Sept. 2010 - H2S PowerPoint Presentation

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					Deadly Gas in the Oil and Gas Industry
                           TABLE A-4. Fatal occupational injuries by primary and
   Bureau of Labor
                           secondary source of injury for all fatalities and by major
       Statics             private industry sector , All united States, 2009

        In 2009

6 Hydrogen Sulfide
fatalities were reported
20 recordable non-fatal
injuries were reported

 That is 26 too many
Accidents associated with H2S continue to occur even though we know about the
extremely dangerous properties of the gas. People tend to disregard the danger and
therefore disregard the need for specialized training and PPE while dealing with
toxic chemicals, and the need to go above and beyond conventional training.
Address all the aspects of ANSI Z390.1 standards in conjunction with the
following list of OSHA standards

 1910.38 – Emergency Action Plans
 1910.39 – Fire Prevention Plans
 1910.103 – Hydrogen
 1910.119 – Process Safety Management of highly hazardous chemicals
 1910.120 – Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (Hazwoper)
 1910.132 – Subpart 1 – Personal Protective Equipment
 1910.134 – Respiratory Protection
 1910.146 – Permit Required Confined Space
 1910.147 – Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tag out)
 1910.252 – Subpart Q – Welding, Cutting & Brazing
 1910.1000 – Subpart Z- Toxic and Hazardous Substances
 1910.1020 – Access to employee exposure and medical records
 1910.1200 – Hazardous Communication
Instructor Qualification and Proficiency

    •It is recommended the H2S instructor complete an appropriate H2S
    instructor development course

    •Must be able to demonstrate proficiency in technical aspects as well as
    training aspects

    •The trainer must receive credentials or certification from a recognized or
    accredited training authority

    •Course outline must confirm to ANSI Z390.1-2006
 Student Competence and Qualification

    The certified trainer certifies that the student has attended awareness training
    which meet the company’s requirements and ANSI Z390.1 regulatory
    standards .

Students must demonstrate performance-
based competency through….                  COMPANY LOGO
                                                                                  H2S Awareness
      •Written evaluation                   Name: ___________________________________________________
      •Verbal evaluation                    Company:________________________________________________
                                            Date: ____________________________________________________
      •Practical evaluation                   Has successfully completed Oilfield Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Safety
      •Three Year record retention                                  Awareness Training
      •Annual retraining is required
 Top Ten Hydrogen Sulfide Life Saving Practices

1. Learn about this poisonous gas (it is extremely poisonous!)
2. H2S temporarily destroys the sense of smell after the first whiff. H2S is a
   product of putrefaction. (How do you think it got that odor of rotten
3. The threshold limit value (TLV) for an 8 hour period is 10 ppm. Everyday
   concentrations relates one part per million is for example 1 bad peach /
   6768 bushels .
4. Lowest concentrations of H2S will produce irritation to the eyes, throat
   and respiratory tract, and may produce coughing, eye burning, and /or
5. Concentrations of H2S over 500 ppm can render a person unconscious.
Minimum informational
content of the course
Top Ten Hydrogen Sulfide Life Saving Practices

6. Concentrations over 600 ppm will more than likely cause a person to join
    their dearly departed ancestors….PDQ
7. Wear best approved air mask or personal monitor for H2S when work
    requires entry where concentration IS or MAY BE above safe levels.
8. Remember H2S is colorless, invisible, and heavier than air. It tends to settle
    in low places.
9. Exercise caution in an attempt to rescue of a co-worker. Immediately call
    for emergency medical assistance
10. Make it #1 priority to know all about the life saving practices associated with
    hydrogen sulfide gas.
The potential hazard of H2S is death

Detection of H2S solely by smell is highly dangerous as the sense of smell is quickly
paralyzed by the gas.
1. Extremely toxic, ranking second to hydrogen cyanide and 5 to 6 times more
   toxic than carbon monoxide.
2. Colorless gas in its pure state
3. Offensive odor
4. Heavier than air – vapor density is 1.189 (Air = 1.0) Vapors may travel
   considerable distance to a source of ignition and flashback. Sulfur dioxide is
   almost twice as heavy as air.
5. Forms an explosive mixture with air in concentrations between 4.6% LEL and
   46% UEL
6. Has an auto-ignition temperature of 500°F, Cigarettes burn at 1400°F
7. Burns with a blue flame and produces sulfur dioxide which is less toxic than H2S
    but highly irritation to eyes and lungs and can cause serious injury.
8. Soluble in water and liquid hydrocarbons. H2S dissolves in water forming a
    weak hydro-sulfurous acid.
9. Irritating to the eyes, throat and the respiratory system.
10. Corrosive to metals (see National Association of Corrosion Engineer (NACE) for
    additional information. H2S is also corrosive to plastics, elastomers, animal
    tissue and nerves
11. In certain applications, can form a pyrophoric substance called Iron Sulfide or
    Iron Sponge. This substance will auto-ignite when exposed to air.
Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing, General Safety and Health
Precautions - OSHA eTool

API RP 49, Recommended Practice for Drilling
and Well Servicing Operations Involving Hydrogen
Sulfide. American Petroleum Institute (API),
(2001, May/Reaffirmed 2007, March).

Include: well drilling, completion, servicing,
workover, downhole maintenance, and plug and
abandonment procedures conducted with
hydrogen sulfide present in the fluids being
Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing, General Safety and Health Precautions
- OSHA eTool – General Safety & Health > H2S special precautions

 No Hazard Condition
          Any well that will not penetrate a known Hydrogen Sulfide formation
 would be categorized as a No Hazard Area. Special Hydrogen Sulfide
 equipment is not required.

 Low Hazard
 Work locations where atmospheric concentrations of H2S are less than 10ppm
          Recommended for Area:
                   Proper PPE
                   H2S warning signs with green flag warning device present
                   Keep all safety equipment in adequate working order
                   Store the equipment in accessible locations
Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing, General Safety and Health Precautions
- OSHA eTool – General Safety & Health > H2S special precautions

Medium Hazard
Work location where atmospheric concentration of H2S are greater than 10ppm and less than
          Recommended for Area:
                     Proper PPE

                    H2S warning sign with yellow flag warning device present

                    Keep a safe distance from dangerous locations if not working
                    to reduce the danger

                    Pay attention to audible and visual alarm systems

                    Follow the guidance of the operator representative

                    Keep all safety equipment in working order
Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing, General Safety and Health Precautions
- OSHA eTool – General Safety & Health > H2S special precautions

 High Hazards
 Work locations where atmospheric concentrations of H2S are greater than 30ppm
           Recommended for Area:
                     Proper PPE

                     Post H2S warning sign with red flag warning device. Post
                     the Warning sign 500 feet from the location on each road
                     leading to that location

                     Check all H2S safety equipment to ensure readiness
                     before each shift change

                     Have emergency response information readily available
Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing, General Safety and Health Precautions
- OSHA eTool – General Safety & Health > H2S special precautions

 High Hazards – Cont.
                        Ensure, at minimum, two unobstructed exits per site

                        Do not permit employees on location with out H2S

                        Three wind socks and streamers

                        Store the equipment in accessible locations.
                        Two Hydrogen Sulfide detectors should be present , one should
                        be a pump type with detector tubes. Respiratory protection
                        would be required if periodic testing indicates employee
                        exposures at concentrations above the PEL (20 ppm). See
                        OSHA Standard Respiratory Protection, ([29 CFR 1910.134])
Recommended Exercises and Drills

 An emergency action plan must be in
 writing and kept in the workplace, and
 available to employees for review.
 However, an employer with 10 or fewer
 employees may communicate the plan
 orally to employees.

 Practice – perform exercises and drills
Minimum elements of an emergency action plan. [1910.38 (c)]

 (1) Procedures for reporting [1910.38 (c) (1)]
 (2) Procedures for emergency evacuation, including the type of evacuation and
     exit routes assignments [1910.38 (c) (2)]
 (3) Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical plant
     operations before they evacuate. [1910.38 (c) (3)]
 (4) Procedures to account for all employees after evacuation . [1910.38 (c) (4)]
 (5) Procedure to be followed by employees performing rescue or medical duties.
    [1910.38 (c) (5)]
 (6) The name or job title of every employee who may be contacted by
    employees who need more information about the plan or an explanation of
    their duties under the plan. [1910.38 (c) (6)]
Minimum elements of a fire prevention plans - 1910.39

 A fire prevention plan must be in writing, be kept in the
 workplace, and be made available to employees for review.
 However, an employer with 10 or fewer employees may
 communicate the plan orally to employees – [1910.39 (a)]

 (1) Develop procedures to control accumulations of
     flammable and combustible waste materials -[1910.39
     (a) (1)]
 (2) Develop procedure for regular maintenance of
     safeguards installed on heat producing equipment -
     [1910.39 (a) (2)]
 (3) List the name or job title of employees responsible for
     the control of fuel source hazards -[1910.39 (a) (3)]
 (d) An employer must inform employees upon initial
     assignment to a job of the fire hazards to which they are
     exposed -[1910.39 (d)]
Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals

 Purpose: This section contains requirements for preventing or minimizing the
 consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable, or
 explosive chemicals. These release may result in toxic, fire or explosion
          Elements include:
                              Atmospheric tank
                              Boiling point
                              Catastrophic release
                              Highly hazardous chemical
                              Hot Work
                              Normally unoccupied remote facility
                              Replacement in kind
                              Trade Secret
This section covers the following operations

 Clean-up operations required by
 federal , state and/or local agencies

 Corrective actions involving clean
 up operations at sites covered by

 Voluntary Clean-up operation at

 Emergency response operations
General requirements

 Protective equipment shall be provided and maintain in a sanitary reliable
 condition wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards. An employee shall assess
 the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present,
 which necessitate the use of PPE (PPE evaluation). [1910.132(d)]

 Employee-owed equipment – Where the employees provide their own protective
 equipment, the employer shall be responsible to assure it adequacy, including
 proper maintenance and sanitation. [1910.132(b)]

 Required PPE shall be provided by the employer at no cost to the employee, see
 [1910.132 (h)]- thru [1910.132 (h)(7)].
Permissible Practice

 In the control of those occupational diseases caused by breathing air
 contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mist, gases, smokes, sprays,
 or vapors, the primary objective shall be to prevent atmospheric
 contamination. This shall be accomplished as far as feasible by accepted
 engineering control measures (for example, enclosure or confinement of the
 operations, general and local ventilation, and substitution of less toxic
 materials). When effective engineering controls are not feasible, or while
 they are being instituted, appropriate respirators shall be used.
Permit Required
Confined Space

                  Definition of a Confined space means a space that: Is large
                  enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter
                  and perform assigned work; and has limited or restricted
                  means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos,
                  storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may
                  have limited means of entry.); is not designed for continuous
                  employee occupancy. [1910.146(b)]

                  Definition of a Hazardous Atmosphere means an
                  atmosphere that may exposed employees to the risk of
                  death, incapacitation, impairment or ability to self-rescue
                  injury or acute illness.

                  Confined Space Permit: means the written or printed
                  document that is provided by the employer to allow and
                  control entry into a permit space that contains the definition
                  of a confined space. [0910.146 (b)]
Energy Control Program

The employer shall establish a program consisting of energy control procedures,
employee training and periodic inspections to ensure that before any employee
performs any servicing or maintenance on a machine or equipment shall be isolated
from the energy source and rendered inoperative. [1910.147(2)]

Lockout and tagout devices shall be standardized with the facility in at least one of
the following criteria: color; shape; size and additionally in the case of tagout
devices, print and format shall be standardized. [1910.147(c)(5)(ii)(C)]

Tag information: Name, Date, Reason for LOTO
Phone number, Supervisor’s name.
Hot Work Permit means the employer’s written authorization to perform
operation capable of providing a source of ignition [1910.146(b)]

 Fire Hazard: If the object to be welded or cut cannot readily be moved, all movable fire
 hazards in the vicinity shall be taken to a safe place.

 Guards: If the object to be welded can not be moved and all the fired hazards cannot be
 removed, then guards shall be used to confine the heat, sparks, and slag.

 Restrictions: If the fire hazards and guards requirements cannot be followed, then
 welding and cutting shall not be performed.

 NFPA 51B: Scope of standard, this standard shall cover provisions to prevent loss of life
 and property from fire or explosion as a result of hot work. Installation of operation of
 arc cutting and welding equipment and operation in accordance with ANSI Z49.1.

 1910.6: Standards of agencies (NFPA, API, ANSI etc.) have the same force and effect as
 OSHA standards
          Air Contaminants

An employee’s exposure to any substance listed in table Z (air contaminants) shall be limited

TLV (Threshold Limit Value/Time Weighted Average) is a term used by American Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) is a maximum of 8 hours exposure with out respiratory protection – 10 ppm

PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit/Time Weight Average) is a term used by Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) is a maximum of 8 hours exposure with out respiratory protection – 20 ppm

Note: OSHA is enforcing PEL at 10 ppm under section 5(a)1 of the “General Duty Clause”

TWA (Time Weighted Average) is 15 ppm

STEL (Short Term Exposure Level ) refers to exposures to a higher concentration of H2S than the TLV or PEL with limits
placed on the time you can be exposed. STEL exposures are limited to 15 minutes followed by one (1) hour in fresh air.
This cycle can be repeated four (4) times during a normal eight (8) hour work day.

The purpose of this section is to provide employees and their designated
representative a right of access to relevant exposure and medical records; and to
provide representatives a right to access these records in order to fulfill
responsibilities under the Occupational Safety and Health Act. [1910.1020(a)]

This section applies to employee exposure and medical records, and analyses
thereof, made and maintained in any manner, including on an in-house of
contractual basis. [1910.1020(b)(2)]
OSHA regulations found in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.1200
(Hazard Communication) include specific mandatory requirements for the
training of personnel working with or around hazardous chemicals.

Evaluate the potential hazards of chemicals and communicating information
concerning hazards and appropriate protective measures to employees.

All employers provide information to their employees about the hazards
chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazardous communication
program, labels and other forms of warning, material safety data sheet, and
information and training.
ANSI Z390.1 – 2006 Section 3.6

A contingency plan describes in detail, the action that are necessary to ensure
safety in the event of an H2S release.

This standard sets forth accepted practices for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) safety
training and instruction of affected personnel to include, but not be limited to, the
     • Site-specific
     •Reviewed prior to starting work

     •Contains location of emergency response equipment, monitoring systems,
     alarm points and safe briefing areas

     •Notification list
  MSDS Section 4. First aid measures

Never attempt to rescue without respiratory protection - Get medical attention
immediately. It may be dangerous to the person providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth

Eye contact: Check for and remove contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes for at least 15
Skin Contact: Immediately flush for at least 15 minutes, while removing contaminated
clothing and shoes. To avoid the risk of static discharges and gas ignition, soak contaminated
clothing with water before removing them. Wash clothing before reuse. Get medical
attention immediately.
Inhalation: Call a medical doctor or poison control center immediately. Rescue on if wearing
respiratory protection, move exposed person to fresh air. If not breathing, if breathing is
irregular or if respiratory arrest occurs, provide artificial respiration or oxygen by trained
personnel. Loosen tight clothing. Get medical attention immediately.
Ingestion: As this product is a gas, refer to the inhalation section.
Methods for H2S

Personal monitors

Manual monitors
Pump type detector

Fixed systems

Stand alone
Statement on validation of operation for direct reading portable gas

 Bump Test (Function Check) – A qualitative function check where a challenge of gas is
 passed over the sensor(s) at a concentration of exposure time suggested to activate all
 alarm indicators to present at least their lower alarm setting. This purpose if this check is to
 confirm that gas can get to the sensor(s) and that all the alarms are present and functional

 Calibration Check – A quantitative test utilizing a known traceable concentration of test
 gas to demonstrate that the sensor(s) and alarms respond to the gas within the
 manufactures acceptable limits. This is typically +/- 10-20% of the test gas concentration
 applied unless other- wise specified by the manufacturer, internal company policy, or a
 regularly agency.

 Full Calibration – The adjustment of the sensor(s) response to match the desired
 concentration of test gas. In accordance with the manufacture’s instruction

 A bump test (function check) or Calibration check of portable gas monitors should be
 conducted before each day’s use in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
OSHA Occupational
Safety and Health Act
(OSH) section 5(a)1
                                  General Duty Clause
The General Duty clause           Employee, Employer or John Q Public ?

Each employer shall provide to
each of his employees a place
of employment which is free
from recognized hazards that
are causing or that likely to
cause death or serious physical

Each employer shall comply
with occupational safety and
health standards

Each employee shall comply
with occupational safety and
health standards, rules and

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