Chapter 4: Matter in Motion
Section 1: Measuring Motion
Section 2: What is Force?
Section 3: Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion
Section 4: Gravity: A Force of Attraction
Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Matter?

•   Cite: http://www.magicaweb.com/alienplaces/ice/ice4.jpg

Cite: http://www.bridgebuilder.plus.com/galleries/html02/images/Plasma-gems.jpg

Chapter 2 Section 1                                    Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Matter?
Chapter 2 Section 1

What Do You Think?

What is matter?

Chapter 2 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Matter?

Matter is
everything that
has mass and
volume.

Chapter 2 Section 1      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Matter?

Matter takes up space. This is
known as volume.
No item can take up the space of
another object.

Chapter 2 Section 1      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Matter?

Activity

Let’s prove that no object can take up the space of
another object.
1. Crumple a piece of paper and tightly fit it in the
bottom of a clear plastic cup.
2. Turn the cup upside down and lower the cup in a
bucket of water.
3. Why didn’t the paper get wet?

Chapter 2 Section 1      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD   See speaker notes for lab.
What is Matter?

Liters and milliliters
express volume of
liquids.
cylinder to measure
volume.
Measure the
meniscus or the
bottom of the curve.

Chapter 2 Section 1      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Cite: http://www.morrisonlabs.com/images/volumexamples/662meniscus.jpg
What is Matter?

Activity

To practice finding volume go to the
following website:
http://www2.newpaltz.edu/~gaines79/pow
erpoint_files/frame.htm

Chapter 2 Section 1      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
See speak note for lab.
What is Matter?

Solid Volume is
expressed in
cubic units- cm3
1cm

Volume= length                                             1 cm

x width x height.                                 1 cm

Chapter 2 Section 1      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Matter?
Measuring the Volume of Solids
Follow the step to find the volume of a solid.

cylinder.
2. Drop in a solid object.
3. The water level will rise.
4. Record new level of water.
5. Find the difference between the old water level
and the new water level.
6. Record the volume of the solid in units cubed.
7. This is known as displacement.

Chapter 2 Section 1      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Matter?

Chapter 2 Section 1      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Matter?

Mass is the amount
of matter that
of.
Mass is expressed in
units of grams (g)
and milligrams (mg).

Chapter 2 Section 1      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Cite: http://www.arborsci.com/images/Triple_beam.jpg
What is Matter?

Mass is the matter an object is made up of.
Mass is constant.
Mass is found using a balance.
Mass is measured in mg, g, kg.

Chapter 2 Section 1      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Matter?

Weight is due to gravitational force.
Weight varies in relationship to the Earth.
Weight is found using a spring scale.
Weigh is measured in newtons.

Chapter 2 Section 1      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Let’s Review

1. What is matter?

Chapter 2 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

Matter is anything that has volume
and mass.

Chapter 2 Section 1   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Let’s Review

2. How               is volume measured? How
is mass measured?

Chapter 2 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

Volume of a liquid is measured using a
Volume of a solid can be measured by
• l x w x h or by displacement.
Mass of an object is measured by using a
balance.

Chapter 2 Section 1   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Describing Matter

Chapter 2 Section 2       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
How Can Matter Be Measured and
Describing Matter
Compared?
What Do You Think?

If you had to describe an orange to
someone who had never seen an orange,
what would you tell the person?

Chapter 2 Section 2       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Describing Matter

Physical properties of matter can
be observed or measured without
changing the identity of the matter.

Cite: http://www.chem4kids.com/files/art/matter_states1.jpg

Chapter 2 Section 2                   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Describing Matter
Examples of Physical Properties

Color               Ductility
Odor                Malleability
Thermal Conductivity
Density             Solubility
State
Touch
Chapter 2 Section 2   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
See speaker notes for more examples.
Describing Matter

Density is the
amount of matter in
a given space.
Golf Ball
Density =
Mass/Volume
Ping Pong Ball

Chapter 2 Section 2       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
See speaker notes for lab.
Describing Matter

Activity

pour in different liquids.
See which one goes to
the top and which sinks to
the bottom.
Chapter 2 Section 2       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
See speaker notes for materials.
Describing Matter

Chemical
properties
describe matter
based on its
ability to change
into new matter
with different                         Cite: http://www.woodstone-corp.com/images/animation_fire_window.gif

properties.
Chapter 2 Section 2       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Describing Matter

Flammability is
the ability to burn.

Oxidation is the
reaction with
oxygen to form
rust.
Chapter 2 Section 2       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Describing Matter

Physical Changes effect one or more
physical properties of a substance.
Examples:
Freezing water to ice
Sanding a piece of wood
Doesn’t change the identity of the matter.

Chapter 2 Section 2       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Describing Matter

Chemical change happens when
two or more substances are
changed into one or more new
substances with different
properties.
Drop some effervescent
tables in water. How is
Activity            this a chemical change?

Chapter 2 Section 2            Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Cite: http://www.ipl.be/private/Chimie/a_voir/archives/cestavoir1/Images/effervescent%20tablets.jpg
Describing Matter

Change of color
Heat
Fizzing or foaming
Production light or sound

See speaker notes for Core Lab.
Chapter 2 Section 2       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Describing Matter

Practice some examples of physical and
chemical properties:

http://www.quia.com/jg/320858.html

Chapter 2 Section 2       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Pre-AP Extension

Density is mass/volume.
Determine the density of an
unknown substance and use a
graphing calculator to analyze
data taken in a laboratory.

Chapter 2 Section 2       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD   See speaker notes for lab.
Let’s Review

1. Classify each of the following
properties as either physical or
chemical: reacts with water,
dissolves in oil, is blue, and doesn’t
react with hydrogen.

Chapter 2 Section 2     Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

Reacts with water- chemical
Dissolves in oil- physical
Is blue- physical
Doesn’t react with hydrogen- chemical

Chapter 2 Section 2   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Let’s Review

2. Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas can
chemically combine to make water. How
do the physical and chemical properties of
the original substances (hydrogen and
oxygen) differ from those of the new
substance (water)?

Chapter 2 Section 2     Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

Hydrogen and oxygen are colorless
gases and are not very dense.
Hydrogen is flammable and oxygen
enables substances to burn.
Water is a liquid, is denser than the
two gases, and is not flammable.

Chapter 2 Section 2   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Let’s Review

3. Using one physical property,
classify the following substance
as a group: water, oil, mercury,
and alcohol.

Chapter 2 Section 2     Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

All are liquid at room temperature.

Chapter 2 Section 2   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
States of Matter

Cite: http://public.lanl.gov/alp/plasma/graphics.states/4states2.jpg

Chapter 3 Review Only                   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
States States of
What Are Threeof MatterMatter?

What Do You Think?
What are the four states of matter?

Chapter 3 Review Only       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
States of Matter

The four states of matter are solid,
liquid, gas, and plasma.
and their properties.
Develop a concept map with the four
states of matter and their properties.

Chapter 3 Review Only      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Pre-AP Extension

Describe the characteristics of the
primary three states of matter and
observe matter moving from one
state to another.

Chapter 3 Review Only   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD   See speaker notes for lab.
Measuring Motion

Chapter 4 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Measuring Motion
What Are Three States of Matter?

What Do You Think?
How is motion measured?

Chapter 4 Section 1          Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Measuring Motion

The object that
appears to stay in
place is a reference.
When the object
changes position in
relation to a reference
point over a period of
time, the object is in
motion.

Chapter 4 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Measuring Motion

Earth surface
Buildings
Trees
Mountains

Chapter 4 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Measuring Motion

The rate at which an object moves is
speed. Speed depends on distance and
time.

Units used for speed= m/s, km/h,
s= d/t
Chapter 4 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD   See speaker notes for Core Lab
Measuring Motion

Velocity is the
speed of an object
in a particular
direction.
5km/h north
Velocity = Speed
+ direction
How does speed
and velocity
differ??
Chapter 4 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Measuring Motion

Constant Velocity is if the speed and
direction don’t change. It will follow a
straight line.

Change in velocity will occur if the
speed or direction change= 5km/h
south to 10 km/h south.
Chapter 4 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Measuring Motion

Resultant Velocity is combining two
velocities.

When two velocities are moving in the same
When two velocities are moving in different
directions- subtract.

Chapter 4 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD   See speaker notes for examples.
Measuring Motion

Acceleration is
the rate at which
velocity changes.
Increase in speed=
positive
acceleration
Decrease in speed
= deceleration                         Slow down

Chapter 4 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Measuring Motion

The formula for average
acceleration is

Acceleration= Final Velocity – Starting Velocity
Time it takes to change velocity

Chapter 4 Section 1                Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Measuring Motion

Chapter 4 Section 1                     Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Measuring Motion

You are always
moving because
the Earth is always
moving.
Centripetal
acceleration is
acceleration that
occurs in circular
motion.
Chapter 4 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Measuring Motion
Explain the potential and kinetic energy
Energy is the                              in the picture below.
ability to work.
Potential Energy
is the energy an
object has because
of its shape or
position.
Kinetic energy is
energy in motion.
Chapter 4 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Measuring Motion

Let’s practice some with speed and
acceleration

Chapter 4 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Pre-AP Extension

A graph is a mathematical
representation of a real life situation.
Using the graphing calculator, explore
the concepts of distance, time and
velocity through physical motion.

Chapter 4 Section 1       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD   See speaker notes for lab.
Let’s Review

1. What is a reference point?

Chapter 4 Section 1     Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

A reference point is an object that appears
to stay in place relative to another object
that is being observed, and is used to
determine if the object being observed is
in motion.

Chapter 4 Section 1   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Let’s review

Graph 1 represents speed                                                    Graph 2 represents speed
or acceleration?                                                            or acceleration?

Chapter 4 Section 1                                 Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

Graph 1 shows speed
Graph 2 shows acceleration

Chapter 4 Section 1   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Let’s review

3. What is the difference between
speed and velocity?

Chapter 4 Section 1    Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

Speed does not include direction,
while velocity does.

Chapter 4 Section 1   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Force?

Chapter 4 Section 2      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Force?

What Do You Think?
Where do you see force happening in
the room around you.

Chapter 4 Section 2       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Force?

Force is simply a push or a pull on an
object.

Chapter 4 Section 2      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Force?

Scientists express force
using Newton (N)

Chapter 4 Section 2      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Force?

Motion doesn’t need to occur to exert
a force on an object.
For example: you sitting in a chair.

Chapter 4 Section 2      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
(Chair)
What is Force?

More than one force can act on
an object.
Net force is the force that
results from combining all the
forces exerted on an object.
For example : moving a piano.

Chapter 4 Section 2      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
See speaker notes for examples.
What is Force?

When the net force is greater than zero -
unbalanced force.
Unbalanced forces produce a change in
motion.
Soccer - what moves the ball? What
causes the piano to move?

Chapter 4 Section 2      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Force?

When the net force is zero the
object doesn’t move.
–Light hanging from ceiling
–birds nest in a tree

Chapter 4 Section 2      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Force?

What can force do?
1. change the position of an object
2. change the speed of an object
3. change the direction of an object.

Chapter 4 Section 2      Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
What is Force?

try to work out what would happen with
the balanced and unbalanced forces.

Chapter 4 Section 2           Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Pre-AP Extension

The acceleration of an object
depends on its mass and the
initial force applied to it. Test the
strength of different materials by
applying compressive, tensile,
and sheer force.
Chapter 4 Section 2       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD   See speaker notes for lab.
Let’s Review

1. Explain the differences between balanced
and unbalanced forces, and explain how
each force affects the motion of an object?

Chapter 4 Section 2     Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

Unbalanced Forces occur when the net
force on an object is not zero, while
balanced forces occur when the net force
equals to zero. Unbalanced forces cause
a change in an object’s motion, while
balanced forces cause no change.

Chapter 4 Section 2   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Let’s Review

2. In the picture, two
dogs are playing tug
of war. The arrow
shows the direction in
which the two dogs
are moving. Describe
how the speed,
direction of motion,
and position of the
dog on the left is                    Cite: http://blogranger.typepad.com/photos/family_photos/tug_of_war.jpg
changed by the other
dog.
Chapter 4 Section 2     Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

The speed of the dog on the left is
increasing because more force is being
applied by the dog on the left. The
direction of motion is to the left. The dog
on the right is moving to the left also.

Chapter 4 Section 2   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

Chapter 4 Section 3   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

What Do You Think?

Why are there signs everywhere at
the pool that say “NO RUNNING”?

Chapter 4 Section 3       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

Friction is a force that
opposes motion between
two surfaces that are
touching.
What is the force that stops
this ball?
Chapter 4 Section 3   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

Friction occurs because the                                                         Surface of glass

surface of any object is
rough.
Hills and valleys of one
surface stick to the hills and
valleys of another.

Chapter 4 Section 3   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Cite: http://grove.ufl.edu/~bratt/Manatee%20and%20Researches/Fractals/rough%20surface%20of%20%20a%20glass.jpg
Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

Rougher surfaces
create more friction-
more hills and valleys                               Baseball on the grass

Greater force creates
more friction.
Bowling Ball on the grass.

Chapter 4 Section 3   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

1. Sliding Friction - two objects are sliding       Sliding Friction
across each other.
2. Rolling Friction- object rolling over a
Rolling Friction
surface.
3. Fluid Friction- involves fluids and gases.
4. Static Friction- holds object in place
until greater force is applied to move the       Fluid Friction

object.
Chapter 4 Section 3   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Static Friction
Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

How can friction be harmful or
Tires push against the

Friction
between
engine parts
wear down
parts faster.

Chapter 4 Section 3           Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

– To reduce friction use lubricants such
as motor oil, wax or grease.
– Use rolling friction instead of sliding
friction to make a job easier.
– Make the surface smoother.

Chapter 4 Section 3   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Friction: A Force That Opposes Motion

1. Make the surfaces
rougher.
2. Increase the force-                       Push down on scrubber
to increase friction thus
push the surfaces                            cleaning better.

together.
Chapter 4 Section 3   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD    See speaker notes for lab.
Pre-AP Extension

Friction is a force the resists
motion. Study the effects of
surface smoothness and the
nature of materials in contact on
sliding friction.

Chapter 4 Section 3       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD   See speaker notes for lab.
Let’s Review

1. How can friction change the
speed of an object?

Chapter 4 Section 3    Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

Friction can speed objects up or
slow objects down by increasing
or decreasing friction.

Chapter 4 Section 3   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Let’s Review

2. Name three common items you
might use to increase friction.

Chapter 4 Section 3    Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

Sticky tape
Sand
Work gloves

Chapter 4 Section 3    Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Let’s Review

3. List the type of friction and
explain each.

Chapter 4 Section 3    Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

Sliding Friction - two objects are sliding
across each other.
Rolling Friction- object rolling over a
surface.
Fluid Friction- involves fluids and gases.
Static Friction- holds object in place until
greater force is applied to move the
object.
Chapter 4 Section 3   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Chapter 4 Section 4   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Gravity: A Force of Attraction

What Do You Think?

Why is leaping on the moon easier
than leaping on Earth?

Chapter 4 Section 4       Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Gravity is the force of attraction between
objects that is due to their masses.

Gravity can effect the position of an
object or the direction of an object.
Property of NASA

Chapter 4 Section 4   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Gravity: A Force of Attraction

All matter is affected by gravity because
all matter has mass.
Gravitational force pulls objects toward
each other.
Earth’s gravitational force is large thus
you must apply force to overcome its
gravity.
Chapter 4 Section 4   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Gravity: A Force of Attraction

There's a big gravity low off the coast of
India, where there are thought to be the
remains of some old mantle features
associated with the plate tectonics of India
that led it to collide with the Himalayas.
There's a big gravity high in the South
Pacific, also thought to be due to mantle
the Bumpy Earth, an exaggerated map of
Earth's gravity field.
Chapter 4 Section 4   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Chapter 4 Section 4   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Cite: http://www.spacedaily.com/images/gravity-earth-map-bg.jpg
Gravity: A Force of Attraction

The Law of Universal Gravitation
states the unbalanced forces are needed
to move objects and there is a
relationship between gravitation
force, mass, and distance.

Chapter 4 Section 4   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Gravity: A Force of Attraction

1. Gravitational                           2. Gravitational
force increases as                         force decreases as
mass increases.                            distance increases.

Sun has a huge
gravitational pull.
Small Mass        Large Mass
Chapter 4 Section 4         Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Weight is a measure of the
gravitational force exerted
on an object.

100 grams = 1N

Chapter 4 Section 4   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Mass                                 Weight
–Amount of                           –Changes when
matter in an                         gravitational
object doesn’t                       force changes.
change.

Chapter 4 Section 4   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Activity

Measure the mass and weight of
several objects to verify the
relationship between mass and
weight on the surface of the
Earth.
Chapter 4 Section 4   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD   See speaker notes for lab.
Let’s Review

1. How does gravity affect the path
of the a ball when you throw it?

Chapter 4 Section 4    Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

Gravity pulls the ball downward
after the ball leaves your hand.
So the ball travels along a curved
path.

Chapter 4 Section 4   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD
Let’s Review

2. How does the distance between
objects affect the gravity between
them?

Chapter 4 Section 4    Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

As the distance between objects
increases, the gravitational force
between them decrease. As the
distance between objects
decreases, the gravitational force
between them increases.
Chapter 4 Section 4   Fall 2005 Pflugerville ISD

```
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
 views: 4 posted: 4/8/2011 language: English pages: 109