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FEED NUTRIENTS

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					 FEED NUTRIENTS

AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION
     OCTOBER 2006
      MR.. JANISCH
 CLASSIFICATION OF FEEDS AND
        RATIONS TERMS
• A. RATION-
  – FEED NECESSARY FOR A GIVEN ANIMAL FOR 24 HOURS

• B. BALANCE RATION-
  – SUPPLIES ALL THE NUTRIENTS FOR A ANIMAL IN A 24
    HOUR PERIOD.

• C. NUTRIENT-
  – CLASS OF FOOD THAT AIDS IN SUPPORT OF LIFE.

• D. DIGESTION-
  – PROCESS WHICH BREAKS DOWN FOOD BEFORE
    ADSORPTION INTO THE BODY. (DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENT)
 CLASSIFICATION OF FEEDS AND
        RATIONS TERMS
• E. CONCENTRATE-
 – FEED HIGH IN TOTAL DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENT-LOW IN FIBER.
   EXAMPLE GRAINS.

• F. ROUGHAGE-
 – FEED HIGH IN FIBER, LOW IN TOTAL DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENT.
   EXAMPLE HAY.

• G. ADSORPTION-
 – PASSING OF FOOD MATERIAL FORM DIGESTIVE TRACT INTO THE
   BODY. AFTER THEY ARE DIGESTED AND DISSOLVED.

• H. PALATABLE FEED-
 – FEED THAT IS TASTY TO THE ANIMALS.
     CLASSIFICATION OF FEEDS AND
            RATIONS TERMS
• I. FIBER-
  – TOUGH PART OF FEED, HARD TO DIGEST.

• J. Total digestible nutrients (TDN)
  – The proportion of a feed which is usable to supply energy to
    animals

• K. Feed additives
  – The substances added to a ration to perform-a specified function

• L. Protein
  – The nutrient which supplies building materials for body growth
    and repair

• M. Digestible protein
  – The proportion of a feed which represents protein the animal can
    use
  CLASSIFICATION OF FEEDS AND
         RATIONS TERMS
• N. Starch
  – A carbohydrate which supplies energy to animals

• O. Vitamins
  – The complex chemicals essential for normal body functions

• P. Minerals
  – The elements which are necessary for proper body functions and
    life processes

• Q. Amino acids
  – The building block& of protein

• R. Antibiotics
  – The substances used in small amounts to help prevent and control
    certain diseases in animals
 CLASSIFICATION OF FEEDS AND RATIONS
                TERMS
• S. Urea
  – A synthetic protein substitute used in a ruminant's ration (Non-
    Protein Nitrogen Source)

• T. Silage
  – The feed crops cured and stored green or without drying

• U. Supplement--
  – Anything which is added to a feed

• V. Dry matter (DM)--
  – The average percentage of dry matter in feed found by weighing
    the feed then drying and re-weighing
            NUTRIENT
• CHEMICALS THAT PROVIDE NOURISHMENT
  AND ENERGY FOR THE VARIOUS LIFE
  PROCESS TO SUPPORT THE ANIMAL LIFE.
• FUNCTIONS OF NUTRIENTS
• A. BUILD AND MAINTAIN BODY TISSUE
• B. USED TO MAKE MUSCLES WORK OR BODY
  HEAT
• C. REGULATES BODY PROCESSES
• D. ACCESSORY FUNCTIONS
     MILK, EGGS., FETUS.
      CLASSIFICATION
• ESSENTIAL
 – CANNOT BE MADE BY THE BODY,
   MUST BE SUPPLIED BY THE FEED THE
   ANIMALS EATS.
• NON-ESSENTIAL
 – CAN BE MADE BY THE ANIMAL.
         Major nutrients
• Water
• Proteins
• Carbohydrates
• Minerals
• Vitamins
• Fats
   CLASSES OF NUTRIENT
• A. PROTEIN
• USED FOR TISSUE DEVELOPMENT,
  REPAIR OF WORN OUT TISSUE.
• MADE UP OF AMINO ACIDS (25 TYPES)
• 12 AMINO ACIDS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR
  A RUMINANT
• FOUND IN: MUSCLES, ORGANS,
  CARTILAGE, SKIN, HAIR
  WOOL, FEATHER, HORNS NERVOUS
  SYSTEM
            A. PROTEIN-
• MOST EXPENSIVE PART OF THE RATION.
• Two types of proteins
   – A.    Plant
      •1. Soybean meal
      •2. Cottonseed meal
      •3. Linseed meal
   – B. Animal
      •1. Tankage
      •2. Fish meal
      •3. Meat scraps
• 4. Dried milk products
     CRUDE VS DIGESTIBLE

• CRUDE PROTEIN-
  – TOTAL AMOUNT OF PROTEIN GIVEN TO AN
    ANIMAL
  – THIS IS THE AMOUNT DETERMINE BY THE
    RATION
• DIGESTIBLE PROTEIN-
  – WHAT ACTUALLY IS DIGESTED BY THE
    ANIMAL. (80%)
  – DEPENDS ON THE ANIMAL
  CLASSES OF NUTRIENT
• CARBOHYDRATES
• USED FOR: SUPPLIES AND STORE HEAT
  AND ENERGY
• MADE UP OF CARBON, HYDROGEN AND
  OXYGEN IN THE FORM OF SUGAR AND
  STARCHES.
• 75% OF A RATION IS MADE UP OF
  CARBOHYDRATES
• EXCESS CARBOHYDRATES ARE STORED AS
  FAT
       B. CARBOHYDRATES
• 75% OF THE RATION--ENERGY
• NITROGEN FREE EXTRACT-
  – . SUGARS AND STARCHES
  – EASY TO DIGEST FOUND IN CORN, OATS, BARLEY, RYE
• CRUDE FIBER-
  – INDIGESTIBLE CARBOHYDRATES HELPS WITH
    RUMINATION
  – PREVENT BLOAT, INCREASE THE BACTERIA,
    INCREASE THE WATER CAPACITY, AND BULK.
• CELLULOSE-
   – MAKES UP THE WALL OF THE PLANT, LOW
     DIGESTIBILITY
• LIGNIN-
   – INDIGESTIBLE PART OF FEED.
    CLASSES OF NUTRIENT
• FATS
• USED FOR: SOURCE OF ENERGY AND
  INSULATION
• MADE UP OF: CARBON, HYDROGEN AND
  OXYGEN IN THE FORM
  OF FATTY ACIDS
• CONTAINS 2.25 TIMES MORE ENERGY THAN
  DOES CARBOHYDRATES-BUT IS HARDER TO
  DIGEST THAN CARBOHYDRATES.
• FEED AS COTTONSEED FOR EXAMPLE FOR
  ENERGY IN DAIRY CATTLE.
       FATS AND OIL
• OIL IS LIQUID AT ROOM
  TEMPERATURE
• 2.25 TIMES MORE ENERGY THAN
  CARBOHYDRATES.
• ANIMALS NEEDS SMALL AMOUNTS
• FEED TO ANIMALS AS AN ENERGY
  SOURCE
   CLASSES OF NUTRIENT
• MINERALS
• USED FOR: SKELETON AND TISSUE;
  BODY CELLS, PROTOPLASM, CARRIES
  OXYGEN TO CELLS, TRANSFER OTHER
  NUTRIENTS, MAKES UP HEART AND
  KIDNEY
• SKELETON DEVELOPMENT, BALANCE
  FOR PROPER BODY FUNCTIONS.
• MADE UP OF-ORGANIC SUBSTANCES.
• BUILDS UP IN THE BODY TISSUE
           D. MINERALS
• 1. Skeletal structure
  2. Chemical reaction
  3. Regulate pH of digestive tract fluids
  4. Essential in all body processes
• MACRO-
  – MUST BE SUPPLIED IN LARGE AMOUNTS
  – EXAMPLE-CALCIUM,
• TRACE-
  – NEED SMALL AMOUNT
  – EXAMPLE-ZINC
          MAJOR & MINOR
            MINERALS
• Major minerals       • Minor minerals
  – A.    Calcium        –   A.   Iron
  – B.    Phosphorus     –   B.   Copper
  – C.    Sodium         –   C.   Zinc
          chloride       –   D.   Iodine
  – D.    Potassium      –   E.   Cobalt
  – E.    Sulfur         –   F.   Magnesium
 Results of mineral deficiencies
• A. Calcium              • B. Phosphorus
  –   1.   Rickets          – 1.   Lameness
  –   2.   Broken bones     – 2.   Stiffness of
  –   3.   Poor gains              joints
  –   4.   Milk fever       – 3.   Lower appetite
                            – 4.   Lower rate of
                                   gain
                            – 5.   Lower milk
                                   production
                            – 6.   Decreases heat
                                   cycle
  Results of mineral deficiencies
                                 • H. Copper--Anemia
• C.     Sodium chloride
                                 • I.   Cobalt
   –   1. Lack of appetite
                                    – 1. Loss of appetite
   –   2. Unthrifty appearance
                                    – 2. Unthriftines
• D.     Potassium
                                    – 3. Delayed sexual
   –   1. Slow growth rate
                                         development
   –   2. Reduced feed
                                 • J.   Manganese
          consumption
                                    – 1. Reduced fertility
   –   3. Stiffness
                                    – 2. Abortion
   –   4. Shock
                                    – 3. Deformed young
• E.     Sulfur--Unthriftiness
                                    – 4. Enlarged joints
• F.     Iron--Anemia
                                    – 5. Stiffness
• G.     Iodine
                                    – 6. Twisted legs
   –   1. Hairless pigs
   –   2. Goiter
  CLASSES OF NUTRIENT
• VITAMINS
• USED FOR: GROWTH,
  MAINTENANCE, REPRODUCTION
  AND LACTATION.
• DOES NOT BUILDS UP IN THE
  BODY TISSUE
• MADE UP OF ORGANIC
  SUBSTANCES
            E. VITAMINS
• Aids in development of nerve cells
• Aids in development of tissues
• Aids in disease resistance
• Aids in development of embryo
• FAT SOLUBLE-
  – STORED AND ACCUMULATED IN THE
    LIVER
• WATER SOLUBLE-
  – SMALL AMOUNT STORED.
                    Vitamins
• VITAMIN A
• a.   Aids in development of nerve cells
  b.   Aids in development of tissues
  c.   Aids in disease resistance
  d.   Aids in development of embryo
• 2. Vitamin D
  – a. Builds bones
    b. Builds teeth
    c. Assimilates Ca and P in the body
         Vitamins Continue

• 3. Vitamin E--Aids in reproduction
• 4. Vitamin K--Aids in blood clotting
• Vitamin B
  – a. Prevents disease
    b. Promotes growth
    c. Prevents skin infections
  Results of vitamin deficiencies
• A. Vitamin A               • D. Vitamin K
  – 1. Blindness               – 1. Internal bleeding
  – 2. Loss of young           – 2. Lung deformities
  – 3. Poor development of       resulting in death
    bones
  – 4. Slow growth           • E. Vitamin B Complex
• B. Vitamin D                 – 1. Muscular weakness
                               – 2. Abnormalities in
  – 1. Bone deformities
                                 young
  – 2. Rickets
• C. Vitamin E
  – Loss of young
  CLASSES OF NUTRIENT
• WATER:
• USED FOR: TEMPERATURE,
  REMOVAL OF BODY WASTE AND
• DIGESTION.
• MADE UP OF OXYGEN AND
  HYDROGEN.
                  F. WATER
  1.   Removes waste material
• 2.   Regulates body temperature
• 3.   Dissolves food particles
• 4.   Maintains osmotic pressure
• 5.   Maintains structure of cells
• 6.   Carries dissolved food materials
     WATER SOURCES
• ANIMALS NEEDS 3 POUNDS OF
  WATER FOR 1 POUND OF FOOD
• SOURCES
• A. DIRECT SOURCE (WATER)
• B. FEED
• C. CELLS IN THE BODY.
  PURPOSE OF A RATION
• A. MAINTENANCE
• B. GROWTH
• C. FINISHING
• D. PRODUCTION
• E. REPRODUCTION.
  COMPOSITION OF FEEDS.
• A. WATER
• B. DRY MATTER
 – 1. ASH (MINERAL)
 – 2. ORGANIC MATTER
   • A. PROTEIN (MOST EXPENSIVE PART)
   • B. CARBOHYDRATES
     – 1. CRUDE FIBER
     – 2. NITROGEN-FREE EXTRACT
          » A. SIMPLE SUGAR
          » B. STARCH
          » C. COMPOUND SUGAR
          » D. VITAMINS
          » E. FATS
  4. METHODS USED TO
  DETERMINE VALUE OF
         FEED.

• A. COST PER POUND OF TON
• B. COST PER POUND OF PROTEIN
• C. COST PER POUND OF FEED
  5. CLASSIFICATION OF
         FEEDS
• A. CONCENTRATES
 – MADE UP OF MOSTLY OF GRAIN
 – HIGH SOURCE OF ENERGY
 – EASILY DIGESTED BY RUM1NANTS AND NON
   RUMINANTS

• B. ROUGHAGE
 –   MADE UP OF HAYS AND STRAWS
 –   SOURCE OF HEAT
 –   CAN BE DIGESTED BY RUMINANTS
 –   CAN NOT BE DIGESTED BY NON RUMINANTS
6. COMMERCIAL FEED TAG
     REQUIREMENTS

• A. MINIMUM OF CRUDE PROTEIN
• B. MINIMUM OF CRUDE FAT
• C. MAXIMUM OF CRUDE FIBER
   BALANCING RATIONS
• NEED TO KNOWS
 – 1. TYPE OF ANIMALS
   • GROWING VS PREGNANT
   • DAILY GRAIN YOU WANT
   • STEER VS HEIFER/ DAILY INTAKE (POUNDS)
     REQUIREMENTS FOR
         ANIMALS
– KNOW THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
  ANIMALS
  • MUST LOOK THESE UP
    – NOTE PROTEIN, TDN, CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS
  • TYPE OF FEED CONCENTRATE VS ROUGHAGE
        COMBINATION, FREE CHOICE??
  • KNOW COMPOSITION OF FEED
    – AVERAGE
  • YOUR FEED WILL VARY DUE TO HANDLING
  • ANALYSIS TO GET ACCURATE FEED VALUE.
                  Feed additives
• A. Growth stimulants
  – 1. Stimulate weight gains
  – 2. Reduce feed requirements per unit of gain
  – 3. Examples
     • a. Stilbestron
     • b. Progesterone
     • c. Testosterone

• B. Antibiotics
  – 1. Increase gains, prevent certain diseases
  – 2. Examples
     • a. Aureomycin
     • b. Terramycin
     • C. Penicillin
     • d. Streptomycin
   WORK RATION AND
  COMPARE TO ANIMAL
    REQUIREMENTS
• DOES IT MEET ALL REQUIREMENTS
• ARE YOU OVERFEEDING.
      COMPARE COST
• CAN YOU AFFORD THIS RATION
• HAVE YOU GOT THE AVAILABLE
  FEEDS?
                      INTAKE
• NOTE--3# SILAGE = 1# ROUGHAGE
• CATTLE-
   – FULL FEED
   – 6-8# OF SILAGE
   – 2.5# OF FEED FOR EVERY 100# OF WEIGHT.
• DAIRY
   – 2# ROUGHAGE /100#
   – 1# OF HAY AND 3 # OF SILAGE /100#
   – 1# OF CONCENTRATE/DAY FOR EVERY 3-4# MILK
• SHEEP
   – EWE--I#OF GRAIN; 3# OF HAY
   – RAMS 2# OF HAY
• SWINE
   – NURSING-3# OF GRAIN / 100# CONCENTRATE
   – FATTENING-4# OF GRAIN / 100 # CONCENTRATE
      GUIDELINES (BEEF)
• ENERGY-USE TDN AS TOTAL ENERGY
• ROUGHAGE-10-20% OF RATION-MINIMUM
• GRAIN- NO MINIMUM
• PROTEIN-USE CRUDE PROTEIN- 8-10%
  MINIMAL
• VITAMINS-WATCH VITAMIN A
     -ADD SUPPLEMENT
• MINERALS-USE MINERAL SALT
     -WATCH CALCIUM/PHOSPHORUS RATION
     -NEED 116 PARTS

				
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