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									Child Education in Islam
by
'Abdullah Nasih 'U1wan
Translatl'tl by
Dr. M. Mahmoud Ghali
Dr. M. Kamal Abdul-Ghani
Dr. A. Shafik Elkhatib
Dr. Ali Ahmad Sha'ban
Dr. M _ Ash-Shahhat AI-Gindi
Edited b}'
Khalifa Ezzat Abu Zeid Selma Cook

Translators' l.troductiQD
This is a translated summary of the book entitled
"TarbiyalU AI·
Awlaad fi AI-Islam" (Child Edutation in Islam) by
'Abdullah
Nasih Ulwan. The book was published in Arabic in
two volumel
by Dar AI-Salam for Printing, Publishing,
Distribution, and
Translation, Cairo, Egypt, Hl 1418 A.H. 1997 C E.
l ~ translating the summary of the book, we have
referred to the
followmg:
- Dr. M. Taqi-ud-Din AI-Hilali and Dr. Muhsin Khan,
the
Noble QUT'an, Darussalam publishers and distrib
utors, Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia and Dr. Mu~ ammad Ma~ miid
Q~al1. Toward,
Understanding the Ever-Glorious Qur'an, Cairo:
Publishing
House for Universities, Co. 2nd Edition, 1998. This
translation
of tile meaning of the Qur'an was used for
rendering the Qur'anic
Ayal (verses) into English. In some cases the
translation was
slightly modified with Professor Ghiill's
pennission.
- Dr. M u~ammad M u~sin ~~iin, ~aJy{hu A I-
Bu~~arf. Beirut:
Dar AI-Arabia, 1985. This transhtion of the
Prophet's A~dd{lh
(t raditions) was occasionally consulted fo r the
purpose of
translation in the Arabic summary of the book.
Following ar:
some of the frequently used acronyms in the
translation:
(c. E.): Common Era
(A. H.): After Hijrah (Anno Hijra)
( ft): Be He (Allah) Glorified and Exited
(~): Be He Exalted in Might (the Exalted and
Glorious)
(~): May the blessings and prayer of Allah be upon
him ( i.e.
Muhammad)
('l<i8): Peace be upon him (onc of Allah·s
Prophets)
(8): Peace be upon them (Allah·s Prophets)
10
(&): May Allah be pleased with him (i.e. One of the
Companions of the Prophet Muhammad)
( ~ ): May Allah be pleased with her (i.e. female
Companions
of the Prophet Muham~ad such as Umm Salamah)
(6): May Allah be pleased \\.;th them (i.e. two
orthe Proph:t's
Companions)
(40): May Allah be pleased with them (Propht's
Companions)
Some orthe symbols used in the transliterat ion of
Arabic words
(i,e. representing them as they are pronounced in
Arabie, using
Roman letters and some symbols) are:
h
Kh oT kh
dh
5 or 5
d,
Z or Z
gl] or gh
q
---
--
--
•
c
t
t
t
placed over a vowel ~ long vowel
Any corrections, comments, or suggestions for
improving the
translation arc most welcome. May Alliih guide us
all.
The translators
Introduction
PTaise be to AUah who elaborated for mankind the
right ways 0:
child education in the Qur·an. He also legislated
the principles 0 '
goodness, righteousness, and guidance in the rules
of Islam. Peace
and blessings of Alliih be upon our Messenger
Muhammad tlIi:,
whcm All iih sent to humanity and revealed to him
legislation
which achieves glory and honor •• talUs, and
stability. And may
peace also be upon his household, good and pure
Companion~
who presented great e~amp les in educating
children and
estahli.hcd nations, and peace be upon those who
follow thei:
ways until the world comes to an end.
Among the favors of Islam upon mankind is that it
brought
comprehensive ways to educate people and bring
up generations,
establishing nations and civilizations and se lting
up the pri nciples
of glory and urbanization. That is :0 convert
misleading hwnanity
fron the darkness of polytheism, ignorance,
misguidance and
chaos, to the light of monotheism, science,
guidance and stability.
Anah says:
~'( .....,::. ~( ~ '-'! I:: Q ~ ~ ': 5 ~ ;; ~I , ...... ~ ~[~ .:.i,
d~ ~!iiJ '~~I: ,JJf -.::Jl ; (j ~li ;:,;. ~".;.;; )",,11 jn ;--
:'';';'-1
1: ~ j' .~ ).~
" Jlldud, tluTe hIlS come to )'0/1 from Alllill <I Ught
(Propltet
Mu&amm<ld ~) <IIId <I plain Book (thi' Qur'all).
WlIerewilh Aillih
guides all rllose ,,·110 seek His Good Pleasure to
"'aY5 of peace, a",1
He brillgs tllem out of dtu'klless b)' lIis Will unto
lighT und guideJ
them to a Straight Way (Islamic MOllotheism}." (Al-
Ma'idah, 15-16)
Opponents testified to the growlh and conlinuity of
Islam.
Enemies acknowledged its ~i talily and eterni lY.
Western thinker!
and philosophers testified to Islam such as
Bernard Shaw, Elia!
Abu Shubkah, Lane Poll and Ghustaf Lopon.(l)
These acknowledgements
give to those, who have sound mind and
understandi~g,
proof of the continuous and vital teachings of
Islam.
If Islamic law is characterized by divinity,
comprehensiveness,
glOwth and continuity then, is it merely theories
written in books or
just beliefs in the mind, Of teachings practiced by
people? Shaikh
Sayyed Qutb answered this ques:ion saying,
"Muhammad ~ and
his companions achieved victory only when they
practiced and
applied all the teachings of Islam. The Companions
of the Prop~et
¢ wen: examples in applying its teachings. When
people saw them,
they saw Islam. Hence, the teachings alone do not
change mankind;
the QUf'an alone docs not change mankind; and
the texts alone do
nolt change mankind. So, Prophe: Muhammad $
preferred raising
men who applied ther.e teachings above simply
making speeches. He
succeeded to demonstrate and rCj)resent Islam in
the fonn of piolus
ir.dividua ls. "
Generations of Muslims still benefit from their
characteristics
and follow their ways in education, even in these
days in which .he
rules of Islam are rarely applied, and the signs of
the Muslim
Caliphate have been remolved, and enemies of
Islam have been able
to achieve their malicious aim i.e. converting the
Muslim world
ir.to disp uting nations and countries of di ffe rent
principles and
traditions. They also indulge in di sso lution and
looseness and live
without aim and entity and are uffiieted with
despair. Some
reformers and callers to AlIfih are also affiicted
with despair and
frel hopeless of ever being able to regain the
nation to its past
g;ory. Rather, solme of those callers call to
isolation because they
think that this age is the last and the Muslim
consequently should
run away from seditions tin he dies_ This despair
is a result of;
(rt Tile 'pelling of all f<m:ign 'If w~tun name,
mentioned in the boot i.
unctnain because th. author only pro.id«l the
Arabi< trnnoliteration_ (<<Iik)l)
I, Inability 10 understand the nature of Islam,
II. The love oflife and hating death,
HI. The ignorance of the aim for which M uslim~
were created.
This despair will be removed, and glory and
victory will be
achieved when they recogn ize that Islam is:
a. 'Ihe rel igion of strength and pO'Oler,
b, The religion which calls to knowledge and
science,
c, The rel igion which regards man as the
vicegerent of AlIiih on
earth to live in, discover it, and to benefit from its
provisions,
d, The religion which honors man and prdcrs him
above all
creatures,
e. The religion of work, activity, labor and vitality,
f. l hc religion of contemplation rutd thousht on the
creations of
the heavens and earth so as to reach the truth
about these
creations,
j. The religion which prohibits despair,
h. The religion of honor and dignity.
Despair will be removed alld glory and victory will
be achieved
when Muslims in general, and callers and scholars
in par ticular,
liberate themselves from the love of this life and
indulging in
worldly pleasures. Also, when they liberate
themselves from
eo..,;ardice, fear , and haling death and be sure that
Alliih is til:
Provider, the Hann-Inflicting and the Benefit-Giver.
Despair will be removed and glory and victory will
be achieved
if they recognize the sublime aim for which they
were created. This
aim is to worship Allah. The Qur'an dec lares:
"•{ _, fl,:~' "' ..-.-'..,-;:,''> .,J"H;' "'- C:.>' T,
"A " tI ! (AI/lih) a~tll~d "01 1M Ji"" anti mank jnd
~.T:Cl!pl lhal Ih' J'
$hollfd N'onllip lite (A lone). " (Adh-Dhariyyal, S6)
The question that arises is: What is the type of
worship which
Allah commands us? It is submIssion to All iih's
teaching.~ and
loyalty to Allah and His Messenger and the
believers; it is also the
contilluous commandment of Allah to bring people
out from the
worship of people alld idols to the worship of
Allah; and reject ing
concepts and beliefs which are in disagreement
with Islamic law.
This is the task and mission of the Muslim ;n this
life. Thus.
Muslims should recognize the nalUre of their
religion and Jibente
themselves from loving life and hating death and
recognize the aim
uf thc il clcatiull :;u "s to ""hi"." gruwth fur blam
amI regain their
previous glory and strength.
The question th"t arises is: What is the way to
reformation and
what is the starting point to reform the good
society? The answer
lies in the word ·'education" which encompasses
many meanings,
concepts and lields. It includes education of the
individual, :he
family, society and humanity. Under each meaning,
there are other
t}PCS and divisions. All these meanings aim at
setting up noble
societies and ideals. This education of children is a
branch of
individual education in which Islam calls to
prepare and reform
him to be a useful and good member of society.
This book explains the whole and right way of
child education
in Islam. When you read it, you will rccogni7.c the
chaTllctcristics
and comprehensiveness of Islamic Law. You will
also recognizelhc
Wd)'S of Islam in education and reformation.
When educators
follow his way, the Ummah will achieve stability,
safety and
h.ppine,", ond disorder, fcar, and unhoppiness will
be rcmoved.
You will recognize that Islam .s (he religion of life,
humanity,
awareness, education, and refonnation.
It is noticeable that the Islamic library is PQor in
regards to
books Oil child education ill Islam. I did not find a
comprehensive
IS
book about child education in Islam from birth to
puberty save th~
book entitled "Tu/iflll AI-/lfaududji Ahkam AI-
Mawlu"" by Ibn
Qa}'Yim Al·J awziYYilh .w. It deals with the rules of
the newborn. I
have referred to It in the third chapter. I did my
best and searched
in references and volumes to write a
comprehensive book de;lim!
with chi ld education from birth 10 puberty. It also
deals with the
complete way upon which parents ami educators
should foHow.
I have divided the book into tbree parts, Each part
is divided
into numerous chapters, and c',cry chapter
contains several
subje<:U_ [t wi ll be as follows:
Pan One:
Chapler One: The Idea! Marriage and its Relationsh
ip \0
Education
Chapter Two: The I'sychological Feelings Towards
Children
Chapter Three: General Rules Concermng the New-
born baby
Chapter Four: Causes and Treatment of Children's
waywardness
Part Two:
Chapter One: The Responsibi lity for Fa ith
Education
Chapter Two: The Responsibility for Ethical
Education
Chapter Three: The Responsibihty for Physical
Education
Chapter Four: The R esponsibi~ty for Intellectual
Education
Chapter Five: The Responsibility for Psychological
Education
Chapter Six: The Responsibility for Social
Education
Chapter Seven: The Responsibility for Sex ual
Education
Part Three:
Chapter One: EfTcctive Means of Children's
Education
Chapter Two: The Ilasic Principles of Education
Chapter Three: Necessary Educational Suggestions
These are the main points for eaeh chapter in each
part of the
book. The reader will find other impoft1Hlt points
and useful
subjects branching from these chapters. The aim of
these points
and subjects is to provide and outline an evident
and better way for
ehild education. Finally. [ ask Allah to make this
work sincere fo r
[·Iis sake and to accept it as a good work on the
Day of Judgment. I
a!k Him also to make it useful for mankind.
'Abdull all Nasill 'U1wan
Part One
L Claptcr One: The Ideal Marriage and its
Relationship to Education
2. Chapter Two: Psychological F«lings Towards
Children
3. Chapler Three: General Rules Concerning the
New-born Bab}·
4. a' ''l't~, Fvu, . C;su."", alld T rca\':Icnt of Childrcn
's Waywardnc ..
P." Or.<:
Chapler Qne
The Ideal Marriage and ib Relationship to
Education
It is preferable to demonstrate three aspect.~ of
marriage before
setting out to explain the foundallons laid down by
Islam for
educating children:
A, Marriage i. a human instinct
8. Marriage is a socia! interest.
C. Mar riage is a selcction and choice.
A. Marriage as a Human Instin(t
Islamic Slmrf'ali oppo!':s monasticism, which
eonnicls with
man's instinct, and contradicts his inclinat ions,
desires, and
motivations. Likewise, Islamic Sliar f'alt prohibites
Muslims to
tbstain from marriage or renoullce it and intend to
livc as a monk.
devoting Oneself to worship. AI-Bukhiiri and
Muslim related that
Anas 4J. said, "Three people came to the houses of
the Propr.ct"s
wives to inquire about his manner of worship.
When they were
told, they seemed to have deemed it little. So, Ihey
said, How come
we compare ourselves to the Prophet $ as hi~ past
and future
miweeds have been forgiven. Then one of Ihem
said, 'I will
perform prayer th roughout the night forever.' The
other said: 'J
will fast throughout the year and will never break
my fast.' The
third sa id, " 1 will keep away from women and
will not mlrry
forever. ' So, Alliih's Messenger came to them and
said, 'Are you Ihe
prople .... ho said so and so? By Allah, I am the mrut
SIlbmissivc /0
Allah and mrul afraid of llim among .1'011: yet I
fust ami hreak my
fast. f pray and sleep. and I marry wamen. So. he
who dOI!HJOI follow
my tradilion in religion. is no/ one of my followers ."
So, it is clear that marriage i! seen by Islam as a
human instinct,
that makes man's desires a)d lIIchnations
materialise, and
comform to the naturat taw of life.
8. Marriage as a Social Interest
I. Preserving the human TD ct': thrO'Jgh marriage,
the human race
continues to exist, propagate, and continue until
the Last Day.
The Noble Qur'iin pointed to this social rationale
and human
interest by saying:
~ ~J.l;.:t ~ ~il ~ fJ j;;,.-' ,~ :t )' ~ ~ ~ ~~ ,
"And Allah htl!J mutkfor you AZlfaj (matts or wi.t,,)
of your own
kind, and has made for )"o",from yowr "'ius, sons
and grandsons ... "
(An.Naht, 12) And AlIiih WI said,
W -f'~ ~ 4; ~.z q" ~; ;.:..~ ..,;L .;. j.)I;:. .;)( ?3.:; ;;.!i
.,:.6i 'il!;. , ."" "0 mankind! & dariful ro your Lord,
Who ( rtultd ),OU from a
single persoll (Adam), and from him (Adam) II~
crear~d his Wift
(f/a,.,wa (Ere) and from Ihem bnth fit cr~aled many
men and
wom~n. " (",...Ni,,,, I )
2. Plcscn'ing Lineage: through ma:riage, the lineage
or ancestral
line is defined. Were it not for marriage, which
Allah has ordainee
for mankind, the society would have been
swarmed wilh childrer.
of no lineage or honor; a situation that entails di ss
ipating humar.
dignity, sublime manners, and awful diffusion of
corruption ane
libertinism.
3, Kt-eping the SO(icty fret from immorality:
through marriage, the
society is kept safe from immora~ly and social
disunity. If the
instinct of inclination to the other sex is satisfied
through
legitimate marriage, the nation will entertain the
best morals and
manners, and WIll communicate the message, and
fulfill their duty
as Allah wishes them to, Verily, nofling is more
truthful than what
the Prophet 4: said to point out Ihe moral rationale
or marriage
and its social benefits when he was urging the
youth to get
married. He said, "0 youtll, Whoev(Y can marry
must marry sinu il
wi/! kl'i'p his sighl "n,} priV{J/1! pliTt< cI~'rn (1m}
PUFf/, but IfrOSt who
I .. " 0 ..
cannol marry. musl allelld 10/aJlillg. since il will
cOMro/ his Je:mrU
desires . ..
4. I'resen' ing tile society from di sease: tllrougl1
marriage, tile society
maintains safety from widespread fatal diseases
tllat result from
adultery, wlloredom. and fornication. sucll as
syphilis gonorrhea.
and othcr deadly diseasc' that weaken the body,
and diPuse
q"ndemie diseases.
5. Spiritual and psychological !;trcnity: through
marriage, amity,
10\,1'. and intimacy grow between the husband
and wife. Allah §fI:
said:
'n" ,-, >, " 'w '''1 r"-" . ," j -<' ' I ,- ", ", " d - - - . ~..u .~ I
.. ........, "+':' ~ """" ~ .;.-:;>-.J...- ,)I ' , •• ' in} T
~ ~lf':."- ~ 'j :,:'; ~; -! ~
"And arnot/I: lIis Signs is t~iJ, thot lie cuoud/or ),OU
wi.es/rom
among ),ourseil·es. thaI you may find upose in
r~em, and lie hIlS put
hetwetn ),OU affectio" lind meuy. Yuif),. in t~ut are
;"dud 5iglllJ/n,
a people w~o "'flut." (Ar.Rum. 11)
Such a psychological and spiritual sercnity is a
good aid for
raising children and caring for :hem.
6. Cooperation between spouses for building the
family and rai, ing
children: through marri;tgc. the spouses cooperate
to build a
family and bear its responsibility , as each of them
arc
complementary to the other. So. the wife does
what is prescribed
to her, and what confonns to her feminine nature.
by supervlilog
lind managing the household chores, and looking
3ftcr the
chi ldren.
And the husband works within his domain, and
does what
conforms to his nature and manhood. So he works.
toils, and looks
after the family. By such cooperation between the
spouses, a
faithful generation and good oITspring would
come into being, and
Ihc house would be a place of love and stahility.
7. Uurning passion for parcmllood: through
marriage, the p.trenls·
Tho Ideal M •• ri, SO and it> Rcla.ion>.bip to
Edw::ation ~~~~~~~~~ 21
feelings and sentiments towards the children
begins to burn, and
motivate them to care for their children and to
bring them up
properly. These arc the most important social
interests stemming
from marriage. They are very closely related to
family reformation,
child breeding, and raising generations.
Co Maniage as a Sell'dion and Choice
Islam has established bases and rules for both the
suitor and his
fiano&. If they follow them and take them as
guidelines, the
marriage will be successful and will nourish, and
the family will be
faithful, moral, and secure. The following are the
most important
of them:
t. Choice based on reli gion: what is mcant by
religion here is the
sound undcrstanding of Islam, practical
application of all its
rulings and manners, and full commitment to the
Sharf'ah 's
methlXls and principles.
If both the suitor and his fiance are up 10 such a
standard of
understanding, application, and cO!;lmilment, we
describe them as
religious and well-mannered. That is why the
Prophet ~ guided
marnage seekers 10 look for a piom partner. AI-
Bukhari, Muslim,
Abu Dawud, An-Nasa.'i and Ibn Majah relatcd that
Abu Humirah,
said that the Prophet ~ said, "II is self-evident Ihal
a woman is
soughl for marriage for four reasons: her riches. her
nob/ebirlh, her
beauly. and her religion. So. gel the piOUS one and
strive 10 get her. ··
In accordance with that, the Prophet tj:. guided the
girl's family
to ~k the religious and well-mannered suitor. At-
Tirrnidhi related
that Abu fi atim AI-Mazni said that the Prophet 3
said, "If you
were approached by he whose uligion and manners
salisfy you, leI
him marry yoor daughter. if you do nol do thai.
Ihere will be
dissell3iOll in the earth and greal corruption. ·'
Is there any greater dissension inllicted upon
religion and
morals than a faithful girl falling in a libertinistic
suitor's hands, or
11
~======================================
=== P.~ ~
an atheist husband who bears no respect for
honour or jealousy?
And is there any greater dissension related to a
righteous wo:nan
than fall ing under the matrimonial authority of an
immoral,
libertine husband, who forces t,er to abandon the
veil and to mix
with men, and compels her \0 drink wine and
dance with men?
So many girls, unfortunately, who were exemplary
in their
family's home regarding chasti ty and purity, but
when such a girl
moved to a libertine house, and a licentious
husband, she turned
into an unrestrained and careless woman, not
value ing the
principles of morality or the ~oncep!s of chastity
and honl)ur,
No doubt that when children grow lip in such a
sinful house, :hey
will acquire perversity and libcrlinism, and will be
fed with
corruption and maleficence. So, a choice based on
religion and
with morals is the most important factor in
achieving happiness
for both SPOU""S , virtuou. I. lamic breeding for the
children, and
good rank and stabili ty for the family.
Z. Choke based on noble birth and honou,: among
the rules laid
down by Islam for choosing a spouse, is to choose
your spouse from
a family known for their righrousness, morals,
noble birth, and
honor. Ibn-Majah, AI-Hakim, and AI-IJayhaqi
related Ihat 'Ai,hah
~ said that the Prophet $ said, "Choose for your
sperm. and
marry your equals, ond let t/wm marry your
daughters."
This Hadi/h, and many otber5, direct the attention
to the
necessity of choosing someone of noble biMb, so
that the man can
obtain moral, pious, and rigbeous children. In
accordance with this
meaning, Uthman lhn Abi AI-'As Ath-Thaqafi
advised his sor.s to
wlect their wives, and avoid ill-bred families. He
advised t:,em
laying: "0 sons, the man who se>eks marriage is
like one who plants,
!o, everyone should see where he is putting his
seeds, and it is quite
rare 10 get noble offspring from the ill-bred, so
select your ",ives
even if you have to wait for a while."
Such a selection, that the Prophet 3: has advised us
of, is taken
as one of the greatest scientific faclS, and
educational theories in
modern times. GenetIcs proved that the child
inherits his parent's
moral, physical, and intellectual characteristics. So,
when the
selection of a spouse is based on noble birth,
honour, and
righteousness, children gr,, '\" up bearing these
same qualities, and
when a child combines inherited righeous qualities
and virtuous
breeding, he attains the dimax of religion, morality,
and piety.
J . Exogamy: among the wise Islamic instructions
regarding
selecting a spouse is preferring a \loman who is
not from one's
family (i.e. cousins etc) for seeking intelligent chi
ldren, assuring
their safety from inhented diselSeS, expanding the
family
acquaintance and strengthening social bonds.
Genetics has proved
that endogamy weakens the ofTspring physically
and mentally.
4. Preferring ~lrglllS: among the rational Islamic
instructions
regarding sdccting a future wife is preferring
virgins to women
who were married before. This is because the
virgin is disposed to
intimacy and familiarity with her first husband,
contnlfY to the
woman who was married before, since she may
not find intimacy or
love with her second husband. But th~ virgin loves
her husband, and
does not long for another man, because she knew
no one but him.
'Ashah ~ made all these meanings dear when she
said to the
Propbet $, according to Al-Bukh<lri, "0 Messenger
of Allah if
yon were in a valley with two trecs. One was eaten
from, and the
other was not eaten from, of which would you let
your camel
graze? He said, At the one which was not eaten
from. She said,
That)s me." She meant to point to her precedence
over his other
wives, since she was the sole virgin wife he
married. Indeed, the
selection of a virgin is desirable unless there was a
serious reason
for marrying a deflowered woman who was
married before, as in
the case of a widower or divorced man who is
looking for a woman
,, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~: Pan~
(wife) to look after his house and bring up his
children .
AI-Bukhiiri and Muslim narrated the dialogue that
took place
t>etween the Prophet #: and Jiihir on their way
hack from the
expedition of Dha! Ar-Riqii. The Prophet said to
him: "0 Jab!r,
ha~e you gol married? He replied: yes, He asked: A
virgin or a
ikflowered woman? He replied: a deflowered
WOman. He asked:
Why rlor a ~irgin so Ihal you may play wilh her and
she wilh youl He
repl ied, 0 Messenger of Allah, my father was killed
in the baltle of
Uhud and left seven girls, so r married a
deflowered woman to
gather them around her and look after them. The
Prophet 3: said:
You did Ihe righl {king , insho ' A/Mil.
S- The preference of marrying a fertile woman:
among the
mstructions of Islam for selec1ing a wife is that she
is ferti le, to
achieve the purpose ofmaniage I.e. having
children, preserving the
human race, and inhabiting the earth. One of the
women's merits is
to bear children, and that il why the Prophet 4:
preFerred
Khadijah ~ to his other wiv~ _ So, he mentioned
that she gave
b.im children while others did not as a privilege of
hers. The
?rophet <1:- advised not to many banen women
however beautiFul
:hey might be. Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'; related
that Maqil lbn
Yasar said that a man came to the Prophet *- and
said to him " I
love a well-bred and beautiful woman, but she is
barren. Shall I
marry her'! The Prophet tj: said, "No," The man
came a second
time and the Prophet 4: said, "No." When he came
the third time,
lhe Prophet 4:- said to him, "marry the loving
andler/i/e l1-'OnlWl, as
I shall take prUk in your abundance. "'
These are the most impor:ant principles of
marriage, as it
!~li sr;es hum~" needs, SuiTS the desires of life,
a!tributes the
children to their parents, free! the s.ociety from
libertinism and
fatal diseases, achieves cooperation between
spouses, and ignites
lhe parent's sentiment for pare nthood. Marriage
in Islam is blSCd
on strong foundations, and sound rules relating to
the se lection of
The Ideol Mornaso . nd ito Relotionship I"
Ed""'1i"n~ _ ______ ="
a spouse. The most important of which is religion.
noble birth and
"w~r",eSS of 'h" "PO"",,', r;ght._ The very heginning
of rai.ing
childr~n in Islam stems from an ideal marriage
built on selecting a
righteous wifc. By doing so, the Muslim famIly is
formed, and a
faithful gcneration, and rightoous progeny aTe
raised.
26
o=o=o=o===========================o=o==
==== f\o'\~C
Chapler T",'o
Psychological Feelings Towards Children
A. Parents are disposed to lo~'e loci. children
[t is intuitively known that the hearts of parents
are disposed to
love their children, and arc lilled with
psychological feelings and
parental compassion 10 protect, have mercy,
sympathIze, and care
for them. Were it not fo r that, the human race
would have
vanished, and parents would not have had
patience to look after
their children, sponsor them, bring them up, caring
for them or
se~ king their interests. The Noble Qur'an has
depicted these
parental feel ings so, somc~imes, it makes children
the adornment of
this present lire:
~ t .... ( v:: it t..; 5;..:,i~ Ji.Ji "
" Wealth and children are tM adornment of the life
of lhiy
,,·orld .•. " (AI.KahL 46)
On another occasion it considers them a great
bounty that is
worth thanking the Giver:
~ ~ Xi pj'~; ~; ,t;:\ ~;~t ,
"We Mlped }'Oll ",jill weulth ond r!ti!dren and m<Ult
ytJU mor~
numerous in mUlI-po ..' cr," (AI- I,,,. . 6)
On a third occasion, it made them thecomrort of
the eyes if they
were piolls:
~ c.t:t /.~t~ ~ ~j;~ (,~:~ I"'~\ ':': 0 ~ C; c,)J; ;:")iJ,
And (hrne ... lrn Sily: "Our Lord! Besro ... on lis/rom
Our ... i.eJ and
our ofJ$pring tire com/orl 0/ our eye" and mah us
leaders 0/ tire
Mattuqun, " (AI-Furqin, 47)
These, in addition to so many other Qur'anic
verses that depict
the parents' feelings towards their children, reveal
their true
sentiments and love for their beloved children,
Here, dear reader, we prescnt 3 selection of poetic
~erscs related
to loving children. These verses are full, of
tenderness and
sympathy, nooded with feelings and affection, and
stress the 10~e
and pity that Allah has bestowed on the parents'
hearts. Let us
start with what Umayyab Ibn Abi A~-~alt
composed regarding his
son. This poem is one of the masterpieces which is
nooded with
tendcrna;, and depicts the tru thfulne,s of parental
heart felt
towards the son:
" I fed you when you were a new-born,
and sponsored you when you were a youth,
and you enjoyed what J harvested for you.
If you fell sick one night. I would not sleep,
but J keep awake all night feeli ng sorry for you.
As if I were the sick not you.
So my eyes get nooded with tears. ,.
Another poet said regarding the torrential parental
pity that
radiates affection, sympathy and Jove:
"Bul for a ~ery weak structure (body).
where some parI!; are leaning on olbers,
I would have had many journeys, in Ihis wide and
vast land .
But our children, amongst us
who look as if they were our livers walking on the
ground.
If the wind struck some of them
my eyes would never wink."
So, we conclude by reiterating Ihe strenglh of the
emotions Ihal
A1Jiih bas engrained into the parents' hearts
lowards their children.
R. Having merC}' on children is p blessing From
Allah on mankind
Among the noble feelings that Alliih has put into
the parents'
hearts is to have mercy on their chi ldren,
~ympathise with them,
and be kind to them. It is a great feeling that
entails the greatest
e!Tect in raising the children and shaping their
personalities_
A merciless heart renects a stern and harsh
personahty, which
gmvely leads to children's oorruphon and
perversity. For these
reasons, the Prophet a: cared very much for having
mercy, and
urged adults to entertain this honourable quality.
A~nad and AlBu~
iiri, Abu Dawud, At-Tionidhi, and AI-J-:liikim
related that,
'Abdulliih Ibn 'Amr Ibn AI-<As said that the
Prophet 3: said, " He
who does nOI have mercy On Our youllg. Imt! does
1101 ackrrowlege lhe
hallour of our grown-ups. does 1101 belong 10 IIJ".··
And the Prophet ij: used to rebuke any of his
followers who did
not have mercy towards his ehildren, and directed
him to having
mercy and sympathize with them. AI-Bukharl
related, in "AI-At/ab
AI-Mufrod" Ihat 'Aishah ~ said, "A bedouin came to
the
Prophet $ and said, "0o )'ou k iss ),our sons'!' We do
not. The
Prophet said to him, "f calmol pUi mercy in your
heart a/leT Allah
hm uprooted il from your hearl."
AI-Dukhiiri said that Abil Hurairah said, the
Prophet #- kissed
AI-Hasan Ibn 'Ali in the presence of Al-Aqra' Ibn
I:labis AtTamirni,
so AI-Aqra' sa id, "I have len children and [ have
never
kissed anyone of them. The Prophet #: looked at
him and sa id,
"Whoe~er is nOI mert;iful /0 Orher$, will not be
Ireared mercifully."
AI-Bukhari related thai Anas Ibn Miilik said: a
woman came to
'Aishah '<&1 (i.e. asking for help) and 'Aishah gave
her three dates,
The woman gave every one of her chi ldren a date
and kept one for
herself. The two boys ate the two dates, then
looked at their
mother. So, she split her dale in two halves, and
gave each a half of
the da te, then when the Prophet #: was told by
'Aishah about
what that woman had done. he said, "Why art' you
amazedm Ihal?
AI/ah has endawed mercy on her fnr h,1I""g mercy
On hu children."
The Prophet's eyes were nooded wilb tears at the
sight of a dying
child.
Al- Bu~tlri and Mu. lim relat\.'d that Usamah Ibn
Zayd .t;. said
that the Prophet's daughter sent him a message
saying that her son
was dying and asked him to come. He replied to
her greeting and
said. "Allah 0ll'Il5 Ihm ,,'hieh Ill' look alld thm which
He gave. and
h(J!l Sit a lerm for everylhing. so, lie {HIliI'm. alld
ask Allah for
reward." So she sent back to him a r:ply pleading
for him to go to
her, so he went to her wilh Sa'd lb:\ UMdah,
Mu'a!J,:l lbn Jabal,
Ubayy Ibn Ka'b, Zayd Ibn Thabil. and some other
men. The child
was given 10 the Prophet tllld the Pre>phct put
him in his lap as he
was heavily breathing heavily and fgitatcd, and his
eyes nooded
wilh \<:«TS. Su, S4'U .4iu. 0 Mes""'''tcr of Allah
what is lhis? The
Propl:el #. said, "This ;s mercy. ~'hich AII"h has put
illlo His
bondmen's hearts." And in another narration.
"Allah hos {Jut into
the hwrts of whom He wishes of flis bOlldmen .
Surely AI/ah is
merciful 10 those who life mercifi,I." The mercy
which is deeply
engrained in the parents' hearts motivates them to
take Ihe
responsibility 10 look after tllld raise their
children.
C. Dtspising girls is;o.n abom inable JihiliJ'J'ah ()!fe-
Islamic practice)
Islam, in cailing for equalily and justice, has not
made any
distinction in the treatment of males and females.
Making
distinctions between males and f~males
concerning treatment,
love, and sympathy is an abominable pre-Islamic
practice, Allah
VIa uys,
.~~\: .;. ~,Jii ~~~ $ i:¥ X C~ ;-;;,'; Jj;j.~\ I ~','l";; Gv'
~ 5~_ t: £. 1\ ~[J.( J ~-:.; ~ y;' ;:;., ;.t:;.,l
"And "'''~n tk n~ "'s of (tl ... birth of) a femil le
(child) is brollg"t to
any of t"~m , "is faa buomes dllrk, and he is filfed
"'ith inward grief!
lie IUdu himselffrom ,he people becauu of tile £.1/ of
til at "'1It~eofllt
has bun informed. Shall M k eep Mr with dishonor or
bury htt in the
etut'" Cerfainfy, e.if is tlltit du ision. (An.Nahl, 58.59)
If we find within the Muslim society, some fathers
who make a
distinction in the treatment of males between boys
and girls, the
reawn behind that is due to the spoiled
environment from which
Ih~y ~c.qllirerl their h~dword, ignorant traditions
and abominable
social conventions. It is also du~ to the weakness
of fai th sir.ce they
han not accepted that which Allah fit destined for
them (i.e. the
girl$). Neither can they. their wives, nor all people
on earth change
what Allah has created. Allah I!li says,
• • T~) . ;.r"; ......'.."... . 1{" l!B_ ~." Y.'f-:- f'\~..O'l. I:
.~.t...-:: •~. '! -.iO\J' ~""~Ii {1! ~<. "}T,.
.I. »i :' !~ ' <, i:....; :G .' • " " j'{ .';).1 '(l1 .n .~. .\ "'" '7]i
"t., ~ "'. .. . :r.J..-o'.J !I' ~.p .J' "",~ .J
"To AI/tilt 1»10"6' tit, kingdom of tM ",,"'ItS ,,,,,I fit, '
''''f • . II,
CUQteJ 11',,"1 lie wills, lit MstOWJ female
(offspl'ing) upon ... hom Ht
lI'ill!, fl/fd beslolfls mille (olftpr;ng) llpon w"om He
l/'iUs. O,lIe bel/ows
both males fl/fd females, fl/fd Ile ,enikn blUu n
lI'''om He wi/b. "-erily,
lit jJ tltt AII· Know" und is Able to do all thingl,"
(A,h-Shiiri, 49·50)
In order that the Prophet $, may uproot this pre-
Islamic
practice from such weak souls, he gave girls a
special mention in
his sayings and ordered the fathers and guardians
to treat them
well, care fo r them, and look after them so that
they may qualify
for Allah's Blessings and enter Paradise. Muslim
related that
Anas Ibn Malik '" said that the Prophet tj: said, ..
Wlwsoe~er
spo.1sors two girls ( daughters) unlillhey grow up,
Ite lIIill be lIIilh
me in Parwlise like Ihal ( brillging tlllO of his fingen
close
togelher).'" Imam A~mad, in his Musnad, related
that 'Uqbah
Ibn 'Amir Al-Juhaniyy said that he heard the
Prophet's
saying,"Whos<><,oer had three daughters and was
1'''';P1It w;lh
Ihem, pro.ided Ihem with foo(i and c/olhes from /ris
own money,
Ihey will sheller him from lire Hell-fire."
So those who raise children must fo llow these
prophetic
instructions and Islamic teachings relating to the
incumbency of
caring fo r girl>, and implementing ju.tice and
equity between them
and the males, so thai they may sain Allah 's
Blessings, and a
garden the breadth whereof is as th~ breadth of
the heavens and
the earth.
D, TlIe virtue of .. honH.'ver endures IUs child's
death
When a Muslim reaches a high degree of f<lith and
belief and
believ!s in predestination, whether good or bad,
bitter or sweet, he
renounces all happenings and disasters and
surrenders to Allah's
Divine Decree. Accordingly, the Prophet tf; said,
whoever is
bercilled of a son, and has palience, Md kups "aying ,
" To Allah we
belong, (md II> lIim i.< our relum," Alklh will buili/a
house for him in
ParadiS/' called ( The /louse of Thanir;sgiving)."
At·Tirmidhi and Ibn Hibban lelaled Ihal Abu Musa
AI·
Asha'riy .. said that the Prophet $: said, "When a
man's child
dies, Allah III says 10 lIis Angd.: }faye yOll loken the
so1l1 of Illy
bondman's child? They reply. Yes. fie says, lIa ve you
laken his
licari's/mit? Tiley say, Yes_ He .<Ilys, Whal did he
say? '/ 'hey say, lie
praised yOll and said, To AI/ah we belong. and 10
flim is our relllrn."
lie says 10 them: Build a house for my bondman in
Paradise and call
il Ihe hou.<o of lIJ(1nhgiying. Such poriena yields
many fruiu which
the palielll and content person reaps. Amollg Ihem is
Ihal il leads 10
Paradise and is a sheller from Ife//fire."
A I. Bu ~iiri and Muslim related that Abu Sa'id
AI·Khudri .:G;.
said that the Prophet once said tCl women. " Ally of
you gels
buea')~i/ of Ihre~ chil.Jr~II, Ihey will cerl<lin/y be
a shel'~r for her
f rom Hell fire. The woman asked: and two? He
said, and IWO.
Also among the rruits or patience ;s that Ihe child
who dies
young, intercedes ror his parents on the Day of
Judgement. Imam
A~mad, An· Nasa'; and Ibn Hibbii.1 related that
Abu Dharr .:G;.
31 Pan Doe
said that the Prophet 3: said, "Any two MUJ/im
paUIIIS Ih(l/ gel
bereaved of three children who have no/ (reached
the age of)
camil/ing £in£, Allah will let them enter Paradise
due 10 Hi£ Mercy
towards them. And Muslim related, in his Sahih
that Abi Hassan
said, "I was bereaved of two children, so I said to
Abu Humirab
l§,: Have you heard a saying from the Prophet $
that may give u~
condolence for OUT dead? He said, Yes. The young
among them are
the young of Pamdise, each one of them fo llows
his father (or said;
his parents) and holds his father's garment or
hand as I hold your
garment, and never leaves him until they enter
Paradise together."
Among the raithfu[ stance shown by the women of
the Prophet's
companions which demonstrates patience and
contentment when
bereaved of a child is Umm Salim's wonderful
stance. Here is her
story: Al-Bu~~ari and Muslim rela ted that Anas
4;.. said, AbG Tal~ab
had 3 son who was suffering from illness, and his
son died when he
was not at home, When he came back, he asked
about his son, and
his wife said: He is in his utmost rest-meaning that
he died, but
AbU Tal~ah understood that he was getting better.
Then he ate the
dinner which she se rved to him, She then made
herself up in a way
she had never done before, and so he slept with
her. When she saw
thai he was well satisfied, she said, 0 Abu Tal~ah,
te ll me what you
think if some people lend others something, then
they asked fo r it,
may they be deprived of it? He said, No, So she
said: Then, ask
Allah for reward, meaning that his son died, The
sub-narrator said ,
He was angry and blamed her for letting him sleep
with her,
becoming impure, then telling him about his son,
He headed to the
Prophet ~ and totd him the story. The Prophet $
supported what
Umm Salim had done, then he said "May Allah
blcS.f yaur night" or
said, "May Allah blcs£ /hcm UQ/h, " The woman
gave birth to a boy,
and the Prophet $ named him Abdullah. A man
from Al-An ~ar
said, "I saw nine of Abdullah's sons, all of them
learnt the Qur'an
by heart," This was only for Allah's response to the
Prophet's
invocation, when he said, "/llay Allah bless Ihem
bQlh."
So paretlls arc strongly recommended to have
faith, certitude
and patience, so that if they encountered any
calamity, they would
never lose patience, In case they were bereaved of
a child, they
would never be sad, but would keep repeating" To
Allah surely we
belong, and to Him, surely, is our return, to Him
belongs what He
took, and to Him belongs what He gave, and He sct
a term for
everything,"
E. Giving prei:edence to the interests or Islam over
loving children
Although the parent's hearts are overwhelmed
with these true
feelings of love. mercy, pity, and sympathy, these
feelings should
not override taking the responsibility for calling to
Alb h and
striving in I'lis Cause because the inlersts of Islam
precede all other
in terests and considerations, and because
establishing an Islamic
society and guiding mankind is the fa ithful
person's aim and ta rget
in this life,
That is what was apprehended by the first
generation of the
PTophet's Companions'" and the ones who closely
followed suit.
They had no target but Islam, Jihad and calling to
Alhih's Cause,
and gave precedence to Ji/uid and calling \0
Allah's Cause over
loving spouses, chlldren, one's abode, and
kinsmen. They obeyed
Allah's saying,
1;~ Z !P.'; r;r;:iI J:;:1; ,t3~:. ~i.t ~::;v ~jr:;t ~I: ~~
oJ!. jl, .~- I H~ ,4? . '-':. ' , . ~ j;l "' . ',.._..,. ~p ...• <J ~~
-;ou--..u _ ~~."1\ -~ - 1 r.-.<...", ,:.o.... .:. Y~',J-" ~;a
~ ~; _"iii r;ll oJ';:;' -1 ~t .:v\ ~l ""'-j\
"Sa)': If ),ou, fat/IUS, )'ou, sons , you, bMthe,s, you,
wiFe$, you,
kindud, th" w"alth that you have gained. tM
COmmerce in w/tich you
i"ar a decline, and the dwellings in which )'OU
delight au dea,er to
you tMn AUtih and Ilis MesJenger , lmd Jtl'i~ing
hard IIIIdfiglrting in
fliJ Caust. then Imit until IIl1jjh bringJ about His Du
irion
( tor"",,,' ). A"d Aillib guides nor rite people "'''0 are
AI-FiUiq/in ( lite
rebellious, disobt-diem to Alllib)." (Al.Tawbah. 24)
F. Puuishing and temporari ly alienating a child for
educatioual purposes
1, lam has it, own way of refonning and raising
children. If
giving remarks and admonition is enough, the
parent is not entitled
to temporarily alienate his child, and if the laner is
enough 0, e, to
rdorm him), thcn the parent is not entitled 10
resort to beating. But
if all these means failed in refonning him then the
parent may
resort to moderate bealing.
A\ -B u~ari and Mushm related that 'Amr Ibn Abu
Salamah 41-
said eonccrning instructing and admonishing a
o:;hild . . " was u
young boy in tho:; prt:St!m:c of Allah's Messenger
and my hand used
to go around Ihe dish while r was eating, so Allah's
Messenger 3
said to me: '0 boy, me11lio" Ihe nome of Allah, and
Col wilh yO ~T
righl hand, and eal from the dish Ihat is nearer /0
you.' Al-Bukhilri
and Muslim related from Sahl Ibn Sa'd.;Go. that
Allah's Messenger
$; was offered something to drink. He drank from
It whIle on his
right there was a young boy, and on his left tho:;re
were some elderly
people. The Messenger of Allah said to the young
boy (as a
compliment), 'May I give 10 Ihese (elderly people)
first:>' The boy
said, ' By Allah, 0 AlIah's Messenger I will not give
up my share
from you 10 anyone else. On Ihat, Allah's
Messenger placed Ihe
cup in the hand of the boy." ThaI 'ooy was
'Abdullah Ibn Abbag.
Concerning temporarily alienating a child,
AI·Bukhiiri and
Muslim related that Abu Sa'id'" said. "Allah's
Mcssnger forbade
the throwing of stones with the index finger and
the thumb, and
said that 'if neifher hurts, nor does it harm an
enemy, but il gouges
oul an eye, Or breaks a looth.'
Another narration says tha t a relative of Ibn Mug-
h-affal, a
minor, threw a stone wilh his index finger and
thumb, Ibn
Mughaffal forbade him from doing so, and said that
Allah's
Messeng~r forbade throwing stones with the
index finger and
thumb saying that it does not hurt, but the boy did
it again. The
narrator said to him, "I tell you that Allah's
Messenger forbade it,
and you do it once more? I will never talk to you
agai n."
Concerning beating a child, Abu Dawud and AI·Hii
kim related
that 'Amr Ibn Shu'ayb's father and grandfather
said that Allah's
Messenger said, "lnSlrUCI your children 10 aI/end
10 prayerJ al Ihe
age ofJe~en, and bea/them (for abondoning ill at
the age of len, (llJd
do not let them (male and female sihlingJ) slup
together,"
These ph.r ases of Hlstruction appl.v to cbildren in
their childhood
and adolescence, but in the stage ofyoUlh, the way
ofrefonn ~nd
teaching manners change, That is, in case a child
does not respvnd
to persuasion, admonition, and guidance, the
educator must res:>rt
to alienating the child as long as he inclines to
immorality and
perversity, Here are some telllS that support this
view:
AI-Bukhiiri, in the section on "Wkal is aI/awed of
abandoning the
disobeditnt ", related that when Ka'b failed to take
part in the
Ghazwah (Battle) of Tabuk, Allah's Messenger
forbade people
from talking to us for fifty nights until the earth,
spacious as it is,
became ,traitened for them, and tbeir souls
became straitened for
them, aDd no one spoke to them, y-eeted them, or
joined them,
until Allah accepted their repentance which wa<
mentioned in His
Book, Allah's Messenger $ alienated some of his
wives for a
month to rebuke and refonn them, 'Abdulliih Ibn
'Umar alienated
a son of his, because he did not implement a
Prophetic lIadilh
narrated to him by his father, in which Allah's
Messenger forblde
men from preventing women from !oing to the
mosque,
This applies to a fa ithful Muslim child, But in case
he denounced
Islam, the least thing the parent is motivated by
faith and the
Qur'an to do is to declare himself free of him, Allah
!it said:
J;ti:- y.; t'i..:-» 011 ';\:,';:. ;;: ~~~ ~~( ..;J~ ,;.~ "";J.
G) j ~ ~ ~
36 r. .. 0""
-f ~~ :~ :) ~· 'I'.,:;'l ,;1 ~;~ j1 r-::.~~I:
" You (0 Muhommad ~) will not find any fH'op/~
who bdi~,'~ in
Allah and the Lost Day, making friendship with
those who oppOJe
Allah Ilnd lIis Messenger (Muhammad $) el'en
though they ... ..,e
thtir jllth..,s, Or their sons, or 'heir fnothers, or 'heir
kindred
(fH'op/~)." (AI·Muj'dalah. 22)
There are many olher texiS re lated to this view
that show that
al ien atin g children and kinsmen when they insist
on disbelief, is a
requirement of faith and belief, because Islam is
Ihe bond of
brotherhood which must precede any other bond.
In this chapter. "The Psy~hological Feelings
towards Children,"
we have pointed out that some of them may be in
st inctive and
innate in the parents' hearts such as the feel ings of
love, tenderness,
kindness and merq. Without these feelings, the
enaclmenl of
Allah's law would nOI have been established, as to
preserving the
human race. Parents would nOI have beeo
molivated 10 care for
their children and bring them up, and the family
would not have
been uni ted. coherent, or well-cstablished. We
have also shown
that some other feelings arcjahili),o (pre- Islamic
practice), such as
di sl iking girls. And you have seen how Islam
tackled this
abominable custom so that the parents' feehngs
towards boys
and girls may be the same, wilhout preference or
discrimination.
You have also seen that some of these feelings are
motivated by
general interests, sueh as gi ving precedence to
Jihad and 10 the call
to Allah over loving spouses and children. Also that
some of them
are educational, such as admonishing, rebuking, al
ienating and
punishing a child. You have seen that Islam went
through
successive stages of tcaching mannerS i.e.
admonishmg, alienating
and finally modemtc bealing. These are the
outlines concerning
some of the Islamic teachings relaling to bringing
up chI ldren .
reforming them and raising them in sound, straighl
manncrs.
Chapter Three
General Rules COllCcrnin, the New-boTIl lJaby
llIe First Part
What tlJt, Parent Does at Childbirt~
I, The: n!commelldatioll of givi llg glad tidillgs l lld
congratulatiollS at
childbi rth:
It is recommended for a Muslim to take the in
itiative 10 please
his Muslim brother in case he had a newborn baby
by giving him
glad ti dings and making him happy_ In case he
missed giving him
glad tid ings, he must congratulate him and pray
for him and his
newborn baby. The Noble Qur'an ,Iated several
times to give glad
tidings to those having newborn babies in order to
guide Muslims
and leach them 10 do the same. In doing so, il has a
powerful effect
on strengthening bonus of tove am,,"!: Muslim fami
lies, Allah ..
said in Ibrahim's story $.:
($I':""';' ~;,: 14. J 4 G ~ J~ d: Yl.i ....:J~"\ ~l
11:.,;.:..~.lli; t
--: Jl u..:l-CI ...:..;,[ 'l1)~ U;.. .,: '''':\' .'~ PI S; '1 -" ...1.
1:' U
y ~~;;; :;;':'1 ,T;;'~,; j~-:.I~:1':Z; ~j ~t ~t:G ~ }j
"And perify, there came Our MelSengers to Ibrllhim
(Abrahllm)
",ith glud tidings. They suid: Sul,u", (gree,ings or
pellU!) Ht
anlliued, Salilam (greetings or Mau !) und M
"astened to entertuill
t/u", ",it" a roasUd culf. But Ii'heN /u sa", tlleir
ha"ds went ItOI
to",..,dJ it (the meul), lie mistrusted t"em, and
conceioed a f eW' of
them. They suid: 'Fear nor, ..... ha~~ been stnt
aguinst the people of
!.ii, nol)." And his ",ife Ii'as sra~ding (there), and she
luughti
(eilller, becau"e the Mesungers did not eat lheir food
(H f(H bem,
gladf(H the destruction of lilt peoplt of Lit (Lot)) But
We ga.e her
glad tidings of Ishtiq (Isaac), und aft~r 15111iq, of
Ya'qiib (Jacob)."
(HUd, 69·71). And Allah \Ii said in Zakariyya's
story:
.. ~, -'l;g ~{ :;! ,>,~i 4 J"'~ ;:p ~~ l$'ji'ii :'TI ,
"TAe" the "ngels called him, while he lI'as standing;n
prllj'er in AIMihrab
( a. prayillg place or a private room), (saying):
"Allah givu
)'oa glad tidings 0/ Yahya {Jl'lrn) ... " (AI ' tmran,
39)
And also in another verse:
.L \{ ~. 1-<, ,j ,-:"5. .\ ,~ "', ,,~_ ,;j'_-': ~1 ~/ ;~ ). "I:
__ <» o.J'! " ~ r' ..".-, r---- ~ '-'=. ". y
"( AUtih said) "0 Zakuriy)'Q (Zuchariah)! Verily, We
give ),ou
the gkld tidings ofa son, ",hose ,,"mt! will be Yahy"
(John). We have
given t11(~t ,,"mt! to none before {him}." (Maryam,
7)
AI-Bu~iiri mentioned that when Ihe Prophet e was
hom,
Thuwaybah gave glad tidings of his birth to his
uncle AbU Lahab,
who was her master, and said 10 him, " Abdullah
bas been given a
boy tonight. So Abii Lahab set her free out of
happiness with the
news. Allah 'iJi rewarded him for thai as he Itt him
drink afier his
death from the little hollow between his thumb
and his other fingers.
As-Suhayll mentioned that AI-Abbas said, " [ saw
Abu Lahab in
the worst state; in my dream a year aCter his
death; he said: 'I have
never been in comfort since r lert you, except that
the punishment
becomes less painful evcry Monday i. c. the day on
which the
Prophet $. was born, and Thuwaybah gave glad
tidings of his
birth, and Abu Lahab was happy about it."
Concerning giving congratulations on the birth of a
child, Imam
Ibn Al-Qayyim quoted Abu 8 akr Ibn AI-Mun<!!J.ir
in his book
'The Gift of Ihe Beloved" as saying, "We quoted AI-
Hasan AIBasrl
as saying, 'that a man came to him, while in his
presence was
a man with a newborn boy, the man said, 'May
Allah bless your
knight.' So AI.J:lasan said to him, 'How can you tell
whether he
will be a knight or a donkeY/' He said, 'Then, what
should I say?'
Al-J:lasan said, 'Say May Allah bless your gift, and
may you thank
the Giver, and be dutifu l, and may hc (i.e. the boy)
grow up wen."
These good tidings and congratulations must be
extended to
every newborn child, whether it is a boy or a girl.
2, R cco mmend~ti o n of uring [he AdMn a rM!
Iqiimuh in the
nelltlorn's ear
Among the rules laid down by Islam for a newborn
child is [0
S;ty the Atj~Ii" in his right car and Iq6malr in his
lell ear
immediately after he is born. Abu D:1wud and At-
Tirmidhi
related Ihat Abu Riifl' said, " I saw Allah's
Messenger saying adhim
in AI -I:'a san Ibn Ali's car when Fa ~lmah gave
birth to him_"
According to Ibn Al-Qayyim's book, the secret
behind saying the
A,/~611 and fqamah is that it is the 1iTS! thing
that a human being
hears. Thcy are the words of the Supreme Colli
which contains Al lah's
magnificence and glory, and the shahtidah which
represents his lirst
step into Islam. So this is like an in~lruction fur
him as he starts this
life, similar 10 that of the instruction Tall"~id
(Oneness) he is given
when his life ends. We du not exclude lhal his heart
may bendit from
Ihe A1~ui/l though he may not feci it, as well as
achieving :lnother
benelil. that is. pushing Satan away by the words of
the Ad/,ii".
although he (Satan) was awaiting his birth_ His
Satan learns of what
weakens him, and teases him once he gets close to
him.
Another symbol rests there, i.e. (calling him 10
Allah's way),
religion and worshIp before Satan call, him to his
own way. The
innateness upon which Allah has originated
mankind Wi'~ there
berore Satan changed it and turned man away
from it. Many other
meanings and symbols lie within the words of the
Adlultl.
3. Recommending Tah"fk for the baby ooce he is
born
Ta~l",k means to .. hew a dale, then to rub the
newborn's mouth
with it by putting a lillIe or the chewed date on the
fingertip, and
then inserting it into the baby's mouth. You then
move it gently to
the right and left, until the whole mouth is rubbed
with the chewed
dale. If dates arc nOI available, any sweet food may
tlo. The
rationale behind litis may be strengthening the
mouth musdes by
exercising the tongue and the mouth, preparing
the b.1by for
40 1'", On<
sucking his mother's b reast~ during nursing. It is
also recommended
that T"~nik be done by a piou~ ;I!ld righteous man
for
seeking his blessings ;I!ld hopmg that the baby
may grow up 10 be
righteous and pious. Among the fladilhs that the
scholars quoted
for recommending T"!,,,Ik are:
It is mentioned in the SIIMha)'l! that Abl! Burdah
related that
Abu Musa 40 said, " I had a baby, and [ took him to
the I'rophet
~ and the Prophet ~ called him Ibrahim, made
Tall"Ik to him
with a date and asked Allah to bless him, and
returned hIm to me,
Also, it is mentioned in As-SahihaYl/ tbat Abu
Talhah said to
Anas Ibn Malik, "Take him (i,e. thc baby) to thc
Prophet 4: and
send some dates with him, The Prophet ~ took
him and iish-d, 'Is
there lUIything ,..ith him?' They said, Yes, some
dates, The Prophet
$ took the dales and chewed them, thcn look them
from his mouth
and put them inlo the baby's mouth and called him
'Abdullah."
4, II:tcommendalion of shaving the baby's head
Among the rules laid down by Islam for Ihe
newborn baby IS to
~have his head on his sevenlh day and to give its
weight in gold or
~ilver to the poor and needy. The mtionale behind
this is twofold:
The first is related to the baby's health, Shaving his
head
strengthens him as well as opens the pores on his
head, The
sewnd is social, as giving the weight of h,s hair in
money to the
poor is a kind of social solidarity and cooperation.
Among the l!aJiths that the scholars quoted for
recommending
shaving the bab¥'s hair and giving its weight in
silver to the poor are:
In AI·Muwat!a', Malik related that Ja'rar Ibn
Muh:lmmad's
father said, " Fatimah ..~. weighed the hair of AI-
Hasan, Al-I:!usayn,
Zaynab and Umm Kulthum and gave its weight in
silver to the
poor. And Yahyft Ibn llaklr related that Anas Ibn
Miihk ~ s;tid
that the Prophet $ ordered Al-J::LlSan and AI-
I:!usayn's hair be
shaved on their seve nth day. So it was done, and
tbe weight of their
hair was given in silver to the poor,"
The Scwnd Pa ri
Naming the Baby and its Rules
I. When should a baby be namctl?
Collectors of SlII!IIah related that Samurah s;\id.
the Prophet ~
5.'lid .. , Every child i.. baunJ /0 have 'oIf1qail, /0 be
s/oughlere(J for
him. and is gi>en a nmtle. alld hus his hl'ad shmed.
all on his serallil
da)'." This ',Iadi/h shows that naming a ehild is to
be done on his
seventh day.
There a re some other authentic 'fodilh.! that show
that a newly
hom child can be n:lm~'d on the day of his birth.
Among them is
Muslim in his Sat,,?! quoting Anas,..:IS saying tha t
the Prophet 4:
said, "A boy hus been bornfor me tonighl and I
named him afler my
anceslor Ibriihi'm." It is deducted from these
/ladi/hs that we hilve a
choice. So a baby I;an be named on his first day. or
his third day. or
we can relegate it to his '(,qiqah day i.e. the
seventh day. It can al,o
be done before or after thaI.
2. RCC(lmmcnded names and disJikd names
A pment must pay great attention to select ing a
name for his
newly born child by choosing the most beautiful
name, following
our Prophet's guidance. Abu Dawld related that
Abu Ad·D;lrda
said that the Prophet it sa id. "Yo~ \\'ill be called
all/he Doonuday
by you, nallles, amI ),OU, fathers names. so chaosI'
nice names." And
Muslim related, in his Sa~if1, that Ibn 'Umar .;Gi.
said th at the
Prophet Ii: said. ''The best of your r.allleJ II> A If,,"
are' A bdulfiih 1It111
'Abdur-Rahmiin . ..
The fathcr must avoid an ugly name thaI may inju
re his dignity
and be a reason for making fun 0: him, The
Prophct 3: used to
change the ugly namos, ',,'cording 10 whal
AI,Tirmidhi quoled
'Aishah ~. At·Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah related that
Ibn 'Umar
4;i. said Ihat a daughter of 'Umar's was Cll lled
'Asiyah (disob..'di~nt)
42 ~===================== P." o.e
and the Prophet 4: called her lamiluh (beautiful).
Abu Dawud
said that Al1iih's Messenger $ changed the names
of AI-'Asi.
'Aui . ·Uqfah. Shuy!rin. AI.1Jakam. <!~11f6b llnd
IJabbdb and gave
Ihe name Silm (i.c. peace) 10 a man called ~/{Jrb
(i,e. war), A/Munhailil
to a man called AI-Muljaji. Bani AI-Ri.<hdah to a
family
caned Bmli Az-Zinyah. and Bani Rishdah 10 a family
cailed Bani
Mug~"'iyah. AhlI Dawfid said, "I did not mention
the chain of
narrators for the sake of being brief."
He also has \0 avoid names derived from
pessimistic meanings for
the sake of clearing the child from the harm of
such names. AI-Bukhiiri
related in his ~a~i1~ from $a'id Ibn AI MUJayyab.
that his father,
quoting his gr.lndfathcr said, " I came to the
Prophet 4: and he
said, 'what is your name?' 1 said, Hozn (11, SO he
said, "You are called
Sah/(2). He said, I will not change:1 name given to
me by my father.
Ibn AI-Musayyab said. -Roughness is still manifest
in us· ...
He also has 10 avoid the names which are tokens
of Allah tEA
such as Ah.ad, ~amad. ~aliq. Razz[iq. etc. Abu
DawCid said in his
Sunon: "When Hani came to the Prophet ~ in
Madinah with his
people, he used to be called Abdul-J::Iakam. So, the
Prophet 4-
called him and said to him: "Verily, Allah is the
J:lakam, and He
has the ~lUkm Oudgment), why then arc you
called 'Abdul-l~akam1
He said. My people resort to me whenever they
differ in opinion,
and I issue the judgment. and they accept my
judgment. So, All;lh's
Messenger ~ said, " /fow nice. do yoa lw~e
children!"' He said, I
have Shurayl.\ Muslim. and -~bdull ah. Athlh's
Messenger $
asked, "'Who is the eldest?" He said, Shurayh.
Allah's Messenger
:t. said. '"Then you are called Abri S/r"raY~l"
Muslim related in his
Snhihthat Abu HUrllirah said that Allah's
Messenger e Solid, '"The
most enraging and 11'0'5/ man 10 AlIiih 1ft On the
Doomsday is n tlllm
III i.~. rough aDd lo.ard.
(2) i.e. easy and lenient.
called Ihe king of kings, there is no king but Allah,"
He also has to avoid names referring to good
omens or
optimistic meanings in order to avoid sadness that
may result from
using the names in a negative stucture, Examples
afC Aj/oi}
(succcssf u1), Naji ( useful), Rabtih (gain), and
yosar (easy), Muslim,
Abu Dawud, and At-Tirmidhi related that Samurah
Ibn Jundu,
said, Allah's Messenger $: said to :ne: "the most
beloved phrases fQ
Allah arefour: Sub~ana Allah, (Glory be 10 Allah) ,
AI-hamdu lillalr,
(prcise be 10 Allah ), /0 ilah ilia Allah, ( there is no
God but Allah),
and Allahu Akbar ( Allah is Ihe greatest). Do nOI call
your ,.0>1
Yasa" Rabat? Naji~ 01 Aj/a~, for when you say_
"Where is he?"
while he is nOI Ihere, Ihe answer nega/es Ihe
meaning of his namT.
TheJe phrases are four, never add 10 lhem."
He also has to avoid names that indicate
submission to gods other
tha r, Alliih ~ uch a,: Abdul-'Uwl. Abdun-Nabi,
Atxlul-I!ussayn and
similar name~, since they are obviously
prohibited. As to the
Prophet's saying in the battle of Hunayn: " / am Ihe
Prophel
undoubledly. film Ihe son of Abdul·Multafib" It does
not mean
that he's giving himself a new name, but it merely
indicates the
name by whieh he was known, especially in
situations of
challenging an enemy, as was the case with the
Prophet $.
So saying a name for identifyin, oneself is not
prohibited. sincc
the Prophet"s followers ... used 10 mention before
the Prophet $:
the names of their tribes such as Bani Abdu-Manaf,
Bani Abdw;~Shams
and Bonr Abdlld-D{ir, and Ihe Prophet ~ did not
forbid
them to do so.
Finally, one must avoid the names that indicate
softenin~,
similarily 10 girls' names and amour, such as
!fuyam. Nihad,
Sall'san, Mayyadah, Nllriman , Ahhim and the like in
order that tt.e
child may acquire a sense of good personality and
distinct
ch",,,cter. Therefore. the Prophet ~ urged the
people to narr.C
their childrcn aftcr the Prophets' names and the
n~mcs of
'Ahl/ullah, 'Abdur·RatmUn and similar names
composed of 'Abd
and one of the Most Magmlicent Names of Anah !ii ,
Abu Dawud and An,Nasa'; related that Abu Wahb
Al, Jushamiy
... said tbat AlI iih's Messenger ~ said, . 'Name yOl
jrull'f!s afler lhe
ProphelS and the most beloved names /0 Alilih we
'Abdulllih ami
'Ab{h"- Ra~n"ill all(/ the mOSI IrUlhf"/ of them lire,
~/lirith and
f/umm(im, and Ihe ugliesl of lhem lire /larb tliltl
Murrah,"
J, It is Sunnah to gin' th e child a nickname
Among the educational pri nCIples laid down by
Islam
concermng raising a child is to gh'c him a
nicknamc composed
of Abu (father of) and another parI. Thi ~ yields
some educationat
gains such as:
. Inculcating a sense of dignity and respect into the
child's soul.
, Developing his social character and making him
fee l that he has
grown up.
, Giving him amiable treatment and pleasing him
through calling
him by this lovely nickname,
For these benefi ts and considerations, the Prophct
e used to
nickname children and call them by these names.
It is related in
Sahihayn that Anas said, 'The Prophet $: was the
best of all
people in morals, I had a brother called Abu
Umayr, who I think,
had been newly weaned, Whenever the child was
brought to the
Prophet ij:, he used to say 10 him, "0 AbU Vmayr!
whlll did AnNilg~
ayr ( i.e, nighiingflle (}r bird) do?"
59",e matters related to naming and nicknaming
A, In case the parents had different opinions
regarding nammg
Ihcir chi ld, the right to name the child is given to
the father. The
Qur'an sialed that the child carrics Ihe name of his
father, not his
mother. Allah Wi! says,
~ ;11 :i.., L1 ;. ~1 ~.;~ t
"Calllhem (adopled sons) by ( lite "umes "f) their f
athe .. -: ' hut if
mor~ just with Alfiih." (AI-Ahzib, S)
T.,e !ladt/hs mentioned carl ier show Ihatthe tighl
of naming is
given to Ihe falhe r, such as the !lodilh Ihat Muslim
related quoting
Anal" that Alliih's Mcssen,l!.er .; said. "[ had a SOli
born 10 m(
IOnighl and [called him after my a.1ceSlOr fbriiMm."
B. The father, or any other person. is not entitled to
give the chi ld
an u~y name like 'A",or (one-eyed), 'A raj (lame).
or similar name;
for ~biding by the general prohibtion slated by
Alliih's !iij! saying:
"Nor insult One unolher by nicklUlmes .....
(Al.~~ujucll. II )
C. Is it permissible to nickname someone "Abul-
Qasim"? Scholar,
have unanimously agreed that naming children
after the Prophet',
name:; is permissible since Muslim related that
Jabir '*' said, "A
boy was born for a man of us, so he named him
M~h ammad . H i~
people told him. "We will no! pennit you to name
him after the
Prophet ,e;." So the man carried his son and said,
"0 Allah's
Mes>cnger, J h~ve a boy born for me, and I named
him Muhmmad,
but my JlCQple said they would not permil me to
do so." So, AIi<lh's
Messenger g; said. "Name you'Sf/rn after my name
bUI do nOI call
yourse/vt:3 by my kunyoh (i _e. ,';cknamc) .
As to call ing oneself by the Prophet's ~ Kanyah,
the scholars
have diffe rent opinions:
Firs:: absolute reprehension, quoting the above-
mentioned lfatiilf.,
and the ':Iadilh related by Al-Buld:tari and Muslim
quoting Ab-J
Hurairah that Allflh 's Messenger.$ said , "Nome
your5eIYes after
my name. bUI do nOI call y()u,selveJ by my Kunyah."
AJ-Shafi'i has
adopted this stlmd
Second: absolute permission; quoting what Abu
Dawiid related in
his SUllon that 'Aisha said, "A woman came to the
Prophet o'j: and
said, '0 Allah's Messenger, I gave birth to a boy and
called him
Muhammad and nicknamed him Abul·Qasim, but
someone told
me that you dislike that,' The Prophet o'j: said,
'Wlw allowed
"",,,i"K afler my name, om/ prohibiled my kU/lyohr
And Ibn Abu
Shaybah said, 'Muhammad Ibn Al Ash'ath,
'Aishah's nephew, was
nicknamed Abul-Qiisim'
Ibn Abi Khaythamah related th1't Az-Zuhari said, "
I saw four
of the Companions' sons, all of whom were named
M u~ammad,
and had AI-Qiisim as kunyalr; they are: M
u~ammad Ibn Tal ~ah
Ibn 'Alxlul!iih, M u~ ammad Ibn Abu Bah, M
u~ammad Ibn Ali
Ibn Abu ~iil ib and Mu~ammad Ibn Sa'd Ibn Abu
Waqqiis.
lmiim Miilik was asked about naming of M
u~ammad and giving
Abul- Qasim as a kunyolr. He said, "This is not
prohibited and I
do not see any harm in doing that. The scholars
who said that it
is allowed and that the I[odllll$ that prohibited it
were abrogated.
Third: it is not allowed to combine both name and
kunyaIJ, but it is
allowed to have either, Quoting what Abil Dawild
related, Jiibir '*'
said that Allah's Messenger 3 said, "Whosoever is
named afler
may name, is nOI 10 have my kunyah as his kunyaIJ
and whosoever
has my kunyah OJ his kl.nyalJ, is nOI 10 be Iwmed by
my name", And
Ibn Abu Shaybah related that Alliih's Messenger ~
said, " /)o /101
combine my name ami my nickname Or kunya"."
Fourth: prohibition of having the Prophet's
nickname or kunyah is
~onfined to the Prophet's lifelime but it is allowed
after his death.
Quoting what Abu Dawud related, M u~ammad
Ibn AI-Hanafiyyah
said, Ali ~ said, "In case I get a boy born for me
after you,
may t name him after your n~me, and give him
you ku"yalrT' the
I'rophet o'j: said, "Y/'s," I}umaid Ibn Zangawayh
said 10 his book
AI-Adab: "I asked Ibn AbC. Uwais about
Mfilik'sopinion on a man
who combined the Prophet's name and kllnyah. he
said that Malik
said, 'This was forbidden during the Pro phet's
lifetime, lest
someone should be called by the Prophet's name
and kllllyah and
the Prophet ~ may respond to the call, but after
the death of the
Prophet tj: there is no harm in doing so.
The fourth opinion may be the preponderant one.
$0, it is
pennissible to name someone after the Prophet's
name and kunyah.
The ifadflhs Ihal forbid it are restricted to the
Prophet·s lifetime
only for the purpose of evading confusion between
the Prophet ~
and the peI"Son who is being called. But after the
Prophet"s death,
the problem of confusion will not emerge. Again,
the above
mentioned fladith narrated by Al.·Zuhriy that he
saw four of the
the Prophet's companions' sons iJaving the
Prophefs name and
kunyah proves that th is practice is permissible.
"
""====================================:o
p.nQM
The Third Part
1bc 'A'Ii'luh and its Rules
I. What is the meaning of 'Aqfqa"?
'Al/illall litCT3!1y mcans cutting, and the
statement "'aqqlJ
wtilidaylJi" (he has been undlltiful to his parents)
is derived from
it. But as a religious term, It means slaughtering a
goal on the
seventh day of a child's birlli.
2. Proof of its legitimacy
Al-Bu~~a r! relata! thal Salman Ibn Arnir
A~.l?abbly said that
Allah's Messenger ~ said, '''Aqfqah i.f 10 be offered
for II newly
oom boy, JO slaughter (an animal) for him, Wid
re/iew: him of
harm." And the collectors of Sutlllah related that
Samurah said
Ihal Allah's Messenger ;I: said, '''Aqtqah must be
offered/Of every
newly 00'" child /0 be slaugh/ered on his sevenlh
liny. and he is given
a name , and hlll'/? his hair shm-c d," Imam Ahmad
and At-Tinnidhi
related that 'Aishah ~ said that Allah's Messenger
it said,
"Two goalS- equal ill size· are 10 be slaughtered/or
every newly born
boy and olle for every girl."
3, Scholar's opinions on its u gil iDlacy
Scholars have three opinions regarding its
legitimacy:
The first: 'Aqiqa is a Sllrmah and recommended.
This is the
opinion of Ma lik, Ash·Shali'i, A~mad, Isbaq and
Abu Thawr.
They quoted the above mentioned f/adiths to
support their views,
and refuted the opinion of those who said that it
was obligatory on
the bases that: if it were obligatory, it would have
been evidently
stated In the Shari\1h and the Prophet $; would
have stated to the
Ummah that it is prescribed in a way that gives no
excuse to anyone
(for not doing it). The Prophet ~ linked it to the
people's
willingness. He 3: said, "W"osoc<w "as a boy b{)rn
10 him, alld he
chose 10 make a rilual for llim, lei him do il." Rut the
fact that the
Prophet 3 did it, does not necessarily mean that it
is prescribed,
but rather shows that it is recommended.
The second: 'Aqiqah is obligatory_ This is the
opinion of Imam
AI-J:lasan AI-Basri, AI-Layth Ibn Sa'd and others.
As evidence,
they quote what Ishaq Ibn Riihawayh narrated,
"The people will
be reckoned for 'Aqiqa as they will be reckoned for
the five
prayers", as well as the l,Iadilh narrated by AI- ~a
san quoting
Samurah that the Prophet e said, .. 'Aqfqah is 10 be
offered for
e,''''y newly born boy," They justify their opinion on
the grounds
that the boy will be prevented from interceding fo
r his parents
unless they offered 'aqiqoh for him, and this
supports the view that
it is obligatory,
The third: denying its legitimacy. This is the
opinion of the H ~ nifi
scholars, They quote a Hm/iih narrated by AI-
Baihaqi quoting
'Amr Ibn Shu'aib's falher quoting his grandfather
that AII:'ih's
Messenger * was asked about 'aqiqah, so he ,aid: "I
do not like
'uquq (disobedience). They also quoted a ~/ad'ih
narra ted by Imam
A~mad quoting Abu Riill' 4i> that Fiitimah I&;
wanted 10
slaughter IWO sheeps for AI- l:Iasan Ibn Ali, but
Alliih's Messenger
~ said to her, "Don 'I make 'aqiqah, bw have his
hair CUI and give
Ihe value of ils weighl in si/,'er 10 Ihe poor." So,
when Al-I:,rusayn
was born she did the same. Hut the literal meaning
of the abovementioned
lIwliih asserts that 'aqiqah is a Sunnah and
recommended,
That is what has been adopted by the majority of
scholars. They refuted the Hanifis' opinion on the
grounds that
the hadilhs quoted by them do not stand as proof
fo r denying the
legitimacy of 'aqUiah,
As for the f~adilh narrated by 'Amr Ibn Shu'ayb
quoting his
father and his grandfather, Allah's Messenger II:
said, " I do "01 like
'uq!lq." The conte~t and reason of the Prophet's
saying it shows
that aqiqah is a Sunnah and recommended, since
the wording of the
Hadilh goes as follows: "Allah's Messenger $ was
asked about
aqiql/h, he replied, '[ do no/like 'uq6q'_" It shows
that the Prophet
3- hated giving this name to the slaughtered
animal. So they said,
"0 Alliih's Messenger, we ask about one of us
having a chi ld bom
for him. He said, "Whosoever wishes 10 make a
ritual/or his child,lel
him do so; two equal goals for a bay, and OM for a
girl."
As fo r quoting, as proof, the ~ad[(h of Abil Rafi'
"do not make
Oijtqah, but have his hair cut" it docs not indicate
that aqiqah is
reprehensible, since the Prophet 3. wanted to do it
for his
daughter F<i~imah ~. So he said to her, .. Do nOI
make 'aqiqah",
because he has done it for both her sons, lind
relieved her of this
duty. There arc so many lIadflhs that prove that the
Prophet 3
made 'aqiqah for both of them, among them are:
Abu Dawud related that Ibn Abbas '*' said that
Allah's
Messenger # made 'aqiqal! for AI-J:lasan and Al-
!:'usayn by
slaughtering a sheep for each. Yahya Ibn Sa'id
related that 'Amrah
quoted 'Aishah as saying, "Allah's Messenger 3.
made 'aqiqah for
AI'l:!asan and Al-f-.!.usayn on their scventh day.
We conclude from what has been mentioned above
that the
'fUJiqal! is Sunnah, and is rccommended by the
majority of Imams
and scholars. So if a father had II baby born to him,
and he is
financially able to implement the Sunnah of Alliih's
Messenger e,
he must do it for seeking Alliih 's reward, for in te
nsifying the
feelings of intimacy and love among his relatives
and friends and
for taking part in social solidarity.
4. The Prererable Time for 'Aqfqall
We have already mentioned the Uadith narrated
by Samurah
which says, .. 'aqfqah is 10 be offeredfor each f1ewly
born child, on his
UW!f1lh day. and he is named." This Hadfl/l
indicates that it is
re<:ommended to slaughter the 'aqiqah on the
seventh day. But
there are some narrations that indicate that it is
not obligatory to
oITer the 'uqiquh on the seventh day; it is only
recommended to do
it on the seventh day, So, if 'lUJtqah were
slaughtered on the fourth,
eighth, or tenth day, it will do,
5, Is 'Aqtqah for a boy like that of a girl's?
'A qrqah is a recommended Sunnllh for both boys
and girls alike.
This is proved by the IIwlilh narrated by Imam
Ahm;ld and AtTirmidhi
quoting Umm KaTZ A!-JSahiyyah that she asked
Allah's
Messenger 3: about 'aqlqah, he replied, "t ... o
goalsfor a boy , and one
for a girl" This fladilh and those mentioned
previously, indicate two
principal points: First: boys and girls are the same
regarding the
legitimacy of 'aqfqah. Second: offering two goats
for a boy and onc
for a girl is the opinion of the majority of sehola rs_
Miilik held the
opinion thai 'uqfqah for either a boyar a girl is onc
goal.
6. Reprehensibility of breaking the bones of 'A
qfqufr
Among the matters that should be observed
regarding 'uqiqah is
not to break a bone of it, whether during
slaughtering or eating it,
i.e. every bone of it should be cut at the joint
without breaking it.
This is shown by the flad!lh narrated by Abu
Dawud and
atlribuled to the Prophet $ , "And do nOI break a
bone of ii," The
rationale behind this is twofold:
First: demonstrating Ihe nobility of feeding and
supporting the
poor and neighbours by giving them complete big
pieces, with no
broken bones, and not lacking any part.
Second: witnes~ing a good omen and being
optimistic thaI the
newly born child will have complete organs, and
strenglh, smce
'uqiqah is considered a sacrifice faT the child,
7. General rules related to 'Aqiqulr.
A, Scholars unanimously agree that 'uqiqah should
entertain the
conditions of Ur/&iyah (sacrifice), The conditions
of Utj~iyah are:
I. To be more than one year old, if it were a sheep
or goat. In case
the sheep is only six months of age, but big in si:re
to the point
that you cannot distinguish it from those over one
year old when
mixed with them, it is deemed good for 'aqiqah.
But goats will
not do for 'aqfqalr unless thcy arc more than one
year old.
2. To be frcc from physical defects: blind, one-eyed,
lean, or lame,
i.c. one that cannot walk to the slaughterhouse are
animals unfit
to be ·aqiqah. Also, animals lacking an ear, tail,
more than onethird
of its fat tail, or most of their teeth, arc not fit for
·aqiqah.
Also, animals born without cars, or ill-minded
beasts that do not
graze, are nOI good for ·aqfqah. Minor defects that
make the
animal suilable for 'aqiqah are: Spltl ears, broken
horns, or slight
lameness that does not keep the animal from
walking, or slight
ill-mindedness that docs not keep the animal from
grazing, or a
limited number of teeth lost, or less than one-thIrd
of the car,
tail, or fat tail is lost while the rest remains.
3. Sacrificing a cow or buffalo is not accepted
unless it is more than
two years old. Likewise, sacrificing a camel is not
accepted unless
it is more than five years old .
B. It is unacceptable for people to share with one
another in
offering one 'aqiqalr, for example, of seven people
sharing in
offering a camel. The rationale of nfferring 'Ik/[qah
would not be
achieved in such a case.
C. It is acceptable to substitute a camel Or cow for
a sheep.
provided that it is offered for one child. Some
scholars said 'aqiga/r
must be a sheep, according to the Hadftlrs about
offering 'aqiqah.
Those who accepted camels and cows for 'aqiqalr
quoted Ibn AIM
un~~ir as saying that the Prophet ~ said, '''Aqfqah
mUSI be
offeredfor lire boy, sa shed bloodfor him"; without
stating a certain
animal's blood, so, whatever is slaughtered for the
newly born
chi ld is sufficient, whether It is a sheep, cow, or
camel.
D, What applies to Udhiyah applies to 'aqiqah,
regarding eating of
it, giving sadaqah and giving gifts of it. A pari
should be given to
the midwife to please her.
E. It is recommended that 'aqiqall should be a ~s i
gned 10 the name
of the newly-born child That is, by saying; "In the
name of Allah.
This is for you Allah. This is 'aqiqah for so and so."
No hann is
done if the slaughterer intended to offer '(Jqiqah
wllhout
mentioning the child's name.
8. What is the legislati~e rationale ror offering
'Aqfqah?
- A sacrifice wi th which the child gels closer to
Allah IU from the
first moment he comcs into the world.
- A redemption that protects the child from
disasters and
epidemics, as Allah redeemed 15ma';1 by an
animal.
- Enabling thc child to intcrcedc for his parents.
- Showing pleasure: and happiness fo r having a
faithfu l muslim, for
which the Prophet $. will take pride in over other
nations on the
Last Day.
- Strengthening the bonds of frieodship and lo~e
among the
members of society.
- Providing a new stream to socia l solidarity .
. In addition to olher benefits and gains.
The Fourth Part
Circumcision of the Newly Born Child and its Rules
I, The literal and terminological meaning of
circumcision
Literally, it means the removal of the foreskin of a
male's genital
organ, In religious terminology, it means the round
edge
underneath the glands, i,e. the point of cutting the
foreskin, and
to which the religious rulings relate. Imam
A~amad , At·Tinnidhi,
and An·Nasii·j related that the Prophet tt. said,
"When the two
points of circumcision (of Ihe male and the female)
meet, Ihen ghwl
(purification of the entire body) becomes
incumbent."
2. The Iftuifths (evidences) that prove the
legitimacy or circumcision
Imam Ahmad related in his mUjnadthat 'Ammar
Ibn Yasir said
that Allah's Messenger :i: said, "Among the
proc/ices of fi/roh
(innate diaposilion) are: rinsing one's mouth.
rinsing OIre'S nose,
Clllling the mOIl5/ache, IISing siwak, clipping the
nails, remo~ing the
hair from the armpits, shaving the pubic hair and
circWlIcision." Abu
Hurairah related that AUah's Me,senger ~ said,
"Five practices
are charocteristics of fi!rah: Circumcision, shaving
the pubic hair,
clllling the mOIlS/ache, clipping the nails, and the
removal of the
armpit hair."
3. Is circumcision obligatory or Sunnah~
Al·ljasan AI . Ba~ri, Imam AbU ljanifah, and some
Hanabilites
say that it is SWlnah (i.e. optional). Their proof for
saying so is
what A~mad related from 5haddad Ibn Aws said
that the Prophet
4: said, "Circumcision is a Sunnah for men, and an
honour for
women", as well as the fact that AlIiih's
Mes><.:nger 3: has
combined circumcision with other S,m(JJI such as
using .,iwlik for
cleaning one's teeth, and rinsing one's mouth and
others. 50 this
proves that circumcision is S!mnah and not
compulsory. Also
among their proofs is what Al.ljasan AI.Ba~ri said,
" Many people
embmced Islam with the Prophet 5 blacks, whites,
Romans, and
Persians. The !'rophct ~ has not inspected any of
them." So, if
circumcision were impcmti ve, the Prophet :i:
would not have
accepted :hem until they got circumcised. Ash-
Sh'abi, Rabhlh, AIAwza'i,
Malik, Ash-Shfofi'i and A~rnad are of the opinion
thl!
circumcision is compulsory, and quoted many
proof such as:
- Imam Ahmad and AbC! Dawild related that
Uthaim Ibn Kulayb
quoted his father, who quoted hi s granfat her as
saying: that he
came to the Prophet ¢ and said, "1 have embraced
Islam, so, the
Prophet #. said: hU"e your hair of disbelief CUI, and
gel
cireumci.sed . ..
- Allah 1ft sa id, " Thereafter ,. ... ' .... aled 10 )'ou,
(5(~ying) 'dosdy
follow I~e ereed of Ibrah'm u/Uwtrv;ngfy upright:
(An-N.hl. (23)
Allah's Messenger e and his Ummah (na tion) are
in st ructed to
rollow Ib rah im's creed, and circumcision is pari
of Ibrahim'.
creed. This view is also supported by what Al-
Bukhari and
Muslim related that Abu Hurairah 4J, said that
Ibrahim $ was
circumcised at the age of eighty.
- Ahmad and At-Tirmidhi related that Abu Ayy ilb
said th at
Allah's Messenger $ sa id, "Circumcision .
perfuming. Siwak, and
marriage are four of the enactments of Alltih's
Messengers."
- Al-Kha~bi said, "As for circumci!ion, 3ltbough it
is mentioned
3mong other SUllnan, it is deemec" by many
scbolars as wtijib
(compulsory). It is taken as a mark that
distinguishes a Muslim
from a non-Muslim. So if a circumciled person was
round amongst
a group of uncircumcised people, too prayer of
janazah should be
held for him, and be should be buried in tbe
Muslim's graveyard."
- The scholars who view circumcision as
compulsory justify their
view by saying tbat: the uncircumcilCd person is
liable to spoiling
bis puri!y and prayers, as the fores!in covers tbe
whole penis, it
may get some urine trapped withi n, and it may not
be purified
(using a stone when necessary.) So, tbe soundness
of purity and
prayers is bound to circumcision. And that is why
many old and
contem])Qrary scholars ban the uncircumcised
person from
leading the prayer. So, these proofs quoted by
them show that
circumcision is compulsory. They also refuted the
proofs
presented by those who deem it as Sunnah
(optiona1.)
4. Is a female to be 6rcumcised?
Scholars have unanimously agreed that
circumcision is prcferable
for females, but not compulsory. Their proof is that
when the
Prophet $: ordained circumcision, he assigned it to
men, not to
women. Jt has not bcc:n recorded that the Prophet
~ ordered a
woman to getcircumcised,e){ccpt for the above-
mentioned Had/III of
Shaddiid ·'Circumcision is Sunnall for mcn and an
honor for
women .. · This Hadilh shows that it is preferable,
hut not
compulsory.
5. When should cirtumcision be performed?
Many scholars say that it is to he done at the
beginning of the age
of puberty. ~ince a boy is held responsible for his
deeds at this age.
BUI it is much better for the father to have his son
ci rcumcised in the
carty days after his birth. Al-Baihaqi rela ted that
Jabir .. said:
,. Alliih·s Messenger $ offered 'aqtqall for AI -
I:I~san and Al-l:Iusayn
and had them circumcised on their seventh day.'·
6. Wliat is the rationale for circumcision?
Circumcision has a religious rationale as wcll as
healthy benefits
which have been clarified by the scholars and
outlined by
physicians. Among the most important religious
reasons they
mentioned are:
- It is the essence ofJitrall (innate disposition), and
a mark of Islam.
- It completes the unswerving uprightness that is
ordained by AlHih
I!I Who s,1id:
Then, We hQve se,,1 Ihe reve/ilI;o" 10 you ( 0
Muhammad 3-
($ayillg): "Follow 1M utig;oll of IhrQhi"", (A
bTaham) lIa"f!a
(Islamic MOllolh,,;sm - 10 worship 1I0ne hUI
Allah) (An_Na~ l, 123)
_ II distinguishes Muslim from non-Muslim.
_ It is an acknowledgement of bondage to Allah aft.
submission to
His orders and acceptance of His Judgment.
Among the significant health benefits are:
_ 11 brings about cleanliness and moderates se~ua
l d(."Sire.
_ It is a physical precaution that helps to avoid
many diseases such
as cancer and incontinence.
The above mentioned ru les, whether related to
giving gladtidings
of the new born child, saying the Adhan for him,
recommending Tahnik for him, offering 'uqiqoh,
shaving his
heild, naming him and circumcising him, all
obligate the educator
with the necessity of looking aFter him from the
time he is born,
caring for him from the first moment he comes int
o this world and
breathes the air of hfe.
Islam docs nOl only care for the new-born child
from the time he
is born, but it also allows him to pay more
attention as he
understands and becomes aware of life, and grasps
the essence of
things around him.
Chapter Four
Causes alKl Treatment of Children's Wlly
w~rdness
Introduction
There arc many factors and reasons thill lead to
the perversion
of young children, the corruption of their manners
and the spoiling
of their conduct! We are surrounded by evil
motivations and
inducements to corruption . Unless educators are
cabable of
meeting the responsibility and are aware of the
reasons and
motives of corruption, and are wise in seeking the
means of
treatment and ways of prevention, the children
will go astray and
face misery.
[n this chapter we shall deal in detail with the
reasons behind
chi ldern's perversion, and the means of treating
thi~ problem in
order to be aware and well guided, in educating
our children and
shouldering OUT responsibilities towards them.
A. Pm'erly that orer"llhclms some homes
[t is evident Ihat when the child lacks sufficient
food and
clothing, and faces poverty and deprivation, he will
resort to
Icavmg his place to look for provision. There, evil
hands and
corrupt companions will get their hands on him
and lead him to
grow up as a corrupt person.
Islam laid down the foundat ions of fighting
poverty and putting
i'" end to it, and declared everyone's right to lead
an honourahle
life, completely eradicating all symptoms of
poverty, misery. and
deprivation.
B. Connie! and discord between Pllrents
Whcn the child sees clashes between his paronts,
he will
abandon this depressing 3tmosphere 3nd look for
friends with
whom he can spend most of his time. If those
friends 3TC 3 b3d
influence, he will get used to this dangerous and
perverted lifestyle.
As preventive measure, Islam laid down, to the
suitor, the right
means of choosing his future wife and showed the
girl's family the
best way of choosing her would-be-husband for
the sake of
attaining intimacy and love between the spouses,
In doing so, they
protect themselves against family problems and
marital discord.
C. Divorce and what it entai ls of poverty and
homelessness
Am(lng the factors that lead 1(1 chih:lren's
perversi(ln is divorce
due to the disunity and separation it entails. When
the child misses
the caring mother, or the responsible falher, he
will grow up
corrupt and perverted. What makes such a situa
tion even worse is
the marriage of a divon:;ed woman to another
man, or her povcrty
that compels her to look for work outside her
home. Is lam
instructed both spouses to give each other's righ
ts. Among these
rights is that a wife:
- Must obey her husband beneficently.
- To guard her husband's property and her
chastity.
- To not re~t her husband's call whenever he
desires her.
The husband:
- Must provide fo r his wife and children.
- Must consult his wife in household affairs,
- Must live with his wife beneficently and be kind
to her.
- Must help his wife at home, following thc conduct
(If the Prophet
$.
In case it is difficult to attain harmony, because of
the husband's
or the wife's ill manners, the husband must take
these precautions
before divorce:
I. Admonishment and guidance. If this fails then,
2 Forsake her in bed. If Ihis also fails to work then,
3. Slight beating so that it leaves no marks on her
body, the
6O
~======================================
==~ Pan cm.
beatings are away from the vulnerable areas, and
the face is to be
avoided.
4. Resoning to arbi tration; mediation with wise
pe<:lp[e rrom his
and her f1lll1i lics to investigate the problems held
between the
two spouses, and suggest practical solutions to
regain harmony
and understanding between them. Allah Q said,
.:;, '} _" iJ .( ~ r="'- "j' .~,"... . ....."..( ~- ~l".' /ii <') ,"
:,">'~f,. ~..<"~1. < ~,<J'~?>:' o~J.'}I• : ; .¥.1'>1
':1'1.'
!{ " j; 1'.:-: <Ii.:. -~' . 'I~ ..... (. L- 6:. / f -~I f..t ~ ,/ 36;
i ~': ~ -t:'=" . __ ~.., .., ~ _ -.;..J .. "'. "' • ,....,.
,',' c.;- -'( ~I f;: " i .'" "- ,< 'I l'J ' "\ r~, ;\ ~ . ..-...- - ., ..,.
,- ~ ~,,~ .. ". .. .. .:t-Y. '""'-. ......;: "l ~ ...: """-J .~ ~ '-'-
~ ~.-:..
"AI to thost women on ... hOJtI purl you su ilf-
cmuluer, udmonish
IMm (first), (next), refust' to shore their beds, (
ll1Id Itut) beut
fMm (Jig!lIly . if if js useful); but if/hey relurn to
ofmJience. uek
not aga;,ut them Im!ans (of annoyance). Sardy,
AI/dh i& E.er
M OSI High, Mosl Great. If you f etu a bu ud,
betll'un them IM'ain
(the mun and his M'ife), appoinl ( 111'0)
arbitrator&, one from his
family und the other from he,'s; iflhey both
M';shfor /Haee, Alliih
lI'ill euus~ thei, reconciliation. Indeed AI/iill is
E~er A/J· Kno M'u,
Well-Acquainted with all things." (An-Nisi. 34-35)
In case they could not come to a compromise after
going
through these stages, the husband divorces his
wife once at a time
when she is free from menstruation and during
which time he has
not had sexual intercourse with her. The aim is to
gi~c a chance to
retain mariiltl li fe after the first divorce, as Allah
'i8 says:
,:,l t;~ ,:,1 t,:Ji. c:,. j; I'll, ~~ ~~ 'J1 cF j.:.:i.;,; &! ~ .y-
j: I'I;";,:,~ ,
,. S;I:; ::~ ('7 ;;. ;J~ :!li;; ~{ ;J;i;. !~_:: ", n
"And ifhe hw di.orced h..,. (the lhird time), tllen Jhe
is not lawful
Jlnto him ,heuaf,er anril she has married another
husbt.nd. Then, if
'he o,lIer hIIsblllfd di.orecJ her, it is no sin on bOlh
of them that 'hey
u unite, pro.ided 'hey f~d flUlI theyell/l kup Ihe
limits fNdained by
Allah. Thest au the limiu of Allah, M'hieh lie makes
p/ajn for the
people who have knOW/l uge." (AI. Raqarah, 230)
"".:;. ::ji '[;. \!;. ..... '.-,\ t,,:,,~ ;.i'iI e ~':J 'il t:. < . .. 'u).
"{ _ n " ..,.....- f.) n "'~,~ /(7.Y-"" .:.a"""".J 7
"But bu fOw 011 'hem (a suitable gifr) , the rich
according 10 his
means, and rhe poor according /0 his ",ellns, a gifl
of ~euso"uble
amount is a dUly on Ihe doerl vi good." (Al.
H.qarah, 236)
In case the husband is poor and unable \0 provide
for his
children, the state has \0 sponsor those children to
meet their needs
and expenditures.
I), The! spare time IIiat dominates c liildren and
adolestenfs
It is known that the child grows up fond of playing
and having
adventures. So, educators must make use of this
fact to get the
children engaged in what their health can bcneri\
from and what
makes them strong. ThaI is done by preparing
places for them to
play in and have fun and give them access to sports
clubs and
swimming pools. If educators do not fullril their d
uty, the children
would certainly mix with bad peers, and will go a
long a path
leading to misery and perversion.
Islam tackled the problem of spare time by
offering practical
means that make their bodies healthy and strong.
Among the
greatest of these means is getting them used to
wotsbipping,
especially prayer, and teaching them fight ing
techniques and
chivalry, swimming, jumping and wrestling. But
nothing can be
achieved without having large playgrounds, vast
librarics and
suitable swimming pools, provided that they
conform to the
Islamic requirements, and its noble manners.
E. Corrupt companions and peers
Islam has instructed parents and educators to
observe the
conduct of their children, and has guided them to
choose good
company for their children, and to develop in them
every noble
manner and sublime behaviour. They have also
been directed 10
warn their children against evil company and bad
peers. Allah 00
said,
"Friends on that Day will be foes one to another
e:uept AIMutrllqun
(pious - see V.l: l). " (Az·Zukhruf. 61)
According to At-Tirmidhi narration, the Prophet ~
said, "'Man
follows his bosom friend·s fairh. so everyone must
check who his
friend is. ·'
And the Prophet tj also said in the ~adilh
transmitted by AIBukhari
and Muslim, "The likeness of Ihe good companion
and
rhe IxuI one, is the likeness of the perJrmle bearer,
and the bellow
blower. TIw perfume bearer will either give you
some 10 buy, or
you will get a nice smell from him. But the bel/ow
blower will eililer
burn your c/othes, or you will get a bad smell of
him."
F. Mistreatment of parents towards children
In case a child is treated by his parents and
educators with
cruelty, harshness, tormenting, blame, contempt,
and being
scandalized or derided, his reaction will be evident
in his
behaviour and manners, and the output of fear and
seclusion
will be reflected on his conduct and deeds.
Islam orders educators to show sublime manners
and kind
treatment in order that children may grow up
righteous and feel
dignified and appreciated. Islam instructs people
to treat one
another with mercy, forbeara nce, and tenderness.
Allah at said,
,4; ~~~ ,im 1f 11' D'~;"
"A ,.d had you been severe i/ltd htuslt-hearred,
rhey would hQ ~e
broken away from about yOM." (At 'lmnin, t59)
And Al-Bukhari related tbat the Prophet '* said, "
Allah verily
loves lenience in everYlhing." And AbO. Daw6d
and At-Tirmidhi
related that the Prophet # said, "Mer~y gi"ers are
given mercy by
'he AII-/lfercijill. Give mercy 10 'hose on rorlh. so
Ihm fie Who is in
he""m may give mercy 10 ),011."
G. Watching pornograllhic and ,'jolenl films
Among the great factors Ihllt lead to chitdren's
perversion and
make them mean. :lp:lthelie, and careless. is what
they watch in the
cinema and on television. This inc! udes violent
and pornographic
related content. The same alTect comes from
magazines and stories
with similar contcnt. When the child reaches the
age of discretion.
such scencs become imprinted in his memory, 1md
settle into his
mind, so he tries to imitate them. Islam provided
parents and
educators with the right mcthods for directing lmd
educating their
child ren. Among these methods is the
comprehensive prote<:lion
from anything that may inflict upon them the
Wrath of the
Sublime I'otentale and lead them to the Hell -lire.
Allah ti s.ays .
• (.C y·-t k l l' W,; ' "' "·Ii ' "'\ " ~:.> 7"-" ~:>"' ~_ .,., .
T
"0 you ~'ho bdiert! Ward offfrom }'OarselvCJ and
your fa milies II
Fire ( llell) " (A 1· T.!rr'm. 6)
Also among the principles of these methods is the
feeling of
responsibility on the part of those who have the
right to inst ruct
and educate following the Prophet's saying, "All of
you are
Clislodhms , and every cuswdian is responsible for
whal is in hi.r
custody . ..
Among the principles of those methods is
eliminating any harm
that may lead to corrup ting their faith and
manners, as the
Prophct oj:. said, accordll1g 10 what has Ix:en
narrated by Malik
and Ibn Mf\ja h, ""There should be neither
harmi,Jg nor reciprocating
harm:' So, according to these principles, ,\ is
incumbent on every
parent and educator to keep their child ren away
from watching
pornographic and violent IiIms, and prevent them
from buying
64 Pan 0""
immoral magazmes, possessing love slories or
reading books
incl ining 10 atheism.
H. Widespread unemployment in the society
The family whose fa ther who has a wife and chi
ldren. but is
unable to fi nd a job to earn his living and provide
for his family
will be prone to homelessness and poverty. The
children will be
dragged into perversion and corruption. Moreover,
the father and
his fami ly members may consider getting money
through Illegal
means. and gaimng It by unlawful ways.
Islam has treated unemployment, whether it is
imposed or out
of laziness. It has treated unemployment where a
person has no
way whalsoever of find ing a job, while he is
willing and able, by
two things: a· The Stule should secure a job for
him, b- Thc socicty
has 10 support him until he gets a job.
The treatment for unemployment resulling from
laziness, even
though work is available and the person is able, is
to be th rough
Ihe Stale i.e, the State must observe him, and
admonish him if he
ab.lndons work. In case he insists on not working,
il compels and
obliges him 10 work, In case unemployment is a
result of senility or
illness, Ihe State must look after those unemployed
people, and
secure for them an honourable life, whether they
are Muslims or
non-Muslims.
I, Parents forsaking their res ponsibility towa rds
their children
Among the great factors that lead to ehildren's
perversion IS
when the parents forsake the reformation of their
children, and
neglect their guidance and rearing. We should nol
igno re the
mother's role in bearing this burden. She is, in this
respect, equal to
the father. Besides, her responsibility is more
important and more
serious on the grounds that she is milch closer to
her child since he
was born and until he grows up llnd becomes
mature. The Prophet
lifp: has assigned such a responsibhty 10 the
mother, when he said:
" And II ... oman is Ihe gaardian of her /msbami's
home, oml is
responsible for her sabjecl$_" If the mOlher and
father fa il to
shoulder the responsihihty of educallllg their
children, they,
undoubtedly, wi ll grow up as if they were
orphans, and live like
vagabonds. How truth ful the poet was when he
said:
"An orphan is not that who was left behind,
humbled and humiliated by his parents.
T he orphan is \ h1'\ who has" forsaking
mother and a preoccupied father."
Matters get even worse when parents mdulge
most of their time
nl sins and corruption, alld ge t deeply involved in
lusts and sensual
pleasures living a life of looseness and hbertinism.
No doubt that
the children's perversion, in such a case, will be
more serious. May
Allah show mercy to the poet who said,
'·The plant that grows in the green fictd is not li ke
that
which grows 111 the desert,
How come we hope for perfection for child ren.
Who were fed by the breasts of impedecl
(mothers)?
Islam holds both father and mother highly
responsib le fo r
educating their children, and th reatened thcm
with a gre"t
punishment if they failed to shoulder this
responsibility. Allah
a'J says,
';1:;.:.lY.o !('..1' ....... ~ rl~ i r _ _ """T'"" 'r.'"" ~!} ""'"o
f t;~C <l'-J (". C ~r'·-.tJ, t~i,;\ 1O1 J:Wr-' t: ~~ .~ (
t';~: ~. Tl.
1: ~~ (; .5;tr~ ~'::"1 t i f SJ '.~ y
"0 you ... 110 Iwlie~e! Ward offfrom yoursd~e~
ond your families a
Fi,~ ( llell) ... hou fueli! mtn and Jtone~, o ~e'
K·hicll are (appointed)
angels jtern ( and) 5e .e~e, ... 110 dijoky nor, (from
executing) the
Commo.ndJ they 'eui~e from Afliill, but do /lru/ ...
hich they are
commondcd, (At-Ta!n'im, 6)
AI-Bukhari and Muslim related that the Prophet tj;
said, "A
man is guardian 0/ his/amily (household) and is
responsible for his
subjects and a woman is guardian of her husband's
home, ond is
responsible for her suhjecls,"
J, The calamity facing ofphans
If an orphan who was bereaved of his father has
not found a
sympathetic hand to embrace him, and a kind
heart thut
sympathises with him, and if he has not found kind
treatment
and full care from his guardians, he will
undoubtedly be inclined to
perversion and crime, Islam has instructt"<l
guardians and relatives
of the orphan with gOQd manners and virtues.
Here we have a
selection of the Islamic instructions that enjoins
caring and
sympathising with orphans. Allah \8 addresses His
Messenger
3: saying.
~ ;+;; :;; ;Ji C~ t
" TlurefOl"e, tutJt not the OI"phan with
opprtssion"," (A~-J?u!",,9)
And He Iii says,
~ ~ .01 Li;,41 -{ ~~ CD y.~\ '-;"$< ,,)I ~::) t
"Ha ve you seen him "'ho denies Ihe Reeompenee?
That is ,,·lro
,eputses tire o,phan lru,sM)'.,. (AI·Ma'oon, 1·2)
Allah rebukes the disbelievers whose hearts are
harsh, and
therefore they do not honour the orphun by
saying,
~ : .)11 S;.}3 ~ J ~ e p.1 ci;; j;.i Z1 ,;j; ;:ili a:,l ' I~l tt t
"Not at all, no indeed. In.t you do not tIOna", tire
orphan, And
you do not .... ge on" unotlrer on 0f/l',in1: food to
the intligent." (AI·
Fajr, 11>-11)
Also, Allah 'Ii warns of transgressing against the
orphan's
wealth or eating up anythmg rrom them. He says,
" Verily, those who unjustly eut up the property of
orph"tI5, they
eut up only fire iI/to their bellies, lind they wiff be
bur", in the blllzing
Fiu!." (An·N;,;;', 10)
The Messenger tj. of Allah urged in many l¥Jdilhs
to honour
and care for the orphan. Among them is:
Al-Bukhari related that Sahl Ibn Sa'd said thaI
Allah's
Messenger 4: said, "/ ond Ihe sponsor of the
orphan, a relative
or not, are in paradise like Ihal" and pointed with
the index finger
and middle finger separating them slightly. Ibn
Majah related that
Abu Hurairah said that Allah's Messenger 4: said,
"The besl
house of Ihe Muslims is u house in IIIhich {»I
orphan is honoured, and
Ihe wo.s/ house of Ihe Muslims is u house in which
an orphan is
mis/rell led. "
These are the most important of the main factors
that lead to
children's perversion. So, if the educators do not
observe their
causes and do not uproot them and do not foH ow
the effective
treatment laid down by Islam, children will grow
up as corrupt
persons and will be tools for demolishing the
society. How worthy
it is for parents and educators to closely follow the
Islamic
methods in educating children. treating their
perversion, their
behaviour, and reforming their souls!
Part Two
The Rcsponsibilitcs of Educators
1. Chapler One: the Responsibility for Faith
Education.
2. Chapter Two: the Responsibility for Ethical
Education.
J . Chapter Three: the Responsibility for Physical
Education.
4. Chapter Four: the Responsibi lity for Mental
Education.
5. Chapter Five: the Responsibility for
Psychological Education.
6. Chapter Six: the Responsibili ty for Social
Education.
1. Chapter Seven: the Responsibility for Sexual
Education.
Introduction
Among the most apparent responsibili tes that
Islam cared about
and urged is the responsibility on the part of
educators towards
those whom they are responsible for educating,
instructing and
teaching. It is certainly a serious and important
responsibili ty. It
starts in the very early years of life and continues
through the
stages of discretion and adolescence, unt il he
becomes fully mat ure.
No doubt that when 3n educator accomplishes his
task in its full
scope, a righteous person will be brought up.
Hence. a righteous
family will be esta blished and will contribute to
building up an
ideal society. This is the starting point of Islam
towards
reformation. The QUr'iin and SWlr!ah call on
people to fulfil the
duty of t-ducat ion. Among the Qur'iinic vefSCS are,
~ ~p r?1 ;)i; ,
"But stop them, ~erily they /Ire 10 he que .•
'ianed." (AI·~fIlt. 24)
~ z:r; i],i' ~ @ ~l .,:;; .:; -r~,
"So, by )'our lord, indeed we shall definitely /lSk
,hem all 10-
gether. Concerning wlrat they were doing"
(AI·Hijr. 92·93)
~ 0; :r;;.t Y'i;t ij. !f.::1: ,;Ji ~~ ,
"0 ),ou ,../", helieoe! Ward afflrom ),ourseNes and
),our families a
Fire (Hell} ... " (At·T:t!'rim. 6)
Among the honourable prophetic tra ditions, or
Hod{ths, are;
AI-Bukhiiri and Muslim related, "A man is a
guardian of his
family. and is responsilbefor his subjects, and II
woman is a g",mlian
in her husband's home and is responsible for her
subjcts."
It is related that Abli Sulaymiin Miilik Ibn Al-f-:!
uwayrith said.
"We came to the Prophet ~ as a group of peers and
we stayed
with him twenty nights. He thought that we are
homesick, and
asked us about whom we left behind of our fami
lies. So we lold
him, and he was so kind and merciful, He said, "Go
back 10 JlC'ur
families, teach them, and instroct them, alld pray
in the same
manner you saw me pray. When the prayer is due,
lei one of YOIl
declare Adhdn, and let your eldest lead the
prayer." Related by AIBukhilri."
At-Tinnidhi related, "Nothing lias been gramed by
a
father to a son beller tlran good mamlers.··
In addition to so many other Qur'anic verses and
Hodi/Irs.
Setting out from this Qur'anic instruction and
Prophetic
Guidance, educators cared about educating,
instructing and
guiding their children. Moreover, fathers used to
select for their
children the best teachers and finest educators. We
shall talk in
detai l, with Allah's hel p. in Ihis section about the
most important
responsibilities.
Chaptcr Onc
The Responsibility for Faith £.location
What is meant by faith education is to link the chi
ld, from when
he starts to realize the principles of faith, and teach
him the pillars
of Islam, and the foundations of Shari 'uh. By the
principles of faith
we mean belief in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His
Messengers,
the Last Day and Divine predestination. By the
pillars of Islam we
mean, witness to Allah's Oneness without partner
and thai
Muhammad ~ is the messenger, fasting, Zakah
(alms-giving)
and pilgrimage to whoever can afford it. And by
the fo undations
of Shartah we mean all that is related to Islam, as
creed, worsh,p.
manners and rulings.
So the educator must inculcate such concepts of
faith and
Islamic teachings into the child's soul, and the
Prophet 3
recommended instilling the principles of faith and
pi llars of Islam
into the child's mind during his early years of hIS
life. Among the
Prophet's instructions and recommendaiions are:
I. His commandment to make the utterance ;'Ui
/lfiha ilia Allah" the
first thing a child hears
Al-l".! akim related thai Ibn Abbas said Ihat the
Prophet $ said,
"'Make 'Ld llaha !/fa Allah' Ihe first ward Ihal
commence.! you,
children's life." The rationale behind this is making
the word of
Oneness the first thing a child hear, the first word
his tongue utters,
and the firsl word he comprehends.
2, Introducing h1m 10 the rulings of what is lawful
and unla .. ru!
This is in order that he may grow up observing
Allah's
commandments, keeping himself away from
whatever He forbade,
and get closely bound to the rulings of Sharlah.
72
~======================================
====r.nTwo
3. Commanding him 10 lI'orship al the age of SetCo
AhC! Dawfid and AI· H-akim related that Ibn 'AmT
Ibn AI· 'As. said
that the Prophet $ said, "Command your children
/() pray at the
age of U"ell, and beal thrm for no/ praying 01 the
oge of len. and
separate between lhem (males and females) in
bedl . ..
In analogy to prayer, they must be trained to fast
some days if
they can endure fasting, and make pi lgrimage with
their father if he
can arford it, in order that the child may learn Ihe
rulings of
worship at an early stage of his life and become
familiar with
performing it.
4. Teaching lIim 10 Io~e Alliih's Messenger $-, and
his family. and
Tceiling tile Noble Qur'in
A ~-Ta barii ni related that Ali,," said lhat the
Prophet 3: said,
"Hobiluale your children /0 enlerlain Ihree traits:
Loving your
Prophet, lo ving his family and relatiw's, and
reciting the Qur 'un,
Surely th£ bearers of the Qur'un are in Jhe shadow
of Allah 's Throne
on a day where there is no shadow but " is,
Jogether with Allah's
Menengers and beloved ones ."
Related to thl' is teaching the children the battles
of the Prophet
4: and the hislory of the Prophet's companions,
Muslim leaders,
and the great decisive battles, in ordcr that thcy
may follow the
modcl of their ancestors, and obtain a close affin
ity with our Noble
Islamic history, Here are some of wha t Mus lim
educa tors said
about the necessity of teaching children how to
recite the Qur'an ,
to know about the !mules of the Prophct 4;, and thc
great deeds
of our ancestors and he roes:
Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqa~ .. said, "We used to teach our
children
about the battles of thc Prophet 3: as we teach
thcm a Suroh from
the Qur'fm ,"
Imam AI-Gha7.iili rcoo!Umended in his book, "/~a
'U/um EdOeen",
teaching the child the Noble Qur'an, the sayings of
benignant people, the tales of the pure-hearted
people, and some
religiou s rulings,
Ibn Khuldun pointed m his Muqaddimah
(Introduction), to thc
importance of teaching the Qur';i.n to child ren and
making them
memorize it, and he made dear that teaching the
Qur'an is the
basis of education in all curricula throughout va
rious Islamic
countries.
How important it is fo r parents to teach their
children, early in
their lives, the principles of faith, the pillars of
[sliim, and thc
rul ings of Shart'oh, and accustom them to loving
Allah's
Messenger 3: his family and relatives, his
companions, the
leaders and conquero rs, as well as reciting the
Qur'5n,
It is obvious to the scholars of education and
ethics, that a child
is born with the religion of oneness and belief in
Allah, So, if he
entertains a discrete education at home, a
righteous social setting, a
faithful environment, he wi ll grow up with an
unequivocal faith,
noble manners, and righteous education, The
Noble Qur'an has
confirmed th is fact, as Allah B says,
~ i;;1; ":8[ ;.c ..Ji ;'i ,s):,! ,
" A/bill', Firrall (i, ~, A/ftjll',!s/umir
1H00IDflld$m) ""itll wllick H~ IIu$
rr~aud mankind, .... (Ar,Rum, 30)
And AI- Bukbari rela ted that AbCi Hurairah said
that All iih's
Messenger e said, "No child i! born but hllving Ihe
Jailh of /S/O/ll,
bal ilS parents /Urn Ihan into 1/ Jew, Chri~'liun, or
Mugan,"
Scholars or education and ethics proved th is fact,
and it 1,
sufficient in th is respect \0 quote Imam Al·Ghaz;i
li as saying: ·'The
young boy is a trust in the hold of his parents, and
his pure heart is
a preciousjewcl, So ifhe is habituated and taught
the good, he will
entertain it, and will be happy with it in th is world
and in the
74~====================================
~h"~
Hereafter. And jf he is habituated to the evil, and is
neglected as
animals are neglected, he will experience misery
and will be
destroyed. I'rotecling him can only be achieved by
educating him,
and teaching him the good manners. ,-
From this presentation of mnate nature and its
elTects, we
realize that if a child is brought up in a perverse
house, and is
taught in a mischeivous environment, and mixed
with a corrupt
group, he no doubt, will tum away from faith to
atheism, and from
Islam to infidelity.
So long as educators in general, and parents 111
particular, are
responsible for raising Ihe child on the bases of
faith, and
inculcating Islam into his soul, we must know the
limits of this
responsibility, and the dimensions of this duty.
The limits of this
responsibilty are represented as follows:
I. Guiding them to believe in Allah, His undefiable
Might, and HIS
wonderful creativity through contemplating the
creation of the
heavens and the earth during their age of
discretion. It is
preferable to proceed with them from
contemplating the
concrete matters to abstract ones, and from the
part to the
whole, until they approach the issue of faith with
ful! conviction,
evidence, and proof. When a child absorbs, from
the very
beginning, the unequivocal issues of faith, and
stable evidences
of the oneness of Allah, no destructive tool can
strike his lively
heart, nor can evil advocates have any influence on
his fait hful
mind, due to unshaking belief, well-establishcd
certitude, and
full conviction he has acquired.
2. Inculcating into their souls the spirit of
submission, piety and
servitude to Allah, the Lvrd of the worlds. This can
be achieved
by focusing their atlention on the undefiable might
and the
dominion which is great in every sense, in the
sproull1lg plant,
the growing tree, the aromatic beautifully coloured
flower,
myriads of wonderful creatures with magnificent
formations.
The heart cannot help but submit to the
magnificence of Allah
,.. What can the soul do but feel the piety towards
Allah !i!I/.
and experience the pleasure of submission and
sweetness of
servitude to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. Among
the means of
strengthening submission and establishing picty is
to train the
child, during the age of awareness, to submit in his
prayer and
during listening to the Qur·an.
J. Developing in them the spirit of remembering
Allab l:.ft in all
their conduct and circumstances. This can be
achieved by
training the child to know that Allah !iIii sees him
and knows his
secrels and what he harbours, and He knows the
treacherous
look of the eyes and whatever the breast conceal.
The educator
must train the child 10 remember Allah in what he
docs and
teach him to be sincere to Allah, the Lord of the
worlds, in all his
utterances and deeds, and teach him that Allab
does not accept
any deed from him, unless he does it only for His
Sake. The
educator also has to train the child to remember
Allah when he
thinks, that is, by training him to make reckoning
with himself,
and Irain him to observe Allah when he feels so, so
that he may
attain the rank of Ihsan (right action or goodness)
and sincerity
to worship Alkih as though you are seeing him, and
while you do
not see him, He truly sees you.
We conclude, from what has been mentioned
above, that the
responsibility of faith education is Important and
serious, as it is
the source of all virtue and the origin of perfection.
It is the main
basis for entering a child into the domain of faith
and Islam_
The parent and educator shouJd not re frain from
seizing any
chance 10 provide the child with the proof of the
existence of Allah,
and with guidance that consolidates belief and
strengthens faith.
This way of seizing the chance of providing advice
is the way of the
first educator, Muhammad t1t::. Here we present
to you, dear
reader, this example of guidance and style or the
Prophet 4:.
76
~======================================
==~ PartTwo
At-Tirmidhi rdated that Ibn Abbas" said . "One day
[ was
riding behind the Prophet ~. and he said to me: "0
young man. I
shall reach you .fome .... ords:"Be mind fill of Allah.
and Allah will
pro/eel yau. Be mind/ul of Allah. and you
willfimillim in /rom of
you, If yml rut, ask of Allah. if you seek help, suk
help from Allah.
KnQw Ihal if 'he rlalion were 10 gather loge ther
/0 benefil you wilh
<lnylhing, il WOfl/d benefil )'<111 only willi
something Ihal Alloh h,,'}
already prescribcdfor )'ou, and if Ihey galher
IOgether (Q harm you
wilh anything, Ihey would harm you ol1/Y wilh
somet hing Ihm Allah
had already prescribed for )'ou. Tire pens have
been Ii/led. and Ihe
pages have dried. "Ifthey band IOgether /0 cause
you illj"'Y. Ihey wif/
never do you any harm except whm Allah has
preseribedfar )'0"_ The
quills (Decrees) are Juspt'llikd, ami lire sc~olls are
faMed. (DeslillY
i$ decided).
In another account, other than that by At-Tirmidhi
we have,
"Obsen'e yor,r obligatiO/rs /lJYmrds A/liih, you
will find Him j aci,rg
you: try /(j ackllowledf;1! Allah's Favors when ill
prosperity, lie
ackllowledges you in ad''efsily: ami kllow Ihl/l ...
hal you miss cwrnOI
indeed be your 101; </m/ ... hlll becomes YOllr 10/
",illnol indeed miss
you. Leam ol.w Ihal viclory come .• through
elldurance, alld relief
COml'S Wilh distress lind Ihat ... ilh hardship
comes affluence."
Chapter Tl'fO
The RC!lJ>Onsibility ror Ethic~ 1 Edu cation
What we mean by ethical education is the set of
ethical
principles and moral values that have to be
inculcated in the child,
in order to be acquired by him as customary
behavior from his
early years, through the time he becomes legally
capable, up to his
full adulthood. Evidently, such ~th ical principles
and moral values
are the product of deep belier and righteous
religious upbringing.
So, it is clcar that when the child is brought up,
from his tender
years, upon belief in Alliih Ifi, he will develop an
innate faculty for
acceptance and pursuit of moral standards and
values and noble
behavior. Similarly, if the child is brought up in an
atmosphere
alien to Muslim tenets, void of all religious
orientation, then such a
child becomes prone to dissolution and
immorahty, or even error
and heresy. Thus, it is no wonder that Islamic Law
has given
special priority 10 the moral education of children.
Here are some
of these recommendalions and precepts:
At-Tirmidhi reported lhallhe Messenger of Allah ~
said, "No
b(H)n has been given by of ather w his children is
more valuable Ihon
good breeding." Also, we have Ibn M5jah after Ibn
Abbas,*" that
the Messenger $ said, ··Confer fwble-mindedne.<s
on your children
and provide for Iheir good breeding. U
All of these teachings of the Prophet 3 indicate the
great all reaching
responsibility On the part of educators regarding
bringing
up children on the noble, moral values of Islam.
Such
responsibili ties involve educating them to be
truthful, honest,
upright, and unselfish . Also included here is
training children 10 be
respe<:table in word and deed, veering away from
abuse and Insults
and similar faults. As opposed to thi s, they train
children rcspei:t
for elders, generosity, living in amity with
neighbors, benevolence
towards the poor and orphans, and alIcetion for
the indigent.
78 =o~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~=o ~nTwo
As long as noble education in Islam depends on
strict
observation and steady supervision, then it is the
duty of fathers,
mothers, and teachers to be alert to such abuses:
I. Lying 2. Theft 3. Insults 4. Dissolution
1. Lying is one of meanest anributes from the
religious point
of view. Educators have to observe children's
behavior in Ihis
respect, and try their best 10 show the young the
odious aspects
of the habit of lying. Thus, since upright education
depends on
the noble model by educators, they (educators)
have to avoid
lying to young ones, even if they are desirous of
making chi ldren
stop crying; lying in such circumstances would
eventually destroy
the confidence of the young in their educators.
That is why we
see our first educator, the Prophet tj:, advised
parents and
educators not to lie to children, even If they me~nt
to just altract
their attention or for fun.
Here we have Ahu Diiwud relating on the authority
of
'Abdullah Ibn 'Amir.:GO that he said, "One day my
mother called
me when the Messenger or AlHih ii. was with us in
our home. She
said, 'Come on, to take this!.' Then the Prophet said
to her, 'What
do you intend gi~ing himT She said, ' [ am going to
give him dates.'
Then the Prophet said, 'Beware. if you do "')/
really walll 10 gNe
anything. that would be Il lie foreordained on you "
Again Ahmad relates from AbO Hurairah ~ that the
Messenger
of Allah $. said, "Anyone who says 10 a child ..
'Come on and have
this and does not actually gire il 10 him; then Ihis
is a definile lie."
Z. Theft is no less dangerous th3n telling lies; and
it is usually
rampallt in communities deprived of righteous
upbrillging based
on the values of lshim. So il is imperative for
parents and educators
to Implant in the ynung the sense of observance of
religious
behavior and fear of Allah, together with the
baneful results of
theft in this world and in the Hereafter.
Sometimes there arc cases where parents are not
dissuaded from
their children's contrived thefts. especially when
the child may
claim that what he got was not through thcft, but
through having
gifts from friends or through leftovers. There are
even cases of
parents encouraging their children to steal. and in
such cases, such
youngsters grow into persistent criminals. An
extreme case is
attributed to a youngster, who was convicted of
theft by a Sharf'ah
court, and he was to have his hand cui 01T. So the
boy cried to the
judges. "Before you cut off my hand, cut off my
mother's tongue,
The first time I committed that crime was when I
picked up an egg
from one of our neighbor's house; but my mother
did not rebuke
me; nor did she order me to return it where it
belonged. On the
contrary, my mother utte red the tr ill of joy
(zaghnuhlh), and said,
'Thanks to Allah! My son is now a man!' 'So
without tbese words,
I would never have become a thier" (I)
3, Abuses and Insults: these are some of the acts of
misbehavior
that have been often currently heard for many
reasons. Of these
reasons is that tile child probably heard the same
abuses and
insults from adults, Another reason is loose
upbringing where
children are left to mingle with children on the
streets and alleys,
Thus, it is the founded duty of parents and
educators to present
exemplary behavior to these young ones in the
fonn of polite
speech, and in constant attempts to keep them
away from offensive
and insulting companions, Together with this, they
should tell them
to beware of loose talk, and to learn the Ah{,dilh
forbidding such
abusive language. For here is the Hat/ilh , relaled
by Al-Bukhiiri and
Muslim, which says,"Abusing a Muslim is an
immoral aCI. and
fighting against him is disbelief ", Another Hadilh
says, "One of the
most grievous offenses is Ihal a man should curse
his parenlS", Then
the Prophet 3 was asked, "0 Messenger of Allah,
how does a
(t) AkMtu;una AI-ljlfmlj'jyy~h (Our Social Ethics),
by Ai-Sibii\ p. 162.
Muslim curse his parents?" Thcn the Prophct .t:
answered, "A
man may abuse anorher person'sfather, Ihnl Ihe
other person abuses
Ihe .!peaker'sfalher; Or II mllll may ahWie anolMr
pef5on'J mOlher,
Ihen Ihe OIher perS011 abuses the speaker's
mOlher.·' This liadilh is
related by Ahmad and AI-Bukhari. Another Hadilh
related by AITirmidhi
says, "A belie"'!r should nOi be an offender. nOr
should he
be one who curses. or be abominable, or
101lIhsome."
4. Indulgence and DiSSQlution: such behavior has
become
rampant among our younger generation
nowadays, boys and
gi rls alike, due to their preoccupation with blind
mimicry, Ihus,
getting morc and more ,"elined 10 corruption and
liC(:ntiousness.
To them, life now seems to be timely enjoyment,
degrading lust,
and lawless activilies. If they miss such
misbehavior, then life seems
to have no purpose. or course, we rind that the
Messenger #. has
set for all parents and educators the practical
principles and
righteous ideas for training children on upright
behavior and true
Muslim morals. Among these are:
I. Warning Against Blind Mimicry
Here, AI·Bukhiiri and Muslim related that the
Prophet it; said,
"Behaye differemly Jrom fhe alheists by .~having
fhe mus/{Jehe and
keeping the beard", or aner the relation of Muslim,
"CUi off the
mous/{Jche, ami keep the beard, and thus be
different from the
Magan!". As related by At-Tirmidhi, the lIadith
runs tb us.
"Anyone of Wi who dOll.'l the garb of olh,.rs is
1101 on/! of us; do no,
don the garb of Jews or Christians." Another
Efadith also related by
At-Tirmidhi says, "LeI /lot (myo/le oj you be an
opportunist who
would say, 'J go wilh my company; if they do good,
J do the like; if
they behave bodly, I do the same.' But gel into tM
hahil of doing
good if the people do good; (llld if they
mi.<beho<'e, avoid their
misbehavior. "
TIll: Rr;$ponlibilily fo' Etbical t:.doc.lIion
============="
2. Forbidding E"eessi~e Enjo)'ment
Here we have the divine words, "Thereafter,
indeed YOII will be
definitely questiollel} aboU/ bliss." Also we have
the lfadirh related
by Imiun A~m ad al"tcr MU1i'z Ibn Jabal 4;;, in a
traceable Hwlilh ,
"Beware of excessive elljoymem./or the Irlte
worshippers oJ AIMII do
nOl indlllg~ ill ~.1:t('.\'si\'~ enjo)'ment . ..
In the two authentic books, it is related that 'Vmar
Ibn A I-~~auah
I.!:o wrOle to the Muslims in Persia, saying,
"Beware of excessive
enjoyment and the garbs of polytheists." What is
intended by
enjoyment here is to be immersed in what is
delicious, and to roll
over incessantly in wealth and luxury.
3. Music and Dissolute Singing
In a Ha(H;h by the Prophet ~ related by Al-
Bu~~ari, A~mad
and Ibn Miijuh, we read, "Indeed there will be in
my nation some
peopll! who regard "'hlltery permissible, wearing
silk, drink;,lg wine,
and playing mll:,.;e permissible." Another flad[th
related by At·
Tirmidhi after AbCt Mus.! .;. says, "Anyolle who
listells 10 songs,
will not be allOlwd 10 /isrell 10 Ihe rallhance/n
(recilers 0/ the
Qtlr'an) in the Garden." Needless to say that
anyone with
discernment would realize that listening to such
prohibitions
leads the young to the abernltions of sex. luxury,
depravity and
immorahty!
4. Effeminacy
In the two aUlhentic books after Sa'id Ibn
AI·Musayyab, we
read. "Once Mu'iiwiyah came to Madinah and
addressed us, and
then brought a ball of hair and said, 'I never saw
anyone with his
hair like tbis, except the Jews. The Messenger of
AlIiih called it
forgery." In thc words related by Muslim,
MU'awiyah was
reported to havc sa id, "You have done mischief by
adopting
such evil clothing, and the Prophet forhade such
forgery."
Again, it is reported after A I-Bu~~ari, Abu
Dfiwud, and AtTirmidhi
from Ibn Abbas. that the Messenger of Alhlh ~
said,
"May Ihe CU'.!e of Alliih fall upon Ihe effeminate
men. a"d "irile
wome". "' In the wording of Al]mad, Abu D5.wud,
and Ibn Miljah,
the Prophet G: said, " M II), Ihe cune of AI/ah/all
on women acling
like me". u."d me" aCling like women."
Then Abu D,lwud relates after Ali ., ." saw the
Messenger of
Allah ~ take a piece of silk cloth 111 his right hand,
and a piece of
gold in his left, and said, 'Surely Ihis i~ forbidden
I" IIIe moles 0/
my nalion.-·
So wigs, using gold ornaments, or si lk clothes for
men is not
pennissible. Similarly, effeminacy, adopting virility,
and being
partly-dressed but partly-bare on the part of
women all of these are
elTeminate and dissolute manners, and lead to
effacing virility and
humiliating the human personality.
5. Unveiling, flaunting, Intermixing and Prohibited
Viewing
In Surah AI-Ahzab Allah SiiiI says,
T:': j g~l .;it~ ~ .....,...., _ u:. ._•.1 .' .... ~ , :\; &l ~-' :'t"i
w' StC' SJ,..':'"!-i :: ~ 'Ii (~I£ _ ? __ '~'::'> _~ .JJ _ ~~
""_
~ ( . ..f; ~j , ~I .;:;:,~ 0} -;.;
"0 P,opltert Tell )"our wi" es ilnd )"our daughlers
and Ihe wOmen of
Ihe belie"ers 10 drilW Iheir cloilks ( reils) illl o~er
Ihei' hodies. Thill
""ill be beller, Ihililhey s/rould he known (us free
respec/Qble women)
so tU nol 10 be annoyed. And A/liilr ;, fi~er Oft-
Forgi.ing, Most
Mt~tif"I." (At.A!"".ab, 59)
Allah Ifi says in Suralr An-Nur:
t;> ':4 ;,il ~ ~ &1 4-; : ;::-1) ~'i:<'; ~/i,1 ~ ~\;,: ~jjj j
,
0 ·',"-- /"., ,"" - " : ,:;.;:- - -.' . _ . ,- - "~ ' ..... -,--- "Y. '*'""-
:i "'-'-!:I-. '.J"*,"..tJ . " ,,&a..-M1 ir.':' -• .. _ ~.j.J .... "~
"- , .. ' ''1';1 ":: . /" ., 1- ~ " --, , ~ -- .-"- ii','; .' 'I': ... '-
"':::'~ • ~""'" ~:I-. ~ ...... ,r- do '1; ~~.J .
"Tell lire INlie"ing men to lo ... er tlrei, gaze (from
looking ilt
forbidd~n Ihings), and prol~cl tMir private parts
(from iJl~gal sexual
aeu). That is purer for Ihem. Verily, Alliih is AII-
AI<'QU ofl<'hm they
do. And tell the be/iaing ,.'omen 10 lower lheir ca;e
(from looking at
forbidden/hings) and protect their prif'ate parH
(from i1f~gal sexual
acu) ano not 10 show off Iheir adarnment uupt
only that which is
appaunt and 10 dral<' their veils Of'er Their
bosoms and not 10 r"v~al
thcir adornment except to their husbanos,.," (An-
Nur, 30-31)
As for nmuntin!;, we have the command:
~ ]}-1[ i ;tf;ii :e. .:::;;;. 1.; ZNf. -! ~.; ,
"And stay in your hOUse.l, and do not display
yourseb'cs like thul
of thc lim~J of ignorance," (Al·Ahmb, 33)
Here, we have Imam Muslim in his ~{Ii~\ after
AbU Humimh
4;0 that the Prophet 3: said, 'Two categories are
desrinedfor Hell,
and I have nm seen Ihem, a category Ihol holds
whips similar 10
cows' loils; wilh Ihese whips, they beat human
beillgs. Another
cOlegory is a band of women portly-d,essed,
parlly-bare, swaying
righl and left trying 10 al/ract men '.I allen/ion, Ih
eir hair drooping
like camels' h"mps. These (people) will nOI enter
Ihe Garden, lind
will nOI even smell ils scent, although ils scem nUl
be smelled 01 a
dislallCe of jh'e hum/red seaSOM.
Forbiddillg Illtermillgiing of the $(,xcs
Allah IIIlI has forbiddell intermixing, for He says,
,J. ~ '!- !(". 'I';;, " 11 :~i" ~ - , " 1, .: , '.~ ' :'. '~LI ' " l.
"' .Jt'?'-' ("~ A'" ,...,''> 'i1..t- .'.u ~ ...:.,.~ ..:;.. ,,"~L-
l>1.o ,.
"A"d "'he" you ask ( hi .• ",ives) fo, any,MIIK you
",an" ask Ihrm
f~om be/rirld a .Iueen: ,h", is pure~ for your
he",1S und for l/reir
/rearts." (At-Ahzab, 53)
Here we also have the lIadllh, related by At-
Tinnidhi Ihat the
M es~ ngcr :i: said, "Lei 110/ any man have I'ri"acy
wilh a ,,"oman,
jar rlten, Solan will be Ih eir third."
84 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ PartTwo
Again, in the two authentic books (AS'-Sa~i~ay,,),
the Messenger
of Allah iJl; is quoted as saying, "Beware of emer;ng
places where
women rt;>Jide! "Then a man said, "0 Messenger of
Alliih, even ir he
is a relative of the husband?" Then the Prophet
answered, "A
re/alive (in this cas!!) is tkoth." Finally, we have
the lIadiih related
by Imam Muslim, that the Prophet i!; said when he
was asked
about an unintended sudden look, "Turn your look
away."
SO II should now be understood that when human
communities
and nations adopt such Divine principles, and
adopt such modes
of behavior and avoid all attributes alien 10
righteousness and
virtues such as: unveiling, intermingling of the
sexes, and all sorts
of prohibitions, then such communities will
undoubtedly lead a
life of purity and ~irtue, enjoy peace and securi ty,
and could
aspire to achie~e happiness and glory. Such are,
dear parents and
educators, the main educational principles and
practical methods
set by lshim for ethical behavior, the growth of
personal morality,
and good manners.
Finally, we have to remind ourselves of the role of
close
observation and the heavy responsibility on our
part to ensure
the righteous beha~ior of our children If we
search for the causes
for dissolute morality of children and their
de~iant beha~ior, we
shall find it resulting from our disregard of the
trust on the part
of parents, and neglecting their education and
guidance.
Some Causes or Children's Deviation
I. A father that may show laxity in observing that
his children
should not mix with evil associates, from whiCh
they acquire
many of their pauerns of devious and immoral
behavior.
2. A father who allows his children to attend shows
that otTer
scenes of dissolute behavior, or that prescnt films
of violence.
Such a father is actually pushing them into an
abyss of perilous
destruction.
3. A father who does not stop his children from
buying immoral
papers and magat.incs, or from readIng erotic
books, will not
stop his children from 1lbomlnation and vicco
4. A fat her who is lenient about veiling his spouse
and daughters,
and i~ ht-edless of their unveiling and flirting, or
their minghng
WIth other flirting companions, such a father is
helping h,s
children to fall into vice and dishonor; and this
may end up with
delilcment. and voiding their chastity. Then
neither remorse nor
lears would be of any avail. It wo uld be necessary
for a father to
have a look at his children's desks and observe
thelT writings: fo r
It m1ly be that these children acquire wh'Hever
they like in the
way of pornographic pictures, wa nton papers, or
love-letters;
and here strict supervision is badly nceded.
To Parents and Educators
With all that we have presented of the Messe
nger's insistence on
the right behavior of c hildren, with a1lthat has
been said that right
behavior is an outcome of true belief, with all of
the vicious
influenccs to which your children arc subjected,
with all that has
been presented aOOut the reasons for deviant
chanlctcr, and
dissou lte behavior, it Sf..'Cms now there is no
other way, except that
you adopt a resolute stand fo r all religious values
in the upbringing
of your children . II is towards them whom you
have to shoulder
your responsibili ty for their education, teaehmg
and care. You
have to know that any negligence in this rcspt'Ct,
would lead them
to grow impotent, dissolute. and vicious.
So be apprehensive of the warnings rrom Allah.
and be very
observant of their behavior. Such observance will
definitely help
towards Sf..'Cing your c hildren flourishing before
your eyes, as
brilliant youths in society, as if they were angels
tread"'g on lhe
earth, se<:ure and serene.
Chapter Three
The Responsibility for Physical Eduealion
By responsibility for physical education, we mean
the parents'
and educato~' responsibility for bringing up the
children healthy
and sound in body. He re is presented the sound di
scipline
presented by Islam for such sound upbnngmg:
I. PrOliding for the Family:
The Qur'an gives us the Words of Allah lEI,
~ :,..t,:l.~ ~~ ~~ ~ J;il ~-' ,
"but the fathe~ of the ehUd shall bear the e05t oJ
tM motMr s Jood
and dOlhing on a reasonable basis ... " (AI. flaqarah
, 233)
Here, we have lm:im Muslim relating that the
Prophet i!6: said,
"A diniir paid in the way of AI/iih. and a dinar yo"
paid for the
freedom of a 5/0>1', and a dintir you ga~e as
dona/ion 10 an indigent,
and a dindr you paid for your family-the grealesl
reward will be for
the dfntir >'011 paid for your fam ily."
Thus, we find that the Prophet S: condemns the
failure to
maintain the rights of children, and avarice in
providing fo r them.
Hence, AbU Diiwud and others relate that the
Prophet ~ said "II
is enQugh vice far a person to destroy those whom
he sustains." The
same lIl11/illr was related by Imam Muslim,
saying, " II is enough
viet for a person to keep back provision f rom
Ihose whom he is /he
Oil" rl!sponsible for." Provision here includes
healthy food, sanitary
housing, sui table clothes to make sure that they
grow up sound,
and safe from di5ellse.
2. Follol'l'ing the Precepts ror Healthy Food, Drink
and Sleep
One of the leading precepts of the Prophet $ is not
10 be
excessive in feeding and drinking; for it is related
by A~ad and
At·Tinnidhi that the Prophet llt. said, "/n no .... ay
does the son of
Adam (0 hllman being) fill a I'essel worse than
hefills his belly. It is
enough for Itim 10 eal afel\' morsels to keep his
backbone steady. If
ever he needs more, tllen one third (of Itis
stomach) would be for
food, anO/ha lhird for his beverage.~, (lnd one
third for brealhillg."
Concerning beverages, "Drinking shoaid he Iwice
Or three limn;
and respiration in Ihe drinking I'essel is 10 be
forbid/len: and drinking
while slanding is also fo rbidden. "
For sleep, he prescribes, "Sleeping should be on
Ihe righl sideJor
sleeping on lire Ie/I .• ide may hUrllhe hearl. and
hamper respiralion.·'
Here, AI-Bukhan and Muslim relale that AI-Bara
Ibn 'Azib ~
reported thallhe Messenger of Alhlh ~ said, "
When you inlmd 10
go /0 bed. Ihen perform abl!nion for prayer. alld
sleep On your righl
side, and soy, 'Supplicaled be You. Alliihi I submi/
myself 10 You: I
set my/au towards You: Ilrave entrusled my affairs
10 Yorl: l/rllve
resorted wilh my back 10 You , wilh all longing allli
awe 10 You.
There is 110 refuge or delivertmce exceptio You. I
believe in Ihe Book
You have Ilenl do .... n , amllhe Prophet You
haveselll·. So, le/lhese he
lire final words you say before }'OU sleep_"
3, Caution Concerning InreelioLIS Diseases
Here we have Imam Muslim and Ibn Majah and
others relating
Jabir Ibn 'Abdulliih's narration thai in a delega tion
from Thaqir
that came to the Prophet 3 there was a leper. The
Prophet 3: said
to him from afa r. "Go back, we have already
accepled your
allegiance."' Again, we have in the ~atl0 of
Al·)}ukhari that the
Messenger of Alhlh 4: sa id, "Flee away/rom Ihe
leper as much as
you flee f rom a Iion. '-
In A~-$atli~aY/J, we have the Haditlt narrated by
Abu Hurairah
that the Prophet $ said. ··Be .... are af lire
inlermixing of lire sick " ",/
Ihe heallhy.·· So it is incumbent on educators to
seclude anyone
suffering from a contagious sickness from the rest
of the children,
to avoid the spread or Ihe disease, and Ihe danger
of an epidemic.
88
~======================================
==~ r."Two
4. Treatment by Medication
Imiim Muslim. A~mad , and others related after
labir Ibn
'Abdullah that the Prophet said. "For every ailment
there is a
remedy: so if the remedy is righl. recovery is sIt,e
with the permission
of Allah lit. Also in the Musnad by Imam A~mad.
after Usamah
Ibn Shurayk, who said, "I was in the company of
the Prophet 3-
when some Arabs came, and said, "0 Messenger of
Allah! Shall we
take medicine? So he said, Yes. 0 YOII bondmen 0/
Allah, do lake
medicine; for surely Alliihf'Jihas "Her prescrim-d
any sickness
WilhlJrll prescribing the cure for iI, except Jar one
sickness." So they
asked, "Whlll is ilr' He said, 'Sellilily' ,"
Thus, parents and educators have to accept these
directives by
the Prophet :t to take good care of their children in
case of
ailment. and treating their sickness. since taking
precutionary
measures is one of the principles of Islam.
5. The Concept or "No Harm and No RtX:iprocating
Injury"
In this respect, we find Malik, Ibn Majah and Ad-
Daraqutni
relating after AbU S5.';d AI-Khudr; that the
Messenger of Allah 3:
said, "No harm. alld 110 reciprocQ/ing injury."
This l-fadith has been considered by jurists and
lega l lheorists as
one of the important legislative pn.'CCpIS
prescribed by Islam.
According to this concept, educators, and
especially mothers, have
10 make sure that their children ohserve samtar),
instructions and
precautions for their sound upbringing. and
healthy physical
growth. Some of these instructions and concepts
arc:
I. Eating ripe fruits , and avoiding unripe ones.
2. Washing fruits and vegelables before eating
them.
3. Eating meals al regular limes.
4. Washing hands before and after meals.
So observing such instructions is a guarantee that
the children
will grow up healthy and sound in body.
6. I'hysical Education and Hor~manship
Allah ~ says,
"And mab ready against th~m all you can of
POK'I'r, induJing .teds
of .. ·ar (tanks, plaMs, missiles. wlille. ),} ... "
(Al.Anfil. foO)
Here we find Imam Mushm relat ing that the
Prophet ~ said,
"A strong belie.-u is more gracious anti more
helMed by AI/ah tban a
weak belie.-er. ··
That is, Ishim I, always calling upon Muslims to
learn how to
swim, archery and horsemanship.
7. Leading a Simple, Moderately Pleasureable ute
Thus we have Imam A~mad relating after Mu'adh
Ibn Jabal
this traceable Had,'h, "Beware of immoderately
pleasurable Ii/e,for
tbe true bondmen of Alliih are nOI of that .wrt."
Here, the
Messenger e is the model and exemplar in his very
simple but
tough life as regards to food , clothing and housing.
How
becoming it is for our Muslim generations to
follow his example
and adopt his rulings and mode of life!
8. Srriousnl'SS, Diligence. and Keeping Away from
Laxity and
Dissoluteness
Again, we find imam Muslim relating that the
Prophet *
said, "Uphold what is uufulto you, seek help from
Alliih , and do
no/ feel impOlenl. "
Of course, it is self-evident that if the child is
brought up in an
atmosphere of laxity and dissolutelless. he will
grow disrupted alld
of an intricate character. Hence, educators have to
make sure that
the children are brought up with a sense of
diligence, simplicity,
confidence, and self-respect, and to be kept away
from disruptiOll
and r~'ebleness in body and mind. These are the
basic concepts
offered by Isl5m for child education.
Through the upholding of these concepts, the
young generation
will enjoy healthy and sound bodies 3nd
characters; and in this
case, you have fulfi lled your trust and perfonncd
the duly thaI
Allah WI has put into your charge. Howevcr, the re
are olher
seriolls problems we can observe among the
young and old,
especially adolescents; and these problems must
be taken care of,
so that they can be remedied, and their harmful
efTects can be
e~plained. These serious problems facing the
young and old may
be summed up in the following:
I. Smoking 2. Masturbation
3. Drinking and Narcotics 4. Adultery and Sodomy.
I, The Problem of Smoking
One of the most disconcerting phenomena
nowadays is
smoking, which has become widespread. At some
length, this
phenomena may be discussed as follows:
a. Dangers resulting from smoking.
b. The laws of Shari'ah as regards to smoking.
c. How to deal with the problem.
a. Physical ~nd psycbologic~1 dangers: it is now
proven beyond doubt
that smoking results in the disastrous effects of
lung disease, as well
as the loss of memory, loss of appetite, paleness,
problems with
respiration and nervous systems and physical ill
health.
b. Financial dangers: of course, smoking as a daily
habit does
eventually le3d to financial problems, which would
then lead to
family conflicts since, )fl most cases, smoking may
mean
encroachment on daily provisions for the house
and its inhabitants.
The laws or Shari'ah against smoking
a. [\ is a ruling unanimously agreed upon that
anything thaI leads
to harm or ruin must be avoided. Here, we have
the Hadllh
related by A~mad and Ibn Majah, that the
Messenger of Allah
"' said, "No harm, and no reciprocaling injury."
Since smoking is
considered physically harmful, then avoiding
smoking is
imperative, and thus prohibited,
b. Smoking should be included within Al-Khaba'irlr
(vicious acts)
because of the harm it entails. or course, we all
know that Allah
fa made lawful all good things, and made unlawful
all harmful
things. Here we have the words of Allah WI,
,"£t .~ ,-'-.; :ri ' ,-_'i ; ,r.r"J- ,". .,...-01 ."....f.. .1_;_ J' Irt .
"He allows t/rem III fllwful Ar-TayyiWir ( i.e. all
good and law/ul tiS
' ''gards things, Iked" beliefs, F Tsons, and /oods),
and prohibits
tMm Q$ unlawful AI-KhaJJ'itll {i.e. all e~iI and
unlawfu/lls regards
things, deeds, Inliefs, persons, foods} ... " (AI·A·rif.
1~1)
c. Smoking makes the body lazy and benumbs the
mind, especially in
the case of addicts. Again, we have the Messenger
of Alllih e:
forbidding all sorts of slackening. benumbing and
intoxicating
substances, as we have in the Hadth related by
Ahmad in his
Musnad. and Abu D:iwud in his Sunan. after Umm
Salamah ~
who said, "The Prophet $: forbade all slackening
and
into~icating substances:' Thus all these texts by
word and
meaning stress the fact that smoking is unlawful,
for it has
physically and financially dangerous effects.
Treat"""nt or the Problem
Such treatment falls, first, into the hands of the
State in the fonn
of a wholesale publicity campaign, in papers,
magazines, radio,
and television, against smOKing, indicating
dangers to health. A tax
increase on tobacco, with an increase in prices,
and prohihition in
crowded places are mc~ns of fighting smoking
Even adul ts who
lire smokers should have, in observance for the
ordinances of
Allah, deterrent from smoking, Thus, they should
have enough
resolve to wit hstand the attraction, and enough
common sense to
always follow the straight path,
A. for the younger gencration, who havc the bad
habit of
smoking, they should be under the strict
observation of parents
and educalOrs, Fathers should try to treat the
divergence of the
young, and make sure thai they are again on lhe
way 10 sanity and
safelY,
2. The Problem of Masturbation
This problem is rampanl among adolescents and
youths in
general. Some of the mam reawns for such a
problem arc Ihe
provacativc dresses of women, intermingling in
strocls, gardens
and Olher places.
Thus, theatrical and film presentations, together
with books
,md magazines about love and SCll, all present one
of the most
dangerous innllcnces on lhc psy~hological and
moml behavior of
youth. So an adolescent, with no sense of religious
awareness of
the ordinanaces of Allah, will readily fait into any
of these two
alternatives: a. He would either try to satisfy his
scxual desires in
other prohibited ways, or b, abate this deSIre
through
masturbation.
or course, the second alternative i~ definitely
hllnnful for the
body, mind and procreation. Our discussion of th is
problem comes
under three headings:
1. Its harmful efTects.
2. The Sharf 'air ruling concerning this. problem.
3. Treatment.
The Harmful Effeds
lI.. l>f1 ysiclil dfects: anyone practici ng
masturbation is hable to these
complications. Bodily exhaustion, shivering. heart
palpitations,
and pulmonary lIIflammation in most ca~s,
b. Sexual effecls: one of the most dangerous effccts
is impotence
which mcans disabi lty of man to get married or
satify wife's desire_
This may lead to abstaining from marriage or
hating the other sex_
This means that marriage, in such cases, will
render the wife unable
to keep her integrity; and thus the couple may seck
dIVorce, or the
WIfe may rind her satisfaction through immoral
ways_
c. Psychological and mental df('(:ts: among the
dangerous effects
here are distract ion, forgetfulness , irresoluteness,
aloofness,
timidity and laxncss.
The Shad'ah Ruling
a, It is prohibited by Shari'ah. for we have the
words of Allah IoiI::
~ r:~ 1':~i~ .;S::l: t: :,1 ~;Jj ~ 1) Q ~# ~ ~ Zt.l1~ ,
~ ~-,~Qi ~ ,;j;l:,t ~ ;1; J.'.i .;:. ~ ~
"And 'hose who guard their , haJ/i,y (i.e. priva,e
parts,from iIIl'gal
saual acts) . Exapl from Iheir ,,·i.u or (Ihe sla~es)
Ihat their right
hands poSJtsS, -for Ihen, 'hey Dr/! free/rom
blDme; But ... hoe~er setks
M)'ond thar, then those are the transgresJOrs." (AI-
M u'minun. 5,6.1)
So any attempt of sexual satisfaction other than
through
marriage 0. e. through adultery, sodomy, or
masturbation) is
prohibited_ Here, we have the Hadit h from 'Atii
who said. " I heard
of a people who wi ll be mustered, wilh Iheir hands
pregnant, so I
think they are those who practised mllsturbation_
Again Sa'ld Ibn
Jubayr said, 'Allah will torment a nation that used
to be frivolous
with their privale parts (1)."
(I) Quolcd rrom A,h·Shaikh Muhammad AI
·~!iim;d. in hi' book •. RwdoM/ '~Ili
AU'i/" (R<huuing Falsehood) p. 40,
b.1! is well-known that what leads to harm. or
causes perdition
should be avoided, for practicing it is prohibited.
Again, we have
the saying of the Prophet ~, '"No harm. and no
reciprocating
injury." Since masturbatioo has its harmful
physical, sc ~ua l,
psychological and mental effects, then it is
prohibited .
A I'crtinent Question
Since masturbation is forbidden, what is the
Sharf'ah ruliog in
regards to a person who ;s sexually overwhelmed,
and would
probably fall into sinful adultery?
When it comes to weighing between sinfUl acts, a
person
generally chooses, at moments of distress, what is
less sinful: aod
here we have the juristic axiom, '"the choice of the
less sinful, and
least vicious." That is why legal jurists have said,
"M asturbation is
prohibited, if the act here is to arouse sexual desire
when il is
dormant. But if the desire is so overwhelming that
it causes
vexation and distress, and may lead to adultery,
and there is no
other means of sexual abatement, then
masturbation is permissible,
on the basis of mutual equivalence. Here the
person barely escapes
penalty, for here he has neither reward nor
punishment (I)."
Treatment
t. Early marriage: this is the most efficient way for
eradica ting such
a dest ructive habit. and the best means of fulfilling
the needs of
overwhelming desire.
2. Supenrogatory rasling (Nflj1): we have the
saying of the Prophet
,*,"0 young fellows. anyone of you who i.< sexually
compe/eI1l,
should marry; for this is more amenable to lo ....
ering 01U!' .• gaze. lind
more immune for the private paris. But anyone ....
ho cannol afford
fIIarriage, has to fost. for i/ is enough restraint. "
(I) ibid.
J. K~pi ng away from sexual incitements: keeping
away from gazing
at nirtatious women, as well as abstaining from
reading sexual
literat ure and liste ning to licentious songs are
definitely helpful in
this respect.
4. KHping busy: of course, when the young find
much spare time,
they begin to have all sorts of dreamy ideas, foolish
conceptions,
and exciting sexual whims. and thus, they may
suddenly get
sexually excited. Here, the youth find no other
alternative other
than getting satisfaction through unburdening
himself of such an
overwhelming passion. The remedy here is to keep
busy through
physical traimng, useful cultural readings,
developing an interest in
religious education, or military training.
S. RighteoltS companionship: one of the main
concerns of parents is
to advise th eir young to choose for their company
virtuous
companions, who would remind them in case of
forgetfulness, and
10 advise them in case of deviation; for of course, a
fellnw usually
adopts the ideals of his companions. In a Haditlt of
the Prophet 3-
related by At-Tinnidh i: "A man embraces the
religion ofhisfriendly
fellow." Thus, keeping away from dissolute friends
and intimate
relations with righteous fellows are basic precepts.
6- Medical prescriptions: physicians and health
specialists have these
recommendations for casing inordinate sexual
desire:
- Bathing with cool water in the summer and
washing his private
parts with cold water in other seasons.
- Regular physical exercises_
- Avoiding very spicy foods.
- Dispensing with tea and coffee as much as
possible.
- Decreasing his consumption of eggs and meal.
. Sleeping on the right side of his body, and facing
Qiblalt.
Finally, an omnipresent apprehension of Allah,
attending
religious meetings, performing congregational, as
well as
optional prayers. Togther with constant recitations
of the
Qur'an, pre-dawn prayers (q;yam), optional
fasting, reading
about the Prophet $ and his Companions, and
reminding
oneself of death and the L.ast Day: all of these are
dTective in
arousing a youth's feeling of devotion to AHiih and
reali7..ation of
His Glory.
3. The Problem or Narcotics
Addiction is usually found among homeless people
who have
lost their parents or guardians, as well as among
dissolu te youths
in the company of immoral bands_ Here we deal
with three aspects
of the problem.
a. Hannful effects. b. The Sha,{'ah ruling.
c. Effective treatment.
Harmful Effects
_ Physical and mental effects: it is already known
that addiction
may lead to insanity, dissipated memory, distorted
thinking, as
well as stomach ache, loss of appetite, and
hardening of blood
vessels.
An addict is financially on the verge of bankruptcy
since he
always finds it easy to squander his money on
narcotics. Of
course, this leads to poverty, and causes lack of
productivity and
many economic problems.
Such an addiction may lead to lying, cowardice,
and lack of
ethical responsibility; all of these result in
committing crimes of
theft, adultery, and a hosti le atti tude towards
society. Then we also
find that imperialist powers may use narcotics as a
weapon agamt
their enemies, with the purpose of causing
instability, dissolution
and abating the sense of solidarity in the nation.
The Shurr'uh Ruling
As for the rul ing in Isliim, we have a cunscnsus for
prohibition
of intoxication and narcutics, Alliih Ili says against
wine,
rtiJ :;':'.1i } .::li oF ~ ~; ;.WiJ ~.(.. .I ;i; ; ,i"-, ;if Wt
i:t"l: ~¥ 0; ,
A';'~; ~ ;J1 4. of)\,, ;;i:i( ~ 2.1 J );:'11 ;"..; Ct ¢IS;''; ,
~;.} p .w ~;~'i .;.; ;;.
"0 }'Ou who Mfiere! InlOxicunts (u f{ kinds of
alcoholic drinks),
und gambling, and AI-AlISab, und AI-Adam
(arrows for suking IlIck
or decision) lire an abomination of S haitan's
(Salan) lIandiwork. So
avoid ( strictly all) lhat (llbominafion) in order thai
yo .. nIll)' be
successful. SI,,~ilan (Satfln) wano only to excite
enmil)' and hilired
Mt"'/.'I.'n }'OU with intoxicants (tUcolto/ic drinks)
and gambling, und
hinder you from flu remtmhranct of AlIlih and f
rom As-Sa/at (the
pruyet ) . So, !>'ifl ),ou /Wt thell ah)'luill?"
(AI.Mi'idah, 90 -91)
We also have the lIadilh, related by Abu Dawud
"Alltih Iws
cursed wine, those ... ho drink ii, or offer iI, its
purchaser and seller,
the one who presses iI, ",ho asks il to be pressed,
its carrier and Ihe
one 10 whom il is carried," As for narcotics, we
have innumerable
l!Jdilhs forbidd ing them:
_ Narcotics could be included under Khomr (wine),
since narcotics
inebriates the mind, and tilts it away from its
judicious nature.
We have Al-Bu~~iiri and Muslim relating after
'Umar Ibn AIKha!~
ab, the Commander of the Believers':;', who
addressed the
people, while he was standing on the minhar
(pulpit) of the
Messenger of Alliih 3:" saying, "Khamr (wine) is
what inebriales
Ihe mind,"
- Again, Umm Salamah ~ as related by Imam A~m
ad and Abu
Dawfld said, "The Messenger of Allah ~ has
forbidden
everything that intoxicates Of languishes," Of
course, narcotics
are to be included here, since th ey have both
pernicious elTects.
_ They arc also included under the word "vicious
things" khabii'ilh
in the words of AILih ffi about the Prophet,
./. ~ ;-;,i ' _:i: >--' - . (,01 ,,1 i ,- :l.
't • . ....,.,.... r-<"'J , '. -"+' V-!':J T
"lfe allows them as law/u/ At- Tayyib", ((i,l'. all
good und lawful)
as ugards '''ings, duds, beliefs, persofls,/QOfh), ulla
pmhibiu ,Ir~m
as unlawful A/-K"ub';';tlr (i.£. all eril Illld Ufl/ ..
Kiaills regards things.
deed.f, belir/s, persons, foods) ... " (Al.A"r';f 157)
Here we have again Ihe Prophet 3, as rcbled by A
~mad and
Ibn Maja h: "Nt) harm, Wid nO reciprocating
injwy."
Effective Treatment
- Righteous Education
- Avoiding causes
- Punishmen t for perpetrators
Righteous Education
Religious upbringing is represented by belief in AlJ
~h, since th is
is II basic clement in et hical reconstruction and
upbringing. A
relevant example is that of the pagan Arabs, who
were addicted to
wine before Islam; and their vers;!tile poetry
llbout mto~ ication is
abundant. However, once they embraced [slam
~nd devoutly
accepted its prohibitions, they quite voluntarily
poured out their
preserved barrels of wine into the st reets of
Madinah. Modern
societies arc strongly recommended to realize how
devoted we
should be to the values of Islam and its characteri
st ic rules fo r
righteous upbringing.
Avoiding Causes
An attack on addiction should primllrily be the
responsibility of
the State. Here, selling and buying all sorts
ofinto~icants should be
prohibited by competent authorit ies, thus Ica ~ing
no means for
addicts to obtain them.
Punishment
or course we know that Ishim has prescribed
forcible penalties
for drunkards (about 40-80 lashes). Penalties may
also be through
imprisonment. finc~ , or confiscation.
4. Promiscuity and Sodomy
These represent two of the most dangerous sins
committed by
adolescents and youth in general; and we know
how many
adolcsc£nts have fa llen into these sinful acts due
to the negligence
of fathers and educators. We will deal with these
problems as
follows:
A. Harmful effects
C. Trea tment
B. The Slwrtah ruhng
Effects
Such grievous sins resu lt in many vencre<l!
discases: gonorhea,
syphi lis and other infect ious diseascs Here we
have the Itadi1h of
the M es~enger of AII;lh 3: related by Ibn Miijah,
Bazzar and AIBayhaqi,
··No .... here are obscenities rampanl oYl!rlly. Ihen
comes Ihe
spread of epiikmic.f amI maladies Ihal .... ere ne~er
found before. "
Social, Ethical and l'sychological Effects
In the social, ethic<ll and psychological matters,
the harmful
effects of these cnmes lead to confounded ances
tries, di ssol ution,
and the dismemberment of fam ilies.
The Shart'ah Ruling
The ruling of Slw,t'ah is definite prohibition by the
consensus of
jurists and legal theori sts. Such a prohibition is
dearly stated in the
words of Albih If!:
1; .:iJ\ 1L :";'1 V .fi ,;·.~tl .:;y~ 'i; ';"1: ~! ~I 2. ~ 'i ~t
"
~. ,H
"t: 0jo.).
"And those •.- 110 ill Fake liar Iln)' orher iltlit
(god) ulollg ...i th Allah,
OM kill such penoniU Allah hllof forbiddeJI , uctpr
for jUl r CIlUse, nOr
commit ill!.'ltll' luuol in fl.'rcou rse - and ... !weFer
does rhi .• Ihal/ ruei.e
the punishmenr. " (Al- Furqiin, 68)
IOO
~======================================
===P.~ Two
AI-Bukhiiri and Muslim reported that the Prophet
$. said, "An
adu/lerer does '101 commil IIdullery eXCI!pl when
he is no longer tI
believer . ..
As for sodomy, here we have the words of Allah 1fI
:
of 0;.r~ ;,; rs1 oJ ~il .;; f3':; jJ :J;. ,:; ~J "
"And Ie/we thOle I<'hom Allah hus crealed for
)'OU /0 he j'pur
wi.est NIlY, you ore a trespass;,,/.: pcop/d". (A.h-
Shu'ara, 166)
We also have in the f-!!dilh related by Al-l-!akim
that the
Prophet 3: said, ''The most dreadful/hi/Ig thai'
fear its punishment
mas/ is Ihe crimes of lire hou.l'I,ho!J of I-ti!
(sodomy). or course the
Shari"a" has its prescribed punishments. For
adultery the two
punishments aTe:
1. Flogging of a 100 lashes and banishment, for
Allah says:
of ~i Y!~ ~ ~t ~ r...:t t ~ ~~ Y; ~; :J ~~ ..j. ~ ~j; "
" The woman and the man guilty of illegal sexual
inlucouru,jlog
each of ,hem with 4 ltunrlr~rI stripes. Let "ot pify
withhold yo" in
their ('1St. in a punishme"t preJ(:ribed by Alllih ... "
(An_NUT. 2)
2. Stoning is the punishment for a marrie(,i miln or
woman, as
attested. by many authentic lIadillu.
Punishment fo r sodomy: Here we have this
statement by AIBaghawi,
"Scholars have differed aboUl puni,hment fo r
sodomy;
some say that the punishment here is the same as
for adultery: if
the person is married, then he is to be stone(,i; but
if the person is
not married, then the punishment is a hundred
lashes, and t his is
the most acceptable of two statements by Ash-
ShJifi·i."
Some scholars including Malik and A~mad, see
that a sodomist
should be stoned. whether married or unmarried .
Another opinion
of Ash-Sha.fi"i is that both active and negative
perpetrators arc 10
be killcd(I). The l:.Ian afi school says that the
punishment is /a 'zI,
(I) Ar·Ta.ghib wa AI-Tarhl'b. vol. 4, p. 325.
(chastisement left to the ruling of the Imam) for
the fi Nit time. If the
crime is r~peated, then the punishment is death. A
Hadiih in
support of killing both culprits rela ted by At-
Tirmidhi, Ahu
Dawud, and Ibn Majah, says, "Anyone you find
committing Ihe
crime of/he people of LuI, you should kill bOlh
culpri/s: the active and
passi.'e criminals." That is the opinion upheld hy
the major jurists
and legal theorists.
Treatment
He re, treatment is the same as for masturbation.
Directions and RecommcooatiollS for Physical
Education
We should all agree that parents and educators
have to take all
precautions to protect their children from all possi
ble dangers and
unexpected accidents. Here are some of the main
steps in this
regard (1). Of course, protecting a one year-old
child is the sole
responsibility of the parents. Starling from the
second, the child
must be warned against possible dangers in a
gentle way, L e telling
him that touching hot utensils or heaters is
dangerous, while
allowing him to touch such things very lightly as a
practic.allesson.
Here are other practical ways to help prevent
accidents:
- Poisonous materials should be locked up and
kepI away from
children, with the names of each container clearly
labeled.
- Unused medicines should be dispensed with so as
to be kept out
of the reach of child ren. When adUlts are using
medicine, it is
better not 10 use them in the presence of children,
since children
arc generally fond of imitation and mimicry.
-A screen should be placed in front of every
heating and wanning
appliance. Special attention should be given to
electric machines,
and caution while in the kitchen is necessary.
(I) AI_M",Ui/al As-SwlJlciyy<Jh imfa
AI·AifaIIProblem. Concerning Chi ldren',
Boha.ior) by Dr. Nabilt AI·Ghabroh, p. In.
- K mves, scissors and glassware should be kept
out of the reach of
children.
Some toys for chidren are dangerou~ . playing
with ropes and
plastic bags may present the danger of choking.
Similarly
dangerous is eating nuts in a playful way, like
throwing them in
the air and catching them by mouth.
- A baby should not sleep in his mother·s bed. Light
pressure on
the baby by the unwary mother may end with
choking or even
death.
Windows of the upper stories should be stu rdily
built. and the
railings should be so high as to prevent chlldren
from seeing
through or climbing them.
- Electric and mechanical machines are dangerous.
A chIld'S fingers
or hands can possibly get caught.
- The outer door or gate should always be locked,
lest any of the
children should stray out un·noticed.
- Care should be taken while closing or opening
doors for fear of
mi!"lOr injuries to hands Or reel.
Thus, we havc above the positive and protective
means orrered
by Islam fo r the physical education of children;
and doubtless we
stand in great need nowadays to adopt these
means, so that the
younger generation would be able to undertake
the responsibility
of spreading the message of [sliim.
TI>< R .. po"';bWIy for Intolloctu.1 Edocotion
~~~~~~~~~~~ 103
Chal'tcr Four
The Res (lOosibilily for IlIlcllc<.:I ual Education
This means the mental upbringing of the young
according to the
concepts of !>Iam, together with elements of
modem scientific
knowledge_ Here, educalors are responsible for;
I. Education
2. Intellectual enlightenment
3. Menial Health
Educational Responsibility
In this respect, Islam has laid a great responsibili
ty on parents
and educators for the proper upbringing of the
young, culturally as
well as mentally. Here we lind many 6y61 (verses)
from Qur'an and
many I!adilhs urging for thc acquisition of
knowledge. In the
words of Allah. we have:
1 kj~ 1 ZJ~ 5ft:; ;:,jl ~p S; ,
"Are thou who know equal to those who know
not!, .. " (Az.Zumar, 9)
Again, we have:
~ 4 --i;~ ~;jJ'
"And say: "My Lord! Increase me in knowledge."
(Tli.Ha, It4)
Also, we have:
~ ; '",; :;iJi ~) ~~t ~ Ip: ~)i ~I &i ,
"A fllih wifl exult in degree 'hose aryan who
fuli~~~, and tholt who
ha~~ bun gran/ed knowledge, And Alliih is Well-
Acquainted with
what you do." (Al·Mujiiciatah, II)
In ITgardS to haJilh, we have, as related hy AbU
Hurairah G, the
Messenger .tt: saying, "Anyone who follows a way
for seeking
knowledge, AI/ah will guUk him along u way
leading 10 Ihe Garden."
Again, we have Imam Muslim relating rrom AbO.
Hurairah the
104 ~~~~~~~~==================~~~~~
P.nTwo
Messenger ~ said. "When Ibn Adam (a persQn)
dies, his deeds are
eXlinCI. except jor three accomplishments: on-
going dona/ions, or
some useful knowledge for olhers, Or a righteous
son whQ would
inyoke Ihe bll'ssings of Alldh for him."
Finally, we h.ave At-Tinnidhi relating from Abu
Hurairah that
the Messnger $ said, "This world i.r cursed, and
whaleper if worldly
is also cur5ed, exapl Ihe remembrallce of Allah.
and what i.J
associated ",ilh ii, and anyone leaching or learning
Ihal."
Based upon these precepts from the QUT'an and
Sunnah,
Muslims since the lime of the mission, and
following generations,
dedicated themselves to the study of universal
realities,
taking knowledge from other civilizations and
putting information
into the context of Islam. The entire world went on
for centuries
adopting much of this culture until the Western
Renaissance. This
also made much use nfthe Muslim contributions in
Sicily, Andalus
and the period of the Crusades. This is in fact, what
has been
acknowledged by equitable philosophers of the
West.
What is the secret IJtohind this culiul1Il and
scientific enlightenment?
Of course, the secret lies within the principles of
the eternal
Sha,/ah:
Isliim cares for spirit and matter, the present life
and the
Hereafter, and lIS motto is found in the words of
Alliih !fl,
..: Q]I ,/.>! ,iI ' ,./ c;.~; !A'9I ).]i ~ /.1'~I: Y.! &:-t,
"But seek, "'ith ,ha' ( w~alrh) which Allih hu.s
bestowed on you, the
home of tile lIeuafter, Qnd f orget nat YOIJf portion
of lawful
enjoyment in ,1Ii1 ,,'orld ... " (AI-Qa~a~. 17)
- Islam also calls for human equality, as seen in His
Words Ii:
,,:~~~~~1 !-(4 ~~1~,
"Surely the most honorQblt among you in the pro
_idenu of Alliih
are the most piolls ... .. (AI.Hujurnl. 13)
- Again, Islam encourages friendship and co-
operation, as in the
Words of Allah 918:
,
~ t;~Q ~"G; ~ t:r~; 5.ot j. ~ .vii' ~ .;61 ~~ ,
"0 mallkilld} We hal'e creaTed )'o,./rom a male alld
alemall!. alld
mllde you illTO 1I111iollS lUId IriIHs, Ihill ),OU
mil)' kilo", olle
allolher .. , "(AI-Il ujunil, 13)
The principles of IsHim encompass all laws of
stability and
evolution, and satisfy the necds of humanity at
every time and
place.
- Islam is a religion that makes education
compulsory starting from
the very tender years of child ren. Here we have
Ibn Miijah
relating after Anas ,*", that the Messenger of Allah
~ said, "The
quest for know/edge is an ordinance on every
Muslim. " Ibn Miijah
also relates after Abu Sa'id AI-Khudri $, that the
Messenger of
Allah ~ said, "'Anyone who keeps secret any
information about
religion that A/liih has revealed, ond Ihol is of
benefil /() people,
wili be shackled by Fire on the Resurreclion Day."'
In regards to knowledge, islam has spoken of two
types:
obligatory and optionally collective. Recitation of
the Qur'an,
ru les of worship, matters of lawfulness and
unlawfulness and
every ordinance for individuals relating to worldly
and religious
ordinances are obligatory on every Muslim male
and female . All
useful knowledge related to agriculture, industry,
commerce,
medicine, geometry, electricity, and even nuclear
science-all of
these arc optionally collect ive. If a group of
Muslims acquire any
of these types of knowledge, the responsibility will
be: abrogated
from the rest of the community; and if no group
achieves such
knowledge, all the community would be held
responsible.
Such ordinances represent the secret of the great
impulse
provided by Islam for the nourishing of cultu re
and civilization
among the early generations of Muslims. So the
cultural decadence
we see nowadays is the resu lt of ignorance, on the
part of Muslims,
of lhe noble realities of Islam, of the estnlngement
of Islam from
all fields of life toda y, and of the attack of Islam's
enemies. The
re,ult of all th is I, the separation of state from
religion, and the
confinement of Ishim wit hin the realms of
worship and ethics.
So, the day the Muslims come to understand the
truth of islam.
adopt its comprehensive system in all fields of life,
and become
wary of the conspiracies of its enemies, then they
can regain their
ascendancy, and can be the best nation that AlIiih
has created as
the leader of humanity_
Again, we have to emphasize the fact that the duty
of educators
is to teach the yo ung how to recite the Qur'an, to
know the history
of the Prophet ~ and his Companions, and relevant
Sha,,~ah
teachings. This is in accordance with the ordinance
by Ihe Prophet
4. related by At-Tabarani: "'Emphasize. in the
ed,lcmion of your
children, three areas: love for yOllr Prophel. love
for his houuhold.
reciling Ihe Qur'an, for the upholders of Qur'un
will be in Ihe shade
of the throne of Alliih on 0 Doy .... hen Ihere is no
shade except the
Throne's shode."' Such education should start from
the early years,
when the young have a fresh memory, and are
more readily
inclined to education.
What sbould be the sllarc of women in such
educatiou?
Here, scllolars lIave unanimously agreed that
women's
obligatory share is the same as that for men, for
two rc~sons:
I. Women arc equal to men in legal capacities, i.e.
prayer,
fasting, Zakah (poor-dues), pi lgrimage, sell ing,
buying, pawning,
deputizing, as well as comm3nding goodness and
forbidding evil , and all such responsibilities, with
the exception
of some ordinances of which women are exempted
by the
Grace of Allah 1i'lI.
2. Women are equal to men in regard, to reward in
tile Hereafter.
We have these words of AlIiih G'j:
,~S;~ ~1 j1 fl~M.w j:.; ~i 'i ~1t
"I do " 01 "'Gste the dud of a"y dIN" among you,
Gny mall! (>f'
f fmGIe-tlre one of you is as lire OIlrt . ... " (AI
'Imran, 195)
Again we have the Words of Alliih !ill:
..:I -~! ~'I < i,-~_, ,1, ~:, .,,~.~., ~~ 'r"'II'I-" -- l. 'J ~
""-4. ~~~,:;O.. ... ~J.,,1 , ..----, ~ :'. -' " .:t.' ~...;./'J Y "
,., """ "t ~ "'........,
" Alld ... lroJoe.er does (elloaglr ) du ds of rig
lrte<llu nus, he if mule
or female, and Ire is a be/ia u , then thou ... il/
enter fhe Garden,
Gild ",ill nnt hi! done Gn jllj u'<lice, I! ... n as II groo
~t! in u dutes fOne"
(An.Nis;i., 124)
Many fladiths prove Ihal Islam has attached great
importance
to Ihe education of females . Here are some of
them:
At-Tirmidhl and Abu D,iwiid relate that the
Messenger iff;. said.
"A/lyone who has three dallShll:,.I, Qr Ihree sislers,
or two tWugfllers,
or two sislers, who glll'l! th,'m proper educa/ioll.
who brought them up
bellel'o/emly, IJnd 11'/10 provided /0' Iheir
l1i11rritlge, wi/{ go 10 Ihe
Gardell (Pa,adise). Another phrasing of this lIadith
says: "Ally
pusan who has a maid, whom he efficielllly
edlleuled, and tal/ghl her
good mmlllers. then he emancipated and married
her, will have double
reward, "
AI-Bukhii ri and Muslim rclate in As,SahihaYlithat
the Prophet
3 used !() single out some days during which he
taught lhe women
some of what Allah taught him, Once a woman said
10 him: "0
Messenger of Alliih, men have already taken most
of your time for
their education, give us of your lime one day
during which we
come to you 10 teach us some of what AlIiih laught
you." So the
Prophet ~ said, "Lei your gallirring be on such "m}
m ch days," So
they gathered on those days, and he taught them
SOme of wh"l
Alliih taught him. All of these texts, besides many
others, show
that Isllim has prescribed that useful knowledge
and education
should be given to women.
Histori cally speaking, women in Islam achieved
brilliant heights
in education lind culture during the early Islamic
days. Some of
them were writers, poetesses and physicians: and
some of them
related Ahadith.\·. AI-Hafiz Ibn "Asiikir even said
that more than
eighty women, amongst other men, related
Hadi/hs to him.
Such cultural and social congregations for women
should be
kept apart from male congregations, to ensure
their integri ty and
chastity, to always enjoy good reputation, and
highly respectable
character.
Efidence forbidding intermingling: Here, evidences
are many, some
of which are: Allah 1ft says,
."II.; ''"I c.... ''-r<1- ·" ! J<>. ; t~.:; ~ v"a.. "...i..t.." ""'Y~
l7r.'
"And ~'hen )'011 fuk fhem ("'omen) for an)' thing,
then ask lhem
from behind a curtain ... ~ (At.A~l.Iib. H)
Of course. this 6)'oh (verse) was sent down about
the wifes of
the Prophet ~, but the address is general. For, if
the address is
about the Prophet's wives whose chastity and
purity are definitely
above every blemish, and they are still
commanded to be veiled and
forbidden intermingling with males, then other
women, with all the
more reason, have to keep their veil; and that is
what is called
conclusive evidence, evidential concept by legal
theorists. Here we
have the Words of Allah WI:
~ :.+ ~( ~ P .:V ,¥ : ~~ ~,; ;;,; ~, ....... ,1 ~ ~ .'; 4;-~ j ,
G -1~ t"j1:-> 4';'. 1; U~ :,;~ ~ ·';,1 ~ ~ '. ';~ ; (&iJ j,;
¢> :.;' ''-;
- .I. ~,, -- < " :: ~:1- t:, . .: .' "I; ... ~...= .:F ~ ~ ~J ....=-.
"Tdl the Mlie ~inK men to lower their gau (from
lookinK at
forbidden thinKS) , and profeet their prjvate parIs
(from illegal
uxual acts). That ;! puttr for them. Verily, Alliih jJ
Afl-Awart of
what they do. And telf the believing "'omen 10
lower Iheir Kau
Tbe ItQpO<IIIibW.y I", l.tcUon ... 1 Eduea.",,,
=========== 109
(from looking al forbi.dd~n Ilrings) A fld p'/}tU I
Ilrt i, pri.au ports
(from illegal IUlial aeu) ond flOI 10 tI,O,., off lilt;.
IIdorfl",t fl'
txttpl only IIuII ,,'lIiell ;$ "pporenl Q"d 10 drIJw
Iltti, PlilJ "II 0'"
bosoms ""d nOl 10 ' ereal IMi, ali(J'fltMnl ~XUpl 10
lilt ;, III1$btlllds.
(J' IIId, f" ,IIers ... " (An·Nur, 3O '}1)
So long as the ayah prescribes, ilmong other
things, the casting
down of gazes, vei ling the head and bosom, and
displaying
adornment only for ncar reLa tives, docs not t hi~
indicate that
Muslim women have to prese rve their decorum
and chastity and to
keep from intermingling with st range men?
Again ~ have the Words of AIHih til:
~ J n~ ~~ ~ !.:F "! ~!-:k ~ ~i p; <¥"; .;i..x.~ j ~I c.~,
~ '" .~ ~ ~L:::.Ej ~~ ji
"0 Pr0PMI! Tt ll your wi.ts Ilnd J'OIIr d"Ullllu" "fld
1M ... omt n of
IIIr befie.ttl 10 dr" ... tilt ;. c1""k.~ ('1";11) 011 orn-
IMi. bod;n . TIIoI
"'iff fit btll", thaI Ih~y should bt known (as{rtt
rts~ctahlt womi n)
10 UI "0' to be .. nnoyed. And Allih ;1 Ert' 0ft·
Forgi.i,,!:, Mosl
Mt .dflll." (A!·A~7.ab, S9)
How can ~ then imagine Muslim women
intermingling with
strange men, and ~ already know that they are
commanded to
be veiled and to ~ar full garments? Now we have
the following
~od;th related by At·Tirmidhi that the Messenger
of AlLiih ~
said, "No milit can ~ alone 14'illl a ftmole, but Ihat
SlUllll IItW
Iht third,"
Again,lInother ~tStilih , related by A L , 8u~~ari,
mentions that the
Messenger of AlLiih ~ said, "Bewart of tlllt!r;ng
womtn's howtl,"
Here, one of the Companions said, "0 Messcnger of
Alliih, even if
the male is an intimate relatiye!" The Prophet $;
said, "Tloe
praenCt of such all infimale 'tlali~t mtaM dealh."
So alt or these texts, whether from the Qur'iin or
Md;thJ
defin itely prohibit intermingling in a way that
does not leave
room for doubt or disp ute. So those who allow
intermingling and
claim that they have lawful justifications and social
and
psychological reasons, <lfe actually fabricatmg
falsehoods, ignoring
human in stmcts. and disregarding the despicable
facts of
modern mtermingl ing societies:
a. Their falsehood is clearly opposed to the
previous texts.
h. Their Ignoring human instincts is rebutted by
the fact that Allah
IiJ:j has equipped ooth male and female with an
instinctive
attraction towards each other; so do such
proponents of
intermingling intend to ~han ge human instincts
and sentiments?
Actually, if intermingling is allowed ever since
child hood,
and if such IIItermingling is claimed to arouse no
sexual
instincts, then we would expect that amity and
mercy between
husband and wife, as inspIred by AIl"h, would be
replaced by
cruelty and loss of sexual in~bnations. Of course,
this is contrary
to what we see and observe.
As for those people who ignore the distressing
situation related
to intermingling of the two sexes as a r~'Sult of the
development of
human societies, then they should ask Western
and Eastern
societies about the irresolute morality pervadIng
there. [t is
noteworthy that intermingling of the two sexes is
common among
all classes of the society on all levels. In this
connection, I should
put before the parents and educators the following
facts:
The plott ings of imperialism, J u d'li~m and
Crusaders aiming at
corrupting Muslim societ ies by disrupting the
religious principles
and moral values among male and female youths
through
widespread licentiousness. Women are the fint
goal in that
vicious plotting because she is the essential centre
of family and
societal hfc. Those people who call for
intermingling between girls
and boys in Muslim societies in fact mean to
implement the plans
of the enemies of Islam. whether they intend to or
nOL
The Res1"'lISibi lity r",. In toltec,ual Educa,ion
~~~~~~~~~~~ 111
It ;s the duty of parents, educators and a uthorities
to not allow
intenningling between boys ,md girls in schools
and other fields in
order to raise chaste and pure youth. Thus the
society would be
devoid of the evil of licentiousness.
2. Intellcdual Enlighlcnmcnt
Ideological awareness means that lhe child should
be loyal to
IsHim as a religion and stale, the Qur'an as a code
of life, lsl:imic
history as an emblem for glory and pride, and
Islamic culture as a
dynamic and enthusiastic activity. It is Ihe duly of
educators to
leach the young the following facts:
a. Eternity of Islam as a religion for all places and
times.
b. To inform the young about the plans and plots
drawn by the
enemies: the Jews, Crusaders, the Communists,
and In temali7.crs
in order to destroy belief and plant seeds of
disbelief in Muslim
generations.
c. To present Muslim civi lization and its impact on
human life. But
let us ask. what is the way to that awamess? The
way 10
idL'Ological awamess may be th rough many a
spect~:
- Intelligent teaching
- El:cellent examples
- Deep knowledge
- Good compallionship
Intelligent teaching meallS that children should be
aware of the
principles and characteristics of Islam. Through
such teaching the
child will undoubtedly be loyal 10 Islam, the
Qur"1ln, active work,
and Jihiid (fighting for the sake of Alliih).
By excellent examples, children should be in the
hands of
competent educators who understand Islam, arc
enthusiastic for iI,
figh t in its way, enforce its prescribed laws, and
are never afraid of
the reproaches of those who find fault . There is no
doubt that
when children are within the close proimity of
excellent examples,
that would raise their sense of piety, Jihad,
truthfulness in worship
and in fighting the enemics.
Intelligent knowledge is to put between the hands
of the
children, even small-book libraries containing
many historical
narratives aOOm Isliim, dealing with Muslim
heroes, history,
righteous conduct and news of pious people. Such
booh should
include books about Islamic principles and battles
against the
enemies. Magazines about Islam should also be
there.
l! is the duty of educators to select for every age
group those
booh, magazines and stories which are suitable for
its age and
culture. Good companionship means that the
educator should
select for their children righteous companions
with proper
understanding of lsliim. intelligence, and
awareness of the
comprehensive nature of Islamic culture. At last, I
want to
whisper this fact in the ear of the educator:
Is it not sorrowful and painful to see our youth
attain the age of
puberty while they have little knowledge about
IsHlm and its
characteristics?
Is it not painful to see our children learning at
school so much
about western philosophers and eastern scholars
while they know
little aoout the lives of our heroes and our great
thinkers?
Is it not shameful that our children have graduated
from their
schools while their thoughts have been so
distorted by western
culture that, many among them, may be enemies to
their religion,
history and culture?
Is it not shameful that our children of these
generations read
books on atheism, indecent magarines and
amictions of immoral
stories? At the same time, they are uninterested in
reading books
about the principles of Isliim and books that show
the faces of their
enemies?
It is the full responsibility of educators towards
their children to
promote intelligent ideas, right understanding and
preservation of
belief.
3- Mental Health
This responsibility concentrates ()n the health of
the minds of
children. This would also mean fighting the
spreading evils which
try to destroy intellect, memory and the body. We
have already
dealt in full detail in the chapter of" Responsibility
fo r Physical
Education'·, with such evils and as drinking wine,
masturbation,
smoking and promiscuity.
To sum up what we have mentioned in this
chapter; education,
ideological awareness and mental health, present
their main
responsibility. Then, it is the duty of parents and
educators to
uphold these responsibililcs so as to raise the
ideological awareness
of the educated generation.
Chaptcr FiI·c
Thc Kcs pollSibility ror Psychological Education
Psychological education means tmining children
from an early
age to be bold. frank , having thc capacity for
goodness to others,
to be self-disciplined when angry and of sound
moral behavior.
The aim of this education should be to keep the
personality of the
child steady and balanced. It is thc duty of
educators to tnlin the
child to avoid all factors which may alIcet his
honor and dignity or
harm his human personality in a way which may
lcad him to
pessimism and envy.
Among the most important factors which
educators should try
to do is to free their children and pupils from such
phenomena:
- Shyness
- Fear
- Inferionty complex
- Envy
_ Anger
I will first discuss these phenomena, then show
how they may be
remedied in the light of Ishim.
Shyness
It is well known that shyness is usually part of thc
nature of
children_ [ t may be thai the first symptoms start
the fourth month.
After the oomp[etion of a year, shyness becom<.os
evident in the
child turning away his face, closing his eyes, or
covering his face
wi th his hands when a stranger talks to him.
Starting from the
th ird year, the child fcels shy when he goes to a st
range house,
where he sits calmly in his mother's lap or sits
beside her, all the
time remaining silent. (I)
(1) From the book: " A/· MoWtkiw.1
As>S"hikiYY"n 'indo A/_AI/"" p. t53.
Inheritance may play its role in the child's shyness,
II cannOI be
denied that his environment also has a great
innucncc on either
increasing shyness or regulating it. Surely those
children who mix
with others will be less shy compared with ot hers
who do not.
The remedy ror this problem will be 10 encourage
children to
meet people and be rriendly wilh them by
accompanying their
parents when they visit rriends and relatives, or by
asking them
kindly 10 speak with olhers, young or old. Such vi
sits help to
eradicate shyness and increase the child's selr-
confidencc_
Here are some historical precedents, as well as
Prophetic
Ho"'ths which provide ed ucators with goou
examples relaled to
the means our ro rerathers adopted to teach their
children
boldness, and overcome shyness.
AI-BukMri narrates rrom Abdullah Ibn 'Umar .:too
thai the
Prophet ¢ said, "Verily. among trees there is a Iree
... hosc Icaves
do IIOlfoll sJlch Iree is like a Musilm. So lell me ....
hal it is ." The
companions named some desert trees, then
Abdullah said, " I
guessed that it was the palmtrce, but I was shy to
speak." 'Iben
the companions said, "Tell us 0 Prophet of Albih"
Then he $.lliu;
"II i1 {J palmlree." (I) In another narration,
'Abdulliih said, '" did
(I) AI'Ru~~ri. Kilob AI,'lIm, vol. I, p. 145.
Ibn [-[ajar said in Alr'l!,>: lhi' I!adl)h ofT .... many
hinlS'
I Scholar, , houtd make" ,est for 'heir student. and
.houtd clarify to them
whatev~r thoy could nOl grasp
2. It urges Ih<:m I(} IT}' to under,tal><l and gain
knowledge.
l. Il commend •• hyne,. unit .. it will lead I(} the loU
(}f a b,mef'L Tha, i. 'he
IUMln why 'Urnar hOl"'d ,hal 'Abdullih would nol
have remained silent.
4. It provide. tho proof tha, Ihe [>lItmlr~ and it'
fruil are blessing.
S. II seU .xamples of giving e>ptanalion. and gi"'"
conere'e imago. to .lIow
bell .. unde .. tanding.
6. h ,hows that a minor .houtd respect those who
are old .. ,,,, thai he would
give priority to hi, f't hor. Il i$ the duty of a minor
Itot to forestall with whal he
ul><l."nood .~n if he lhink. he i, correct.
11'
~======================================
==oPanTwo
want to say that it is the palmtree, but I was the
youngest one
amollg them" In another narration. 'Abdullilh says.
" I saw Abu
Bab and 'Umar silent so, I did not like 10 talk. But
when I told
my rather about this he said, 'If you had said it,
that would have
been more valuable to me than reddish livestock."
Muslim narrated after Sab! Ibn Sa'd As-Sa'idi <;/to
that the
messenger of Alliih $. was olTered a drink. He
drank for it. On
his right was a child and on his left was an old
men. He asked the
child, "Would you allow me 10 give Ihese people
10 drink?" But
the cbi ld said, " By Alliih, no. I would never give up
my share
from you \0 anyone else."
• Al-Bu~ari narrated from Ibn Abbas" that when
he was under
the age of puberty, he said, 'Umar ... accredited him
as
consultant among olher wise men who had fought
at Badr. II
seems that some of these wise men fell unhappy
aboul Ihis. so
some of them said, "Why is this boy alone allowed
to be with us,
while we have ones of similar agc?" 'Vmar replied,
"You are
well aware that the Prophet had given the
blessings of his
invocation when he said, '0 Allah may you grant
him legal
k.nowledge and religious interpretation!'" On
another occasion,
'Umar invited the same young man to the same
company 10
prove the validity of his opinion . So 'Umar ask.ed
them about the
interpretation of these words from the Qur'fin:
1: C:' ' TI; ~I ;.::. :8;: Ill,
" WMII Iller., comel tlu! Help of Alllih (to YOII, 0
MIlAammpd ~
agflilli t j'OIlT en~mit'J) and tM conquest (of
Makkah), "(An-Na_sr, I)
= 1. h pro_lhat a gre.o.t ocholar may be out.tripped
in uDdcrslaDding by minors.
8. tl points oul that the world i. hetd in conlernpt,
by ·Urna. who judged the
understanding of hi, $On on an iss"" that «1",,10 .,
II"",,,, A ~·Nd''''''~ a reddish
ti¥e ,look, that was highly valued and ""'1 .'pen,ive.
FmAu AI· lIa,;. vol. I., p.
t46, t47.
So some of them said, ,. AII1ih has ordered us to
praise Him and
pray for His forgiveness, since He is bounteous to
us with
victory and conquest." Others remained si lent and
did not say
anythmg_ Then 'Umar said, " Is that so, Ibn
Abbiis?" I said,
"No." 'Umar said. "What would you say?" I said,
"This verse
means the end of the Prophet's life, as indica ted
by AlIiih.'·
Thus, AlIiih said, "When the victory of Allah and
the conquest'·,
That was a sign oryouT tenn appointed for you; so,
celebrate the
praises of your Lord, and pray for His Forgiveness,
for i-Ie is
Oft-Relenting" (in forgiveness). Then 'Umar said, "
I have no
knowledge about it except what you say."
- As the Commander of the faithful, 'Umar Ibn AI-
Kha!..tiib.:G;. was
passing along a road in Madinah, when he saw
children playing.
Amongst them was 'Abdullah Ibn Az-Zubayr. Then
all the
children ran away, being afraid of Umar. But Ibn
Az-Zubayr
was the only one who remained where he was and
did not run
away. When 'Umar reached him; 'Umar said, "Why
did you not
run away like the others?" Ibn Az·Zubayr promptly
said, " I
have not committed any offense to make me run
away. and the
road was not too narrow for me to make way for
you."
When 'Umar Ibn Abdul-Aziz '*' was chosen as
caliph.
delegations came to congratulate him from
everywhere, among
these delcgations was the Hijaz delegation. A child
of ten in that
dc legation took the initative to talk. Thcn 'Umar
said 10 him,
" You should wait until a more malure person has
spoken." Thc
child said, "May Alliih support you the Commander
of the
faith ful wi th His help. A person is judged by his
smallest limbs;
his heart and his tongue. A person has a right to
speak when
Alliih has graced him with a fluent tongue and a
knowledgeable
heart. If the criterion for worth was age; 0
Commander of the
faithful, some older person would be worthier of
presiding over
our present meeting" So 'Umar was sllrprised at
sllcb audacity
and then commented in verse: "Scck knowledge,
for no one is
born a seholar. And a person with knowledge is
different from
an ignorant one. Surely the senior of a community
who has no
knowledge is really a minor, in case he is in a
congregation ."
These instance~ prove that the children of our
forefathers'
genemtion (tala]) were reared to be far from shy,
cramped, or
dcpressed, because they were Imined 10 be daring,
and they used to
attend congregalions in the company of their
fathers, and to visit
friends . In addition, the fi rst gencmtion
encouraged their
intclligent, eloquent childrcn 10 address their
elders, and were
even consulted on public affairs and scientific
questions in thc
pfC!;Cncc of scholars and thinkers. All of that helps
10 train
children in eloquence. So it is the duty of cducators
nowadays to
encourage children \0 be frank but respectful, bold
but give full
credit to seniors.
It is OUT duty to distinguish between shyness and
diffidence, for
diffidence leads to a feeling of loneliness lind
alienation, whereas
shyness leads to sound morals and commitment to
the teachings
of Islam.
FeaT
It is a psychological trait that may eXlsl in both
young or old,
and male or female. This phenomcnon may be
commendable as
long as it is within natunl limits in chi ldren,
bci:ause it will be a
means for protecting the child from lIccidents and
risks. But
excessive fear would cause anxiety to children and
hence il may
become 11 psychological problem.
Psychologists say that to the first few years, a child
may be
frighte ned by a sudden noise or the sudden fa ll of
something. The
child may be afraid of strangers starling wLth the
first six months of
age approximately. But at lhe age of three. he will
be afraid or many
things such as animals, cars, slopes lind waler. In
general, fem ales
are more afraid than males. Again, fright may also
come as a result
of the child's imagination, So the more imaginative
the child is, the
more easily frightened he becomesYl There are
many factors behind
the increase of fear; important among the~e
factors are:
. Fear caused by mothers when spea king
abouljinn, darkness and
strange creatures.
- Too much fondling by mothers, excessive care
and preoccupationwith
children.
- Raising children in loneliness, and seclusion.
- Telling fairy stories concerningjinn and devils.
To treat this phenomenon, the fo llowing arc 10 be
taken into
consideration;
I. To raise the child from the very beginning on
belief in Allah and
worshipping him. The Qur'iin lells us about this:
1; Gl ~J.:'. ~ ~ lit} Gl ,£,. ~( ~ ill C!) ~~ '*" ;;:''ji 4 1
~ s~ rt'L j;, r:. :Jr 0 :rij
" Vfrily, nutII ( disbefin-t r) "'as Cleated rery
impatient; I"itabk
(dircontented) ",hen evil touchts him; And
niggurdly ..,hen good
touches him. Except thou ..,ho are deMted to Sa/iit
(prayers).
Thore ..,ho remain conrttl/fl in lheir Sa/iit
(prayus)" (Al-Mi'rij, 19.23)
2. To give the child suitable amounts of freedom
concerning his
behaviour, bearing responsibility and acting
according to his
growth and developing capacity.
3. Restrain from frightening the child-especiaHy
when he cries- by
stories about hyenas and demons, Jinl! and devils,
if we want him
to be free of fear and to train him to be bold and
brave.
4. To enable the child to mix with others and to
give him the
(I) See " AI· MushkilJ.1 A .... Sulukiyya 'i~da
AI'Aljar (Problem. Concerning
Chikl', Behavior) by Dr. Nab;h AI-Ghabrah.
opportunity to make friends and acquaintances.
Psychologists
also recommend that the child knows more about
things that
may ftighten him, such as darkness. So there is no
harm to
switch ofT the light suddenly at times. If he fears
water, there is
no harm if plays with a little water in a small
container; and if he
is afraid of electrical appliances, there is no harm if
we show him
some of their parts and then allow him to see the
whole machine
and similar ones. ( 1)
5. Introducing them to the battles of the Prophet 3.
and of the
herioc ea rly generations and prompting them to
follow the
example of the great companions, followers,
leaders and
conquerors, in order to inspire in them a sense of
bravery,
heroism, and Jihtid (fight in the way of Alhlh). Sa'd
Ibn Abu
Waqqas ., said in this regard, "We (the
Companions) used to
teach our children stories about the battles of the
Prophet 3, as
we used to teach them verses of the Noble Qur'an."
In this
respect, we should refer 10 the conduct of the sons
of some great
companions and their heroic historical
achievements, which
serve well as noble examples for all generations.
Al-Bu~~ ari and Muslim have reported that
Abdur- R a~man Ibn
'Awf * said, '·While I was standing on que on the
day of Badr
battle, I looked 10 my right and my left, and saw
Iwo young boys of
the helpers (AI- AI'ISor). Then one of them
signalled to me saying,
"0 my uncle, Do you know Abu Jahl?" 1 said, " Yes,
What do you
want him for?"' The young boy said, ' ·1 have been
to ld that he
abuses the Prophet g;, by Allah, in whose hand is
my soul, if J see
him, I will not part from him until one of us meets
death." I was
surprisd, at the boy's resoluteness. Then the other
boy also
signalled to me saying the same thing. SO{)n, my
eyes fell upon Abu
Jahl walking among his p¢Qple. Then I said to the
two boys; "Can
(1) ibid p. 152.
The Rosponsibility r"" Po)'Ci>oIosical Edocal;OO
=========~ IZI
you see him? That is the man about whom you
were asking." At
onc<:, they lifted their swords and attacked him
unawares and killed
him. Then they went to the Prophet # and told him
what they had
done. Then, he said, ,. Who is the otle who killed
him?" Both of them
said, "I killed him." The Prophet said, "Did you
wipe your swords!'"
They both said, 'oNo." So The Prophet looked at
the two swords
and said, " Bolh Qj you have killed him." After that,
the Prophet
offered the belongings of Abu Jabl to Mu'adb Ibn
'Amr Ibn AIJamuh
and Mu'adh Ibn afra 40.
Again Ibn Sa'd in his book, " Tahllqrir 'btl SIl'd"
narrates from
Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqii~.:30 who said, "I saw my
brother Umayr Ibn
Abi Waqqa~ before the Prophet $. marshalled us
on the day of
Badr trying to hide. So I said, '0 my brother, what
is the matter?'
He said, 'I am afraid that the Prophet ~ may see
me, then he will
reject me, and I like to go to fight, perehanc<: Allah
will honor me
with martyrdom: Sa'd said, 'So my brother
presented himself to
the Prophet ~ who rejected him because of his
young age. Then he
began to ery, so the Prophet accepted him. Saod
Ibn Abu Waqqas
#0 said, "I used to blow the knots of his sword due
to his young
age. So he was then killed when he was sixteen.
When the Muslim army went to U~ud to meet the
disbelievers,
the Prophet #. was marshalling the army. Then he
saw some
minors who were among the men to be with the
Mujailidill (fighte rs
in the way of Allah) with the desire of exalting the
word of Allah.
The Prophet" had compassion for them and did not
allow them
to fight. Among those who were rejected by the
Prophet #; were
Riifi'e Ibn Khudayj and, Samurah Ibn Junduh. But
later he
accepted Rili'e, when be was told that Rafi'e was
an e~pert archer.
Then Samurah began to cry, and said to his rather-
in-Iaw, "The
Prophet «: accepted Rafi'e, hut he rejected me
although I won
against Rafi'e.'· When the Prophet #p: was
informed of this, be told
them to fight each other. When Samurah won, the
Prophet #-
122
~="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="="=
~rtTwo
accepted him.
[ t may be deduced from these historic examples
and others that
the sons of the Companions were very brave, rare
and hcrioc ideals
for Jihad, That was due to their good education,
which was taught
to them at the Prophetic school, Muslim homes
and Islamic society
of believers, and the fIIujahidin . Furthermore,
even mothers
encouraged their sons to Jihad and sacrifice. One
mother who
was informed of their martyrdom said these
immortal words:
" Praise be to AIJilh, Who has honoured me by
their sacrifice, and I
do pray Alkih to get together with them on the Day
of Judgement
in the abode of His MeTey."
This distinguished generation was raised honoring
these
characterstics, because they were Illught from the
very beginning
archery, swimming and horse-riding. They were
not reared on
excessive loneliness; they were accustomed to
mingling with others
of kin of the same age. They were t.!Ught lessons
on the history of
heroes and conquerors, in addition to this, they
benefited from the
ideals they cherished in their childhood.
Thus on the day parents and educators raise their
children to
adopt these values. the new generation will be
uplifled from
anxiety to confidence, from fear to courage and
from humility to
honour and glory.
Infcciority Complex
Inferiority is a psychological stale that afTects
some children as
an inborn illness, as a disease or as a result of ill-
treatment or
economic factors. The factors which cause such a
complex are:
]. iking de~pi scd and insulted
2. Being over-indulged
3. Unjusttrcatment by family members
4. Phys ical deformities
5. BClng an orphan
6. I'o~erly
fk>ing despised and insulted are unf"ir reasons for
the child's
sense of inferiority and psychological disorder. So,
we sometimes
hear that the mother or rather condemn a boy
publicly when he
shps the first time and label him immorHI.
If he lies once, Ihey call him a liar. If he happens to
slap his
yo unger brolher, we call hIm wicked. If he
convinces his young
sister to gi~e him her apple. "'e call him deceitful.
If he takes
something from his father's pockel, we can him a
thief; and if we
ask him for a glass of water and he is not ready 10
respond quickly,
we call him lazy. So we chide him publicly before
his siblings and
the family at the ~ery fi rst fault.(l) Sometimes
such chiding may
take place before his p~rent's friends or before
strangers whose
child ren had been seen and met before. This may
make a child look
down upon himsclfand lack se lf-respect. This may
also cause him
psychological problems and may develop en~y
and hatred towards
olhers. How can we hope from our children
obedience and
benignity as wen as respect, when we have
inculcated in them the
seeds of deviation such ~s di~obedience ~nd revo
lt?
One day, a man came to 'Vmar Ibn AI-Kha_t.l:lb • to
complain about his disobedient son. SO 'Umar had
the boy
brought to him and he blamed him for his
disobedience. Then
the boy addressed ' Umar by saying, "0
Commandcr of the
faithful! Are the re no rights for a boy against his
father?" 'Um"r
said, " Yes." Then the boy said, "What are these
rights 0
Commander of the faithful?" 'Umar said, "To
choose a good
mot her fo r him, to select a good name fo r him
and to teach him
Ihe Qur·ii n." Then, Ihe boy said. "0 Commander of
the fai thful.
(I) S« in "'AkhlJll"nti AJ.fjlimfj ·iyyah'" (Our So<ial
Moral.) by Dr. Mu.tafa AsSiM'i,
p. 159.
my fa ther has not aC\:omplished nny of these
rights. As for my
mother, she was a black slave for a Magian; As for
my name,
he has named me Jual (beetle); and he has not
taught me even
one letter from the Qur·an."' Then 'Umar turned
round to the
man and said, "Y ou came to me complaining about
disobedience
on the part of your son, whereas you have not
given him
his rights. So, you have made mistakes against him
before he
has made mistakes against you."'
or course, such bad words said by a father may
have come only
for disciplining the young. But we should know
that the treatment
for such minor mistakes should not be of such
severity ru; to have
serious effects on the psychological well·being of
the yo ung, or
make him aC\:ustomed to abuse and cursing. But
what is the
trea tment according to Isliim for a child when he
commits mistakes
and minor sins?
The right treatment is to tell him his mistakes in a
lenient and
kind manner, and to remind him that what he did
is not
satisfactory. Then, if he understood that and
promised that he
would act properly, then we have achieved the
goal of rectifying his
deviation. Otherwise, the treatment will be dealt
with in other ways
as indicated under the topic of "Treatment by
Punishment" in the
third section of this book, "Education of Children",
if Alliih wills.
To sum up, we should know that despising or
being cruel to
children, particularly in the presence of others. is a
major factor in
breeding humility in him, and immoral !x.havior.
The best
treatment is to draw the attention of the child to
his mistake in a
gentle and persuasive way by means of
eltplanation. It is the duty
of educators not to rebuke children in the presence
of others. If this
should be done it must be in a gentle way. This is
the way of the
Prophet $. in reforming, rearing and
reconstructing their deeds.
Qvrr indulgwee may be a se rious factor in
psychological as well as
moral deviation. Among its expected results is
shyness, seryility, lack
of courage, confidence and gradually going toward
unsteadiness,
The result is that this may produce a sense of envy
and hatred
for others. Thus he begins to see that other people
are steady while
he feels cowardly and fretful. A chi ld sees people
active and are
occupied while he keeps silent and feels apathetic.
Such a child sees
people meet and cooperate with each other, while
he lives in
loneliness away from people. How can a child with
these traits be a
normal human being? Will he be a productive
member of society?
Will he be a person who has an independent
personality that has
confidence and trust in himselll Since the reply
here will be, "No",
then, why do parents, especially mothers,
exaggerate in indulging
their children?
Among the evidences of incorrect education by
mothers is that
some of them do not permit their children to do
jobs they are able
to do out of supposed mercy and kindness_ A
mother may take her
child in her custody permanenlly. A mother may
not allow her
child for a moment out of her sight. A mother may
not deter her
child when he damages lhe furniture of the house,
or when he sits
on the table or when he wri tes on the wall with
his pen.
The phonemenon of excessive fondling may have
very negative
results when Alh'ih bestows upon parents a child
after long yeaNi of
deprivat ion or when the mother gives birth 10 her
child after many
miscarriages or when a mother gives birth to a
male after many
females or when Allah cures a child after a serious
illness. But what
about the treatment which Islam prescribes for
doing away with
this phoneme non?
Islam prescribes here deep faith in Divine Det:ree
and
determina tion on the part of parents. So they
should believe
that nothmg will happen to them or to their
children as regards
to health or sickness, favours or disfavours,
offspring or sterility.
126 !'an Two
richness or poverlY, except what AlUih has
decreed and
according to His Will.
To educate children in a gradual manner. If advice
and
admonition prove to be effe<:tive, then it is wrong
for a
guardian to ignore him. If ignoring is helpful, then,
it is
unbeo;;oming of a guardian to resort to beating.
And in case of
the inability of a guardian to achieve compliance
on the part of
his child, then he has the right to light
chastisement.
- To rear the child from the very beginning to be
self-confident and
have moral courage.
- To follow the good e:tample of the Prophet 3
from boyhood
until maturity when Allah sent him the Message.
Now let us give some examples from the life of the
Prophet's
childhood up to maturity as a source of guidance
for educators and
en lightment for the new generation. The Prophet
~ was a
shepherd in his youth for the people of Makkah. He
also played
with other children. He carried stones with the
elite of Quraysh in
order 10 build the Ka·bah . The Prophet ~
Imvelled twice for trade.
The first was with his uncle AbU !Jilib before he
attained maturity.
The second was his trading for Khadijah, was after
he had attained
maturity. The Prophet $. was so bold that, when a
person asked
him to swear by Uit, and Una, he said, "Do 1101
ask me IQ s ..... ear by
them,!or , by Allah. 1 detest l10thing more than
them." The Prophet
tj: participated in the war of AI-Fuijar helping his
uncles by
col1e<:ting fallen arrows for them. The Prophet ~
was equipped
with wisdom and sagacity, that is why Qunlysh
asked his opinion
about placing the Black Stone.
These glimpses from the life of the Prophet ~ in
his childhood,
indicate the educational methodology to be
followed by educators
with their children. It is well known thatthc
Prophet 4: is the best
example for us all through his childhood, youth,
and from his
malurity, 10 Ihe end of his life.
To sum up, over indulgence is one of the d~isi ve
factors in
causing children to deviate. Thus, it is the duty of
parentsespedally
mothers to adopt the principles laid down for
rearing
children; among these principles, is moderate
arrection for
children, and teaching them compliance with the
Commands of
Allah. Among these is chastisement of children in
case of
misconduct. Also, teaching children to be
mdependent.
Finally, among these principles is to teach the child
to follow
the Prophet's example at all stages of his life. The
day when
cducators adopt the above concepts, they will help
avoid damaging
their children's personalities and help in
promoting moral
standards_
Unequal treatment or cllildren is considered the
gravest factor in
the psycllological deviation of ellildrcn, in addition
to tile resultant
sense of self-abasement, envy and hatred. The
greatest educator ~
guided parents to be just in dealing with their
children:
AI-BukMrl and Muslim narrated after An-Nu'man
Ibn Bashir
that his father came to the Prophet ~ and sa id, " I
have given this
child of mine this servant who was in my service."
The Prophet $
said, "'Have you given each of your children a
servant like Ihal,?" My
father said, ·'No.'· The Prophet then said. 'Take
back what you
gave him." In another narration, the Prophet $
said, "Did you do
the same wilh al/ ),our cltildren?"' The father said,
"No." Then the
Prophet 3 said, "Fear Allah alld do justice be/ween
your childrell. "
Then my father went baek and took back that gift.
Another
narration says, the Messenger of Alliih .1;. said, "0
Hoshi;. do you
have any cltildren olher IIt(J.n Ihis one' " My father
said, '·Yes."
Then the Prophet $ said, "Did you gire eaclt olle of
Ihem Ihe
same?" He said, "No," the Prophet $ said, "Do nOI
ask me 10
testify becuuse. I do "o1 testify 10 i"juslice.·· After
that the Prophet
said, "Would J'oulike your children 10 be equally
benign 10 you?"
128 P:ut Two
My father said, "Yes." The Prophet ,:j: finally said,
"Then no,
" You should give equal gifls 10 all."
We may deduce from that Hadith the principles of
justice,
equality, and love for all children without any
distinction between
them. However, there may be evident reasons for a
father's giving
more care to some of his children than othen. For
e~ample, a child
may not be a favorite, because of being less
beautiful or intelligent.
A child may suffer from physical infirmity, but in
fact, all of
these physical or moral reasons do not justify lack
of care for the
child or giving more care to his siblings. What is
his crime if he is
not beautiful?
Definitely the only solution to such problems is the
order of the
Prophet #.. "Fear Allrih and implement justice
between your
children." This is what Alliih has decreed. It would
also be faithful
to act justly between children, males and females
alike. All
children then, should enjoy the spirit of love,
equality, mercy,
kindness, and just treatment.
Physical infirmities are also among the facto rs of
deviation,
because they lead in most cases to a feeling of
inferiority and
depression. So, when a boy or girl is affected with a
physical
infirmity like being blind or deaf or slow, or
stammering, then he
or she should find all kindness, love, care, and
mercy from all the
people who live with him or her, like parents'
siblings and relatives.
This is in line with the saying of the Prophet #.
who said as has
been reponed by At-Tirmidhi and AbU DiiwGd,
"'The pt!ople who
have mercy on 0lher5. Allrih will have mercy ()n
them. Ifave mercy on
people an earth then A/frih will have mercy on
you."
But when we address anyone suffering from such
defects calling
him "one-cycd", "deaf', or "stammerer," then it is
natural for
these children to get all sorts of inferiority
comple~cs, pessimism.
and envy_ SQ, it is the duty of educators 10 treat
such children
129
wisely and mercifully. That kmd of treatment
would alleviate their
inward feeling of inferiority and depression_
The second stcp is that educators should give
advice and
warning to every person that deals with such
children, whether he
is a relative or not, that he should be aware to not
show them
contempt, or to insult, or mock them.
lbe third step by educators is 10 choose for those
children good
companionship of moral integrity. who would help
them feel that
they are the obje<:1 of their love and compassion.
To ~um up what
was aforementioned, educators should deal with
children with
phy~ical infirmities with love and mercy, look
after them with care,
and guarantee them good companionship.
Being an orphan may be a faclor for a chi ld 's
psycological
deviation, especially if the orphan is living
amongst people who do
not take care of him, and do not treat him with
kindness, mercy
and love. Here, we find that Islam is the religion
that prescribes
taking care of orphans in regards to livelihood and
treatment, so
that the child grows as a sound member of society,
capable of
performing his responsibilites.
Thus, Islam entrusts looking after an orphan and
caring for him
to his kindred by blood and relatives. It is Ihe duty
of these people
to give children kindness and to deal with them as
they deal with
their own children. In case of lack of guardians or
relatives, then, il
is the duty of the Islamic Slate to provide care and
resp~>nsibility
towards those children to supervise their rearing
and guidance. Thc
Islamic State should likewise look aneT foundlings
and guarantee
their livelihood.
Poverty is an important factor in the psycological
deviation of
children. Possibilities of deviation increase when
the children find
that their family lives in misery and deprivation.
Mailers will be
worse when the child finds some of his relatives,
children of his
neighbours or his colleagues at school, in beautiful
apparel and
happy circumstances, while he does not find
provision or clothing.
Islam has dcah with povcrty in two ways: First, it
pays special
reSpeI;t to hum"n dignity and care for the weak
and poor. Second,
Isliim has ordered social security, so it decreed
Zaktih, (poor-dues)
for lighting hunger and destitution . Islam docrces
that the ruler
should offer jobs to each person who has the
ability to work. It also
ordained family gU3Tdianship for each child that
is born as a
Muslim, whether he is son of a ruler, official, or a
simple craftsman.
Here. we read that Abu Ubayd, in his book, " AI-
Amll'a{"'
(Property) narrates that 'Umar Ibn AI.Kha_t_tab ~
imposed for
each child a hundred dirhams plus the father"s
share from the State
Treasury. That share increased with the growth of
the child. This
system was followed by Uthman, Ali and other
Caliphs.
Furthermore, Islam lflsists on implementing in the
heart of
every Muslim, the need for cooperation, solidarity
and good will.
So when the cITorls of the state, together WIth the
efforts of the
society and lfldividuals, fight poverty, it would be
eradicated from
Muslim society. Then the Muslim Ummah (nation)
wi ll enjoy
security, solidarity and stability and lhe children of
this society wi ll
be free from all psychological imbalances.
En~y
Envy is a desire on the part of one person to sec
the
disappearance of another person's wealth or
privilege. It is a
dangerous psychological phcnomcnon which teads
to lhe most evil
results. Such a phenomenon has 10 be seriously
dealt with by
educators.
Before dealing with precautions a nd remedics for
this
phenomenon, it would be better to mcntion the
reasons that
kindle jealousy and envy in the hearts of children.
Among these
reasons are:
131
_ The child may fear losing ~ome of his privileges
such as love and
kindness, especially when another child h:u been
born to the
same family. He may imagine that this child would
compete with
him for love and kindness.
Inciting jealousy between children, by mentioning
Ihal one IS
intelligent and lhe other is not.
Favoring a cerIum child more than others, by
fondling and,
playing with him while neglecting, depriving, or
bealing the
other.
_ Forgiving one child's misdeeds and punishing
another child for
the least misdeeds.
_ The child may live in severe poverty, while the
community lives in
luxury.
These are some of the reasons which lead \0 envy
and hatred.
Here we lind that [sliim has dealt with the
phenomenon of cnvy
with wise educational principles as follows:
- Making the child feel he is loved, for that was
what the Prophet
tj: did and always recommended to his
Companions. Here arc
some examples:
At-Tirmidhi narratt-d from 'Abdullah Ibn Baridah
after his
father, '*' who said, "While the Prophet 3- was
delivering a
sermon. AI-Hasan and AI-Husayin ... came to the
Prophet.
They were weari ng two red shirts and walked
with difficulty.
Then the Prophet 4- came down from the pulpit
and C<Lrried
both of them between his hands. Then he said,
Allah tells the
truth. "And know thot your possessions and your
children are hut
a "ial aad r"at surely ..-it" A II"" ;s (J mighty te
lO'ard" (At.Anrat,28).
I looked at those infants walking with difficulty, [
could not
pursue my talk and [ took them both between my
hands."
AI-Bu~1].ari reported that 'Aishah ~ said. "A
bedouin Arab
came to the Prophet $ and said. 'Do you kiss your
children! We
certainly do not kiss them,' Then the Prophet it
said. 'whal CO" 1
do for yOIl. if AlIlilr ha!! lake" away mercy from
your hear'?'"
It should not be forgotten by educators. especially
mothers, that
measures should be taken to avoid provoking envy
when 11 new
ehild is born. In Ihis case, measures should start
many months
before the birth of a child in the way of changing
the bed of the
older child, or sending him to a nursery. [I is also
recommended
thaI the older brother may help his new brother in
dressing,
washing and fccding. It is also rl'(;ommended that
the older brother
may play wilh his younger brother under Ihe
supervision of Ihe
mother. When a mother carries the Ixtby for
suekhng, then it is
commendable thai the father plays with the older
child, converse
with him. and be gentle with him 10 make him fccl
that he is still
the object of love and kindness.
Justice betwccn children: educators should deal
with justice
between children, for this will help allay envious
fcclings among
them; so children will live with their siblings and
parents in love
and kindness.
Educators should do every thing possible to get rid
of envious
feelings. So, in the case of a new baby, older
children may feel their
loss of love and kindess from their parents. The
duty of the parents
is to make the olher child ren feel that their love
and affection have
not changed. It is the responsibility of parents to
keep away from
blaming and chastising. It is also the duty of
parenls to observe
justice and equality belwccn children. Thus, it is
the duty of
educators to be aware of arousing envy and
jealousy. for the
Prophet 4: warned against envy and prohibited it.
AbG DiiwGd
reported from Abu Hurairah thaL the Messenger of
AlIiih II: said,
"Beware of envy, because envy ems lip Ihe good
deeds lIS Ihefire eal!!
"p wood." At-Tabaralll narrated that the Prophet.$
said, "Peop/I!
IIrl< good twlie'ws so long os they avoid envy."
Anger
Anger is a psychological and emotional stale lhat a
ch,ld may
feel during his fi rst days and continue to
accompany him
throughout all the stages of his life. Sincc anger is
inherent m
human nalure from the day of his birth. it ,s a
mistake to consider
it tota lly evil, for Allah 1ft created man and gave
him these
natural instincts, inclinations and feelings. In fact.
It has been a
favor of Divine Wisdom for man's social in terest.
Among the
benefits of anger is defense of self, religion,
honour, as well as
keeping Muslim lands from the plots of aggressors
and
conspiracies by imperial powers. H:ld not that
phenomenon been
provided by AlljJh in humiln beings, Muslims
would not have been
able to fight the violations of the Commands of
AIl£lh and His
religion; nor would they have been able to repel
the enemies of
Islam when they attack Muslim lands. This is,
without doubt,
commendable anger, which was manifested
through some deeds of
lhe Prophet 3. If some sociologists and educators
have included
anger among evils, they were referring to the sort
of anger for
personal interests and scllish motives
The Qur'an has commanded male and female
believers to
repress anger, repel ev il with good acts. and turn
away from
ignorant people so that societies can achieve
happiness, affection
and Mushms can preserve their unity. Here AlIjJh
!a says,
~ G:L.!)~ ~(r "i J( ~ G;' >t"jii J; ~~ .: di .p;1 ~~.:; 1-
"And Ille (fuilllf al) sla oes of,IIe Moot GTtICiaa .•
(A llfi ll ) are ,IIou
K'II0 wulk on tile earth in IIumility and
seduteness, and K'hen ,IIe
f oofu.II addruJ tllem ( wi,II bud K'O/'dJ) ,IIty reply
back K·itll mild
wards of gentleness." (AJ-Furqlin, 63)
.I. U' : 't ___ ' jj ~~ > ~f~~ ~• oi ;.f --~< ·Ht:W) ';:_"'
~i "'. "~s -ir.J Tl..
"wllo up.e,·s anger, and N,II" pardnn men; l'er;ly,
AI/till loves AIMullsinin
(Ille good-doe •. _), " (AI 'Imran, 134)
.1. [", :- ., 1' _< G(I' 1.. 't ~ r" ~ ->J,J r
"and ",hen 'hey au angry, 'hey /"rgil'c ." (A,h_Shil'nJ
37)
The Prophet $. praised those who repress anger
and who
restrain themselves in ease of anger. Al-Bukhan
narrated that once a
man said 10 Ihe [>rophet $ , "Favor me with your
counsel." Then the
PrOphel said, "Dn no/ be angry." He repeated il
again, saying, "Do onl
be angry. " Imam A~mad n:ported in his M'lsnad
lhat Ibn 'Umar"
asked the Prophet *,,"What makes me far away
from Allah's angerT'
The Prophet 3: said, "Dn nm be angry_" Al Bukhar,
and Muslim
narrated from Ibn Mas'ud .;;. who sa.id that the
Prophet *' said,
"Whom would YOII consider brave?'" They said, "A
person who
could not be defeated." Then he said, "No! A brave
person is he whn
restrains himself ",Ium ongry."
In fact, since the phenomenon of anger has its bad
eITcrts on the
human personali!y, the mind, sdf-restraint, the
cohesiveness and
unity of society, then the duly of the people who
rear up children is
to deal with that phenomenon among children
from the very
beginning till they attain maturity.
The best treatmcnt for the phenomenon of anger
in a child is to
keep him away from the rcasons for angcr. For
examplc, if the
reason and motive of anger arc hunger then, it is
the duty of
educators to feed the child adequately because
negligence here may
lead to physical or psychological imbalance.
If the causes of anger are sickness then, it is the
duty of
educators to seck medical treatment for the child.
If the causes of
anger are blaming the child or insulting him then,
it is the duty of
educators to tell him never to use insulting words.
If the causes of
anger arc that a child may try to imitate his
parents then, the duty
of parents is to give the child good example in
forbearance,
patience and selF-control.
When the causes of anger are over indulgence and
a life of
lu~ury then, the duty of educators is to be
moderate in their love
for the children and reasoni.ble in spending upon
them. In case the
causes of anger are being despised and ridiculed,
then, the dUly of
educators is to avoid such causes. Among the
effective means of
combatting anger IS to provide him with the
Prophetic example in
fighting anger. Here are Ihe stages of this method:
l. Change in the position of the angry person. Imam
Ahmad
narraled Ihat the Prophet 3; said, "When anyone
among yo"
frrls (lngry while he \\"(lS slw,d,,,g. Ihrn. he mlly
sil dOl..,,: in case
(Inger lUI., 1101 "hated. lei him lie down. "
2. The child may resort 10 ablu tion in C.1SC of
anger. Abu Diiwud
narrated that the Prophet 3: said, "'Anger ;s
insligaled by
SaIlin. Indeed Salan h(J.,· been crealCd from lire
fire. Ille fife is
e:r:li"guished willr \\"ater. So wlren anyone of ym,
is allgry. Ihen.
Ire sholiid make ahfrtlion."'
3. The child should rewrt 10 $ilence when he is
angry. Imam Ahmad
has reported that the Prophet 3:: said, "' Wlren
wryone of you is
angry. he should kcrp sUell/."'
4. The child should seck refuge with Allilh from
Satan. It has bet:n
narrated in As-Sllhilrayn that two men abused
each other in the
presence of the I' rophet ~ and one of them was
red-faC<.."<I, then,
the Prophet ~ sa id, " Verily. I do know Ihat ifhe
Irad said. '1 seek
refllge wilh AI/iill from SalmI.' indeed. onger
,,"ouid Iw ve bee,r
gone." Those are the most important
recommendations of the
Prophet ~ in order to alleviate anger iLnd to case
its severity.
Finally, il is the duty of educators to show children
that anger is
hateful, since the person who ;s angry, would have
red eyes, his
ve ins would be innatcd, and all his features would
be changed His
fiLce would be red and his voice would be loud.
Tbat is why tbe
Prophet $ warned against anger. Imam Ahmad
narrated that the
Prophet 3: said, "Verily, anger is a fire brand
bllmillg ill Ihe hearl
of Ihe sons of Adam. No doubl you ",i/! see the
injIalion of his veins
and Ihe redness of his eyn. So whoel'er feels any of
these symploms,
then he has /0 change his sianii (by silting or lying
down )."
We can sum up that educators have to be carerul
to keep
children away from the causes of unger, by
observing the Prophetic
concepts in dealing with anger and trying to
alleviate it. Then
children will leurn patience and self- controL So
educators should
teach children to be steadfast and courageous.
_ Children should also be free from fedings of
humiliation and
should try to develop a sense of duty and
optimism.
- They should be free from envy and try to develop
a sense of
unselfishness.
- Patience and deep thinking should replace anger.
By freeing children from the negative efTects of
anger through
following the advantages of Muslim principles,
educators will
prepaTe their chi ldren for life. This is the way to
educate the youth
of tomorrow and the men of the future. Indeed, the
personality of
the children will be sane, their ethies will be high,
and hence they
will be free from psychological deficiencies.
137
Chapler Six
The Respo nsibility for Social Education
The concept of social education is to rear a chi ld
on good social
moral~ and noble psychological principles based
on Islam. So a
chi ld will acquire good breeding, politeness, and
sound behaviour.
There is no doubt that social education is the most
important
responsibility in rcanng children, and it represents
a combination
of all of the above mentioned aspects of education.
So, what arc
the practical means leading to a good social
education? These
means may be summed up in four essentials:
l. Implanting psychological principles
2. Takmg into consideration the rights of others.
3. Adhering to the general social morals.
4. Supervision and social criticism.
L Implanting Psychological I' rinc iplcs
Isl5m implants the principles of good within the
hearts of
mdividuals whether they arc young or old, male or
female. These
psychological principles and deep-rooted
educational rules foml
the foundation of the human perwnality, In order
to plant these
psychological fundamental s, [sl~m has laid down
its tenets aDd
guidelines for social education_ In tho following,
we oITer these
psychologiC'dl principles wh'ch Isl;'im sl,:eks to
implant:
A, Pi ety: it is the defmite result of man's deep
Ixlief in AIHih and
fear of Him, fear of His Wrath, His PuniShment and
hope for His
Forgiveness and His Rew<lrd. Scholars define
piety in these words:
AlIiih should not sec you wherever He has
prohibited you, and
AlI<ih should not miss you wherever He has
ordered you to Ix.
Other scholars have put it this way, " Piety is
safeguarding oneself
from the torment of Almighty AIJ;,h by good d~-
eds and fearing His
punishment in secret and in public:' Here, we find
the Qur'an
stressing the advantages of piety, in many evident
vcrses. Here
also, we find the noble companion~ and the great
early generatioM
endeavor for piety, striving to Ix pious, and lIsking
the Prophet ~
about ,t. [t has been reported thai 'Umar Ibn AI-
Khat tab. asked
Ubayy Ibn Ka'b about piety; so Ubayy s<!id, "Did
you walk on a
thomy way?" " Yes" 'UmaT said, "Then what did
you do?" 'Umar
said, " I accomodated myself and did my best"
Ubayy s-:!id, "That
is piety."
So piety,s sensitivity of conscience, transparency of
feelmg,
continuous fe~r, permanent awareness 'lnd
precaution along lhe
thorny way of life. It is a way of contention
betw~'Cn the thorns of
desire and p..1ssion, the thorns of hope and
ambition, the thorns of
fear and misgiving, the thorns of false hope from
the hopeless, false
fear of those with no power for Ixneflt or harm ,md
tcn~ of other
lJ9
thomsOJ So, piety for the sake of Allah, apart from
the fact that il
fiUs the heart of (he believer with fear of Allah,
helps the individual
acquire moral behavior for the sake of Allah which
is the source of
all social merits. This is the only way 10 combate
corruption und
evil. so, because of the importance of these
psychological principles
for social education, we should rear our children
on being plOUS to
AlJ5h and fear Him.
2. Brotherhood: \\ is a psychological bond that
implants the feehngs
of love for .,11 who associate with the individual
under Ihe banner
of lsl:im and Ihe bonds of faith . This truthful
feeling of
brotherhood generales. in the hean of a Mus lim,
the deepest
affection \0 adopt positive altitudes of
cooperation, unselfishness
mercy and clemency in case of ability.
Brotherhood also means
that the indtvidual avoids all that hurts people In
themselves. their
property and their honour. (sliim recommends this
sort of
brotherhood. Alliih has prescribed its
requirements in many
Qur'anie verses as well as ill the Hadiths of the
Prophet $ . So,
Allah says,
"The believer! are nOlhing du Ihan h.",hus (in
blamic
religion} •• , " (Al-J::I ujur';l. 10) Again Allah m
says,
~ (~~ '!:;:;, ;;:'."I;.?;J!;; Jt ,~, 1%;\ M !~I : - :-~ l.(;tii;
t
"and remember Allah's Fa vor on )'01',10' y"u
were enemit'S OnC 10
anMher but lie joined you, heurlS logelher, so Ihal.
by lIis Grace.
)"01' hecame hulh,en (in Islamic Fuith)"' (AI ·
Imriln. 103)
AI-Rukhiirt and Muslim reponed that the Prophet
$. sitid,
" Verily, no one among )"011 believe. unlil/,e do<'S
{o;oe lor his brolher
,,·halner he loves for himself" A~mad and Muslim
reported in
(t) s.,., in " Fi Zi!,,! AI-Qur'm'" by S<lnid QU!b Vol I.
p. 40.
another haJith saying: "The parl/ble of the
believers in their
affection. their sympalhy and their mercy. i$like
the body af a human
being. If some limb suffers, the whole body will be
fallen wilh fever
and sleeplessness." Muslim also reported that the
Prophct ti: said,
"A Muslim is brother of every other muslim, N(me
of them would
inflici injustice 0'1 the Olher, or abondon him,
betroy him, or despise
him. II is odiously eril for a Muslim to hold another
Muslim in
comempt. Any Muslim's belongings are
Ultlawfulfor anolher Muslim:
his blood. his prnperly and hi$ hanour." Then thc
Prophet said,
"Piety is here" three times and pointed out to his
chest.
As a result of this brotherhood and love for the
sake of Allah,
each individual in the Muslim community.
throughout history,
dealt with each other on the basis of compassion,
unselfishness,
cooperation and solidarity. Indeed, it is on thIS
basis of
brotherhood and love that we should raise our
children.
3_ Mercy: it means tenderness of heart, sensitivity
of conscience
and gentleness of feeling. with the aim of haVing
compassion for
ot hers, sympathy with them and relieving their
sadness and pains.
The Prophet $ considered mercy among human
beings as the
means for Allah's mercy. At-Tirmidhi AbG D:iwGd
and Ahmad
reported the saying of the Prophet 3, "Those who
have mercy on
others. will have mercy from Allah. So ha~e mercy
on those on the
earth for then mercy will be bes/Owed on you by
Alliihfrom heaven."
The Prophet oj: judged that the people who are
void of mercy
would be among the wretched ones. Thus, At-
Tirmidhi, Abu
Diiwud and others reported that the Prophet ~
said, "Mercy i$
'101 eliminated except from lire heart of II
wrett'hed person."
Mercy in Islam is not confined only \0 Muslims.
but it is a
spring that flows \0 "n people. Nay, it goes beyond
rational beings
endowed with spe,.'ch, [0 dumb beasts. Here we
give somc examples
which indicate some or the effects of mercy in
Muslim society.
Here we have Abu Bah while he sees orT US[lma
Ibn Zayd's
army addressing him by saying, "Do nol kill a
woman, or old
man, or a baby. Do not cut 01T plam-trees or any
fruitful tree. You
will find some people who have dedicated
themselves for wor:<hip
in a hermitage, so leave them for what they have
dedicated
themselves to."
Before Islam, 'Umar Ibn AI-'5 ~a~~ab ~ wa,
known for cruelty
and severi ty, but after IsW.m mercy gushed forth
from his heart. He
considered himself responsible before AlI:ih for a
mule that fell
down on the roads of Iraq because he had not
paved the road
properly.
Historians also report that when 'Amr Ibn Al--As
conquered
Egypt, he s.aw a pigeon come down 10 his tent,
and il made its nest
at the top of it. When 'Amr intended to depart and
saw the pigcon,
he did not want to drive it by removing the tenl. As
a result, he left
the tent, and then the people bulll around this tent.
That is how the
Fustat city was buil l. Among those instances of
charitable
endowments in IsI.lm are Ihe following:
- Endowment of stray dogs which are kept in
secluded places to be
taken care of until they die.
- The endowment for w~-ddings, where poor
people borrow jewels
and orn;lments from the Endowment on Ihe
occassions of
weddings and feasts. Thus, the poor may enjoy the
occasion in
festivity and happiness.
- Endowment for sick people ;ond travellers: in
such an endowment.
singers may participate by songs and anthems
until morning in
order 10 relieve the suffering of the ,iek and sha re
with them.
- The endowment of Az-Zabllt/i: here every
servant whose vessel
has been broken and is exposed to Ihe master's
anger, has the
right to Ihe administmtion of waq[. There, be
leaves tbe broken
vessel and takes 3 new vessel. Thus be sa.ves
hImself from the
anger and punishment of his master.
These were not types of all the endowments, but
there were
other WIllYS, ~ueh as feeding, supplying water for
the thi rsty,
clothing the naked, giving help to strangers,
treating the sick,
tc,lchmg the ignorant, burying the dead, sheltering
orphans,
succoring the depressed and helping the disabled,
Such endow·
ments and ehari tab lc institutions were acts of
mercy that Allah
bestowed on the hearts of true believers. So we
should raise our
children in accordance with the precepts
underlying these
institutions.
4, UUSI.'lrishness: this is a psychological trait that
leads to the
preference of others Oyer oneself, Such a trail is a
noble attitude so
long as unselfish acts arc olTered for the sake of
Allah; and ~uch
acts are proof of true belief, and a solid basis for
social security, It
is enough in this reg;l rd that the Qur'an has
recommended thi~
high form of brotherhood, compassion, and
unselfishness, So
Allah says,
r:;J~ oJ. ~J~ i 'is rJl I":" ,;; ~Jf. ~ it: ?:i~ ";!]i p; 5:J~ t
~ ;;'IFjt ! .:; C!- j~ ,;.:; ~\ '-J. Ft;. ~( j;: .. }'l dO~; ~) ~
l:~'-
of Z,Y-l,'il
"And ( if is also for) those ",ho, IN/ou fhem, had
homes (in Af!
I1lldinllh) and had udopud the Faith, lo ~c thol'f
who emigrll(f to
rhem, Illld hlll'e 110 jealousy in rheir breaJIS l or
IhuT ",hieh they hll"c
bU ll gi,'ell (from The boOTy 0/ Hllnt A II-Nlldi~) ,
and gi.e Them
(emigrunTsj pre/uellCt! OI'~r iJ,cmse/"eJ cvell
Though rhey "'erc ill
nu d o/lhaT, And ",hosoe ,'", is sa_ed/rom his 0,.'11
CO"etOMSlltsS, such
Ilft they ,.'ho will bc rlre sTTcccss/TTI," (At -I}a'hr,
9)
This yoluntary prcference of others oyer oneself as
well "s the
social sympathy embodied in the manners or the
helpers, go
unparalleled in the history of mankind_ The moral
of prererence is
clearly seen ;n Muslim societies all through the
ages with all the
splendid aspects of unselfishn ess, details of which
cannOI be
mentioned here. Flow worthy then is it of
educators to bring up
children aceordmg to these noble ideals of
unselfishness and
sacrifice!
5. Forgiveness: it is a noble psychological feeling
that leads to
tolerance, giving up onc's rights, whoever the
aggressor may be, on
condition thaI the injured person has the ability to
take revenge
and that there is no transgression against Islam; or
else forgiveness
will represent humil iation, misery and surrender.
But the concept
of forgivness, in case of abihty to retaliate, is an
inherent moral
characteristic of !sHim, It is no surprise that the
Qur'iin commends
forgiveness in many verses, Thus we read,
~ ~ J :';)11;' ;< 1; ~~;,~~ "'::;jf l;i.:,i ~1; 1
"And 10 fOrtf:O and give (her the f ull iHahd is
nea,,'~ to 1'11-
Taq"'o (pief)', righlt OlmleJS), And do not forget
liberality between
)'ou~selves. " (Al.llaqatah, 237) And we also read,
.I. .s" ," Ii ~ > :.i(~ • 6i ,- ~ ,t:W '-~;ii '. If IT' }"
"{ u ~ J u:! if-H J. "u '1'
"People who restrain anger und purdon 01/ men,
for AUtih loves
thou who do gfNJd, " (At ' lmran, 134) ,
tJ;;i;t t~ I~~ '~\:I" "Jr I;~ ~~:f ~.;)~ 2;( ~;;;\\ ~
:!:--j( .s/,', 1,;,
~ .. --"-
('The gfNJd d""ed una the evil deed cunnot be
equal. Repel (th"" evil)
"'ilh on"" ... hieh is beller (i.e. Alliih ordl'r~d
lhefo;/hful believer .• to be
patienf at the time of anger, and to excuse thme ...
ho lua, them
badly) then verily he, between ... hom and you thae
'''us enmity, ( "'i/l
h""CQme) Il' though he ... as u close friend."
(Fu!!;lat, :14)
Abu Diiwud narrated that the Prophet ~ said,
"Allyolle ",ha
res/rains anger although he can take reve"Ke for
himsel[. Alliih will
invite him on the Day of Jut/gment ill public und
give him the choice of
a I!urull '{II (Dumsel with big beautifll! eyes), " So
according to these
ideals of compassion, tolerance and forgiveness,
we should raise
our children.
6. Courage: it is a psychological trait that is
inspired in the believer
through his belief in Allah, the One, through the
decreed
determination and through his sense of
responsibility, and his
upbringing. The more a believer is equipped with
these traits, the
more will be his share of steadfastness and
courage in defending
the truth. That is why All iih iii has praised those
who convey the
messages of their Lord and fear none but Allilh.
Alliih 1Ji says,
~ (.,.,;. ~~ ;J, ~( -ilLJ 5~':O: t ~~~;;~ ~i ,;,1.'\1 ~;r
/' ~i t
" Thou who preach the m~$$ageJ of AfUih, and
fear him. and
fear none but Allrih. And enough is Alfrih to calf
men to accounr"
(Al-A~b, 39)
Thus stead fastness in announcing the truth is one
of the
noblest achievements of Jihad (striving in the way
of Allah). Abu
Diiwud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah have reported
that the
Prophet #. said, "The highest rank of Jihad if the
word of truth 10
an unjust rule," That is why, if a person becomes a
martyr from
saying the word of truth, he is considered of the
highest rank in
martyrdom.
Thus, AI-I:fakim narrated that the Prophet #. said,
"The muster
of martyrs is I~amzuh Ibn 'Abdul MU~~(jlib and a
rnun ""ho s/Ood
before an unjusl ruler telling him what if right and
what if wrong.
Ihen the ruler kU/s him." So the Prophet ~
covenanted with his
Companions that they should say the truth under
any circumstances.
Here Muslim has narrated after Ubadah Ibn As-
Samit.:(ll,
who said, the I' rophet e: took an oath from us to
listen and obey
in cases of felicity and sulTering, and in cases of
approval and
disapproval, He also took an oath from us that we
should prefer
for him fo r ourselve~ and that we should show
allegiance \0 our
rulers, unless we see evident disbelier ror which
we have evident
proof, and to say the word of truth under all
circumstances, with
no fear of rcproach." Such aTC the virtues of
steadfastness and
courage that we try to implant in our children.
These are the most important psychological
principles which
Islam seeks to implant in the hearts of the
believers. All those
principles help in forming the Islamic personality
and in building
up the social edifice. Indeed, any educational
system thaI does not
observe the psychological principles laid down by
Islam will indeed
prove to be a failure.
So it is the duty of parents and educators to
develop in their
children a sense of faith and piety as well as the
sentiments of
brotherhood, alTection. mercy, unselfishness,
patience, steadfast
ness, and love of truth. If this course is followed,
children grow up,
they wi!! be capable of shouldering their
responsibilities.
2. Consideration for the Rights of Others
Indeed considering the rights of society is interrela
ted with
psychological principles, for such principles are
thc spirit, and the
rights of society represent the body. So we cannot
isolate the first
from the second. The most important social righ ts
which our
chidren should observe are:
1. The rights of parents
11. The rights of kindred by blood
II I. The rights of neighbours
IV. The rights of teachers
V. The rights of com panions
VI. The rights of the elderly
We shall deal with these points in brief, so that
educators may
try to implant them in the minds of the children
during their tender
years.
I. The Rights or Parent
The most important duty of the educator should be
to acquaint
the children with the rights of parents, in the way
of doing good to
them, obeying them, and being kind to them This
means serving
them, looking after them in their old age. lowering
their voice in
their presence, and supplicating for mcrcy for
them after their
death ... etc. Here arc some of the sayings of the
Prophet $: re lated
to the good treatment of parents. It is the duty of
parents and
educato rs to teach them to their chi ldren at an
early age.
3. Achieving satisfaction from AIl:ih depends on
satisfying parents.
AI-Ililkhari has narra ted that 11m Abb:is 40
reported that the
Prophet * said, '"A Afl/slim who has 11<"0 M
rl5lim PI/URIS should
fulfil/llreir ",wls mid offer them basic necessities;
for Ihen Alldh
will open IWO doors of Paradise for him. If/here is
only one parent.
AlIiih will open/or him one door of Paradise. III
case a Muslim
causes di.~plea.)'Ilre /() his porents. A/Nih will
nOl be salisfied wUh
him unli/ his J41rentS Ofe pleased with him. [ t has
been said even if
his parents wronged him. Ibn Abbas said the vcry
words, "Even
if the parents wronged him,"
b. Good treatment of parents has prca:dcnce over
collective Jihii!!
in the cause of Allah, for Al-Bukhari reported after
' Abdullah
Ibn 'Umar" who said, "A man ~aid to the Prophet 4
J want
to go to Jihad in the way of Allah." The Prophet
asked him, "Do
you have jI(/fcnlJ?" The man said, "Yes." Then the
Prophet said,
"You should make Jihtid by he/ping them."
c. Another recommendation is 10 pray for them
after theiT death
and to weloome their friends in compliance with
the will of
Alliih !J§l,
... t.;..;. 'C~( ;';:'J '< \~ ' ; ' ::1i : i~I 'C( ~\ , ,'t}. "t .,
~.~ '1-' ,-"J , or ~" C · ~'-' T
"Anti out of kintlllns Io}"er fa fhem fhe wing of
humility anti say
my Lord bestow on them mercy as they cherished
me in childhood"
(At. tst'!'. 24)
AI.Bu~~ari narrated that AbCl Hurairah ':;' said,
"The rank of a
dead person would be raised after his death. Then
he will ask,
'0, my Lord. what is this for'? Then. AlIiih says,
'Your son has
asked forgivenes, for you.'"
AbU Dawiid Ibn Majab and Al- liakim have
narrated after Malik
Ibn Rabi'ah who said, "While we were in the
company of the
Prophet $ a person from Bani Salamah came, and
said, '0,
Messenger of Alliih. is there any thing of good
treatment left
towards my parents after their death?" The
Prophet $ said,
. Yes: prayer for them. asking farg;1'ene.H f{)r
them, fulfilling their
commi/men/s. hOlwIlring their f riends and
showing kindness /0
148 1'." Two
kindreds by blood since Ihal was acliieved hy
them." Here
'Abdullah Ibn 'Umar Ibn AI-Khatlab 'a set the
excellent
example of the righteous. 'Abdullah Ibn Dinar
narrated in
accordance with Muslim in his authentic book that
'Abdullah
Ibn 'Umar met a man while he was on his way to
Makkah.
Then 'Abdullah greeted him, carried him on his
donkey and
put his own tripulant on the head of the stranger.
Ibo Dinar
said, "We said to Ibn 'Umar may Allah keep you
righteous.
Those are Arab Redouin~! They would be satisfied
with little
things. Then 'Abdullah said, Verily, the father of
this man was
beneficent to 'Umar Ibn AI-khattiib and indeed
heard the
Messenger of Alhlh say, "The beneficent treatment
tliat a mall
call offer should be 10 the people wiw offered
beneficent
treatment to his father."'
d . Giving precedence to the mother over the
father. AI-Rukhiiri
narrated that Abu Hurairah '*' said, "A man came
to the
Prophet ~ and said, '0, Messenger of Allah! Who
has the best
right for my good companionship?' The Prophet
said, 'Your
mother. 'Then the man said, Who comes next? the
Prophet again
sa id, "Your mother." Again the man said, "Then
who is next?"
The Prophet also said, "Your mOlher!"' Then man
repeated.
"Who is next?" The Prophet said, " Your father.!."
Islam has given preference to the mother over the
father for two
reasons: first, the mother suffers as a result of her
pregnancy.
suckliog, and rearing her children more than a
father does. Here
the Qur'an explicitly says,
~ ~ iii Jl :<Gt); .,I,;k.'.i ..) ~, ..J Ii· -.0::; ~.:; ~ G':; ~1 :
::i; ,
"His "",'her bore him in weaknen and hlUd.<hip
llpon ",y ak"en
und hardship, und hi, ""euning i, in '''''0 yellrs -
give ,hunks to Me
Dtld 10 your pllretlts. Un/a Me is /he finD/
des/i_liM •.. (Luqrnan, t 4)
Second: due 10 Ihe mother's nature. which is full
of affeclion,
love, and pity, ~he gives more care to the children
than Ihe
father. So the child may not be able 10 fulfil! al! his
dUlies
towards her. So the S/rarrllh enjoins the child to
be most
compassionate and obedient 10 his mother.
e. Beneficence towards parents: il is the duty of
educators 10 give
lessons 10 Iheir children about the beneficence
they should show
to their parcnls as follows: (hey should not walk
ahead of them,
or call them by their first names, nor be annoyed at
their advice.
or disobey theIr orders.
f- Warning chi ldren from ill conduCI or AI-Uqiiq,
(disobeying and
abstaining from performing rights). An C};ample of
al-uqiiq is
that a boy may look at his father in anger. It is also
ai-uqiiq that
a boy may consider himself equal to his falher .
Another form of
al-uqiiq is that a boy may behave (00 arrogantly
and refuse to
kiss the hands of his parents or rise for them in
respect. JI is also
al-uqriq (hat the son may be too haughty 10 speak
about his
father, especially if the son has achieved a high
social status.
Again it is al-uqiiq thaI the boy may nOI help his
poor parents to
(he ex(ent that they may be compelled to make
lawsuits against
him to make him provide for them. The WOTSI
form of AI-uqriq is
that the boy may show contempt, annoy, chide,
abuse or repel
them. It is no surprise then that the Prophet ~ has
warned
children against AI-uqriq as a gnve sin that will
burden them and
will result in punishmen( in this life and in the
Hereafter. AI_
Bukhari and Muslim reported afler Abu Bakr'" that
the Prophet
~ said. "Would I tell yarl aboul lire graveSI sin?" He
s.aid these
words thrice. Then the companion said, "Yes O.
Messenger or
Allah ." He said, "Disbelief in A /lfih and dislayally
10 parenlS. " The
Prophel was leaning at that lime, then suddenly he
S31 up and said,
"CerlOinly. saying falsehood. and false witnessing
are Ihe gravesl
150'
~======================================
==~ r."Two
simi" He repeated this so many times Ihal we
hoped he would be
silent as mercy to us and compassion for him.
This is the most importlm! principle which Ihe
educator should
observe in rearing children, so Iha1 they may grow
righteous and
perform their duties towards their parents.
Indeed, if the child is
righteous in his behavior lowards his parents. he
will perform his
duties towards his neighbours, kindred by blO<Xl
and teachers,
because being good 10 parents is the source of all
social
righteousness.
II. The Rights of Kindred by 8100d
Kindred by blood are those who arc related by
kinship or
lineage. They are fathers, mothers, grandfathers,
grandmothers,
brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, children of
brothers, children of
sisters, mother's brothers, and mother's sisters.
Then come the
nearest of kin. Those relatives have been called in
\sHim, AI-Arham
(kind red by blood) for two reasons:
The first is that the root rahim has !x-en derived
from the name
of A r- R a~man (a name of AII~h). This IS
emphasized by the
Prophet ~, for it has been narrated by Abu D~wud
and AtTirmidhi
from 'Abdur-Rahm~n Ibn 'Auf 4;. that he heard the
Messenger of AlIiih $; say the sanctified lladith, '"I
am Alliih and '
am Ar-Ra~miitl (All-Merciful) Whn crea/ed Ar-
Rat/im (womb) and
der;,'ed In il a name from among My Names. So
"nyone who
preserves kinship lies, I preser>'l~ him. alld
anyone .... ho .nmders
kinship [sunder him. "
The second is the proximity of kinship to the
original lineage.
This points to what the Prophet g meant in his
pT(:cepls. The
Qur"iin has urged preserving kinship tics in these
words,
~ ~; I'.t:r; ~'i' ~i l.t i'"~\t1i "'I 5).0 oS); ~1 ~t ,
T'he R .. pon;il>olil~ r.,.. Soci. l ~::.t",",lioo
~~=~=======~ 15'
"{lndffur Alliih {hrough Whom you drmand (your
mutual righls) ,
and ( do nOI cut th" relalions o/) Ihe wombs
(kinship), Surdy, AII"h
is £~~r an All-WI/teller ""U yoa." (An-Ni .... I)
~; t'~jfJ ii; ';' ii ~;..; G;;;.l ~Jbi~; t::: ~ .it. ifP .:j; ~!
I..~t ,
"" • ,.-:q · ·I~ '·::.it ~r'...i!J! dY ,::~;j(~ . df' "{o.r::-
i/.~ ; ., ~ ~ >' ; . .J.:.I ~ .. . .J
"Wo"'hip AI/lih and join nOne with lIim in
worship; and do good
to parents, kins/olk, orphans, AI-Maslikin ( the
poor), the neighlu.r
"'ho is near o/kin, the neighbor ,,·110 is a stranger,
the companion b)'
your side, the way/arer (you meet) ... .. (An.Ni ....
](i)
"" ·t'- 0~ I;'. G:' ·\ji . i' '~ j .~.,.,. .j .~ --, i~ , It. "{ r"""
oJ _ '-' ~J ",.......,..." ,~Y .... ....-...- ....... r
" Would you thcn, if you ,,'ut! gi.,,,,, fhe aathority, do
mischief;n
tile land, and serer your flu of kinship'"
{Muhmmad, nJ
Thus it is the duty of educators to emphasize the
negative efTects
of sundering rdations wi lh one's kin. In addition,
the duty of the
educator is 10 inform them of the fruit of keeping
tics with relatives.
Dear educators. (hese are some of the advantages
of keeping ties
with one's kinsfolk, hoping (0 be taught to your
children. Keeping
the tics with kinsfolk is proof of belief in Alliih and
the Last Day.
This is attested by what has been narrated by AI-
Ilukhari and
Muslim after Abu Huralrah '*' that the Messenger
of Alliih 3:
said. "Whoever has belie/ ill Aillih alld the Lust
Day, should hOllour
hi.' guesl; and who h(ls belief in Alldh and the Last
Day, slwIl/tJ keep
lies with his kills/olk; alld whofl'er has belie/in
Alldh (lnr/ the Lust
Da)" $!Jollid say good words or keep silent."
Killship ties means a long life. Here, AI-Bukhari
and Muslim
Ilarratoo from An3s" that the Messenger of All i'h
4: s;lid, "A
persoll who is kee" to he hlessed i" his .flls/ellanee
ami hove a {ollg fife
should keep tics with his kinsfolk," It is k ~-epll1g
ties with his
kinsfolk which would preserve his life, for Abu Ya'l
.. narmtes from
Anas 11;0 thut the Prophet ~ said, "Verily IhrouCh
"alllltioll ulld
keeping Ihe lies 0/ kinsfolk, Allilh may confer a
long life mfe from
!!vil and deulh. IOgelhl!T wilk ble.uillgs wilk many
benefiu such as
expialiOlI of /auth./orgi>·ing of sin.!. lrnd emering
paradise . ..
Educators should stress these values in the minds
of child ren
and actually take them in his company while
visiting his relatives,
and thus the children begin to like them. The child
will
acknowledge their favour. and will share with
them their joys
and sorrows and help them m case of sulTering
and poverty, This in
truth IS the height of beneficence,
m. The Rights of Ncighbotrrs
A neighbour is a person who lives beside you up to
the fortieth
neighbour. All of them are neighbours. So they
have mutual duties
and rights. In Islam, a neighbour has rights. which
8re basically
these: No hurt should be innicted on any of them. A
neighbor
should be dealt with honorably and with
forgiveness.
- All kinds of inj uries are forbidden: instances of
injury are
adultery, theft, cursing, and throwing garbage ncar
a neighbour's
house, Imam Ah-mad and At--Tabarani have
narrated from AIMiqdiid
Ibn Al-Aswad ... that the Prophet $; said to his
Companions, "Wlrat do }'IJU say abour adullery?"
They said, ·'It
is prohibited. for AlI iih and His Messenger have
prohihited it until
the Day of Judgement." Then the Prophet g: said,
"1/ is a less
u ,inus offense Ilrm man may COmmil wilh /ell
worn!!n than 10 commil
adullery wilh Ihe wife of hi.r neighbour." Then the
Prophet ;$. said.
"W/Jm do you say abour Ihefr?" They said, " It is
prohibited by
Alliih and His Messenger," Then the Prophet oj:
said, "1/ is 0 less
serimls ()jJ!!nSl! Ihal a man may ccmmil
I/Je/I/rom len huu.<es Ilran /()
ccmmil Ihe/I from his neig/Jbour."
As for hurt by hand and tongue, this is included in
the saying of
the Prophet olt, "By Alliih, he i.J no longer II
believer" He said this
thrice. The Companions said, "Who is thut person
0 Prophet'!" He
Solid, "Thai persoll whom Iris /ltig/tholl's CO ll/d
no/ Ii"e wilh him in
safelY. beellllSe of his erils. " l bis Iladill, is narrated
by AI-Bul::hari
and Muslim,
- Protecting neighbours: the evidence for the duly
of protecting
neighbours against any violence is what Al-
BukhiiTi and Muslim
narrated from Ibn 'Umar" lhal the Prophet 4: said,
"A MIl,.lim
is II brolher 10 OIher Muslims. fie should not
commit injustice against
(lilY of Ihem, or surrender him. A Mllslim who
hl'lps anolha Muslim.
will hi- gi,'en help from AllfIh. A Muslim who helps
/0 reliew: a
MWlNm '£ !l1/versi/y. AI/ah will Teliere him from
adversities on Ihe
Day of Re:mrreClioll. A Muslim who offers sheller
/0 another MU!Jlim,
Allah will give him shelter 011 the Day of
Resurrection." So, if these
duties are obligatory on any Muslim towards
another Muslim, then
they are morc strictly obligatory towards a
neighbour.
- Dning good to neighbours: offering help to
neighbours
includes: to conSQlc him in SQrrow, congratulate
him on happy
occasions, visit him during sickncss, mitiate the
greeting with him,
and advise him both on religious and worldly
matters. Alliih ..
says,
6 ,..--'ff; ':;'-;'51; ~( " ...,. :; tc.1 i.w~ t::;" _:/: ltp 1; oll
~t ,
.I.. l • .-:"\1 .• (, ,·::.it ~" ~ Gii' (. d.t( • f ir- "{ ____ -,t.J
1 '. ~ ~;' .; . J Q.>-6' "~-I_J
"WtNship Allih and joill nOlle willi Him ill
wo~sllip; fllld do good
to ptuellts, kiIlS/ofk, orpltflllS, Af-Mflsllki"" (rite
poor), the lleigltbor
wlto ,'s lIetu 0/ kill, tlte lIeigltbor wlto is fl
Slrflnger, tlte componion by
your side, tlte wflyfflU,. (you mul) ... " (An.Nid. 36)
The Prophet ~ considers honouring the neighbour
as a
characteristic of good raith. He said, "'He who
beliHes in A/hih
OM Ihe Last Doy, should honour Iris neighbour.
Reported by AIBukhiri
and Muslim. Again, AI-Bukhilri and Muslim
reported
after Ibn 'Vmar'" wllo said that he heard the
Prophet tj: says,
"Angel Jibril has .10 0[11'/1 recommended 10 me
good companionship
/0 ncighlNurs Ihol I 1110118"1 he would make
him among Ihe heirs. "
Among the acts of goodness to neighbours is to
supply him,
when needed, Wilh fire, sail, and water, and \0
lend bim any
household utilit ies. II is here that many
commentators have
interpreted the following saying of Allah as again
st those who arc
miserly with such articles. "And refuse and
prevent needed help
and kindness."
- Forbearing hurl from ncighoours: il is by passing
over
neighbours' miSl;Ikes, and odious dct'<ls by
forgiveness, c1em;:rlCy
and patience. In many cases, this may result in
cornx:ting thcir
deviations and misbehaviour. So roughness will
turn into
compassion, enmity into peace and hatred into
afT~tion. Allah
£ tells thc truth about this in His Noble Book:
•
4; /<1t~::;; ;~TLt .:1:~ u~i I~~ ~~ :l ,:e.il~ 2;\
~yI11; ; ~~'jj ..s.r· 1.:; ~
""I: _._ -
"The good du d IltHl 'he evil dud Cllllno' he equal.
Repel (,he e~il)
wilh one "'hi,h is /lelfer ( i.e. Alfuh ordeud the
fllithflll heliererJ to be
patienl at the time of unger, Ilnd to fxcuse those
,,'ho treat them
badly) Ihell verily he. bel,,'un whom Ilnd )'ou there
"'us enmity, ( "'ill
become) us though he "'U$ a close f rielld. "
(FIl!~i1al. 34)
These are the most important princi ples for
dealing with
neighbours. So oollCators should teach children
from a very early
age the advantages of being neighborly up to the
time when the
child reaches adulthood and lives among them. It
is thc duty of
adults 10 avoid causing injury to neighbours, \0
protect them
against injustice and transgression and all fonns of
misconduct
and hano.
The rearing of chI ldren according to those four
principles of
neighbouring could not be fulliled except through
theory and
practice. First, the cducalOr should give the child
oral le:ison, now
and then. Second, he should apply these principles
practical ly by
having the chi ld keep company with neighbours of
similar age.
IV. The Rights of Teachers
Among the important social rights is to show
respect for
teachers. The Prophet of Islam 4: has laid down
before educators,
noble guidelines to honour scholars and respect
them. Some of
these guidelines arc the following hadilhs:
Atnnad. A~-Tabarani and Al-f:liikim after 'UMdah
Ibn As·
S;imlt 40 narrated that the Messenger of AlIiih #
said. "lfe will
not be (me of my nation he ... ho does not show
respect for Our
elders and ,foes not ha .. e meTCy /Owards our
children and honour
O"T .rclUJ/ars."'
Again, A~-Tabar,ini In his book, "AI-AwS<il"'
narrates that Abu
Hurainlh 40 said that the Prophet $. said, '"You
should acquire
know/edge. learn serenily and politeness and be
modesl /Owa"ls (hose
who /each you." Now we mention some precepts
of moral
behaviour as follows:
- The child should honour his teacher, consult him,
and show
respect for him. He should know that humility to
teachers is might,
obedience is pride and modesty is honour. Thus,
Ibn Abbas ..
with all his rank and status, used to honor and be a
loyal follower
of Zaid Ibn Thabit Al-An~ri, when he 5.1id, "We
have been
ordered to do this to our scholars." So a student
has to ,how
respect fo r his teachers, for such respect enables
the learner to
obtain the greatest benefit from them. We know
that Imam AshShiifi
',. used to say, " I was turning over the pages of the
book
between the hands of Imam Millik in such 1I
delicate manner as a
sign of respect for him, and for fear of disturbing
him." The
scholar Ar-Rahi used to my, " By AlIiih . I never
dared to dnnk
water when Ash-Shafi'i was lookmg at me in
reverence to him."
Ii is the duty ofa studcnt to give his teacher his
rights. never to
forget his honorable position and to pray for his
teacher's long life,
to look aner hiS relatives, ofTspring, visit his grave
after his dealh,
10 ask forgivness for him and to give donations in
his name.
Ii is also the duty of a siudent to be patient
whenc~er there is
rough treatment on the part of his teacher, since
that would
ultimately lead to his benefi t. In case of a
misunderstanding, hc
should ilpologi~.c to the teacher. Indeed, Ihal is the
way to be
worthy of his teacher's afTection, and to be best
rewarded in this
world and in the Hereafier. ]t is also the duty of the
student to
avoid, in the presence of his teacher, alT that
violates reverence or
politeness. For instance. he should not commit any
ofTenses with
his hands, feet or his other limbs. He should not be
talkative, nor
laugh in a loud voice but he can smile if the
occasion arises.
Spittmg, hawking, and yawning are to be avoided,
as much as
possible in the teaeher's presence
It is the duty ora student not to enter the class,
house or place
which belongs to his teacher unless he obtains
permission for that.
If the student is in doubl about the teacher's
permission to enter,
he should knock at the door in a polite manner.
When the student
wants to atlend a religious meeting, he should
remember Allah,
and wail for the arrival of the teacher, and nCvCr
disturb him If he
is late.
We see Ibn Abbas 40 sit at the door of Zaid Ibn
Thabit waiting
until he wakes up and begins his teaching.
Whenever it was said to
him, "Will we wake him up for you?" Then, Ibn
Abbas would say,
" No." And he will wait even till the sun fades away.
Again
Ubaidah As-Salmani says, "Surely, I never knocked
at the door of
any scholar but I used to wait until he came out."
TI>< Responsibitity for Soci.t Ed ocatioD
~~~~~~~~~~~~ 157
The student might listen to his teacher giving;\
new argument for
a judgment. or new infonnation, or telling stories
or delivering
poetry; he should not interrupt the teacher. Here,
'Atii sa ys,
" Indeed I would listen to a person, narrating a
hadilh, and I do
know about the Ifadil" more than he does, but I
never try to show
him thill"
The student should not ask questions to which he
knows the
answers because that wastes the teache r's time.
These are some of
the most important modes of behavior to be taught
to children by
parents and educators. Thus children would grow
up equipped
with sound moral standards. Educators should
slart Iheir
education of children by trying to impJalll moral
and social
values, before cultural and scientific infonnation.
These mOTal
virtues should be adopted towards the educators
who fear Allah,
honour their religious obligations, and believe in
Ishim both as
faith and legislation. Such are those whom the
child should respect
and give them their due rights.
As for educators who arc atheists or disbelievers.
they have no
right for respect or reverence on the part of child
ren. It is the duty
of fathers to show resentment if they know thai
atheist educators
are trying to implant atheism and disbelief in the
minds of their
children. The duty of parents in this case is to
encourage children
to propagate the trulh about Islam and resist such
irreligious
attitudes whenever they have the power or
innuence. Surely, when
the enemies of Alliih, whether they arc educators
or non-edl.lcators,
learn that Ihe Islamic nalion, whether young and
old is ready to
face their attacks. they will not ha~e the courage
to propagate
atheism, or profane the teachings of Alliih and His
Prophet $.
So, In no way is there any duty for parents more
urgent than
that they should understand the truth that Alliih
has given to them,
in the way of performing whal is right, avoiding
what is wrong,
and rearing their children to face others bravely
until the puppets
do not go beyond their limits and the cowardly
enemies do not
crawl out of their holes.
V. The Rights of Companions
Educators should select. for the companionship of
their
children, colleagues of faith to make sure that such
companionship
would be conducive to straight-forward behavior
and sound
morality. let us now listen [0 the honourable
educator and
Prophet " as he lays down the rules fo r parents
and educators in
selC(:ting gO<Xl companions for both children, as
well as parents.
and educators.
Al-Bukh,iri and Muslim narrated after Abu Musa
AI-Ash'ari ~
that the Prophet ~ S<! id, ' TI,I' similitude 0/ II
gQud/rielld and a bad
/rielld lire lih /. persall wIlli curries perfume ami a
person ,..ha kindles
afire. As/or Ihe person ,..ho carries perfume. he
eilkr offers you, or
sells you. or you enjoy II g()Od smel/, As/or he
who kindles afire. your
dOlhes may be hum/ (If you find II bad smell."
Abu Diiwud and At-Tirmidhi .$ narrated from the
Prophet ;l:
"Do 110/ make /ricm/s ex£'epl will. a believer,
and d(l no/ offer your
food excepl 10 a piolls person. ' At-Tirmidhi and
AbO Di'wOd
narrated that the Prophet $ said, "A person is
o/Ihe same religion
0/ his close camponion. So, /el everyone 0/ you
{()Ok for Ihe person
,..hom he hus Iaken us his campanian. "
Thu.~, i[ is a duty of educators to cboose for the
child especially
after he attains maturity, good companions of tbe
same age with
whom \0 mix, learn, and visit. They should visit
the sick, give
presents when they succeed and olTer them belp
when needed. But
what are the most important righ ts of friends that
the educators
should teach the child?
The child should greet his friends with the word of
peace when
he meets them. Muslim narrated that Abu
Hurairah ... said, the
Prophet ,:j: sa id. " You would '101 enler Paradise
IInlil yau beliew!.
and YOll will '101 believe wuil you Im'e each
OIlter. Or shall lIe/{ you
aboul Ihe liling Ih(l/ ",oultl make you ImY! each
olher.' Spread Ihe
greeling.! of peace a""JIlg yourselW!s.··
Frequent visits to the sick arc rt.-.;ommended: Al-
Bukhari and
Muslim narrated rrom Abu Hurairah ':&;thal the
Prophet 3: said,
'The dulies of a Muslim mefive: 10 answer his
greeting of peace. 10
vis il Ihe sick. 10 follow Ihe funeral of the dead, 10
accepl invitalions,
and 10 im'oke mercy for Ihose wlro sneeze."
Here, A 1-llukhdri reported rrom Abu J-iuralrah ...
that the
Prophet #. said, "In case someone sneezes, he
should say, 'Praise be
10 Allah.' So . his brolher or frielld should reply,
'May AIMIt hO>"f
mercy on yOII_' Then lire slleezer should say. 'May
Allah guide yo"
({lid make righleous ),ollr S/(Jle."
Visiting him for the sake of Allah: Here Ibn Majah
and AITirmidhl
narrated from Abu Hurairah * who said, "The
Messenger of AlHih 3; said, 'tillY p crSOl1 .... hQ
OflCIl f'isils Ihe sick
or .... ho visils his brollrer /or Ihe soke 0/ Alliih. a
caller / rom heaven
will cail him soyillg.· Yo" have done right and you,
visil is good alld
you will have a good residence if! Paradise '."
Help in Distress: AI-lluk hIiri and Muslim Ilarralcd
from Ibn
'Umar that tht Prophet $: said, "A Muslim is Ihe
b'OIher 0/ any
other Muslim. He will 1101 do injuslice to him.
1I0r belray him.
Anyone .... ha of/er.< help to his brolher. Alltih .... ill
help him ..... hen he is
in need; and anyone wlro relie"es a Muslim in dis/
res .•. AIMII will
relieve him 0/ his dis/ress on {he Day 0/
Resurreclion. "
Accepting invita tions: the duty of acceptillg
invitations has been
previously mentioned in the section about the
duties of a Muslim
towards other Muslims.
About congratulations on happy occassions, we
have the hodilh
in the two collections of AI-HukMri and Muslim
that Talhah stood
up for K 'ab Ibn Malik and congratulated him when
Allah accepted
K'ab's repentance.
Gifts for certam occasion; finally, we have what At-
Tabanini
reported in AI-AwSllI that the Prophet 3: said,
"Offer gifts to each
olher, so you souid Im'e each olher." From the
right of the
permanent faithful companiou comes out the right
of the temporal
companion. A temporJI companion is the one who
accompanies
you on ajoumey, study, or job, and the one who
was described by
the Qur'an as ""M companion a' your side." This
companion must
receive full care, attention, cooperation, and favou
r from those in
his vicinity.
VI. l1Ie Righ ts of the Elderly
The elderly person is the one who is older than
you in age, more
knowledgeable than you, and more pious than you
are. So, people
must acknowledge their merits, and keep their
righ ts, and respect
them following the instructions of the Prophet ~
who made their
rights incumbent on people. and their merits
known to the society.
Among his instructions $; for dignifying old
people:
At-Tirmidhi quoted Anas .. as saying that Allah's
Messenger
3 said, 'Any )I<llmg mon who honors an old man
for his age, Allah
auigru for him someone 10 honor him when he i.T
old."
Abu Dawi'id and At-Tirmidhi quoted 'Amr Ibn
Shu'ayb who
quoted his father and granrather that Allah's
Messenger 3 said,
"He who does no/ Iw~e mercy On our young
people and acknowledge
the right of our old people does nOI belong 10 us."
Abu D;iwlld quoted 'A.ishah 0;3!. as saying that
AlI'-ih's
Messenger said, "Keep 10 everyone hi.! due
pO$ilion." From these
Instructions or lIadilhs we conclude:
a, To assign a proper position to an elderly person,
Ihal is, to
consult him in matters, give him a prominent
position in meetings,
and start with him in offering hospitality.
b. To start with the eldest in everything, that is, to
give him priority
In leading prayers, in lalking to people, and in
taking and giving.
What supports this is what Muslim related quoting
Ibn 'Umar 4,;.
as saying that the Prophet $. said, "l .... as clean;IIg
my teeth ... ith a
siwiik, ;11 a dream, twa people came to me. olle of
them ;$ older thull
the other, alld l gave the siwak to Ihe younger one.
l was laid to give
il 10 Ihe alder, so l gal'l! it 10 him."
c, Admonishing the young to not show disrespect
10 Ihe elderly
such as mocking or deriding him, or misbehaving
in his presence,
since At."[abanini reiated In his book "AI·Kubir"
quoting Abu
Umamah as saying that Alliih's Messenger $ said,
'Three groups
of people are nOI derided except by a hypocrite:
elderly Muslims,
knowledgeable people, and a fair Imlim," From
these meaning.s of
honoring elde rly peopte come some virtues and
manners, which the
educators must bring up their children on, sticking
10 them and
command them to abide by them:
I. Shyness, which urges abandoning shamdul
behavior, and
prevents misbehaving towards elderly people.
Sons of the
Prophet's Companions used 10 act accordingly in
the presence
of people older in age or higher in rank, Al-Bukhiiri
and Muslim
quoled Abu Sa'id '*' as saying: "At the time of the
ProphCllj: I
was a young boy, and I memorized a lot of his
sayings, but what
used to prevent me from narrating what I
memorize was the
presence of men older than me,"
2. Rising up for new--(:omers: rising up for a
coming elderly man,
scholar, guest, or traveler is a social conduct that
must be taught
to young children, based on the following
evidence: AI· Bukhari,
Abu Dawud, and At·Tinnidhi related that 'Aishah"
said, "I
have not seen anyone more similar to figure and
character of the
Prophet 3 than his daughter Fahmah, in all her
movements.
Whenever she came to him. he rose for her, kissed
her, and
seated her in his seat. And whenever he went to
her, she rose for
him, kissed him. and seated him in her seat." AI-
lJu~~ari and
Muslim narrated that when Sa'd Ibn Mu'az
approached the
mosque, the Prophet l\t said to AI-Ansar, "Rise up
lor your
masler. or Ihe bes/ 0/ you." AI-BukhIiri and
Muslim also
na/rated in the story of Ka'b Ibn Malik. when he
remained
behind and did not participate in the battle of
Tabuk, on the
occasion of AII:ih accepting his repentance, that he
s.1id, "The
people came to me group after group to
congratulate me. And
when I entered the mosque, the Prophet was
sitting tbere
surrounded by people. Talha Ibn Ubaydullah
hurried to me to
shake my hands and congratulate me."' Scholars
concluded from
these hudillrs and others that it is permissible to
rise for seholars
and virtuous people. On the other hand , what was
related about
the Prophet ~ fo rbidding rising up for people is
intended to
mean not to rise up for people who like others to
rise up for
them. and look forward to it, or not to show
glorilication, as
somc people used to do for glorifying their heads
by rai sing fOT
them while they were sitting.
3. Kissing old people's h~LIlds: among the
manners that should be
taught to young children is to kiss old people's
h,mds, since it
has a great effcct ;n teaching him how to be modest
and
respectful, and to acknowledge others' due
positions. However,
educators mUSI lake two important things into
oon~ideration in
teachmg children such mannars:
First, they should not exaggerate in teaching these
manners, since
c ~aggerati on ;s against the nature of things, and
may destroy the
child's personality.
The Reoporu.ibihty for Soc>aI .:.1"",,1;'"
===========~ 163
Second: they should not go far beyond legitimalc
limits, such as
bowing during rising or kneeling during kissing.
These are thc most important principles I!lid down
by Islam for
ob!lerving other peoplc's right s. So the educaton
must inculcate
these principles into their children in order that
they may grow up
caring for and respect ing elderly people, and may
undcntand from
their very early days the rights of those who arc
older than them,
and the merits of those who arc of more
knowledge, higher rank.
and grcater virtue.
3. Adhering to General Social Manners
Among the principles laid down by Islam related to
educating
children is to familiarize them with social manners
from their very
early years, and habituate them to some important
educational
principles. Among these principles are:
I. The manners of eating and drinking
2. The m~nners of greeting
3. The m~nners of asking pennission
4. The manners of meetings
5. The manners of conversation
6. The manners of jestmg
7. The manners of congratulating
8. The manners of visiting patients
9. The manners of giv ing condolences
10, The mallilers of sneezing and yawning
With Allah's help, 1 shall deal with cach one of
these social
manners in some detail, in order thai educators
may inculcate them
into the minds of children.
I. The Manners of • .:a ting and Drinking
The educator must teach his children certain
manners relat ing to
eating, and guide them to practice them, and
observe them. These
manners in order arc:
II. Washing hands before and after eating: AbiJ.-
Oawiid and AtTinnidhi
quoted &!lman Al-Farisi 4';. as saying that A\Lahs
Messenger e said, "The blessing 0/ food is 10 have
ablulion
before and a/ler if."
b. Mentioning Allah's name at the beginning and
thanking Him at
the end: Abu Dawiid and At-Tinnidhi related that
'Aishah ~
T1>< Rc.po.wbihty for Social FAuc.tion
===========~ 165
said that Allah's Messenger G: said, " Whellner Olle
of )'011 eO/s,
11'1 him memioll Ihe Nallle of Ihe Almighly_ {n
case he forgol 10
lIIelll ioll il al Ihe beginning, /1'1 him say: 'in Ihe
Nllme of AI/tih in
Ihe firST lind Ihe /asl ." ImAm Ahmad narrated
that every time the
Prophet #- ate or drank, he used to say, " Praise be
/0 A/fllh, who
gave liS food IIl1d drink, 11111/ made 1i.1
Mus/ims ."
c, Not to look down upon any food presented to
him: AI·Bu~ari
and Muslim re lated that Abu Hurairah '*' said, "
Allah's
Messenger 3: has never belittled any food; if he
liked it, he
ate it, and if he did not like iI, he left iI"
d. To cat with his right hand from the dishes
Immediately in front
of him: Muslim related that 'Umar Ibn Abu
Salamah .t;-.. said, "I
was a young boy sitting in the lap of Alhlh's
Messenger 3"
dipping my hand everywhere in the dish, so,
Al1:ih's Messenger
oit said to me, '0 youllg boy, menlion/he Name of
A/liih, em wilh
yOllr right haml, and eat of the neares/ food 10
you,"
c, Not to e;lt while recl ining: AI.llu~I~5ri quoted
Abu Ju~ ayn;.h
Wahb Ibn Abdullah as saying that Al[;ih's
Messenger $: said, "/
never eal reclining,"
r. Recommending talking while eating: it was
narrated that the
Prophet 3: ILSed to talk to his Companions while
they were
eating on more than one occasion,
g, Recommeding mvoking fo r the h05t after
eating: Abil·D5wild
and At·Tirmid hi quoted Anus. as saying that the
Prophet ~
went to Sa'd Jbn ' Ubl.duh, so, Sa'd presented bread
and oil, and
the Prophet $ ate and then said, "May faslillg
people break
their fo.I/ in yOllr house, and may benjgn people
eat of yOllr f ood,
and may angels pray for benediction On YOll,"
h, Not to start eating before older peoplc: M llslim
related that
Hudhaifah . sa id, "We used, in case we were with
the Prophet
li: to not start eating before he startcd,"
l66i
",======================================
=== p.nTwo
i. Not 10 belittle the bounty: Muslim related that
Anas ~ said,
Ihe Prophet ~ used 10 lick hl~ three fingers when
he ate and
say 'if a piece of bnad dropped from allY of you, lei
him pick it
up. clean ii, eal il. and IIHer leare il /0 Sawn', and
commanded
us to wipe clean the food conlumer and said, 'you
do not know
where in your food the blessing IS.' As for the
manneN; of
drinkin g, they arc:
1, Recommending mentioning Alliih's Name and
drinking in
three in tervals: At-Tirmidhi quoted Ibn Abbiis '*'
as saying that
Allah's Messenger said, "Do no/ have all your drink
in 0/1£ gulp as
camels do, but have it in '1<'0 or th,ee , and
melllion Allah's Name
when you drink, and praire lIim when you fin ish."
2. Not to drink directly from the opening of a water
container:
AI - Bu~~"i ri and Muslim related that Abu
Hurairah .. said,
"Alhih's Messenger admonished us not to drink
rrom the mouth
or a water container.
3. Not to breathe into the drink: At-Tinnidhi
related that Ibn
Abbas ... said that the Prophet 3: forbade breatbing
into the
drink or puffing into it.
4. Ret:ommending eating and drinking while
sitting: Muslim
related that Anas"" said that the Prophet ~ forbade
drinking
while standing. Qatiidah said, "We asked Anas
about eating,
and he said, it is even worse. (What was na rrated
that the
Prophet e drank while standing, was to show that
it is
permissible).
5. Forbidding drinking from a gold or silver vessel:
Al- Bu~~ iiri
and Muslim related that Umm Salamah $ said that
Alliih's
Messenger said, "'lfe who drinks f rom a silver
C(mlai~r. !W"rs
Hellfire into his slOmach."
6. Forbidding filling one's stom ~ ch with food or
drink: Ahmad,
AI-Ti rmidhi and others related that Allah's
Messenger ~ said,
11>< Resp<>nsibility fOf Soci.1 F.J ocot ion 167
"Tile lIuman being lta.~ lIever filled 0 ('o" laill('r
,..0"-1.' /1111/1 !.is
s/omocll. II is qlliie sufficient for a"y humall beill{.:
10 ~a/ a I;II /e
food Ihal helps him do his /asks. 1/ he could 1101
help ealing, he
sho,,1d jill 0111.' Ihird of his slOmach .... illt forxi,
one lhird 10 drink,
lind one-Ihird for bre(JI/tiIlK." So educators must
adhere to these
principles, and teach them to their children.
2. Tile Manners of GreN;ng
Grecting has certain manners, which educators
must instill 111
the child and get him acquainted wIth them. They
arc g,ven m
order a~ follows:
a, To teach him that religion commanded us to
greet one another,
acco rding to Allah's saying,
"0 you ,,-ho bl'liae! Ente, "Of houses arher than
)'our 0 ... ", u"lif
yau Ir(H~ IlJked permission a"d greeted fhOfe ill
Ihem" (An·Ni", 21)
and also according to H l~ saying,
.I. t, ~, .J '1", ~ " 1 i"~ ;; .. ~, ~" (I'l..
"t "'J J J 'M ~ ~ . -_ , r-r ,.., T
"Whe" you are greeted "'itlr a g,uli"g, Kud in utur"
"'ith ,,'hal is
IHtI~r lira" iI, or (at leas/) r~/ur" it equally."
(An_Ni$3, 86)
The Prophet ~ instructed people to greet each
other~ A l-Bu~~ firi
and Muslim related that 'Abdullah Ibn 'Amr Ibn 'As
that a man
asked Allah's Messenger: "Which act of Isl;lm is the
best? The
Prophet sa id. "To offer food. ond 10 greel
whomsoever you know
or do 1101 kno .... '" Mu ~lim also related that Abu
Huraimh.:o. said
that Allah's Messenger said. "You ... iIl nOI enter
Paradi,~e umil
you believe, ol1d yo" ... iII nOI believe umil you
love each Olher. May
f tell YOIl somClltillg, ,,'hiet. if YOIl do ii, yolt ...
iII/m'e eaeh mller?
Keep t'xcllollging greelings amongst yo"."
b. To tcach him how to gred: that is, to say,
Assolaamu 'alllikwlI
... 11 rohmll/"lI11hi wa barakowh (peace, mercy,
and blessings of
168
~======================================
=="F\o~TWQ
Alhih be upon you), and reply by saying, wo
aillikum assail/am
wa rahma/lliloh wa barak{./"h. (And upon you be
the peace,
mercy, and blessings of A1Jii h) in the plural form,
even if the
addressee was a single person.
c. To teach him the manners of greeling: that is,
riders greet
walke rs, walkers greet sitters, small groups greet
larger groups,
and the young greel the old.
d. To forbid him \0 greet people In a manner that
COpies the
disbelievers: At-Tirmidhi quoted 'Amr Ibn Shu'ayb,
quoting
his falher, who, in turn, quoted his father as saying
that the
Prophet ~ said, "He does n(J/ belong 10 liS ,hal
who imi/ales
(he di.lbelievers. Ne~cr imila/e Ihe Jews or
Christians. The Jews
greet by pointing wilh fingers. lind the Chri5liom
with Ihe palm
oj/heir hand •. "
c. Educators must take the ini tiative in greeting
young people: AIBu~~
iiri and Muslim related that Anas 4;0 said that he
passed by
some young boys, and greeted them, and said that
the Prophet
3> used to do so.
f. To teach him to answer the greetings of non-
Muslims by saying,
wa alaikum (and upon you). Al- Bu ~~ari and
Muslim quoted
Anas'" as saying that AlI iih's Messenger said,
"J/lhe people 0/
Ihe Book grce/ed you, you say, .... a alaikum fund
upon you) . He
also must teach him not to initiate disbelievers
with greetings,
since MU$lim narrated a Hod;I" that says, " Do no/
JI011 Jews or
ChrisliollS wilh greelings."
g. To teach him that greeting people is a Sunnah,
but answering the
greeting is wdjib (compulsory): AlIiih !b says,
.I. ,'. ~ .~ ~ ;I: '.go -J,( I, t.~, .~ ,..., ~ ~.\ i4 ~< -<: ~.,
I~'~:"
"{ __ W"' ~ IT " ". " ~ ~ 'M;r- "... ~ (+t" v."
"Whm you Qre greeled ,.,ilh Q grafi"g, greet ill
re/ur" "'ilh wllat is
belfer lha" it, 01' (at {eQs/) retu,n it equal/y.
C"rtllillfy, Allill is
169
Erer a Carejul Account Taker of all t"ings." (An-
NilKl, S6)
The educator must teach his charge that there are
some cases
where greeting is reprehensible, such as greeting a
man during
ablution Of in the bathroom, eat ing, reci ting the
Qur'iin, celebrating
Alliih's prnises, saying IalbiYllh during Pilgrimage,
giving a lumll'ail
sennon or any olher sermon, giving a religious
lesson in a mosque
or elsewhere, caning for prayer or making the
second call, as well as
similar situatio ns. So, educators must abide by Ihc
Islamic
teachings, and teach them to their children in
order to get them
acquainted with them in their social life , and in
dealing with others_
3. Manners of Asking Permission
There are certain manners for asking permIssion,
which
educators must teach their children foll owing
Allah's saying,
.p ;. ~; .!.1 "h p:ii!;±.: j :J~ :.t,-·! 3J; :Ji ;t.Fl i;X ~~[
~h; "
- ~d -."" ..../ " '/ -" ' ,. - y,; .... -' ' ' ' ' --.. --
~ r y:.T ~ .~, ~ :!--! ........ ~I .;: ,..;;~ ~ ~ ~I .t>I---
.'....:..., 'i 'r~ ~-\i ,-{,<-.'. "'"'!'. ::6~' ~ i,Y{c' ," ... ~.:.
~Y."I' ",'.-.,''..:~!,<Yj ''b''':' ;:;. "C~ _ ,:{.k -'5"- ~!<".I'
~~~j:i~
"0 you "ho be/ieu! Let ),our legal sla"lIs and slare-
gir/s. and
thou among you I<'ho hllve not come to the aKe of
puberty ask you~
!Urmiss;on (before they fOme 10 ),our preunce) on
thru occtl..ions,·
befoTt Fajr (morning) prayer, and K'hi/e )'ou pul
off your clothes for
the noondu)' (rtst), and afte~ the 'JIha (late-niKht)
prayer. (These)
Ihree limes are of privafY for ),ou, olhu Ihan /IUS I'
limes there is no
sin on you or on them to mo"e abolll, aI/ending
(helping) eath olher.
ThllJ AINih makts clear the Ayul (the .erUJ of Ihis
Qur'an, shoK'ing
proofs for Iht Il/(ol ospeclS of permis.<;on for
"iJils. ele.) 10 ,"au. And
Alhih is Af/·Knowin/(, All-Wist. And when Ihe
children among you
come 10 puberty, Ihen It t Ihem ( a/so) ask for
permils;on, as lhose
u nior 10 Ihem (in age). Thus AlNih mokts clear
11;.0 Ayal
(Commondmen ls und legal ob/igalions) for YOIi.
And Alliih is AII1
70
=o=====================================
=~ ~r1 TWQ
KnOl.,';ng, All-Wise." (An·NUT, 58·59)
Allah iii commands the cducatonl to guide their
children, who
have not yet reached puberty, lO ask permission in
three cases:
Fi rst: before the dawn prayer, because re<lplc at
this time are
normally in bcd.
Second: during mid·day, since a man may lay aside
his clothes with
his wife.
Third: after the evening prayer, since It is a time of
rest and sleep.
Asking permission had been ordained during thesc
three times
lest the husband and wife should be m a Slate
which they dislike
any of their children to !.eC them in. When the
children reach the
age of puberty, they must ask permission these
three times and
others, following Allah's saying,
;: :'!!} ~ 6Jr ;',,:' -1 G... ijPi ~I ~ J.iit;i ~ Gr. t
"And when the children among )'011 "ome to
puberry, then let tlu!m
( also) {lsk / or permission, tu Ihost senior 10 Ihtm
in IIgt" (An.Nur, 59)
Asking permission has some other manners which
arc given as
follows:
· To greet then ask permission.
· To announce one's name, nickname, or identity.
· To ask permission three times, and it is favorable
to have an
inlerval belween them, simitar in length, in the
time taken 10
pray four rak'ahs, lest tile one who is being asked
permiSSIOn
should be praying or in the bathroom.
· Not to knock at the door loudly.
· To stand at Ihe side of the door when asking
permission. test a
woman should be there when the door is opened,
since asking
permission was ordained for avoiding looking !It
the household.
• To return in case he is asked to return, following
Allj,h's saying,
~~Jjj;~t~i'~-44'
"And if you ure asked 10 go huck, go huck,for il is
purer for you ... "
(An· NUT, 28)
The one who is asking permission must not sce
any harm in
doing so, since he is following, in this case, AlJii.h's
instructions to
return. These are the most important principles
laid down by Islam
relating to the manners of asking permibsion.
Educators must
abide by them and raise their children to follow
them.
4. The Manners of Meetings (Social Gatherings)
Meetings have certain manners which the
educator must teach
to the child and guide him to fo llow. They are
given in order as
follows:
· To shake hands with other people in the meeting:
At·Tirmidhi
Ibn Majah and others related that AI·Baril. iJ';, said
that Allah's
Messenger 3: said, "AIry / 1<'0 Muslims who meet
Wid shake haml!;,
AlIiih wi!! surely forgive their sins before they pari.
"
· To sit in the place assigned for him by the host,
because the host
knows better the proper place for his guest.
· To sit ne:<t to the people, not amidst them,
because if he sat in
their midst, he will give his back to some of them,
which may
hurl lhcm.
· Not to sit between two people unless they permit
him to do so.
· The neW comer must sit in the nearest place to
him, but in case he
is a scholar or of a prominent position, it is no
harm for the
guests or the host to scal him in the proper place
for him, since
the Prophet it said, "Pili each one ill Ihe proper
pface for him."
· No two people may confer privately in the
presence of a thIrd
person. The reason is that the thi rd person may
have bad
thoughts and become sad for being ignored. But it
is permissible
for two people to confer privately in the presence
of another two
or more, if it does does not cause any suspicion.
- A person who leaves his place for some urgent
reason is entit led
to return to it when he returns.
- He must aslr:: permi$~ion before leaving the
place.
- To recite the invocation of leaving the place: AI-
I,Hikim related
that Abu Barzah. said, "The Messenger of AlIiih
used to, say
whenever he wanted to leave a meeting,
·J'ubhanaka Al/iilmmma
wa bihamdika ashhadu an fa ilaha ilia An/a,
aslaghfiruka wa
ataobu illlik (Glory be 10 yeu Allah and praise be
10 you. [bear
wilness thai there is no ged bUi you. [ ask YOll'
forgiveness (lJJd
,epen! 10 You) . A man said, '0 Messenger of Alliih,
you say
something you haven·t said before. The Prophet
said, ··[1 is an
expiation for whal might how: taken place during
Ihe meeling."
These are the most important principles laid down
by Islam
concerning the manners of social gatherings. So
educators must
adhere to them, and teach them to their children.
5. The Manners or Conversation
Among the important social manners to which
educators must
pay attention to is aquainting the child, from his
very early years,
to the manners, style, and principles of
conversation. Here we
mention some of these manners in order:
- To talk in standard Arabic, since it is the language
of the Noble
Qur'iin, and the language of the best man to speak
it, i.e.
Muhammad #. It is unfair to turn our backs on it,
and usc a
colloquial dialect which has no relation to it at all.
To speak slowly so that the listener can
understand what the
speaker means, and those in the gathering can
comprehend the
message of his speech and think about it.
_ Not to exaggerate in cloqueney: Abu D5wud and
At-Tirmidhi
related that Ibn 'UmH';' said that AIl,lh', Me,senger
3 sa id,
"Allah I/islikes he I<'ho exaggeralcs illl'/oqrwllcy,
he who does wilh
his longue (I!J c'ows do."
- To usc a style ofspet:ch that suit, the addressees
and suitable for
their age and mentality.
_ To talk about a subjecl Ihal is not boring or
improper, so that It
may be attractive and mteresting to the audience.
_ Among the manners ofconverS<ltion is to listen
attentively to the
speaker.
_ The speaker should look at everyone m the
audience, so that each
one of them feels thatlhe speaker cares about him.
_ To interact with the audience during and after
the speech, so that
they may not bct:omc bored or tired.
These are the most important principles laid down
by Islam
concerning the manners of conversation,
Educators must adopt
them, teach them to their children, lInd rear them
10 follow them.
6_ The Manners of Jesting
Isliim. with its noble principles, commands the
Muslim to be
friendly, smiling , cheerful, and well-mannered. so
that whenever he
mixes with people, they would like him, be
attflleted 10 him, and
want to be around him. But, is it pennissib\c for a
Muslim to go
beyond the limits in joking and fun -making as he
likes? Or is it the
case that joking has certain manners and limi ts?
Yes, joking has
manners and limits, which arc given in order as fo
llows:
. Not to exaggerate or exceed its reasonable l
imiL~, ~ince it may
h-cp Mushms away from their basic task, that is,
worshipping
Allah, reinforcing His rulings. and establishing a
righteous
society. Moreover, exaggerating in making fun
deadens the
hearts, implants hatred, and makes the young
transgress against
the old.
Not to hurt people's feeli ngs or cause harm to
anyone while
joking. So, it is not permiss ible for a joker to te
rrorize his fellow
brother, or mock at him, or breach his righ!.
Avoiding telling lies or giving false witness: Abu
Diiwud, AtTirmidhi,
An-Nasai, and AI-8ayhaqi related that Buhz Ibn
l:.'akim
quoted his father who quoted his fa ther, as saying:
"I heard
Alliih's Messenger .$ saying, 'W<I<" 10 whoever
iie5 to trUlk£ Ihe
people laugh, woe 10 him, woe /0 lIim · . ..
Educators must follow the guidance of the Prophel
$
concerning the manner of making fun, and teach
them 10 their
children, so that they may become accustomed
with them in their
social life, and in dealing with ot hers.
7. The Manners of Congratulating
Among the social Tules of decorum, which should
be paid
attention to, is to get the child accustomed \0 the
rules of offering
congratu lations, acquainting him with the way it is
done and its
rules so that sociali7.ation is developed in his
character, and bonds
of love and brotherhood arc strengthened with
those whom he
contacts and meets. Offering congratula tions has
certain rules,
among which arc:
a. Showing pleasure and interest on the occasion.
This is
established by what is narrated by AI-Bukhari and
Muslim about
the story of Ka'b.$. Ka'b said, "[ heard a loud voice
saying, '0
Ka'b Ibn Mill ik, rejoice! People came to us for
congratUlations. I
rushed heading for the Messenger of Allilh tj: and
people met me,
group after group, congratulating me on
repentance, and saying,
congratul ations fOT Alliih forga ve my
repenlenance, until I entered
the mosque. The Messenger of Allah ~ was there
surrounded by
people. Tal~ah Ibn Ubaydulliih came rushing to
me congratulating
175
me and shook hllnds wilh me. Ka'b never forgot
lh;l( from ~"l~ah,
Ka'b s;lid, when [ shook hauds with the Messenger
of Al1flh ~ he
said, with pleasure on his face, ' Rejoice with the
best day of YOUT
hfe ever since YOUT mOlher gave birth to you'."
b. Uttering appropriale supplications: I will cile
here some of these
supplications which the Prophet $ guided us 10.
and were handed
down to us through hl(; guided Companions and
rightcous
followers:
1. Congratulation on the birth of a new-bom baby:
it is a likeable
thing \0 say to him, " May you be blessed by the
baby AII.11l gave
you. And may YOll thank the Giver. May you be
granted his
benigmty, and may he become strong" It is
recommended for
the one congratulated to say, "May Alliih's bless
ing be \0 you
and on you, and may He grant you one like him."
The above
statements arc quoted from AI-I~usayn Ibn Ali and
Imam AIHasan
AI-Basri.
2. Congratulation on arriva l: it is recommended to
say to him,
"Praise be to AIl:ih who granted you safety, and
made re-united
your fam ily with you, and showed generosity to
you." This is
handed down \0 us from our predecessors.
3. Congratulations on returning from JiM": it is
recommended to
say to him, " I'raise be to Anah, Who made you
victorious,
triumphant, and showed generosity to you" This is
taken from
a hadilh narrated by Muslim and An-Nasa'; quoting
'Aishah,
4. Congratulations on retnrning from pilgrimage,
i1 i. rCCOmmended
to Slly to him, " May Allah acccpl your pilgrimage,
and
pardon your wrong doing, and give you back the
expenditure."
Narrated by [bn As-Sunnl
5. Congratulations on making marriage contract; it
is recommended
to say 10 both spouses after the marnagr contracl,
"May AlIiih's blessing be to you and on you, and
may He
combine you with goodness." This supplication is
narrated by
Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and olhers
6. CongralUlation~ on Ihe Bairam or 'C'id: it is
recommended for
the Muslim 10 say to another Muslim ,Ifler the 'EM
prayer,
"May Allah accept from us and you."
7. Supplication on receiving a favor: it is
recommended that one
says to another who has done him a favor, '"May
Alliih bless
you with your family and money, and may He
reward you with
goodness." This is narraled in the Sunan of An-
Nasa', and Ibn
Majah. At-Tirmidhi quoted Usamah Ibn bid <$.
who quoted
the Messenger of Allah i'I: as saying: "Whoever
receires a jm'ar
and says 10 Ihe one doing il: 'May Allah reward
you wilh
goodness'. has reached Ihe heighesl point
ojlhank[l,/ness."'
c. Giving a present when offering congratul al ions
is recommended:
one of the recommcnd~-d things while offering
congratulations is to
give a present to the family of a new-born, arrival
from travel or
marriage, and other occasions. Al-Bu~~iiri and
A~mad narrated
that Abu Hurairah quoted several people finally
quotmg the
Prophet $ as saying, "Exchange giflS jor Ihey
eliminate ill
jee/ing .•. ..
8. The ManDl'rs of Visiting the 111
Among the important social ru les of decorum to
which
educators should accustom their children are the
rules of visiting
sick people ~o that positive manifestations of
feelings and conduct
may become deeply rooted within them, e. g. moral
support and
feding the pain of others. Therefore, Islam made
visiting the sick
pe rson incumbent on Muslims. AI-lJukhari and
Muslim quoted AIBani
Ibn 'Azib " as saying, "Alliih's Messenger $.
commanded
us to: visit/he sick, nlarch injanerll/s. saying. 'mllY
Allah hllve mercy
on you w someone who sneezes. helping him keep
his oalh,
sUPPorling some01le 10 w/wm inju.5lice hilS been
done. accepling
invitations, and greeting each ather."
AI·Bukhari and Muslim quoted Abu Hurairah 4;i.
as saying that
Alliih's Messenger it said, "The obligations of II
Muslim rowards
anarher Ma.!lim are fiV!!: responding ro greeting,
visiting the sick,
following the /rlllerof proces,rion, accepting
invitalions. am/ saying
'May AlIlih hln-e mercy on you' ro someone who
sneezes,"
Visiting a ,ick person has rulcs which we cite in
order of
importance as follows:
a. Hastening to visit him: the Prophet tl; said, "
tfhefallssick,then
visit him" i. e. soon, However, Ibn M:ijah and
Al·Bayhaqi said,
"The Prophet 3: did not visit a sick person except
after three
days." To reconcile the two hadilhs I say: If the
disease is
serious, then hastening is required; but if it is not
serious, thcn
after thrcc days.
b, Shortening or prolonging the visit to the sick
according to the
sick person's condition: If he wcre in a critical
condition in
which he nceds someone to take care of him,
especially
women, then the call should be very brief. If the
sick person is
in a stale in which he is pleased with the company
of the
visitors, who converse with him, then the re is no
harm in
making the call moderately long. Visiting a sick
person should
be every other day.
c, Praying for the sick person when enlering his
place: AI·Bukhan
and Muslim quoted "Aishah ~ as saying that the
Prophet 3-
used to visit a member of his famIly, He rubbed
him with his
right hand and said, "0 Alllih, wrdof all people, leI
sickness go,
heal him, YOIl are Jhe Healer. There is 110 healing
bill yoars, a
healing Ihlll gives no way 10 sickness." Abu
Diiwud, At·Tirmidh"
and A!'l--!.ilkim quok'd Ibn Abbas 4> as saying that
the Prophet
3: said, "Whoel'er calls VII a sick person who is
/101 brealhing his
10SI, and said sel'ell times, '/ reqaeSI Allah ~ The
OIl'lIer of Ihe
Great Throne. Ihul He heal you. AI/tih will heal
him of this
sickne,fS,
d. Reminding the sick person to put his hand on
the place of pain
and to supplicate All iih for himself using the
following
invocations:
Muslim quoted 'Uthman Ibn Abi AI· 'As as saying
that he
complained to Alliih's Messenger ~ of a pain in his
body,
Alliih's Messenger 3; said to him: "Pw YOllr hand!!
an the aching
pari af yaur bady and say 'In Ihe ,lUme of Alllih'
Ihree limes, and
say. £ewn limes. 'I take refuge in Ihe Mighl and
Omniscrence of
AlIiIh from lhal which I suffer and fear ',"
e. It is recommended to ask the fami ly of the sick
person about his
condition: AI-Bukhiiri quoted Ibn Abbiis 4;0 as
saying that 'Ali
Ibn Abi Talib 40 left the house of Allah's
Messenger 3 m the
Prophet's death pains, People asked, '0 Abu Al-
IJasan, how is
Alliih's Messenger 3 this morning?" He said, "He is
- praise to
Allah healed this morning,"
f, It is recommended for the visitor to sit at the sick
person's head :
AI-Bukhari quoted Ibn Abbiis 4 as saying, "When
Alliih's
Messenger ~ called on a sick person, be sat at his
head and
said, I request Allah. Ihe Lcrd oflhe Greal Thrane, fa
heal you,'
If Ihere was slill a pari of his life remaining. he
would be reliewd
of his pain,"
g, It is recommended to make the patient
optimistic about recovery
and a long life,
h. It is recommended that the visitors ask the
patient to invoke
Allah for them.
i, Reminding the patient of /a ilaha ilia Allah
(There is no god but
Allah) if he is dying: Muslim quoted Abii Sa'id AI-
Khudri • as
saying, AlIiih's Messenger ~ , "Make your dying
palielUs recite
thert! is no god but Allah'.
9. The Manners or G i~i ng Condolences
Among the social rules of decorum, which IsHim
outlines are the
rules of offering condolences. Condolence means
to make the
person accept what has befallen him. Condolences
arc retommended
even if the person offe red them is a non-Musilm.
Ibn
Majah and Al-Bayhaqi quoted 'Amr Ibn I-:'azm * as
saying that
the Prophet ot: said, "A believer who consofes his
fellow believer
about his affliction , wifi be clothed in a garment of
bfe.uing by
Afiah." Offering condolences has ce rtain rules,
foremost are:
a, Giving the following condolences if possible: In
his book AIAdhkiir,
Imam An-Nawawi said, "The best condolence is
that
which was quoted in Sanih A I_ Bu~~a,{ and Sahih
Muslim quoting
Usamah Ibn Zaid 40 who said, 'One of the
daughters of the
Prophet 3- sent to him asking that he come to her
house telling
him that a boy of hers was dying. He said 10 the
person she sent,
'00 back to her and tell her that to Allah belongs
whatever He
takes ano to Him belongs, whatever He gives, and
every thing to
Him is well- timed' Then command her 10 be
patient and to say
that Allah suffices her." An-Nawawi says, ..... Our
comrades
recommend that a Muslim consolo another Muslim
by saying,
'May Allah make your reward great, and grant you
the best
patience, and pardon your deceased.' A Muslim
should say to a
non-Muslim, 'May Allah grant you the best pat
ience, and pardon
your ooceased.' A non-Muslim should say to a non-
Muslim, 'May
Allah make it up for you'.
b. Cooking for the fa mily of the deceased: Islamic
Law
recommends this because it involves benignity,
benevolence, and
consolidating social ties. This is because the family
of the deceased
are occupied with him or her and are bereaved.
Abu Dawud, Ibn
Majah, and AI-Tirmidhi quoted 'Abdullah Ibn Ja'far
as saying
1 80
~======================================
=="P.nTwo
that Allah's Messenger it. said, "Perpllre jO()d for
Ihe family of
Jalar. becal/5e they are occupied wilh a mailer thai
befell them,"
Imams (scholars of religion) arc unanimous about
disliking that
the family of the deceased make food for peo ple to
cat.
c. Showing sorrow to those whom he is consoling:
th is is done by
listening to the Qur'an, saying things compatible
with the
amiction, and supplication as previously
mentioned.
d. Giving advice when seeing unlawful things such
as displaying the
picture of the deceased, smoking while the Qur'an
is being recited,
or playing music. A person giving condolences
should be brave in
uttering what is right and should be a sincere
adviser.
These are the most Important rules Islam laid
down in regards
to olTering condolences. Educators should guide
the ir children and
bring them up on them.
10. The Mlinnerli of Sneezing and Va"ning
i. Abiding by the words handed-down to us by the
Sunnah: AIBn~~
iiri quoted Abu Hunlinlh as saying Ihat the Prophet
e:
sa id, "If 01U' of you snl'l!2es. he shoultl say.
'Praise be 10 Allah '.
His companion or friend should say, Yarhamukum
Allah (May
Alliih show mercy 10 you) . Then Ihe former
slwuld say,
Yahdikam Allah "'0 yus/ih ba/akum ( May Alliih
guide you
and grant you peace of mind).
ii. One should nOI say, "yarhamukum Allah" unless
the they hear
the sneezer th.ank Allab: Muslim quoted Abu
Musil. .. as
s... . ying: " 1 heard AlI iih's Messenger ~ say, 'Jf
one of you
snl'l!2es. then he thanks Allah. say, 'May Allah have
mercy on
you'. 'fhe does nOi {honk Allah. do nOi say 'Moy
Alliih bless you'
to him. There is no harm if some of Ihose preselll
ul/ers praise so
{hal fhe snuzer may renwmber 10 thl/nk Allah
after Ire sneezes. "
iii. Placing the hand or the handkerchief over one's
mouth and
keeping the sound as low as possible_
I "~ . Saying 'May Allah have mercy on you' up to
three times. He
should not say it after thaI. Many scholars of
religion
recommend that those sitting with him should
invoke AlI iih
for him.
,'. He should say to a non·Muslim who sneezes,
ya/ulikum AI/ah lI"a
yus/ill ha/ak"m (May Allah guide you and grant
you peace of
mind),
vi. A youthful, non-related woman should not be
responded to
whcn she sneezes_
As for the rules of yawnmg, they are as follows:
a. One should resist yawning as much as possible:
AI-Bukhiiri
quoted Abu Hurairah as saying thaI the Prophet 3
said,
"'Alllih a loves .fllee2ing, ami dislikes yawning. If
(me of yor.
snenes (lJJd thanks Allah. il is incumbem all every
MttJlim 11"1,,)
hears him 10 say 10 him. 'May Alliih show mercy
10 you'. As for
yawning, it is from the Devil; so if one of you feels
like yawning,
he should resist it as far as he can because If he
yawns the Devil
laughs at hIm."
b, It is disliked 10 yawn loudly: Musl im. A~mad,
and At-Tirmidhi
reporl that the Prophet $- said, "Alllih likes
sneezillg and
dislikes ya"'"ing, 'f One of )'0" ya ... ns he should
not say 'Ita',
because lhis is from the Devil, ... ho laughs a/ him."
The above are the most Important rules which
Islam laid down
for sneezing and yawning. Educators should be
keen on applying
them to their families and children, so that they
may get used to
them in their hves and m dealing with people.
The aforementioned urc the most important social
rules of
decorum in dealing with people. A Muslim wins
respect and
reverence when he applies the rules of d~"(;orum
concerning eating,
drinking, greeting. taking pennission, sitting and
speaking with
people, jesting, congratulating, condoling, sneezing
and yawmng.
4. Observation and Social Criticism
Among the important social principles In fonning
the child's
behavior and bringing him up socially, is getting
him accustomed
from his early age to the observation of the
community, to social
criticism, and to the duty of enjoining what is right
and forbidding
what is evil. But what are the bases and stages of
bringing the child
up on social criticism? We will discuss thesc bases
and stages in the
following order:
I. Enjoining what is right and fo rbidding what is
evil is a social
function. Islam makes enjoining what is right and
forbidding what
is evil incumbent on the nation as a whole with all
its various
members with no discrimination between Tulers
and scholars. the
elite and commoners. men and women, young and
old. Islam
considers this a social function from which no one
is exempted,
everyone according to his ci rcumstances, abi lity,
and strength of
faith. The basis of this is the saying of Allah !il,
" ' \ ".~- (: 'if "{ ~ ,:",:.oJ>.J . ~ " '¥'' '"'"'" .*,".,,,,' ';.I.
J.',~'-;\ u' J"",Iu-..>:U,<!,. '"--r'1 :·:''1 ~ -: I."~'- 1"-
T:I.
" You (trul! bdievers ill Idumic Monotheism, und
nul/ollowers 0/
Prophl!t Muhammud # und his Sunnuh) uu the
M$t o/JIt!opll!s I!'er
ruiu d up lor munkind; you "'njoin AI-Mu'rll/ (i. I!.
IJlumic
MIJIIOfheism und all that IJiam has orduined) und
fOl'hid AIMllllkur
(pol)·theism, disbelit!f und all that Islam
hasfOl'hiddl!n), und
)'ou belie,e ill Alliih ... " (At '[mrin, jW)
and His saying:
, P( if 5;+:.) .;oi"~ ."",,~~ ~ ~i:1;1 r-. ~Pf; Sj..jjt t
"The belie."s, melllJlld "'omen, art Au/iy a' (
helpers, supportus,
f riends, protectors) of one IJll0ther: they elljoin
(on the people) AI!'
tla 'ruf (i.e. Islamic MonO/ildsm IJnd all thut Islum
orders one fO do),
Illldj",bid (people) from AI··Munk", (i.e. POIYfhtism
and Ji~'bdief of
all kinds, and all thut Islum htu forbidden} ."
(At_Ts"'bah, 71)
Therefore, educators should implant in the souls of
youngsters
the seeds of moml conrage and psychological
bravery in both wonJ
and deed so thaI the child, from his early years,
,hould be brought
up on the duly of commanding goodness and
forbidd ing evil and
constructive social criticism of every kind.
2. The principles followed m this observation and
criticism.
Commanding goodness and forbidding evil has
principles to be
fol1ow~-d and necessary conditions which
parents have to abide by
and tcach \0 their children. The principles to be
followed arc:
a. That his deeds be compat ible with his sayings.
This stems from
Alliih Q :
'1 !: ])).; .:.1 ~f :..:., l:i: ;:k ¢l0jl; 1, ':i t: G).$ ~_ ~r; ~Jl
Qb; ,
~..::o:.P
"0 you lI'ho haft believed, K'hy do )'OU Sill' thut
lI'hieh you do nor
perform! GUlu!y dere,<ud in rhe Reckoning of
AI/fill, rllur )'OU SIlY
II'har you do not perform," (As-S alT, 2.])
and His saying:
~ ~;:i ~ ~';"';i :, {:: 'q- i-C-i;l "~. ,, '.i~ -ui' "t1 1.. "t '
N ~ "...,... r-~ ~~-',r"..... "V T
"Enjoin ),ou AI-Birr (pief)' und righteousness und
elleh und every
lIet of obedience to Alliih) on the people und you
forget (to
prlleriu it) ),ount/I'es , while you recite rhe
ScriprUT£ (the Taurllt
( Torah))! lIal'e you rllen no unse!" (AI ·l\.,qarah,
44)
This basis also stern, from the saying of the
Prophet 3: as
narrated by AI-Bukhari and Muslim quoting
Usamah who said,
" I heard Allah's Messenger 3- say, "A man is
brol/ghl on the
Day of Resrlrrection, Ihen he is Ihmll'n in Fire.
Tirey say, D so
atld so what is Ihe mailer willi YOII? Did nOI YOII
cOllimand
bl!1reficence and forbid maleficence? 'lfe says, yes,
I used /0
command beneficence bUI did 1101 do ii'
andforbid maleficence but
did it'. "
b. That the eVIl he forbids be unanimously
considered an evil. If it
results from differences in opinion between
scholars of religion,
it is not legally considered an evil because each
one of these
Imams has exerted his utmost effort in order to
reach the right
judgment through evidence.
c. That he should enreise gradation in forbiding
maleficence. He
should start by identifying evil without spying,
theo informing
the wrong-doer that what he is doing in wrong,
then forbidding
through sermon and guidance, and then getting
him to fo;ar
Allah, reproaching with harsh words those who do
not respond
to advice and guidance, then threatening by saying,
"I will do so
and so:' then changing evil using the hand, then
changing it on
the part of the community without using arms.
This can be
permitted for individuals when nCl.'Cssary,
provided that it is
kept within limits, and 00 condition that it does
not result in
turmoil between people. Then comes changing evil
by the
community i.e. the people or part of them should
use arms;
individuals should not do so because it leads to
more turmoil
corruption, and destruction." (I)
d. That he should be nice, delicate, and well-
mannered, so that the
effect may be stronger, and the response more
powerful.
e. That he should endure harm: it is laten for
granted that a caller
to the way of AlIilh would be exposed to all kinds
of harm and
pain due \0 the obstinate nature of proud people,
the foolishness
of the ignorant, and the mockery of people in
general. This is
the nature of things facing the Prophets and callers
at all times
and places.
(l) I!>yo 'Uloim Ed·Din by AI·9~.:cili, 2: 292. with
!lOme chang .. ,
Hence was the advice of Luqman to his son when
he was
preaching to him,
~ # ~l '4G.1 l: j; ~!.t pi if ;..1 .... .P~ ;t ij1/")\ ~l ~:;: ,
~ ;IJ'''ii P-
"0 my son! (perform As-SaIl), enjoin (on people)
Al-Ma'ruf
(Islamic Monotheism and all that ;s good), and
forbid (people)
from AI-Mankar ( i ,e, disbelief in tbe Oneness of
Allab,
polytheism of all kinds and all that is e ~il and
bad), and bear
with patience whatever befalls you, Verily, these
are .fOme of the
important Comtntl1ldmenfS (ordered by Alliih
with no exemption},"
(Luqmiin. 17)
f. That he should be knowledgeable about what he
commands and
what he forbids, so that his criticism may be
compatible with the
rulings of Shu,{'ah and Its general comprehensive
principles.
3. Constant reminding of the positions taken by
our pious
predecesso rs: this is a factor which es tablishes
courage and
bravery in a Muslim , incites him to protect public
opinion,
assumes decisive positions regards commanding
goodness and
forbidding evil, and presents the historic positions
of our righteous
ancestors in overcoming maleficence and setting
thing a right.
There is no doubt that if they are well presented,
they will have the
best impact on the souls of youngsters and the will
of the youth,
and will even force them to courageously face
people of
debauchery, corruption, and atheism, who do not
care about the
sanctity of Islam or the weight or valuc of virtuous
morals And
how abundant arc these nowadays! We must also
address the
problem of shyness and fear, if we want a child to
be ra ised to
observe the community and social criticism. This
has already been
discussed in the section: "The Responsibility for
Psychological
Education,"
Cha pter Sc~e n
The Rl'SponsibiJity fo r Sexual Educatiun
The meaning of scxual education is to tcach a child,
enlighten
him. and be frank with him from the time he
reaches pUberty so
that when he becomes a responsible adult 3nd
understands life, he
will know what is l"wful and what is unlawful and
will be neither
driven by desire nor led to debauchery. Sexual L-
ducation consists
of the following stages;
- Belween Ihe ages of7 and 10 years: the age
ofrecognilion: a child
is taught the rules of pennission to enter and of
looking at
womcn.
- Between the ages of 10 and \4 years: the age of
adolescence a
chi ld should be kept away from all fonns of sex ual
arousal.
. Between the ages of 14 and 16 years: the age of
puberty; a child is
taught the manners of sexual intercourse if he is
ready to get
married .
. Post·puberty is also called the age of youth; he
should be taught
to be chaste if he is not able 10 get married.
Finally, should he he frankly informed about sex
while he is at
the age of recognition? Here are some discussions
arranged
according to the different age groups:
Firstly: the Manners of Asking Permission to Enter
What we aim at during this stage is to aCCUSlom a
child to the
decorum of taking permission 10 enler " room. The
Noble Qur'an
detailed Ihis family decorum in the clearest
statement when it said,
.p;, ~Y ~ ~ p1i !,;oJ.:; j ;;'J~ :W~ .J:1: ,;j. ;t.;: ~l y.:r.
.:01 ~h; ,
O ''f)' '·""'Y"'i -.- "'_ . ).".,'....-~ ~ • ' I .".L..'..-..,. .~.."
""'"..".". "'If ~', ..'. "'~ ;~',",, ~,, ';-.'-,-'-"' :" u-•--•
'r1 :"1 ~ *~'"" .dT Z• J~r i,Y'I'.' i" , !.:. ~y.~,
.:~wJ'jy,'>I ':"' ~. ,L~-~C~ F. f--"-' l,' ,'y~:i'
.,....-,~i ' ,' .:<'j ~ Ijp''ji ;i'. il ~ J;i~i ~ ~!$I ;.g • G-:.i~
~.iii
•
~ ... ~(>:
187
"0 )"0 .. who believe! Let )'our legal "/0."''''-and
s/l",e-g;,ls, and
IIw'"f! among )'00. who have no/ come to the age
of puberty ask )'lJur
permission (before they come to your presence)
on three occ/uions:
1M/oTt Fajr (morning) prayer, "nd while you put
off your dothes for
the noonday (,n'), and after the 'Ishu (late-night)
prayer. (TJreu)
three limes are of privacy for ),ou, otMr fhlm Ihne
limes tlrert! is nO
si" on you Or Oil them to ma'l! ablJut, a/lending
(helping) ),ou ellch
olhl'1. Thus Alllih mukeJ clear ,he A)'I" (the .<'rsU
of this Qur'iin,
showing proofs for 'he legal QSputs of permission
for ,jsirs, ere.) fO
),ou. And Allah is All-Knowing, AIt-WiSt'. And
when the children
umonK you earne to puberty, then let them (also)
usk for permission,
us (host senior to them (in age). Thus AlIiih makes
cleur His Ayat
(Commundmenu Qnd Irgul obligations) for you.
And AI/ah is AI/Knowing,
AfI-Wise." (An·Nil., 58·59)
Asking permission IS necessary in three cases:
Right before the dawn prayer because people at
that time are
sleeping.
During mid-day, because people may lay aside
their clothes at
this time wi th their spouses.
- After the evening prayer, because this time is one
of sleep and
rest.
However, when the children reach puberty,
educators should
teach them the rules of asking permission at these
three times and
other times, in accordance with AlIiih's saying,
~ ;'!!J ~ ,,-:-tJi ,.,.;":.) ~ ~,j:' "'Ji );..i1 ~ jii,1.Ji ~ GJ.J ~
"And wllt ll tM Chi/drill 11Il101111 ),011 come to
puber,y, tMII kt tMm
( ulso) Ink for permission, tU tllou Stnior to 'hem
(in IIgt ). " (An.Nur, 59)
How great the scandal would be if a child enters
his parents'
bedroom all of a sudden and sees them engaged in
se~ual
intercourse, and then goes out and talks to his
young friends
about what he saw How perplexed the child would
00 whenever
the scene comes back to his mind.
A child would be prone to diversion if hc feels incl
ined to the
opposite sex when he observes the nature of in
tercourse. Paren ts
should take up the rules of the Noble Qur'an in
teaching a
recognizing child to ask permission, if they want
their children to
have noble manners. and a distinct Islamic
character,
Secondl)': the Manners of Looking at Women
D. E~cry .. oman whom a man cannot marry is one
of his malt-irim,
and every man a woman cannot marry is one of
her mahiirim.
Therefore, nw~'iiriffl includes:
Womeo who are prohi tited for a man to marry
because of
kin ship: there arc seven such women, and they are
enumerated
by Allah 1ft in His saying,
~ " " 5 :', ! ~" P J..;::' ;=.n ,-U;;1' , ~~ '~"?14".{= .j' •
,,' t -''''J ",1 -''''J .• :J -' , • J ... , '.. - -'..;,...r '~ • • i _
<E ~-t.;r
" Forbiddell ro you (for marriagt) ure: )"(>ur
mothers, )"our
daughters, J'our si1' ers, your farha's sisrers, J'our
mOlhu'.f si.lfers,
J'our brother's daughrers, ),our slller's daughurs."
(An-Nl.a. 23)
Women who arc prohibited for a man to marry
because of
relationship by marriage. These are four in
number:
l. The fat her'S wife: Alhih !Ii says.
<E .V~i.::Ji ~}l:X i¥ (; i~ ~) ,
"And mrury not women whom J'our fathers
married, t Xctpt whal
htu a/ready ptused" (An·Ni .. , 22)
2. Son's wi fe: Arriih '1ti says,
''the Il'jf'es of your sons who (spring) from YfJUr
0"'" {oillS ... " (An.
Ni .. , 23)
18.
3_ Wife's mother: Alliih iii says,
"your ",i,'es' mOf/ren ..... (An.Ni .... 23)
4. Wife's daughter: Alliih \8 says,
~j;.~ ij,t::s rl .. ~ ~ ':.i:~ ~l ?;.Vi vi /£=I;':'.j ~( ?-
';::.;:;,
.I. "c .1:; ' t::.!.:b .......
'1: 1 ·C· ~
" ... And your sup doughrers Ullder )'our
guardiunship, born of your
K·;~e_. to whom YOII have gone in-irul Ihere is
110 sin all you ... " (An.
Nisa, 23)
Women prohibited because of nursing, in
accordance with
Allah's saying, "und ),our me>then "'110 huve
given suck /0 ),ou,
and ),our suckling sister.I." [t is lawful for man to
see women
prohibited to him. the bosom and aoovc, and from
below the
knees and down if his desire and her desire are
unlikely to be
aroused. If not, it is unlawful fo r him \0 look for
the sake of
blocking the means to eviL
Accordingly, it is lawful for a man to look at their
adornmenl$,
outward and inward, which include: the head, hair,
neck, bosom,
ear, shoulder, arm, palm, leg from below the knec,
foot, face, and
chest if temptation is guaranteed not to be
aroused, He is nevcr
allowed to look at parts olhcr than these. The basis
for this is
found in AU£ih's saying:
~I\~ 6~. '1; fn.;;. J ~ ;;~ 0.:.1; r;,. ; .' C -11 ~I:\~ 4
';'0 -1; ,
~ ji 6t};;: ;d ) ~ ) ~~ J:;;r: j f ~r;I: j1 ~ J;.q ~l
~.o. tt.Ct :,1 ~ ;; j1 ~Sll .; j1
"And not 10 sho ... off Iheir adornmenr txCtpl on/)'
Iha' ,,'meh is
apparenr (both eyes for necrui,y 10 su the ... ay, or
outer palms of
hand< or one eye or duSJ like ~t;;I, glm'ts, head-
co.tr, "pron. etc.),
"nd 10 dr" ... thtir .tils all o.er JU)'ubihinn" (i.e.
t/oeir bodies, fures,
'''
~======================================
~ Pan Two
neckllUld bosoms) und nor III reveal Ilrei,
adornment except /0 thd r
Iw$banih, or ,hei, fathers, or their frusblmd's
!athtrJ, Or thd, SOlU, or
thei, husband's I(J11S, or their brothers or their
bmtlu!,'s sons, Or Ilrei,
sister's som , or their (Muslim) "'omen (i.e. Ihl!i,
siSIUS in Islam} ... "
(An-Niil.31)
It is thus unlawful for man, especially an
adolescent, to see one
of his prohibited women in short, above the knee,
in a transparent
garment that shows or outlines what is beneath it,
or the private
parIS. It is also unlawful for a girl or woman to see
the purt of the
body between the belly button and the knee of one
of her
(prohibited) men, even her son, brolher, or father,
even if she docs
not suspect temptation. not even in bathing or
washing in the
bathroom.
b. The manners or looking alone's fiance: Islamic
Law has allowed
a suilor to look at his fiance and has allowed the
fiance to do the
same with her suitor, in order that each of them
may be
enlightened in choosing his life partner. This stems
from the
saying of All iih's Prophet 3: as narrated by Muslim
quoting Ibn
Shu'bah: "Look <lI her since Ihis may cause
permant>1lcy between
you" Le. it may implant cordi ality and familiarity.
However, such
looking has certain manners which a suitor must
abide by:
I. the suitor should not look except at the face and
the hands after
he plans to marry her.
2. He may look repeatedly if necessary so that her
physical image
may be imprinted in his mind.
3. He may talk to her and she may talk to him as he
asks for her
hand.
4. It is sti!! not permissib le to shake hands with
the fiance because
she is not yet related to him, before concluding the
marriage
contracl. This is according to what Al-Bukhari said
quoting
'Aishah as saying, "The hand of the Prophet 3: has
never
touched the hand of a woman during taking the
pledge, which
was done orally."
5. They cannot meet except in the presence of a
related man of the
fiance's, according to what Al.BlI~~arl lind Muslim
quoted the
Prophet $: as saying, "No man ij ever allowed /0
meel wilil a
womall ill sl'e/usion, and 110 womllil ij e,'e,
a/lawed /0 Iravel e;ccl'pl
accompanied by a mall prohibited 10 hrr." We
must point out the
common pmctice of the suitor ~nd his fiance:
meeting each othcr
under the pretext that they have to know each
other belter, is
prohibited in Islam rejects and prohibits this
practice because it
contradicts the most basic principles of vIrtue and
morality, and
the damage it causes to the reputation of the girl
more than it
does to that of the sui tor. This reputation makes
people
completely refuse to ask for her handO) Moreover,
this sinful
mixing docs not achieve its purpose because orthe
pretence which
Characterizes their behavior towards each other
c. Th ... mann ... rs of looking at one's ... ife: the
husband is allowed to
see every thing of his wife with or without lust.
Since touching and
intercourse arc allowed, whal is less than them is
also allowed, L e.
looking at all her body. However, it is better for
each of them not
to look at the private parts of the other. The
permissibility of
looking ~l everything is established by what Abu
Dawud, AtTirmidhi,
and An-Nasal quoted Mu'awiyah Ibn ~!idah as
saying:
"1 said, '0 Messenger of Alhlh, what ilbout our
private parIS?
What should we show and what should we leave?'
I-Ie said:
;l ~~ P"~ .:n: G ) rt-fl ~ -it (j) L# rt--.D-! ~ &~r; ,
~~j:
"And thou who gU/lrd tlr,,;. clrastity (i.t. pril'ilft
parIS, from
il/egill Jexuill ileu), Except from their K"i~e~ 01'
(lIr" s/a~es) that
(\) i. c. in.,...., ha onilor doe. nol mor'Y her.
their ,igh, hands possess, - for then, Ihey /Ire f,ee
from blame, .. "
(Al.Mu'minun, 5.{;)
d. The mpnners of looking at non-related lI'omen:
non-related man is
he whom a woman can m3rry, e.g. her paternal
uncle's son, her
paternlll aunt's son, her maternal uncle's son, her
maternlll aunt"s
son, her sister's husband(l) and her maternal(l)
aunt's husband. ())
Nnn-rela ted woman is that whom a man may
marry, e.g. his
paternal uncle's daughter, his pllternal aunt's
daughter, hi~
maternal uncle's daughter, his maternlll aunt's
daughter, his
brother's wi fe, his paternal uncle's wife, his
maternal uncle's
wife, his wife's sister, his wifc's patcrnal or
maternal aunt.(4) What
applies to II man also applies to a boy if he is an
adolescent or
knows about sex, This prohibition is established by
Allah's saying,
t:.. ,,~ ~; 1.L "'. ~ " r 1 't"<: !9~u-~ ~'."" b';~ r.-
".......j , I ~ •• ~ ·-"1i ,! ). ~ .;r- :r-' ,-*"....., .... T
~ ... u.w :C~:; .s~/.:!1 [,; z, '. <.",: '; ,~~ j,; ~ i"j' ":
" Tell ,he belie ~ing men to lo ... er theu- gau (from
looking al
forbidden things), and prolu t their p,i,ale parts
(from ilkgal uXMal
acts), ThaI is purer for them, Verify, Alllih;s AII-
Awa,e ofwl!4t they
do. And telllhe INlie,ing ... omell/o lo ... e, their gaze
(from looking at
forbidden things) And proteel their private parts
(from illegal ux"1l1
acu)" (An·Nfir, 31)
It is also eSlablished by what A!-Tabariini and AI-
,:! iikim
narrated. A!-'!"abarani narrated an authentic
hadith quoting
Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud as saying, "Alliih's Messenger
~ said,
through Alliih's words, "A look is IlIl arrow of (he
arrows of IbliJ (S)
I'l i.e.;n case he divor<:eJ her si'ter or .he dies.
121 The: sam. applie, to her paternal aunt',
hwband.
(l) Again, in case h. divQr<:eJ hor aunt or ,h. dies.
(.) In aU th ... cases, ofie, the other man divortt, the
WOman Or after he dies.
IS) i.e. Satan.
Wlwe~er leaW!5 II for fear of Me J will give him, ill
relllrn, belief
whose sweetness he finds in his lIearl." Muslim
and At-Tirmidhi
quoted Jarir q;. a'l saying: " ] asted Allfth's
Messenger e about
beholding sudden things, so he said, Turn away
your eyesighl'. "'
Shaith Sayed Qutb in his Tafseer entitled "Fi ZilaJ
Al-Qur'aIJ"'
says, "Continual arousal leads man to lustful desire
that cannot be
extinguished or quenched. A lustful loot , an
arousing movement,
excessive adornment, a nated body only arouse
this mad sexual
desire. One of the means of Islam to establish a
clean society is to
prevent this arousal and tecp the deep instinctive
drive between
the two sexes sound and within its natural bounds
without
artificial arousal."
e. The manners of a man looking at a man: a man
should not look at
another man between his belly button and knee.
whether the man
looked at is a relative or non-related Muslim or
disbel iever. As for
looking at other parts of the body, it is pennissiblc
if the looker
guarantees that he would not be aroused. This is
established by
what Muslim quoted the Prophet it as saying,"'''''
man is n0110 look at
the private port5 of (anothe, ) man. and a wonlan
is nollo look allhe
privale pari! of (anolher) woman."
AI,Haklm narrated thaI the Prophet $ saw a man
with a bare
thigh, so he said to him in guidance, "Co~e' your
thigh because Ihe
thigh is a pri.ate part." Therefore, a man is not
permitted to reveal
any part from his naval to his knee whether in
sports, swimming,
training, or in the bathroom, even if he docs not
fear arousal. If
anyone commands him to uncover any part of his
private parts, he
should not obey him in accordance with the hadith
, "'No obedience
10 a crealed man in disobeYing the CrealOr."'
f. The manners of a "oman looking at a woman: a
woman is not
permitted to look at another woman between the
belly button and
the knee, whether the woman looked at is a
relative or not, a
Muslim or a non·M llslim. Based on the above-
mentioned evidence
about a man look ing a\ another m~ln , we
oonelude the following'
It is prohibited for 3 woman to look at the thigh of
her
daughter, sister, mother, neighbor. or friend.
whether in a
bathroom or elsewhere Female Mlislims abiding
by their religion
should avoid looking at the private p'.rts of other
women like
themselves, whether during taking clothes ofT fo r
ta king a batb.
washing in <I bathroom. or in wedding panics
where tbere is
despicable nakedness and hateful exposure, which
is shameful
indeed. Men abiding by their religion should not
permit their wives
or daughters \0 go to public baths because they
involve nakedness.
g. The manners concerning a di shcliC"ing "'oman
louking at a
Mnslim ,,'nman: it is prohibited for a Muslim
woman to reveal any
of her adornments before a disbelieving woman
e)lcept those parIs
which naturally appear such as the handii and the
face. This is
established by Allah's saying,
~t::;j .. 10f,h\ -"~;. p; .:,1 ~r;,: j\ :..:I~ 11 ~"j:~'!.j
6.~. Y';,
<if tr,.t4 .:,1 ~l ~ ,;1 ~.;;.! q:: j ~';;'J j ~~
"And nOI 10 ,e"eul,hei, adornmenl uapl 10 Ihei,
husbands, Or
their fathers, (I' thei, hasband's fUlher s, 0' Ihei,
sons, 0, thei,
hasband's SOn5, 01' l!rei, brothers 0, t!rdr brothu's
sons, or their
,';Sler's SOliS, 01' t!reir (Mlll'lim) ... ornen (i,e, ,hei,
!ii.Hers in Islum}."
(An-Niir, Jt)
This verse means that a Muslim womun should no!
display her
adornment unless she is with righteous Mushm
women. If there are
non·Muslim women or women who <Ire not
righteous, she should
not display her adornment. The wisdom behind
this is thut a non'
Muslim woman is likely \0 describe a Muslim
woman to ber
disbelieving husband. Prohibition then, is bccaw;c
of a specific
reason, not be.::ause priva1e parts are involved.
h. The maoncrs of lookiog at Af-Amrlld: he is the
young man whose
beard has not yet grown. Looking at ul-amrud is
permissible if it is
for a necessity such as selli ng and buying. ta king
and giving,
medication and education , and other necessities.
But if looking is
intended for enjoying beauty, it is prohibited
because it leads to
lust and sin. The evidence for prohibition is Alliih's
saying;
~ ~,""';:1 ~ V~ ; 6.;.-~ j,
" Tefl tM Ixlie.ing me" ro lower thei, gllu (from
looking lit
forbidtk" rhingJ }.,. " (A n. N ur, 3 t)
Our pious predecessors exaggerated in avoiding
l(){)king at and
sitting with good-looking amruds. Sufyiin Ath-
Thawri once went to
the bathroom, and a boy with a beautifu l face
entered, so Sufyan
said, 'Take him out of here; I see a devil with every
woman, and
seventeen devils with an amruti.
A man came to Imam Ahmad who had a boy with a
beautiful
face with him. He asked him, 'How is he related to
you?' He said,
'He is my sister'S son' _ He said, 'Do not bnng him
to us once more,
and do not walk with him III the street 50 that
those who do not
know you and him may not entertain bad thoughts
about you'.
The wisdom behmd the prohibition of looking at
an amradwithout
necessity is the fear of oommitting a sin. Hence,
prohibition is
meant as a means of avoiding and preventing
oorruption.
i. The maooers or a woman looking at non-related
men: Muslim
womeo are allowed to look at men wal king in the
streets, playing
unprohibited sports, or selling and buying.
Evidence: In As-$t0i!wyn
it is metioned that AlIiih's Messenger '* looked at
the Abyssinians,
who were playing wi th their spears in the mosque
on the day of the
feast, while 'Aishah 14\& looked at them from
behind him. He was
hiding her from them until she became bored and
left.
The scholar Ibn ~ aja r AI·'Asqalani says in his
book '"Fa/h AI196
!'an Two
Bar/bi SharI! Sahil! AI-Bllkl!tiri'": "It has been
cslabliscd by this
lliidilh, i. e. 'Aishah's loobng al Ihe Abbyssinian>,
that il is
pennissible for a woman to loot at a non-related
man, but not vice
versa. The evidence for the laller case is the
continuation of women
going to mosques and martets. and while traveling
with veiled
[,Ices so that men would not sec Ihem, men were
never commanded
to be veikd so that women may not see them. This
shows that Ihere
is a difference in the ruling between men and
women."' What I
conclude arter considering the aforementioned
evidence is that
looking by ,I woman at ~n alien man is pcnnissible
under tWO
conditions: First. that looking does not lead to
temptation. Second,
Ihat gazing should not late place in the same
meeting place with
men and women facing each other.
j. 'Ill ... manners of looking at the print ... parts of
elilldr ... n: ( I) Scholars
of rcligon said that Ihe privale parts of a youngster,
a boy or a girl,
are not prohibited to look at if he is four years old
or younger. But
if he or she is over four, his or her private parts are
the front and
back private parts and Ihe areas around Ihen. If we
make a young
child accustomed to covering his body, this will be
better.
k. CaSC'i in .. hich looking is permissible for
necessity:
I. I...ooking with the intention of marriage: this has
been discussed
under '"The manners of looking at one's fiance'"
above.
2. I...ooking with the aim of teaching: it is
permissible for a man to
look at a non-related woman who is not displaying
her beauty.
for the sake of tcaching her, accordmg to these
conditions:
- That Ihe branch of knowledge she is lea rning is
lawfu l and
leads 10 righteousness in this world and the next.
- That the branch of knowledge is within whal she
is supposed
(I) See "Radd AI-M"!',w" by Ibn Abdeen Part t, the
chapttr on condition. of
prayer.
197
\0 do, c. g. teaching her [he principles of nursing,
the art of
midwifery, and sewing.
- ThaI looking at her is not feared to lead 10
temptation.
· That leaching docs not lead to seclusion between
men and
women.
- That there are no women who can teach what the
men are
teaching.
3. looking for the sake of treatment: it is
pennissiblc for a doctor
10 look at the parts he is treating of 11 non-related
women.
Muslim quoted Umm Salamah'" as saying that she
asked the
pennission of the Prophet 3: to have cupping, so
the Prophet
3: commanded Abu Tibah to make cupping for her.
A doctor
can treat a woman only under some conditions:
- He should be pious, honest, specialized, and
knowledgeable.
- He should not uncover any part of her body
exccpllhat which
is necessary.
· Lacking a female doctor who is capable of giving
treatment.
· A relative such as husband, or a trusted woman,
e. g. her
mother, should be present.
_ He should not be a non-Muslim, while a Muslim
doctor is
available.
4. Looking for trial or testimony; it is permissible
for the judge or
witness to look at a woman· s face and hands, even
if lhey were
liable to temptation. It is pennissible because a
covered woman
can!lot be identified by the judge or witness, and
for keeping the
rights from being lost in the society.
In this connection to Ihis, I quote historical
evidence in order
that people may know how our piolls predecessors
used to refrain
from admitting the uncovering of womens' faces,
even in
permissible cases:
Musa. Ibn I s~aq , the judge of Rayy and Ahwaz in
the third
century A. H., was holding a court session. Among
the htigants
was a woman, who claimed that her husband owed
her a dowry of
five hundred dinars. The husband denied the
claim. So the judge
said to him, "Bring forth your witnesses." The man
said, " I have
already done so." The judge called one of them and
asked him to
look at the wife and point at her in his testimony.
So, the witness
went and asked the wife to rise. The hu~band said,
"What do you
want of her?" He was told that the witness should
look at her face
to recognize her. The man disliked a stranger to
look at his wife's
face in public. So, he shouted out, "I declare to the
judge that l owe
my wife the dowry she is claiming, but do not
uncover her face. So,
when the wife realized how much her husband
cared for her, she
shouted out to the judge, " I declare to you that I
have granted my
husband this dowry, and he is clear of it in this life
and the
Hereafter." So, the judge said to those amund him,
"Write this
down in the page of noble manners."
Finally, it is a must for fathers, mothers, and
educators to be
exemplary to their children regarding such
manners of looking,
and teach them, if they want them to acquire noble
manners, and a
sublime Islamic education. Alliih iii will never
deprive them of
their deeds, on a day when neither money nor sons
shall profit
anyone.
Thirdly: Keeping Children Away from Sexual
Arousal
Among the major responsibi lti~'S that Alliih made
incumbent on
educators is to fortify young people against sexual
stim ulants al the
age of puberty and before. Scholars have
unanimously agreed that
the teenage years are the most momentous period
orman's life. So,
if the educator knew how to guide him in this
phase, in a manner
which is well -o riented and righteous, he would,
no doubt, grow up
as an embodiment or modesty and chastity. Allilh
16 says,
,t:;:;I: :,1 G-iCl: :) ~-R 1; ~',:,i...,! 6.';:" t &...,r J f..;'~
,;~ ~;.J; ,
jl ~, ,; ) W i .; ) ~":;1 j ~~ ,"(::;:;1 jl ~~ j, ~;..:
3 / . .:Si J,iJ:.li J JC"'I ~ ~-ii J,l ;:i ~i ) ;:' ;' ,'.~ 31:
l:)!*.t:4. '"-"". . ' ~ • . '1:' ., . ,..." .> .... .'
~ ... r~ 1 .;.:;;" ~ lh; ~
"And 10 drllw their veil,- "If "I'e. Juyubihinnu (i.e.
their hodies,
faces, necks und bosoms) and not to re~eui lireir
ado,nmen, exapt to
(h!!ir husbands, Or flrdr [a/hen, or their husband'.
fathers, or their
sons, or their husbund' .• sons, or Ilreir hrothers or
their bruther's sons,
or their _.;ster', sons, Or Ilreir (Muslim) "'omen (i,e.
their 5i,'leTS in
Islum), or lire (female) S/Il"U whom their right
"QJlUS po,',fess, or old
male Jl'r,'unU ... ho lack I'igor, or small children
II'ho /rave no sense of
feminine sex ... •• (An-Nur, 31)
Imam Ibn Kathir says in interpreting this verse, hit
means if
young children are unaware of matters pertaining
to women's
pri~acies, their melodious voices, their way of
walking, their
moves, and their standing stIll, there is no harm in
letting them
enter wQmen'~ places, but if they arc teenagers or
approcahing th is
age, or aware of all of that, and can distinguish
between an
allTactive and unattractive woman, they should be
prevented from
entering women's places,"
Al-Buk--hii ri narrated tllat Al-Fad-l lbn AI-Abbas
was behind the
Prophct 3: on a camel on the Day of Slaughtering
and Al-Fadl
was about the agc of puberty, Al-Fa~l kCpllooking
at a beautiful
woman from Khllthllm, who was ~lsking the
Prophet about some
religious matters. so, the Prophet ~ took Al-Fa~l
by the chin and
turned his face away from the woman. lbus, the
Prophet $ kepi
him from sexually stimulating himself th rough
gazing at the
woman's face. The responsibility of the educator
for keeping his
child away from sexual stimulants is realized in
two ways: The first:
the responsibility of inside monitoring and the
second: the
responsibility of outside monitoring.
Inside Monitoring
The educator should make clear to his child the
Islamic rules of
chastity both in theory and pr<lctice, which arc:
- Practicing the aforementioned manners of asking
permission.
- Forbidding teenagers from entering women"s
places.
- Separating male children and female children in
beds. AI-Hakim
and Abii Diiwiid related that the Prophet G: said,
"Command
your children 10 pray at Ihe age of seven, and beal
Ihem for il
(lleglecling) praying III Iht age of /en, Illid separme
moles Md
females in bed." This is to avoid that they should
sec, from onc
another, what may arouse their sexual desires, and
corruptlhem.
Teachlllg children the manners of looking (i.c. at
non·related
women), and continually stimulating theIr fear of
Alliih.
Not having a T.V. set at home fo r the grave harm it
has on
virtue and morality.
Checking what the children may possess of
newspapers,
magazines and novels, and guiding them as to
what they are
permitted to buy and what they are no\.
_ Forbidding mixing of boys with girls from their
very early years,
and letting them have friends only of the same sex
and of
righteous people.
Oubide monitoring
The boy should also be monitored outside, since
the society
suffers some evils slich as:
I. Cinema and theaters, which show adult films and
sexual
stimulants.
2. Indecent dresses of women, since they stimulate
the sexual
desire, irritate one's mind by following women,
waste one's
money, demean honor, and force tile poor to
commit unlawful
acts. Moreover, they refloct just blind imitation
and insane
attraction to the West. Besides, they lead to serious
problems in
every house between husband and wife, and
mother and
daughter.
3. Public and secret brothels, which are places of
adultery and
prostitution. In these places, honor is abolished,
time and
money arc wasted, diseases arc spread, and sins
nest all day and
night. In sueh sordid places, families collapse,
houses devastate,
women arc perverted, and honor is violated. Here
are, my fellow
educators, some of the indecent scenes which
these brothels
introduce to our society:
a. While a teacher was giving a physical education
class to
students in a girls' secondary school, a tenth-grade
student fell
down suddenly onto the floor. They rushed her to
a hospital for
eumination. It turned out that she was pregnant.
After
investigation, it turned out that the girl was
working in a
brothel wi th live other students of the same age.
The school and
family were aware of nothing. It also turned out
that one of
these students was enticed by her immoral
mother, and could, in
turn, seduce her fellow students and get them to
participate in
prostitution. Unfortunately, education of officials
kept the
whole matter secret and hid it to aviod scandal.
Immoral
company, undoubtedly, has its own influence in
seduction and
eorrupllon.
b. A licentious father was led by desire to a brothel.
The pimp
showed him the prostitutes' photos. His eyes
caught his
daughter's photo, and was extremely taken by the
unexpected
surprise. but he could restrain himself until he
made sure. So, he
told the pimp that he wanted that girl. The pimp
told him to go
to a certain room where she was ready for him.
When he entered
the room, he found his daughter quite ready to
receive the
clients. When the girl saw her father in front of her,
she was
taken by horror and dashed l(l the door to save
herself from
him. The father could not help trying to strangle
her. But the
people there did not let him do so. Those who had
det ai ls of the
incident said that a girl of her neighbours enticed
her to that
way, and the family never knew that their
daugllter had replaced
the school with a brothel, where shc buried her
honor and
chastity.
c. A trustworthy teacher told me that he went to
l()()k for a friend
in a coffee shop, but he noticed that so many male
and female
students were entering the coffee shop, and going
upstairs. He
wa~ very curious 10 lind out what was going on
there. He
followed them, and was extremely shocked by
what he saw in
the hall of the upstairs 1100r; he found that most
of those who
went up to that place were male and female
students, who were
hugging, kissing, and mrting with impudcnt laughs
and indecent
stimulation. Then, he wondered how these
students met each
other and how these relations hips sta rted, and
who brought
them into this particular place? These arc lessons
of decay which
those students received through T.V, photos,
morally depraved
magazines and malicious stories. Most likely the
families know
noth ing of these meetings. There is no doubt
\hatthe corrupted
environment has led to such corruption and
temptation.
4. Moral dcprivation: the streets of cities are swcpt
by sparkling,
deceptive pictures, obscene words, and indecent
propaganda for
a lilm or dispicable drama.
5. Corrupt companionship: we have mentioned
before, in the
chaptcr on the reasons that lead to children's
devialion, Ihal
"Among the main facto rs leading /0 child
deviation are bad
companions especially when the child is afmodest
intelligence. " In
this regard, the Prophet it: said, "A man adheres ro
his friend's
customs. So. you have /0 be selective regording
whoever is going to
be your friend." This is narrated by Ibn Majah. May
Alliih have
Mercy upon the poet who said,
Never wonder about man but about his associate.
Since every mate takes his associate to emulate.
6. Corruption from intenningling: this mode of
social behavior has
a negative impact on morals and ethics, even in the
case of
children. This innovation has unfortunately, been
introduced in
some Muslim communities. It w~s encouraged by
the claim that
this type of intermingling may abate instincts and
check desire.
In the chapter on "The Responsibility for
Intellcctual Education"'
we mentioned the convincing and cogent reply and
the
evidence against alilhose who justify the above
claim. These are
the most dangerous means that wOlJld cause our
children 10 be
completely lost. In my opimon, there are three
positive ways,
which if adopted by educators, children would be
morally
sound. These ways are:
I. Enlightenment 2. Warning 3. Monitoring
Enlightenment
Early instruction allows a child to mentally absorb
the lessons
throughout his life until he becomes a grandfather.
If we teach the
child that he is encircled by those who plot against
him, his religion
and nation, he would be mature enough to eheck
his desires,
beeause the ehild knows, in advance, that ways of
temptation in his
society have been arrayed by the enemy to destroy
him and his
fellow citizens.
It is recommended to inform the child about the
plottings
against his re ligion. My fellow educator, you will
see these
elaborate plottings supported by incidents in a
paper on
"Awareness of Responsibility." Here, we present
some of these
plans:
I. J ews and Freemasonry: these have adopted
Sigmund Freud's
opinions. Freud e ... pl aills human behavior in
terms of the sc ... ual
instinct. They have also adopted the opinions of
Ihe Jew Karl
Man, who attacked religions and all fa ith in
Divinity. When asked
about the substitute for this faith Mau replied,
"The substitute is
the theater. Let them always occupy themselves
with the theater
instead of Divinity. They have adopted the
opinions of Friedrich
Nietzsche who abrogated morahty and made
permissible everything
that satisfies man's enjoyment. They actually
adopted
anything that would destroy religion and morality.
Among the
wen-known Masonic sayings is the following, "We
have \0 gain
women as supporters. So at any time, women
stretched their hands
to us, we defintely gained the prohibited, and the
army of the
religious zealo ts vanished."
II. Colonization and the Crusades: one of the
famous colonists says,
in th is regard, ··A drinking glass and a bottle of
wine destroy the
Muhammadan Nation more than a thousand
cannons can do.
Thus, try your best to let this Nation be
overwhelmed by
materialism and lu ... ury." Unfortunately, this is
what they have
already achieved.
At the Missionaries· Conference in Jerusalem, the
priest Zoimer
said, "You have raised up a generation in Muslim
countries that
does not have any submission to Allah.
Consequently, this Muslim
generation has been vin dicating the aims of
colonizat ion . So, it is a
generation with no ambition to achieve great
things. Rather, it has
become fond of laziness. Further. il e ... erts its
energies exclusively in
luxury. So, if they learn or gain money or achieve
eminenl
positions, worldly ta rgets are their only concern."
III. Communism and Materia listic Ideologies: the
proponents of
Communism said, "We have succeeded In
destroying religion by
means of stories, dramas, lectures, mass media and
books on
propaganda for apostasy and attacks on re ligion
and Its scholars.
All this media caUs for materialistic science and for
making it the
sovereign authority,"
Warning
EfTective warnings call make the child aware of
real dangers.
A. Dangers for health: this includes the following
among the
physical and psychological diseases: AIDS, gonorrh
ea, syphilis,
sexual ulcerahon, chancroid and carly
psychological maturity.
B. Danger of immorality: this includes, among
others, homosexuality
i. e. sodomy and lesbianism.
C. Psychological effects: we refer here to the
following: dissolute
generations may bring in to existence gangs to kill,
kidnap, and
rape. Other gangs for drug smuggling and sex may
be formed.
Well-educated gangs may also be formed
(physicians, lawyers,
etc). to colier the crimes in return fo r bribes of sex
and money.
D. The social problem: this is represented by the
following:
- Threatening society as a result of demolish ing
the fam ily
system.
- Fornication yields injustice to the born children,
smce it
deprives them of their obvious right 1. e. being
legal children.
- Both men and wOmen become miserable in spite
of their
transient enjoyment.
- Severing the bonds of kinship is an inevitable
result of illreputation
and notorious behavior.
E. Economic Problems:
- Weakening of the productive powers, because
shameless deeds
'06
~======================================
===P.t!Two
destroy health and hold back production.
- Wasting sources of wealth for the sake of luxury
and lustful
deeds.
- Making illegal gains through bribery, drugs, adult
films, and
pornography. This would lead 10 hindering a great
part of the
labor force . Further, it would also destroy the
nation's
progress, and devastate its economy and
production.
F. The religious problem: abandoning faith. the
two Shaikhs
narrated that the Prophet '* said, "When the
adulterer commits
adultery, he is no longer a believer." A~-Tabanini
also narrated
in Al-Awsa! that the Prophet 3; said, "I ... arn you
again:;1
commilling adultery, since;1 ends in/mlf rhings: it
makes the/ace
gloomy; if CU{J off Ihe earnings. ;1 lead. /0 the
wralh of the All
Merciful, andfinally i/ makes Jhe abode in Fire
elerna/."
Finally, persisting In committing adutery would
make torment
doubled on lhe Day of the Resurrection. AlIiih Ui
says in Surah
Al-Furqiin:
'i~ , ~.~ ~I :ii V Ji ';'~:I\ .;y ~ t ~I~ L.;,1~ ;'1 E ~ .:;
;.;J[; t
'"{ ''~~'~ ""-"{ '"~ F~" '.'J' lr"."i</~"1" :.:), "' -"", ~
"U" J-4'4 •l ~. -- -""--' '.s~>j>'.~/.
".4 nd "IOU: ... 110 invtJke nol "ny olMr ilM (god)
along II'j,h Alliih,
/lor kill such perso/l as A /liih has forbidden,
exc~p' for jus, cause, nor
commil il/egui sexual in'ercourse - und II'hoeur
don tbi! shall ucti~e
'he punishment. The torm .. "t "'ill be doub/~d ((>
him on ,he Duy of
Ra urru tion. ond he II>il1 tJbide therein in
disgr"ce" (AI_Furqan. 68-.69)
Moreover, continuing to warn against lustful acts,
and the
repealed men1ion of theIr worldly and religious
punishments would
instill a noble spirit in the hearts of children.
Further, their
personalities would have solid barriers against
deviation and
falsehood.
Monitoring
This IS one of the most important and positive
means of
improving children's behavior. Thus, we sho.,ld
bind them directly
or indirectly to delinite aims. Then, the educator
must bind hIs
child with what he wishes for hIm. For instance,
the bond should
lirst be with mosques and the fonns of worship
within thcm and
Ihc necessary companionship with scholars and
anending Iheir
scholarly courses in general and other specilic
forms of worshipping
Allah. We must also mention the Importance of
occupying the
chIld with his sports activities in a way th!lt h'Cps
Ihe child's
religious fcelings intact.
rourthly: Tuellin!; the Child the Legal Rulings Go~c
rning I'ub-crty
and Maturity
Educators should give children frank mform~tion
about sex in a
way that yields psychological comfort. Therefore.
knowing the
rules of purification would kcep the pcrform:lnce
of worship v<llid.
Consequently, Ihe psychological bewilderment of
adolescence ~s;,
result oftccn-age changes would vanish. Frankncss
in thi ~ domain
keeps the boy and girl from asking friends and
fcllow mates ~bout
sexual matters. This may lead to dangerous moral
corruption. The
following are some of the legal rulings in this
respect.
1. The child (boy or girl) may have iI'li/lim (wet
dreams) but he
does not get wet. Then purification wash is nOI
obligatory. On
the contr~ry, if he find~ wetting without a dream
he must w;lsh
himself. The five authorities except An-Nasai
narrated that
"Aishah .;.. >;,id, "The Prophet $ WaS once <lskcd
:lbout a
marJ linding himself wet wi th sperm without a
wet dream. and he
said: 'Ill' mUSI wash.' But if a man sees a wet
dre.lIn and finds no
wetting, the Prophet answered, "Washing is nOl
obligalory" Then
Umm Salim asked him if .1 woman finding herself
wet must
wash. The Prophet answered. "Yes , defil1ilely,
women are fi jll
208 ,"""" """""""""""""""""= Por, Two
sisters o/men (in every thing) ,
2. If II man experiences lustful ejaculation he must
wash himself.
But if the ejaculation is not lustfu l. that is, a
sympton ofa disease
washing himself is not II must. AI-lmflm A~mad,
At-Tinnidhi
and Ibn Majah narrated that Ali 40 said, " [ used 10
have light
sperm then I asked the Prophet ~ about that and
he answered,
"In your case. yllli need 10 perform ablution only,
bul in ca.'1! ,Jj
nalural sperm, w(l$hing yourself is a mU$I. "
3. If a husband and his wife have sexual
intercourse then washing is
a must. Here, Muslim narrated that 'Aishah ~ sa id,
"The
Messenger of Allah 3: said, " ' fa husband has
sexual intercourse
with his wife, then they must wash afterwards."
4. Following a monthly period or chi ld-birth a
woman must have a
wash of purification. Allah !iii says in the Qur'an,
~ ~ .• 'i ;;. ~;;i '1; t
"Alld do 110/ draw lIear Ihtm lilllhey are pure ( i.t.
liIIlhey "'ash
IhemJiuJ Jor purijkalioll}." (At·Baqarah. 222)
The evidence in case of child-birth is confinncd by
consensus of
authorities on legal question and by legal analogy.
Obligatory and recommended practices for
washing are as
follows: washing the mouth and nose and then Ihe
whole body.
The recommendcd practices done by the Prophet
$. arc as
foHows: to wash the hands. then the se~ ual organ
and remove any
impurity. Then, there comes ablution except the
feet. Then water is
poured all over the body three times, the feet are
washed with
running water. Other recommended practices
done by the Prophct e are: intention, uttenng the
Invocation, BiJmiff"h AI-Rahman AfRahim
( In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most
Merciful), brushing the teeth, letting water go
between the beard
and between the fingers, and rubbing the body
with water.
llirtllly: Marriage and Sexual Intercourse
Islam has legislated marriage only to comply with
the innate
inclination towards the other sex, Thus, man
would futrill his
natural desire in complete harmony without being
dominated by
unlawful temptations.
A. Marriage in Islam is based upon the above
understanding of
man's innate inclination toward the other sex.
Hence, the
institution of marriage would fulfill his longings
and tendencies,
so that no one would exceed the limits of his
legitimate
inclinations. AlIiih 1H says:
;~ i '( ~;; ~ 4;1, ~ ~\ ~_ "\;1 .;; j:J ~ ;:.1 .~I; W ,
~ L;;
"And amonK His Signs ;s this, that lie cr~a'edfor
)·ou ... ·iru from
among ),oursl'fres, that )·ou ma)' find repOI.t! in
them, lind fit! has put
INtween ),ou IIffu tion and mu"y." (Ar-Rum, 21)
AI-Bu~~ari and Muslim narrated that Anas" said,
"A group
of three men came to the Prophet·s house to ask
his wives about
tbe Prophet's prayers. Having recievcd the answer,
they considered
them lillie. Then, they explained their view by
saying, 'How can we
compare our pr.lye rs wlth those of the Prophet 4:
since Alliih has
forgiven him his sins whatever of them has passed
and whatever is
to come. So. one of them said, ·As for me, I will
perform the night
prayers forever.' The second said, 'I will fast all my
life and will
never break my fast.· The third said, ' I would
seclude myself from
women and never get married.' Later on, the
Messenger of Alliih
3:. came and was informed of what they have said.
He said, 'Have
yau said so and so? Indeed, I swear by Allah Ihal I
am the mOyl
fearful of Allah and mOSI pious. Howner, I fast and
break my fasl,
pray and sleep, ond I gel married. So, wlroevl'r
refrains from my
practice is nor among my followers."
Allother objecti~e of marriage in Islam is
satisfying the sexual
ncc.-d through legal means to be rewarded by
Allah. Muslim
narrated thai Abu Dllarr ";' said, "A group of the
Companions of
the I'rophct said to the Prophet ~. '0 Messenger of
Alhih, the
deceased 'by-gone' got all the rewards. They used
to pray as we do,
fast as we do; then they gave the poor their rightl;
OUI of their
wealth. The l'rophCI 3: wondered, 'D()(!$ nOl
AI/fih provide you ",ilh
wilat YOII may g iw~ Ihe poor /'0",1 Truly, )'011
may offer charily
th,augh saying Subhrow Allah (Glory be 10 Alltih)
Alllili" akbar
(A/liih is Ihe Grea/est) . [{j i/rihu illd Alliih (There
is no god hUI
Allah) and AI-Ifamdl< Lilloh (praise be to Alliih):
C{)mmonding
beneficence. and fa ,biding maleficence." Then, Ihe
Prophet
concluded by saying, "and having sexual
intercourse wilh your
spouse is 0150 charilY." The Companions
exclaimed by saying, "0
Messenger of Alliih! Arc we going to be rewarded
even for sexual
intercourse?" The Prophet tj; eJlplaincd, .. Would a
person 1101 be
punished if he performed il ill an illegal
(prohibiled) way (i.e. by
commit/illg adultery)? They said, ··Yes, indeed."'
The Prophet then
added, "Ukewi.w;,. if he dOl's if legally, he will be
rewarded.··
However, it should not be lmderstood that fulfil
ling that natural
desire is the major responsi bilities in motivation
for marriage.
Rather, the Muslim has many other goals to
achieve. Among these
are striving fo r the way of Allah (Ji/l/id), calling
others to learn,
etc. Allah!B says,
__ '"' , __ '' ,"'"' j-_' h ___ M -& _h,~, ,~," _",_,_ -" " t"
~? ,~ . ':> • .,.... :ill "'''.;"J k:V~ i"""'r-j.J ,---~,""IJ !""~
... '. ~ .... " T
!- 1 H'7. ~ . t-': _' -' '" ~l~· 'L-·11 ~'~ 1/'·~·' ~,/./"
~~e
Ir~"" ".> -I.l~"N"" .... _ '-.:/.~ • ..- '-+' ..... j ~J
~ ~:L ~!\ ,:;ill -,$';:;' 1 ~t ;A ~l a\
"Say: If ,.our jathus, ,.our sons, your bralhus, your
IIIives, your
hindud, Ihe w~"lIh Ihal you h"ve gained, Ihe
commerce in lllhieh you
jear a decline, "nd 'he dwellings in ,,-hieh you
deligh, are dearer 10
you 'han AU"h and His Mess~nger, and slriving
hard and fighting in
lIis Cause, ,hen wail unlif Allii" brings abou, Jlil
Decision
(l"'mMI). And Alliih guides no:>/ the people who
are AI-Ftuiqun (the
rebellious, djsobedi~nf 10 A/Nih)" (At-Towbah.
24)
B. Then why does Allah prescribe the laws of
marriage? Above, we
have mentioned the advantages of the legislation
of marriage by
Allah in the first part of this book under the title
"Marriage is a
Social In terest." Thus, you may refer to the details
there.
Advice to parents: Muslim narrated that the
Messenger of Allah
3: said, .. You may spend your money for various
P"'POSl!s: some for
Ihe way of Alliih, somefor your servanr. some/or
Ihe poor. and some
for your family. The 1U51 pari would be the most
rewarded one." The
best way to provide for your family is to support
them and protect
them in their honor, health, and livelihood. For in
stance, you may
help your sons get married and help whoever
wants to marry your
daughters.
C. The Wedding Night
1. Al-Bukhari. Abu Diiwiid, and others narrated
that the PTOphet
3: said, " Whoever gels married. should genliy put
his hand on her
head. I/ten SlOrl in Ihe name of Allah, U5king !lim
/0 bles.! her,
saying. '0 Alliih. I ask you Ihe beSI of her lemper
and morals, and
1seek ¥or" proleelion/ro", her possible harm.
andfrom Ihe worSI
of her temper."
2. II is also recommended for both husband and
wife to pray IWO
ruk'ahs (units of prayer), and invoke Allah to bless
them after
the prayer.
3. The husband should be amiable to his bride and
offer her
something 10 cat or drink.
4. The bride and bridegroom shnuld completely
take off their
clothes to sleep under one bedoover.
5. Before making love, he should do foreplay and
necking and try
his best to make his ejaculation after her orgasm.
6. The husband should say the following
invocation: " In the name
of Allah, 0 our Lord, keep Satan away from us and
keep him
away from our offspring."
7. It is pennissible 10 make love in any position (i.
e. standing, lying
down, etc.) as long as this is done in the vulva.
8. If they want to make love again, they should
make ablution.
This would make them more energetic. However,
taking a
shower would be much better.
9. It would be better to perfo rm the major ri tual
bathing
immediately after making love, so that they would
perfonn
prayer then.
O. Spouses should keep the following things in
mind:
- It is forbidden for both to mention anything
about their lovemaking,
by word or gesture. Muslim and Abu Dilwiid
narrated
that the Prophet ~ said, "The cornlemned people
before Allah on
the Day of ResurreClion are thou who sleep with
their wives (10
make love) then disclose thai/a a/hers. "
- It is prohibited to have anal intercourse. All the
authorities on
Prophetic Tradition e~cept An-Nasa'; narrated
that the Prophet
• sa id, " Whoever makes love during the monthly
period. or in the
amlS, or lakes advice of prognosticators is no
longer a believer in
what has been revealed 10 Muhammad.·'
- Generally speaking, it is forbidden to make love
during the
monthly period and child birth period. Allah!S
says,
~ ~::. ~i <l .Wi 1)';'~ ,
"So keep apart from womell diU;,,/: mells/rua/ioll.
" (Al-Raqarah, 222)
. It is forbidden to make love in the mornings of
Ramadan.
Further, it is not pennilled for a wife to voluntarily
fast without
the consent of her husband.
_ It is forbid den for a wife 10 refuse making love
with her
husband.
Sixthly; Abstaining from marriage till AIIIlh
enriches poor youlh
Allah III says.
..i. "{'..1. :,,; ~. ~ W~.."; o.~-- (~_ ", '-"'f . ~ .:.... _ill .
_;l' 7S~'. "~
"And let tire ones ... lro do not find tlr~ m~uns to
,,'~d kup
abstaining till Allalr en,iches them of lIiJ GraCi<."
(An_Nur. 33)
Marriage might face several difficulties. The most
important of
these obstacles is money. Money mostly impedes
Ihe young
generations who lack jobs and e~perience from
getting married.
What should the youth do if they lack fin ancial
means while
longing to fulfill their innate desire? To them, we
suggest the
following solutions, keeping in mind fear of Allah:
1. To observe much voluntary fast
2. To compl etely and categorically keep away
from sexual
enticemcnts.
3. To fill his leisure time profitably
4. To keep good company
5. To cast down eyes as regards women, and avoid
reprehensible
looking al women of consanguinity
6. Building up religious conscience: the best e~am
ple of modesty
and emincnce is the Prophet Yusuf (Joseph) $ as
displayed in
the Noble Qur'an. Shaikh Ali A!-Tan.tiiwi says in a
tract entitled
'" YI.I BWll.liy'" (0 My Son) from which we quoted
a great part in
the original manuscript: "Modesty means to
relieve oneself
through spiritual. mental, emotional or physical
etTort that
consumes the accumulated emotion. This etTort
also releases this
stored energy by resorting 10 Allah and devotion
in His worship,
or giving oneself up for work and sc ientific
research. One may
also devote oneself to art and literature to express
one's innate
instincts. This may be achieved either in poetry,
portrayals, or
by physical elTort involving oneself in sport
activity, and
religion."
Seventhly: Is il permissible to speak frankly 10
your children on
sexual affairs?
The answer is yes. Sometimes, il is a must if legal
rulings are
intended:
I. To find out answers to questions raised by the
youth aboul the
Noble Qur·an, especially where there is reference
to the variant
stages of man's creation.
2. The youth can not know the pennissible and the
prohibited in
their maturity, and the obligatory and the
voluntary deeds
unless they are taught abom sex.
3. Likewise, if they have decided to get married, it
would be
unreasonable for them to start this important
stage lacking any
knowledge about its duties or ethical obligations.
Dear educator, I would like to remind you of two
issues:
I. Educational materials should suit each stage of
growth. So, it is
unreasonable to teach sex to a child ten years old,
and to neglect
such knowledge to teenagers and mall.lre youths.
2. II is recommnended that a mother should give
her daughlers
relevant infonnalion ahout Ihis issue. However, if a
mother is
not available, any other woman may do that.
Finally, we state that nothing could save the world
today from
the disorders of unrestntined desire and sweeping
immoral decay
except the Muslim view not only co~millg sex but
also on other
aspects of life. Thus Islam puts all aspects of life in
order, and
provides man with a balanced integrated view of
hfe that fulfills the
needs of humanity and satislies man's hopes and
longmgs.
I'ART THR E":
This part includes three chapters:
I. EITectivc JJK:ans of child education
2. The basic rules of bringing up a child
3. Suggestions to upgrade educational standards
Chapter One
I':rret: li~e Means of Chi ld Educlililin
An enlightened and fair educator is always on the
lookout for
effective educational means and bases to prepare
children
religiously, morally, educationally, psychologically,
and socially,
the aim is to assist children to attain the highest
possible degree of
perf~tion, maturity, rationality, and equilibrium.
But what are
these effective means and educational bases for
educating children?
In my opinion, these are five:
1. Education by setting a good example.
2. Education by establishing beneficial habits.
3. Education by wise admonition.
4. Education by observation.
5. Education by appropriate punishment.
t. Educalion by Setting a Good Example
Sening a good example is extremely elTective in
helping to
reform a wayward child. If the educator is truthful,
honest. noble,
and chaste, the children will be raised on tru th
fulness, honesty,
morali ty, noblily, and chastity. However, If the
educator is
unt ruthful, treacherous, immoral, miserly,
cowardly, or mean,
the chi ldren will be brought up on lying,
treachery, immorlity,
cowardice and meanness.
AlIiih iI!i lays down the perfec t Divine method,
and entrusted
His Messengcrs 10 carry the Divine message to the
nation
characterized by the most sublime psychological,
moral, and
intellectual faculties. so that pt.'Qple may accept
the message, take
them as examples, learn from them, respond to
them, and follow in
their footsteps in noblc vi rtues and great morals.
Therefore, Allah sent Mu ~ammad 3: to be an
examplc for
Muslims throughout history, and to be the guiding
light for
humanity until tbe end of time. The Noble Qur'iin
says,
~ !:' ;' i~ ~i ~.; <.! ;SJ ~( jjj t
"Indud in the MCJscl/ger 0/ AI/lih ( Muhammad
~) you have a
good example to 10110 ..... :' (AI·A~ziib, 21)
The example which the Prophet ~ gave in the lield
of
worship and morality is the best the world has
seen, and with
passage of time, people lind Ihe perfect example
and guiding light
in the way the Prophet ~ worshlpped Allah, and in
the way he
prC'lerved his morality.
Concerning the example of worship, Al-Bukhari
and Muslim
quoted AI- M ug~irah Ibn Shu·bah as saying, "The
Messenger of
Allah ii: used to pray at night until bis feel were
swollen. Wben it
was said to him, 'Has not Allah pardoned you fo r
your past and
ruture wrongdoings?· he replied, 'Sholl{J 1 not be a
thankl ul
servant ?'"~
Part Th rc<
II is no wonder then that the Prophet 3: occupies
the highest
rank of worship bee~usc he carried out all Allah's
orders
concerning praying a\ night, worship,
remembering Allah,
mentioning the names of Allah, and invocation,
The Noble
Qur'iin says,
5(,jll .};J ~ ;;. } (%) 'i.E ::; ~[ } ,;; '; ¢dJ -i!J:)i j Q) j;.iJr
Ii\!; ,.
~ ~ r)t 8;) ~ ~ J:!I ~( ~I 0) # 1;; :'!,t: Ji~' ~l Q) -i,;)
"0 )"ou ""IJpped in garmt nl!! (i.e. Prophet
Muhammad if;,)!
Swnd (to pray) all nighl, uupt a little. flaff ofi, or a
little In s Ihan
thut, or a lillie more. And recite tM Qur'un ( aloud)
in a do""
(pleasant "'ne and) style. Verily. IVe Ihall $end
do"''' 10 you a
K'eighly Word ( i.e. obligationl, la"" r) . Verily, Ihe
ril ing by night (for
Talrajjud prl1)"er) is Yer)' hord and most pOUnl
and good for
gOI'erning oneself. aod most suitable for (
Imder)"ffmding) lire Word
(of Alliilr)," (Al·Muzza mmil, 1· 6)
Concerning Ihe example of Virtuous Manners. It
suffices to
menlion one e~ample that is related to his noble
mOfality. and the
aspecls of his comprehensive greatness,
genero:;ity. ascctism,
humility. pa tience, strength, bravery. wise
conduct, and steadfast·
ness in holding to principles of piety.
Concerning the e~ample or Generosity. the
Prophet 3: used to
givc to people like someone who does not fear
poverty, and was
morc generous than a rast wind especially in
Ramadan. Anas sa id,
"The Messenger of Allah ~ was nc~er asked to
give a nything.
about which he said. 'No',"
Concerning the example of Ascctism, Ibn Jarir
quoted "Aishah
~ as saying, "Allah's Messenger $ never sa tisfied
his hunger for
bread made of barley for three consccuti~e days
e~er since he came
to Al-Madinah until he passed away."' We should
bear in mind
that the Prophet e was not an ascetic because of
poverty or lack
of food If he had wanted thc pleasures of lifc,
plenty of good
things, and the enjoyment of this life, it would have
come to him in
obedience. However, by means of a!;Cctism hc
aimed at several
thmgs, amoog which are:
- Teaching the Muslim generations the meaning of
cooperation,
giving, and preferring otheTlO to oneself
Teaching the Muslim generations to consider
modcst living
sufficient lest the pleasures of life should keep
them from
shouldering the responsibility of Da'wuh (call for
AlIii.h) and
raising Allah's word, and lest this world should be
bountiful (()
them and thus destroy them as it had done (0
previous
gene rations.
Teaching those with sick hearts, the hy pocrites
and (he
disbelievers that he did not intend from his call, (0
collcc(
money, to eojoy the pleasures of li fe, to seek th is
world in the
name of religion, but he wanted the believers to
seck (he reward
from Allah alone, and to mt'Ct Allah iii with no
possessions for
this world. His motto was (he same as that of the
previous
Prophets: . " ~ ~l J. -h .:s-;.1 ';1 -;;,; p.- ;'< 'j;.j 'l ~; t
"And 0 my people! J Qsk o/)'ou no II"tQlrh/or iI,
my reward is/rom
none but Alliih." (Hlid, 29)
Concerning the example of Humility, the
oontemporaries lind
Companions of the Prophet e: have unanimously
agreed that he
was the one who initiated greeting his
Companions, he was
attentive to whoever spokc to him whether young
or old, and was
thc last (0 wi thdraw his hand when he shook
hands. He used to sit
beside Ihe last of his Companions. He used (0 go to
the market
and carry hi s own goods lind say, " / sltould curry
it more Iltrm
anyone else." He did not think himself above doing
the work of a
laborer in building his mosque or in digging a
ditch. He accepted
the in~ilation of free men and male and female
sla~es. he accepted
people's apology, mended his own garments, lLrld
shoes, helped in
household chores, tied his camel, ate with his
servant, and
responded to the requests of the wcak and
miserable. Indeed the
Prophet 3. obeyed the command of Allab, who said,
~ ~J!.ii ~ .!"J:4I.?_ ,;n:~ .J}t,
"Alld be killd alld humble 10 Ihe belit ~ers ... ho
follow you."
(Ash·Shu·ar.l , 2IS)
Concerning the example of Patience, the Prophet
4:,: attained
the peak of patience, ooth witb the harshness of
the bedouins and
in his treatment of his enemies' past arrogance
after he attained
victory o~er them.
It suffices to say concerning his patience regarding
the harshness
of the bedouins to mention only one of many
examples mentioned
in the Sfrair. (I) AI.Bu~~ari and Muslim quoted
Anas as saying, '" I
was walking with the Messenger of Allah 4:,:, who
wore a hca~y
Najnln garment. A bedouin approached him and
pulled him
~iolently by his gannent. I looked at the area
between the neck and
the shoulder of the Prophet :t. and fo und that the
garment had left
a trace there because of the ~iolent pull. Then the
man said, '0
Muhammad! Order that I may be gi~en of Allah's
money which
you have.' The Prophet $ turned 10 him laughing
and ordered
that he be gi~en money."
His patience with his enemies after achie~ing
~ictory over them
is seen in how he treated the people of Makka, who
went so far in
hanning him, persecuting him, and dri~ing him out
of his nali~e
town. They even conspired 10 kill him, and
accused him of e~ery
[1) SiT"" j. 3 hi.torical work on the life of [be
Prophet Muhammad #- (edilor)
false charge. Obviously he has a noble soul imd
was inclint-d to
forgive and forget. He did nothmg more than
gather his enemies.
give them safety, and say his famous words, "What
do you think I
am going /0 do /0 you?"Thcy said, "You are a
noble brother, and a
noble nephew." He said, "Go! You are/ree!." l-knee
the Prophet
4: occupies this sublime position of patience, in
view of what Allah
Ifi has revealed to him in the Noble Qur'an:
~~ if ';';\';..01 ~tp ~,
"Show /OI'giunclS, enjoin ",hilI is good, and turn
Il~'ay from lire
foolish (i.t . don', punish them}." (A!.A'nif. 199)
Concerning his physical strength, he was an
example to
champion wrcst1<::rs and strong-willed people.
,·Ie $ defeated
Rakiinah, a champion wrestler th ree times. After
the third time,
Rakanah saId, '" bear witness that you arc Allah's
Messenger,"
The Prophet $ faced Ubayy Ibn Khalaf in the battle
of Uhlld WIth
a spear which he aimed at his chest. He fell off his
horse suffering
severe pain and saying, ·' If Muhammad had sp:.t
on me, he would
have killed me." NQ wonder that the Prophet ~
was well-known
for his strength, srnce it was he who said, "All';"
likes a strong
believer more thwI a weak believer." Reported by
Muslim
In his example of Courage, there was no equal.
Here is a story to
prove that, At the Battle of~-,unayn, the Prophet ~
rode his mule.
while the people around him were neeing. He was
saying.
I am the Prophet, no fa lsehood about it.
I am the son (grandson) of Abdul-Mu~_talib .
No one on that day was SCt:n to be more steadrast
or closer to
the enemy than he. Indeed, Allah ordered the
Prophet $ to be
courageous and brave in the most dangerous
situations, while
Allah W! says in the Noble Qur·an:
,".{/. ~Jil ,;..."-:... ; :;n:: 41·\'K'l-j;'1 J,_:.?"', j-,,;;7,).
222: "~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~"" P.nTbr~
"Then Fglt' (0 /lfuhammad 4;) in fM Cauu of Alliih,
you are
not tllSktd ("dd u sp01u ibJe) except for , -ourself,
and incite ' he
believers (to fight along wit" you) •.• " (An-Nisii,
84)
Aho in his example of Wise Conduct, the Prophet 3.
was an
example to be followed by all people; young and
old, believers and
disbelievers, commoners and dignitaries. He was
granted success in
everything he did because he was naturally
inclined to noble morals,
wise conduct, and putting everything in its right
place. Here is a
greal example which was rcwrdcd by history so
that you may know
the wise policy which sprang from his wit and
mora lity.
At the Battle of Hunayn the Prophet ij; gave booty
to Quraysh
and other Arabian tnbes but did not give any 10 Al.
A n~iir. They
began speaking about it, saying, "The Prophet has,
by Allah, given
consideration to his tribe." The Prophet # gathered
them together
and said, "0 AI-A":!tir! A saying has reached me.
Anger has spreed
among you. Did I no/ come t{) you when you were
misguided. s{) Allah
guided you, poor. so Allah made you rich, and
enemies, so Allah
made your hearu meel7 They said, 'Yes, Allah and
His Messenger
are the most gracious and generous.' Then he said,
'Do not you
answer. 0 AI-Ansa,?' They said, 'What should we
say? To Allah
and His Messenger belong grace and generosity.'
He said, . By
Alltih, if you willed. you would say. telling Ihe
Irulh. and would be
believed. yOll came 10 lIS accused of lying . .fa we
believed yOll.
forsaken. so we supporred you. on outcast, so we
gaye .fhel/er 10 you.
and poor,.fO we enriched you. Have you fell angry
aboul a trifling
this in this world. wilh which I tried 10 be fr iendly
10 people.fo Ihal
Ihey may beL"Orne MlISlims. bUI have relieli on
your being MU.flims?
Are nOl YOll sarisfed Ihol people lake sheep ond
camels and you
preoccupy Ihe Messenger of AlI"h wilh YOIIf
animals of bllrden' By
Alltih who holds Mu~ammod'.f soul, bUI for Ihe
hijrah. I would have
been ol1e of AI-An!ar, (md if people lOok a palh
ami AI-AnJar look
anolher, I would lake thai of AI-An! ,;r. May Allrih
bellOW mercy on
AI-An.s ar , Ihe sons of AI-An.s 6r, 11"'/ /h"
gratl(/sOtIS of AI-An.s 6r.'
Upon that the pcopleericd until their beards
\x.'COrnC wct, and s-1id,
We ;ue satisfied with the Messenger of Allah as our
share and lot ..
Such is the Prophet $! A great example of wise
conduct and
noble dealing. He was steactrast in obeying the
command of his
Lord, Who says,
.: 4; J:, ~ ~ ;.'1 ':< iij( t§ ~ ":' t §; ~ ~ ~l &: ;..:;.:; q ,
"And by the Mercy of AII';Ir , you dealt "'ith them
gently, And had
you heen .fe. eFt: und harsh-hearted. rhey would
huoe bmken 1I11'IIy
f rom about )'ou ... " (At ' Imn\n, 159)
Abiding by principles IS a di stin guished attribute
of the Prophet
$ and one ofbis established mannen;, It suffices in
this repeel to
mention his great att itude towards his uncle Abu
Talib when the
Prophet:; thought that his uncle was going (0
surrender bim, let
him down, and cease supporting him. Here we
should stop a
'nomen( (0 listen to the words of truth, belief, and
steadfastness
which were uttered by the Prophet of the eternal
Islamic Message
to announce to the world how belief and
steadfastness, sacrifice,
and call ing to (he way of Allab should be done. He
said, "0 my
uncle! By AI/oli, ifll,,!), putlhe s,,,, in my right hlJ/ld,
and Ihe moon in
my !til hand so that I may leu"e litis maller, I will
no/ leave it IInl i!
Allah make.' it victorious, OF I perish for it. "
Then the Prophet ;I: s!Ood up and started crymg.
When his
uncle saw his fait hful determination, 3nd firm
steadfastness in
continuing the way of Du"mh call to the way of
Allah not paying
attention 10 anyone or fearing anybody, he called
him 3nd s-1id to
him, "Go, my nephew, and 5.1y whalever you like.
By Allah I will
never fo rce you into anything."
2l4.
~======================================
== f\a"Tb~
The above-mentioned manners and attributes of
the Prophet ,$
are one example of his greatness, and a glimpse at
his perfection.
No one can perceive the merits of this great
Prophet, or
enumera te all his noble qualities, after Allah
described him so
magnjficently and gave him this eternal
characterization:
"And surely you flr~ indeed of a magnijict!nf
character." (AlQalam.
4)
If Allah e endowed His Prophet 3: with these great
manners,
and distinguished him by setting a good example,
it naturally
follows that the hearts of man were attracted to
him. People
followed his example and found in the character of
the Prophet $the
perfe>:\ example and the highest ideal in all that is
related to
religious, worldly and social aspects of life. Indeed,
all those who
lived during the age of the Prophet 4: and met him
were among
those who loved him most out of belief and love
for him.
It was unbearable !f they did nOI see his face and
they did not
feel conlent unlil they saw him, out of Iheir great
love for him.
Imam AI-Baghawi quoted Thawban, Ihe servant of
the Prophet ~
who loved him very much, and was very eager 10
see him. One day
Thawban came to the Prophet looking pale. The
Prophet"" asked
him, "Why are you so pale?" Thawhan answered,
"0 Messenger of
Allah, I am nOI sick or in pain, but [ did not see
you, so I missed
you very much until I saw you. Then I remembered
the Hereaft.cr
and fell afraid lesl I should not see you since you
will be wi th the
Prophets, and if [ go 10 Paradise, [ will be in a rank
lower than
yours, and if I do not enter Paradise, I will never
see you." be<:aU5e
of thaI the following Qur"anic verse was revealed:
Ji;~)1; ~J..;II; S-:,II! :.; ~ i! ;::'1 ZtJ! E ~jt J;'Jt ~( ~ ,,; ,
~ ~- :)="i ·~ ~ , n te.~-;Ji "{ _oJ J >r-J 0 ~
"And ",OOso obeys Alliih and the Menenger (M ..
hammad $)
then they ""ill he in the company of those on ...
hom Alliih has
bestowed His Grace, of the Propheu, tlu! SidJiqin
(those followers of
the Prophets who ... erefirst andforemosr to
belje~e in/hem (like Ab ..
Bakr As-Siddiq .) the martyrs, flIId the righteolls,
And how
excellent these compflllions are!" (An-Nisi, 69)
The result of this pure, sincere love was that they
loved the
Prophet :t; more than themselves. An example of
this is found in
the story of Zayd Ibn Ad-Duthnah as narrated by
Al-Bayhaql
quoting 'Urwah, who said, "When the disbelievers
took Zayd Ibn
Ad-Duthnah out of the Makkan sanctuary to kill
him at AtTan'
jm, he met "f.~ubayb Ibn 'Adiyy Al -An~arl. They
(~~ubayb
and Zayd) advised each other to observe patience
and steadfastness
in facing any harm that may befall them, AbO
Sufyan, who was
then a disbeliever, said to Zayd Ibn Ad-Duthnah,
By Allah, Zayd,
do you like that Muhammad should be in your
place now so thai
his head may be cut ofT and you go back to your
family?" Zayd
said, "By Allah, T do nOI like that Mu~ammad
suffers from the
pain oCa thorn inlhe place he is while I sit with my
family," AbCi
Sufyan said, "I have never seen anyone love
anyone else more
than Muhammad's Companions love him,"
From this inner feeling of love, loyalty, and
devotion, the
Companions of the Prophet 4: followed the
example of their
Prophet because they found in him the highest
ideal in worship,
manners, and the ideal in gentleness and good
trealment, Thus, a
good example affects the souls and leaves its
positive trace in
formation, education and preparation,
Whoever wants to know something about how the
Companions
of the Prophet '* followed his example, about his
innuence on
their souls, and about the change he made to their
lives, should
read history to discover much about their noble
virtues, [I is
sufficient honor, pride, and eternity that the Noble
Qur'an says
about them;
"/UIIIII~mmQd 4: is 'he Messl'ng~r of AIMh, And
'hose who art<
,.,ith him ure snere ugains/ disbelievers, and
merciflll IlmOllK
Ihrmsel,'es," (AI.Falh, 29), and
.'i. c{'.,~,--t...~ t,;;.'iPr. ~ "..'.".. i~,"- , <,}.1! 1 ~" ~~
i.,' i' llr'.
" They 1I)'ed 10 sleep bUI lif/le by niKhl ( im'oking
their i,ord (Alllih)
and pru),ing, wilh f eur und hope). And in Ihe
hours hefou dawn, Ihey
k'cre (found) asking (Alliih) for forgiveness,"
(Adh.Dhariya!, 11. 18)
Here is what 'Abdullah lhn Mas'lid'" said about
their nobility
and virtues and the necessity of following their
virtuous deeds and
their noble morals: "Whoever >eeks an example to
follow should
follow the Companions of the Messenger of Allah $
for they were
the most sincere of this nation, the most
knowledgeable, the !emt
pretentious, the most guided, and the best in
condition, Allah
chose them for the compaoionship of His Prophet
$ and
upholding His religion; therefore, know their merit
and fonow
their example because they are on the right path:'
Muslim generations at all times and in all places sti
l] see the
good example of the Companions of the Messenger
of Allah $: in
worship, manners, oourage, steadfas tness, strong
will, sympathy,
preferring olhers over themselves, striving in the
cause of Allah,
and the ardcot dcsire to achieve martyrdom.
Muslim youth at
every age still derive from them virtue, a guiding
light, and a model
of education and glory, because they were the
most guided and Ihe
best exampl e,
How truthful the Messenger of Allah was when he
said, as
quoted by AI-Bayhaqi and Ad·Daylami, "My
Companions are like
$IOT1; if yDU follow Glly of Ihem you will be
guided,"
From this good example which the Companions
and
righteous fo llowers of the Messenger of Alhih /I:
embodied,
Islam sprcad in many remote lands and far, vast
lands in the
East and the West. History records with great
pride and
admiration that Islam reached the south of India,
Ceylon,
Lakdev and Maldev islands in the Indian Ocean,
and Tibet and
the shores of Chma, and the Philippines, the
islands of
Indonesia, the Malayan Peninsula, as well as
central Africa in
Senegal, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, Madagascar,
Zanzabar and
other countries. Islam reached all these nations
through Muslim
merchants and sincere callers to Allah, who gave a
true image of
Islam in the ir conduct, honesty, truthfulness and
loyalty. All of
this coupled with their kind words and good
advice, which
resulted in many people emhracing Islam. It is
appropriate that
the Muslim generation today with its men and
women, and the
elderly and the youth, to comprehend this fact and
to sct a good
example for others, virtuous manners, good
reputation, kind
treatment, and noble Islamic attributes so that
they are always
guiding lights, reformers, callers to goodness and
righ t, and
propagators of the eternal message of Islam.
Here in is a good example for the successful up-
bringing of
children and the propogation of ideas. There must
be an ideal at
which eyes can look, and to whose beauty the
souls of men arc
attracted. There must be virtuous morals from
which the
community derives goodness, and which innuence
the generation
in the best possible way.
Hence, the keenness of the Prophet .I: that the
educator should
set a good example in everything to those whom
he is educating, so
that they, from the ve ry beginning, should be
raised on goodness
and noble attributes. Here are some examples of
the guidance of
the Prophet .I: in callmg the attention of the
educator to sct an
example:
AI-Bukhari and Muslim narrated that An-N u'man
Ibn Bashir
.. said that his father went to the Prophet $ and
said, " I gave my
son a slave of mine. The Prophet $ asked, "Have
you given each of
your other SOIlS Ihe same?" He said. "No." So the
Prophet 4: said,
" Then take il back." In another narration, the
Prophet 3: said,
"'Hal'e you dOf1e Ihe same for all your children?"
He said, "No." So
he said, "Fe"r Allah "nd befair with your children."'
So my rather
went back on what he did. Does not this Prophetic
guidance show
the keenness of the Prophet * that the educator
should be fair to
those whom he is educating, so that he may sct an
elUlmple to them?
In A:y-~a~i!!ayn, 'Aishah • is quoted as saying, "An
Arab
came to the Prophet 01: and said, "You ki ss your
boys but we do
not." Allah's Messenger 4: said, "Can [help il if
Allah has laken
mercy oul of your hearl'.··
In both AI-Bu~~arl and Muslim, Anas • nanated
that the
Prophet 3: said, "'I start Ihe prayer if1lending ta
make il long. bllt
when 1 hear a child crying 1 make it short because
ofwlull J know of
hu motker's grief Orer hu crying."' Docs not this
Prophetic guidance
shoW the kt(!tlness of the Prophet &. that the
educator should be
merciful to those whom he is educating, so thai he
may set an
eJlample 10 them?
Muslim quoted Sahl Ihn Sa'd As-Sa'idi" as saying
that Allah's
Messenger 3. brought a drink and drank from it.
On his right
there was a boy, and on his len there were some
elderly men. He
said to the boy, "Do you allow me to give some to
these?" The boy
said, "By Allah, I would not give priority to anyone
of them to
drink immediately aner you."
Does not this Prophetic guidance show that the
Prophet ~ was
an example of being kind to youngsters, and of
abiding by Islamic
rules for drinking so that Muslim generations
would follow his
guidance?
From the aforementioned we come to the
conclusion that being
an example from the point of view of Islam is one
of the most wellestablished
and effective means of education. When a child
finds a
good e~ample in his parents and educators. he will
absorb the
principles of goodness. and the manners of Islam .
[I is not sufficient for parenlS to SCI a good
example in front of
the child, thinking that they have discharged their
duty, but they
should link the child to the best example: the
Prophet :;. This goal
can be achieved through teaching the child about
the Prophet's
Conquests. his wonderful biography, and his noble
manners, in
obedience to his saying Jii. as narrated by
A!"Tab1.rani. "Raise
your children on three things. one of which is to
love your Prophet
and his family." Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas'" said, "We
taught our
children the Conquests of AlIah's Messenger ~ in
Ihe same way
we taught them a SlIral! of the Qur'an." This is
intended to make
the ehild enjoy the qualities of good manners and
perfection, and
to be raised on courage and bravery, so that when
he comes of age
he has no leader example. or ideal except M
u~ammad $.
Parents should also link the;r children to the
ellample or the
Companions of Allah's Messenger ~ , the following
generation
after them, and those who followed their steps.
accordlllg to the
words of Allah!'.iii:
<f: ; J ~~1 ;.:;:.' I: tii ",:0. :(Ji ~lp;1 "
"They lire those whom IWih had guided. So /ollow
rheir
guidance ... " (AI_An·;\m. 90)
l bis is also in compliance with Ihe saying of the
Prophet 3:
as narrated by Al-Sayhaqi and Ad-Daylami: " My
Companions
arc like stars, whomever you follow in their
ellamples, you will
be guided."
Parents should also secure for their child a good
school, good
company, and a good communi ty so that he may
acquire belief and
manners, 3 S well as a physical, psychological, and
inlell<..'(: tual
education. It is not reasonably expected that a
child surrounded by
such a virtuous atmosphere should divert in faith,
become loose in
morals, surrer psychologically, beo::ome weak
phys ically, or become
retarded scien tifically or culturally. On the
contrary, he is expected
to reach the 7-cnilh of perfection in firm belief,
sublime morals,
strong nerves and body, and a mature mind and
knowledge.
!'arcnts should not forget that concen trating on
Ihe good
upbringing of their eldest child is one of the most
effective means
of the good upbringing of the rest of their children,
be<::ause the
younger child usul1y imitates Ihe older one, and
acquires many of
his mOTal attributes and social habits. It would be
a calamIty if the
child found hi s elder brother with loose morals or
in vice and
corruption, since the younger children will be
innueneed by him,
and win imita te him. Therefore, parents should
concentrate their
efTorts on the eldest child, then those who follow
him, so that they
may sel an e~ample to those who are born after
and an ideal for the
rest of the child ren, with guidance from Allah.
Finally, we cIte the warning of the Noble Qur'an of
those whose
deeds are not compatible with their wo rds,
including parents,
educators. and those who are responsible for
raising children.
1 c P " J .ii h G: "'...... _ _ .'"~.L...- ........ &); i· '1 c '~""- .'
..i.- ~""'' ~'I_ I¥ ~ -(. ~-_j i ''r~.1£. TIt.
~~p
"0 you ,.,lro hdi~~~! Wlty do you say ,ha' ,.,hich
you do no' do?
AIm' "a'''lul i, is ,.,i,1r Afliih that you say rhar .,.,hieh
you do "0' do."
(A.s·:;aff, B) and:
~ 5~ ~, ,~.~~ i( 5~ ~t ;.t-~.;j 5;::';; A~ ';:L!li s.vL1 ,
"Do you command mankind to b~nig"ancy and
larger
you,u/us and you ru iu tM Book! Do }'ou rh~n not
eonsid",'"
(At ·B.qarab, 44)
AI-Il u~~iiri and Muslim quoted US[lInah Ibn
Zaid" as saying
that he heard the Messenger of AIl~h say, "A mall
is brough/ on
Daonl.lday allli is Ihro"'" ill the fire so Ihal /Ii ..
inlestim!s come Ollt,
and he revolve .• around Ihem as a donkey
rel'oll'es oround a millslOne,
The people of the Fire gllther arollnd him and say,
"So 0/111 so! Whill
is Ihe mailer ",ilh yorl? Did YOII no/ command
good deeds, and/orbid
bad OIles?" He says, "/ commallded YOIl /0 do
good deeds bill did no/
do so myself, andforbade YOllfrom evil bill did
evil/hings_" Uwmah
added that he heard the Prophet ti: say, "AI the
Night Journey I
passed by people ",hnse lip" ",ere gno"'ed with
gnawers made offire. I
said, "Who are those, Gabriel?" He ,mid, "The
oralOrs of yow
IIaiion ",ho say lhal which /hey do 11m do_"
II. F..ducation by Establishing Ikneficial Ha bits
II is well-known in Islamic Siran"ah thai from birth
a child is
naturally inclined to pure monotheism. upright
religion, and belief
in Allah, in accordance with Allah's saying,
Jb1 ~j ')i( ~~i /,~; ~i ';;:1,3:;; -j~:k ;6( :C ~i ;'i';~,.
<t :';1:; 'i ....:1"-<:1(
"The originalnalur~ of Allah upon which lie
originated mankind.
There is no alleration of lire creation of Allah. That
is ' he mOSI
upright religian, bul mosl of mankind do nOI
know," (Ar_Rum. 30)
This is also compatible with the saying of the
Prophet $ as
narrated by AI - Bu~~iiri, ., E)'ery child born is
bom On nalure" i.e. on
monotheism and belief in Allah."
lienee, we realize the role of good habits,
instruction, and
upbringing In raising a child on pure monotheism,
good manners,
vi rtue, and Ihe rulings of Islamic Sharto!..
Undoubtedly if a child
has two factors available to him, namcly vi rtuous
Islamic
educalion and a rightcous environment, he would
be raised on
true belief, and he would enjoy Islamic manners,
and would reach
the zenith of virtue and personal noble traits. The
factor of
virtuous Islamic education was emphasized by the
Messenger G in
more than one l!adith. For example, the Prophet &:
said, " Thalli
man raises up his child on good mll/Iflers is bellcr
for him Ihon gi"ing
a meruure of grain in charilY." Narrated by At-
Tirmidhi. And, "A
fatlrer has ne,·u gi"cn llis child anYlhing beller Ihan
bri"ging him up
on good manners." Narrated by At-Tirmidhi.
Concerning the facto r of a righteous environment,
the
Messenger it drew attention 10 it on several
occasions;
"Every born child is hor" on the original nOlllre,
then hi.1 pareniS
make him a Jew. a Chri,lian, Or a Magion. "
Narraled by AI -B u~lllri.
II is understood from this Jladilh that if a child has
two Tlghteous
Muslim parents, who teach him the prmciples of
Ix:lief and Islam,
the child will be raised on the creed of belief ,,"d 1
~lam; this is the
meaning of. the domestic environment.
The Prophet ~ said, ",4 per$Dn is like hi.f close f '
iend: so he
$hou/d be careful who 10 befriend" Narrated by
At-Tirmidhi
It is understood from this /fadilh that a person is
like his friend.
If his friend is pious, he acquires goodness and
piety from him.
This is what is meant by social environment,
whether the school or
neighbourhood.
A good environment has a great efTeet on raising
Muslims to be
pious and this is found in what Ibn Sina
mentioned; "well-bred
boys with satisfactory manners should accompany
the boy in hiS
stud y, because he acquires good manners from
them and they keep
him company." It is a grave mistake to think as
some people do
that people are born either good or bad in the
same way a sheep is
born meek and a tiger is born fierce. Such people
think that it is not
possible to change the innate evil in man, exactly
as it is impossible
to change the innate goodness in him.
This fa lse claim is refuted by Shari'ah , by mind,
and by
experience. That it is refuted by Sha,fah, is
evidenced by Allah's
words;
,. i't~'i ~~j t
"And .\·hown him Ihe 1 ... 0 ... ays (goad Imd t ~il)r'
(At ·Ba tad, 10)
Allah also says.
,. ri" ~ .; YC.ij; ¢I ~ ;. & .::.:. c» 4-:;; ~;;l 01 Cl>~;:' 'j
...;; t
"By Naf~ (Adam or a person or a soul), and Him
Who pufecled
him in proportion; Then Ife sho ... ed him ... ·hat is
... ·rong for him and
... hal is rig'" for him. Indeed he succeeds ... ho
purifi~s his owu uif
(i. e. obeys and performs all thaI Alliih ordered, by
following the Irue
faith of Islamic Monotheism and by doing
righteous good du ds) .
2" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I~"Th~
And indud he fail)' who w rruplS h;$ QW" self (i.e.
Jist/beys '"'har
Alliih has ordered by reject;',!: file true Foirl! of
Islam;c MOflo/heism
or by jollow;ng polylhei5m ()' hy doing e~e,y kind
of evil "'irked
deed,~). (A.h.-Sham" 6· 10)
Allah 1J/i also says,
, ~ ~~ 1'c:: ~! J.('i ;,::z. Gl ,
"Yeri/y, We .,b" .. 'ed /rim tire WO)'. ,,'''filher he be
grateful Or
UlIgrtueful." (Al. ]n".n, 3)
This is also compatible with the aforementioned
Ifadilli: " EI'uy
born child is born all the original nalure of man,
Ihen his parellls
make him II Jew 0 Chris/ion, Or II Magian." ThaI it
is refuted by
TCason is shown by the following: "Why has All ah
Iii sent
Messengers?" Was not it for the sake of reforming
man and
making him happy in this world and the Hereafter?
Then why do
governments lay down rules and laws? And why
do they supervise
the establishment of schoo l ~, in stitutes, and
universities? And why
do they appoint tcaehers and specialists in
education, ethics, and
sociology? Is it not for the sake of education,
morals, manners,
eliminating corruption, establishing goodness, and
reformation?
Why then were books reve:,\ed and messengers
sent? And why were
laws laid down? Would that not have been toil III
vain? And would
not studying morals itself be of no avail? Such a
notion is refuted
by experience as mentioned in the following:
1. ]( is known that a person can live for a long lime
in a misguided
and corrupt environment, and become a criminal
and in a wretched
condition, and even innic! harm on hi s society,
then should he have
a good companion or an efficient educator, or a
sincere caller to
the way of Allah, he will be changed from misery to
happiness, and
from crime to virtue, After all that long period of
mise ry and
crime, he can become 3 highly virtuous and happy
person.
2. Also, in the animal kingdom we notice that man
was successful
througout the agcs to change the nature of animals
from being
fierce to tame, rebellious to obedient. and from
unsteady
movement to steadilless. Mall call train horses to
dance, birds to
play, and can even teach ,mimals of prey. If this is
the easc with
animal instmct, then how about human instincts
which comparative
psychology has proven to be more nexlble because
of their
diver;;ity, and their being prone to amendment
and reform?
It suffices here to mention some words from AI-
Ghaziili who
spoke in his book " Ihyii Ulum Ed-Drn" about
making a child
accustomed to the qualities of goodness or evil in
view of his
innate nature. AI-G~ az5li ~ says, "A child is
entrusted to his
parents; his pure heart is a precious gem. If he is
made accustomed
10 goodness and is taught it, he will become good
and happy in this
world and the next; if he is made accustomed to
evil, and is
neglected like a beast, he will be wretched and
destroyed.
Preserving him means that his parents should
raise him on good
manner;; and decency, and leach him the best
morals."
An educator should difTrentiate in reforming an
individual and
setting him right between two age groups; grown-
ups have their
own way and youngster;; have another. The
Islamic method in
reforming adults is based on three principals:
I. linking oneself to the creed.
2. exposing evil.
3. changing the envIronment.
Linking oneself to the creed is among the most
significant bases
of a believer's constant worship of the Allah !Jij,
appreciating His
greatness, and fearing Him under all
circumstances. This enhances
the psychological strength and the will of a
believer so that he
does not be;:ome a slave of his lust, or greed and
whims, but on
the contrary rushes completely to tht way of Allah
as He revealed
it to His Messenger e without any hesitation. His
motto is
Allah's saying,
"And who is beller injurigmellt Ih{ln Allrih for a
jH!ople 01'110 June
firm F{lilll." (AI·Ma'idah, 50) and
~ ~t Z ~ ~; :.;. t'. j~\ ~~ t; ~
And wlullsoe ~er lire MeJsenger (Mulr{lmm{ld ~)
gj~es you, ' {lkl
it; IUId wlrllf$oever Ire forbids you, {lbsrain (from
it) .. ," (AI'I:Ja,ht, 7)
There is no doubt that all forms of worship,
mentioning and
invoking Allah, re.:.:iting the Nobl.:.: Qur'an and
.:.:onlinually
contemplating it, appre.:.:iating Allah's greatness
under all circ:umsiances,
belief in dealh and the afterlife, belief in the torture
of the
grave and the queslioning of the two angels, belief
in the Hereafter
and the terror of the Doomsday, all thest: generate
in a believer the
continuity of obeying and worshipping Allah fa.
Su.:.:h beliefs and
make him a straight, well-balanced hum3n being,
who bases his
equilibrium in life on siriking a balance betwecn
the requirements of
Ihe soul and those of the flesh, and between
working for this world
and working for the next. Thus he may give every
person his due
without any negligence Of shortcoming. His motto
in this is the
saying of Ihe Prophet~, "You /mve a dUly towards
Allah, lowards
yourself. and towards your family. so give
everyone his due."
Rxpo:sing evil is one of the best ways 10 convince
adults to desert
and shun corruption and sin. Exposure of evil and
wrong is Ihe
way the Noble Qur'an followed in convincing pre-
Islamic people to
forsake their customs and habil;, and to desert
their evils and
wrong doings. Let us give the example of
forbidding wine, which
was done by means ofQur'iinic verses Ihal were
revealed from lime
to time and which uncovered the evil affects of
intoxicants, their
bad effect on man, and its moral, social, and
religious hanns.
There was first the saying of Allah !fl.
~ 5A=; f:i-l t,~ S,q-: ~ tl1:~; ~ ~ ::::., iv";'~ ,·~~Vr:;
.}ill .:ry..,..; ~
"And f ro", lire fr lJirs of d{lte-p{llms and gr{lpes,
yOIJ derj~t sirong
drink Qnd Q goodl)' pro.·ision. Verily, 'lrtrein is
indeed {l sig" for
pt!opk who lIave wisdom." (An.Nah]. 67)
Allah made a contrast between the intoxicant with
provision so
that people of reason may realize that wine is one
thing, and fair
provision is another and hence their feelings
would gradually
understand the later prohibition. The second verse
to be revea led
was:
"They ask you (0 MuhlUtlmud $) cOllcerning
ukohofie drink and
gumbiing. Say; " In 'hem iJ u great Sill, tutd (some)
benefit for men,
bllt tlu sin of tMm is guater thtut th",;r btn .. fit."
(AI·Baqarah, 119)
Allah made vice outweigh commercial profits so
that the souls
of men may move away from their deep-rooted
customs, and be
diverted from controlling their habits. The third
verse to be
revealed was:
~ 5)]1. t: [,',:;: J;. iSjC :..t ijl"'-;;i\ !;;:.; '1 I;:;I; 5tJl QII;
t
"0 you ... ·110 befie Fe! Approach nOl As-Salllt (the
prayer) when
you are in u drllllken stute until you kllOw (1M
meanillg) of what YOIl
utter"," (An·Nisaa, 43)
Allah mentioned its harmful effect on the mind,
and the
confusion it causes, which requires a sober state at
times of prayer.
1be fo urth verse to be revealed was:
;ttl ~';:i ~.l:~I( ~ ~ :;:,., ~~i,; x.,1.;?; ,;.;.:.r;; ?l Cll;X
~Ji ~~ t
A;; ;tl', &!;;Ji 4 .F'1i} i;i:l1 ;.t!!: ~ J [' ~:~I! :...;. Cl 13)
.:;~
.'I{. ,~"~"-'I" rt, { J-+->- j-J.-I..~::J-l i/-'-~ ~~,
"0 you lllho ha ,.. belie.ed, surely lII;n" and games of
chunce, and
sttutdwds ''Jor idols" alld divining w e only an
abominutioll of
Sutan's doing, so a~oid if, that possibly YDII lIIould
pros~r. Surely
Sutan wo,,1d onl}' fik l! to e~eite enmity tuld
ublwrrena umonK YOIl h}'
metuls of IIIIM tuUi gQlfll!s of chalice, tllld to bUI'
)'Oil from tM
Remtmbraner of Allah, Ilnd from pray.". Will YOIl
t"en be
rl!fruilling?" (AI·Mi·idah, 90-91)
By analogy to the aforementioned example, the
Noble Qur'an
prohibited all pre-Islamic beliefs and social vice
such as associating
other deities with Allah, adultery, usury, gambling,
murder, female
infanticide, eating up orphans' money, etc. The
Noble Qur'an did
not prohibit them un til it exposed their reahty,
mentioned many of
their evil afTects, and called upon sane people to
shun them because
they lead individuals and society to the worst
possible results and
the most serious danger.
Changing the environment is no le~s important
than the other
means of reforming and guiding the in di vidual ,
his education and
preparation; otherwise why did Allah If! permit
His Messenger $
to emigrate to Al-Madinah? And why did the
Prophet ~ order his
Companions to emigrate? Was it nol for formation
and
preparation in a good environment where no vice
is allowed in
its gatherin g-places, and no sin is commItted? Was
it not for the
sake of establishing a sta te under the b,mner of
the revealed
legisla tion and that of complete unity? Was it not
for reforming the
Muslim individual in a society governed by Islam
to which the
Qur'iin was revealed? The Islamic way of
reronning children is
based on two basic clements:
1. Provid ing information,
2, Fonning good habits,
GiI'ing information refers to the the theoretical
part of
reformation and education, and by fo nning habits
we mean its
practical part,
Since the child is more likely to llb.orb infonnat ion
and good
habi ts at this early age better than any other age
or later stage, it is
incumbent on educators - parents and tcachcrs - to
focus on giving
inFormation about piety to the child and gelting
him accustomed to
it since children can comprehend the b1lsic facts of
liFe,
In this respect, I would like to gi~ some examples
about
teaching children and making them accustomed to
piety so that it
may be a guiding light. The Messenger $:
commanded educators
to teach their children the phrase, "There;s IW God
bur Allah." This
is according to what AI-H"ikim quoted IbJl AbNis6
as saymg thilt
the Prophet $ said, "The fir51 thing your children
5hould hear is
there is lW God but Allah." This is the theoretical
part. But the
practical part is preparing the child to deeply
believe that there is
no crcator but Allah tf1i. This cannot be achieved
except by the
signs which the child sees, such as a nower, the
sky, the earth, the
sea, people and animal. He should know that that
the Organizer,
Maintainer and Creator is Allah ti.
The Messenger ~ commanded educators to teach
their
children how to pray when they are seven years
old. This is
according to what AI-Hlkim and Abu Diiwiid
quoted 'Abdullah
Ibn 'Amr Ibn AI-'A~ '*' that Allah's Messenger 3:
said,
"Command your chihlren to pray ... hen Ihey (Ire
seven years old.
and beat them for no/ performing it ... hen they are
len years old. an"
separate male and female children." This is the
theoretical part and
the practical part mvolves teaching the child the
rules of prayer,
the number of rok'ohs and the way they arc
performed, then
getting him used to it through follow up and
perseverance, as well
as performing prayers in the mosque in
congregation, Eventaully,
this will become his habit.
In order to raise chi ldren on attributes of piety,
educators
should get them accustomed to virtuous manners
and sometimes
follow the method of verbal enforcement, giving
presents,
promoting the atmosphere of competition or
intimidation. The
educator may be forced sometimes to resort to
reformatory
punishment if he bel ieves It will be for the good of
the child.
AI! these methods are useful to make the child
accustomed to
personal virtue, good morals, and social manners
and will make
him a virtuous, noble, wen-balanced human being,
whom people
will like and respect.
Ill. I!:ducation by Wise Admonition
One of the most important and effective means of
raising a child
on belief and preparing him morally,
psychologically, and socially,
is education by admonition, and advising him. The
effect of
admonition and advice is great and draws the
attention of the chi ld
to tbe reality of things, driving him to sublime
matters, developing
noble morals, and enlightening him concerning the
principles of
Islam. No wonder then that the Noble Qur'an took
this method,
and addressed the souls of man in its lenns, and
repeated it in
many of its verses, on several occasions as it is
guided and
admonished. Following are some examples of the
frequency of the
words of admonition, advice, and remembering of
Allah in the
Noble Qur'iin:
Allah !It said in the Surah Luqrniin:
".it. ~__ 5Lljj~-"1, ~I_ ~ \ j "r-:'. '1 ":"':"': ;,_~ ..,..'..,.
•". :..." _i Fii j, ."y' T)"
"And (rl!ml!mkr) when Luqmlln stUd to his son
Nlhen M W/l.l
advising him: "0 mJl son! loin not in I<'orship
othw$ .. ·ith Aillih,
Vu iJy joininG othl!rs in worship .. ·ith Alfiih js II
Grellt Zulm (wrong)
indu d." (Luqrnan. lJ)
- in Surah Al-A'rif, Allah says:
~~ ~ jli IS) &;il~ -i1 ~~ ,.11 .:.;)::! G 1.1 ~~I /~ j~
G; fa ~ JV ,
<-i ..;:J ;A jli $ ~ Cr. .~llti ~ ~l:.t:. -l /,J.JJ Cl -0 '" 1.C:£
... ~ " I h >:\- -- ,(.~ ·'r ':,j "'" Z.j':'li .< .' ~J" ,<",1'
t::;:\l:.:". "t ;.e.,. ~r; 7-' U., ~~ .,;-'J.:.o~ i ... . ... ~ ~
,..~ ~J
"Alld fa 'Ad (JII!op/l!, We Ullt) tMir brother J/ud.
lie said: "0
my pl!ople! Worship Alliih! YOM have 11(1 other
Ifah (God) b .. , lIim.
(Lii iliiha ilM Alliih: none has tM right to be
worshipJII!d bur Alliih).
WiN you nol f l!ar (Alliih)?" The leaders of those
who disbelievl!d
amollg his pl!op/I! said: "Verily, I<'e ue you ill
foolishness, umi verily,
we think yo .. aU one of the liars." (Hud) said.: "0
my people! There
i.J no foolishneSJ in me, but (I am) a ~tesstllger
from the Lord of the
'Afamill (mankilld, lina and aft thaI exists)! "/
convey MlltO you the
EIf.,..,i", M •• n, cf Child Education 241
M eJJuga 0/ my Lord, and I am a trust",orthy adriu
r (or ",ell",
isht!l') lor J·OU." (At_A·rH. 6~.68)
No two people would disagree that if sincere
admonition and
effective advice touch the heart of a pure soul, an
open heart, and a
wise. contemplating mmd they would be
responded to more
quickly and effect ively. The Noble Qur'fin has
stressed this
meaning in many of its verses, and has reiterated
the importance
of making use of reminding others, and achieving a
positive effect
by guiding words and enlightening advice. The
Qur'an declares:
~ ~ ~.; c: ~li ) \ ;' ~ ;.i ~'( .;.]. ~ ~~ ~ ~l t
" Verily, therein is indeed u reminder fo. him "'ho
hilS Il hellrt or
gi~es ttlr ",hilt ht is heed/ul." (Qaf, 37)
~ ~S·H e .:i5J1i ~~ :rl'; t
"And remind (by preuching tht Qu.'un, 0
Munummud 4:) /0'
verily, reminding profiu the believer!."
(Adh·Dhariyit. 55)
~ ~J;.li :,.; A j1 (f) or;. :lI 4~~ t:; t
"And nOW run yoa knolf' thut he migh, become
pure (/rom sins)1
Or ht might rectil't admonWQ/I, and the
admonition might profif
him?" (·Aba .... 34)
The Noble Qur':in abounds in verses that take up
admonition as
a basis for Do'wah (call to the way of Allah,) and a
means to
achieve the reformation of individuals and
communities. Whoever
takes a look at the pages of the Noble Qur'5.n will
find that the
phenomenon of the style of admonishment IS fe lt
In many verses.
Sometimes we sec it th rough reminding people to
fear Allah, and at
other times by praising the efTcct of reminding, by
using
admonition as an expression, by calling fo r advice,
by following
the path of guidance, by incitement to
competitiveness, and by
using an intimidating style. Thus the reader finds
that the
phenomenon of admonition is widespread In the
words and
meanings of the Noble Qur'5.n in several styles.
This assures every
242 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~",,~P.nTh~
in sightful man that admonition in the Noble Qur'
:in is extremely
important in rai,ing souls on goodness. guiding
them to all that IS
right. and making them to be receptive 10
guidance.
In my point of view, the method of the Qur'i1n
concerning
admonition is characterized by the following:
1. The Call of Conviction, which is accomp;lI)ie<!
by appealing 10
the sympathy of the idividual or to denunciation of
the evil. This
style has its connotations, which arc effective on
one's feelings and
heart. liere are examples of these calls in their
various st yles:
- Its call to children: the Qur'an declares:
~::J•.•. ' ~iU. ..-.!".,!'._" \ '"-"'-"'. ~._." ~ • -':-J<.'. !.~I
·":t' -U,-'"-".--".; c.; _ .,,.r.'".-J • ._;_.,. ... ~. ,. ...".,..,"-, J"•
~"'"
"And ( remember) K'hell Luqman laid '0 his SOli
,,'Ilell he lI'IlS
Ild.is;ng him: "0 my son! Join nor ;n worship OIMrs
with Alliih,
Verily joining othus in ,,'orsh;p "'ilh AfNih is Il
great Znlm ( wrong)
indu d," (Luqman, 13)
and in the words or Nu~ (Noah) itiB:
~ &P 2 ~1-,G! ~J ~,
"0 my Jon, embark "'ilh as, alii} do nOI he 1I';lh Ihe
disbelievers,"
(1 IUd, 42)
- Its call to women: the Qur'an declares:
~ 4j:'Ji ri ~ ~" C,!; .jl:~ '; ,~,;,C; ~; ~l ;:..;£, iii :I'ff ;3';
~;,
"And (umt'mIH-r) "'hm the angds said: "0 Mllr)'Qm
( Mllry)!
Vu ify, Alllih luu choun }'OU, purifit'd you (from
p<Jlylhei,-m and
dislulief), and chasen you uho.e the "'omen oflhe
'Alllmin (mankind
and jinn) (of hu lifelimd ," Vi.I 1m",", 42)
~ ' ,.-" '-, .. , ",
.. , ~ ... ! J:.lll;; \oJ
,\11.",
"0 ,,';res o/the PrOphel! You are nOllike any otMr
,,'omm, /f}'on
ku p your duty (to AlIiih} .. ," (Al-A~z3b, 32)
- Its call to nations: the Qur'an declares:
EIT<cti .. Me.ans or auld I',d""Uiou
~~~~~~~~~~~~~= 243
-1., " i'-"Ji tJ. if,!, •
"0 my people! Verily, ),ou huve ",ronged
yourseive,' by
wOrJhippin!: tM coif. So turn in repentuncl! to your
Cuutor und
kill yourselves (1M ilUlocent kill 'hI! ",rongdlMrs
"mong )'011).,."
(AI.Baqarah, 54)
- Its call to Believers; the Qur'an declares:
~ ~; E ~I ~ 1" ".Ji; j!l\ I} / -I t::.:1; &;JI rt.f..i. ,
"0 you lI'ho belieul Suk help in patirnu and As-Salt
(rhe prayer).
Traly! Allrih is wilh As-St.birin (Ihe plJlienl}," (AI .
Baqarah, 15»
1: 'E.; ! ., ;.t 1) j;i ~J _Ar;. ~ ~I I}ji 1;::1; &.JI(,:,'i!;: ,
"0 ),ou ",ho he/ie"e/ Feu' Alltih (by doing ull thul
He has ordered
and by abstaining from allthlll Ht h"5 forbidden)
/lS He should he
feured, (Ohey lIim. he Ihunkful 10 /lim, und
rl!ml'mber Him
u/,.'u)'s), und die not excepl in u stille IIf J.ff{lm ("s
Muslims (,.'ith
comp/tle submission to AI/tih)) " (AI 'Im ran ,
102)
- Its cal! to the People of the Book: Ihe Qur'an
dedares:
. .a:! ·f i i -11 D '~f h~' I' ~;~ t:'. ~ JI He; ;:('"11 ' :'...:
;;, l.
~~~ ,- ,~~ 'r~" .CO' 'r"""' ..... "'. " T
~ ... I~;/.
"S,,)' (0 Muhummod $) "0 peopfl! of the SCriPIUre
(Jews and
Chris/iuns) .. Come /0 II word Ihul is jun belll'un
us lind ),011, that lI'e
worship none bUI AI/tih (Alone), Imd /Iour we
Ilssociule no pUr/ners
lI'ilh /lim .. ," (AI 'Im",n, 64)
- Its cal! to Mankind: the Qur'an decla res:
~ S}.!.j ~ ~ ~ ZtJ~ ~ 41 ~~ \,~I J.(ll ~t ,
"0 munki",llWllrship y"ur Lord ( Allah), Wbo
cuuled ),OU and
thou lI'bo were before YOIl 50 that ),ou may
becomr AI-Mut/uqi"" (Ihl!
piOUl - .fee V.1 .. 1)." jl\ l·B aqarah, 21)
Such calls abound lfl the Noble Qur'iin.
2. The Narr~live Style: which is accompanied by a
moral and
elTect;ve admonition:
This style has its psychological efTects, intellectual
impressions,
and its motivational efTect on man's logical mind.
The Noble
Qur'iin employs it in many places, especially in the
stories of the
Prophets with their people. Allah !Ii endowed His
Messenger ij:
with the ability to relate the best narratives, and
revealed to him
the best of speech, so that they may become signs
to the people,
and a support for the Prophet $. The Qur'an
declares; « n. ~r.~ ~ ~l t:;..:,1 r; ... /.iil ~~;l ,;j;"k, ~
:;. ,
"We relate unto you (Muhammad 4:) the Mst 0/
stories ,hrOllgh
Our Re ~el4tions unto you, o/this QIIl"'an. And
be/ore this (i,I.'. be/ore
the roming 0/ Divine Reufation to )'ou). you weu
among rholl.' "'ho
kuw nothing IIbnut it ( rhl.' Qur'lIn) . " (Yll.ur.l)
and:
« , . ~tf ~ ':I:t; Jot ,i)1 ~ ,
Those wue tM 10K'ns K·hose story We uillte unl"
>·ou (0
Muhummlld #;) ... " (At_A'rH. 101)
"1Ia.! tlleu conu to you the slory,,/ !tfiua (Moses}!"
(An·Niri'il, 15)
~ :.;>!l; f'9. "" ",; ;il j; ,
" lIuI the story reached you, ,,/ the honored guests
(thrl.'l.' angels;
Jibri; (Gabriel) along K'ilh another IK'o) of Ibrahim
( Abruham}?"
(Adh_Dhliriyal, 24)
The Noble Qur'an abounds in the stories of the
Prophets 8
with their people. Sometimes the story is repeated
in several
chapters of the Qur'an with the aim of showing in a
new sty le.
diITerent from the pervious ones. This is intended
for appreciating
the miraculous nature of the Qur'an in its
magnificent style and
unique exposition on the one hand and for
highlighting another
lesson that lies within the verses and an: renected
beyond the words
and meanings, which may not be realized except
by scholars, and
those who appreciate the meanings of the Noble
Qur'an. Let us
give an example:
The story of Moses 3: with Pharaoh is mentioned
time and
again in the Noble Qur'an. Let us choose two of
these stories and
compare them so that the reader may realize the
secret behind this
repetition. The first story is given in Sarah Al-A'r:if:
-iJ..11 J. jj \ -:.; J iI" J.:; S ~y!(.;.~.;. j;':;.Jl S';A....,.; Jli;,
.:..t l:i!. ~ ' .. ~ r ~t j~ "'" \ _ r.. > ... "'·,~;''-':'1• 7..,;.
';..'..', ' : ..;. .,:.l,; . r"<.".j .. ~ ';:;' 'c ~ '. . ~ ": i[ ~_ ." i >
<Y'"
~ ~ :.d ~ li~ ~I~'; -.:)it a ~~ ·~:.Ii ~ ~ t .:.t 1;;
"And MUSil (Moses) said: "0 fir'uua (Pharaoh)!
Vtrily, 14m II
Messenger from 'he Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind,
Jinn a"d (lit Ihut
exists). "Proper it is/or me 111m I su)' norhing
concerning Alltih but
the truth. h,deed J h .. otl come unlo you from yOlIr
1. 000d wilh u ckar
proof So tel the Chi/dun 0/1$,,,1'1 depurl ulang
",ilh me." (Fir'aun
(Phuraoh)) said: " Ijyollhape come with a sign,
show il forlh, if you
art one of those who teflthe trlllh," 11u!n (Musa
(Moses)) Ihrtw his
Slick and behold! 1,,,,,1£ a serpent, manifest!"
(A!.A'rlif. 104·101)
The second story occurs in the Srmlh of An-Niizi'ilt
~ ji; CO (). J.1 W J~ ~;; e·..-;: .....,,',m /1)"\ ~; ;,.;~ ~
iii ~; :,.,.;. .;1·1 ~ ,.
;;1 't ell ;;.;; ~kl Q i.$Ji ~<;T :.:.;; (i) ~;;:; ~; Jt ;C~l; iii
t) J ~l J
i~ 4i 4 i.L 0 S~'-ib iJ.,11 j~ ~ ::.:t G> J.'\<' ~ t1 JUi
® .:s~G ;<::::; c!) ~
" jiO c:l
" Ilas thert come to )'ou Ihe story of Mlisa (Mous)!
When his
Lord eaJfed him in Ihe saend valley of Tu,,·a. Go to
Fir 'aun
(Pharaoh); verily, Iu! has transgreJsed beyond all
haunlh (in erimell,
sins, polytheism, disbdief) . And say 10 him: "
Wollld you purify
yourself (from Ihe sin of disln/ief by becoming a
believer Jf" And
thut / guide you 10 your Lord, so ,'0 11 shouldfear
lIim! Then (Musu
(Moses) ) showed him the greul sign (mirac/Uj,
But (Fir'alln
( Phuraoh)) belied and disobeyed. Then be tllrned
his back, striving
(uguinsl Alliih). Then he gu/hered (his Mop/e) and
cried aloud,
Saying: "/ am YolIr ford, most high." So AIlIiIr
seized him with
punishftU!nt for Iru last and first transgression.
(Tafsir AI-Tabari)
Yerify, in thill is an instructive admonition for
whosoever ferus Alllih."
(An,Na";'''t, 15,26)
Comparing the two Mories, we notice these
differences:
1. The first is long and detailed, while the second is
short and
concIse.
2. There is a great difference between the styles,
whether
concerning the verses and their junctures, in their
length or
shortness, 11l their meanings and structures, or in
the imperative
and prohibitory structure.
3. Stressing the moral in Surah Al,A'raf !IIeludes:
a. Establishing evidence against Fir·awn.
b. Highlighting the miracles proving the
truthfulness of Miisa.
c. The dia logue which took place betwccn MiisIi
and the
magicians.
d. The magicians' belief after the evidence was
established.
e. Threatening Pharaoh.
f. The indifference of the magicians about the
threat after they
believed.
g. Punishing the people of Fi r'awn by dry years
and lack of
harvest.
h. AIIIih's punishment to them by means of
drowning,
In Surah An-Nazi'i;t, the stress falls on:
a. Alliih's destruction of Fir'awn for claiming to be
the Lord.
b. Giving an example to those who wish to
remember and fear
AlIiih.
3, Qur'anie Guidance: which is accompanied by
recommendations
and admonishment:
The Noble Qur'an abounds in verses accompanied
by
ra:ommendations, and texts coupled with
admonition, which
direct the rt<lder towards whatever is useful to
him in his religion,
this life, and the Hereafter, liS well as the
formation of his body,
mind and spirit, and his preparation to become a
caller to the way
of Alliih and one who strives in His path.
The Noble Qur'an has a great e!Teet on the hearts
and souls of
man. When a Muslim hears the words of Allflh
recited, his heart
becomes lender and his soul aspires to them, and
his spi rit is
moved. Then he pledges \0 Allah 'Ii that he is going
to take their
admoni tion, respond to their fC/;ommcndations,
carry out their
orders, lind avoid their prohibitions. This is
because they are
revealed by the \Vise and the Praiseworthy. They
include a healing
for his ailments and a preventive medicine for the
diseases of the
body and heart. Here arc some of these directive
examples in the
Noble Qur'iin:
u. The Qur'an declares:
~t ';'-:JiJ ~i ,,;.0; (,;:;.1 .;!V~ a;-:, oJ; i1P 1; ~t \.,~I; ,
, ,:.~'- ·,1 :""'~ " " \ ,<". _ ~ ... ,~1 \ i,"t\J' ~ r,;,:it.
't":''''';--'1''J ..,~.'.i.\, ';G .iiJ' o.Cl' ;';1\."... J~ d, rJ
~>.!h0 ~~ ...::r61 $~~J ;,)<-:, ~¥ 0 ~;;HI~ ;: ;,~.;. '{
f. 1 ,,';1
;"G.;.:il;'1 6 ) j': .::,.,¥; $ 4 ~\~ &,A ';~ :1; .A, ':' ~ -:.il
(~ '<l; '(;
Ii'; ~ Gj :0 G"; ~ :.,,:1JI $'-1.;:; j;-§'f .,;.i\ 1) ;.~ ,(i;"~
1) ~tll
, '" 1; ~ ~t [,f)!l.! '.'.t I.!.: ~!; ./il l;ll; ~~ 1;:;1; } ,:.:1:
"Worship AI/tih tlndjoin 1I(JIf~ II'ilh lIim in
li!Or~hip; tlnd do good
to purents, kinsfolk, "rphalls, Al-Masakin (the
poor). the neighbor
who is lIear of kin, the neighbor ,..ho is a Jtrallg er,
the compllIIion hy
your sid~, the II"'Yfurcr (you mu t) , alld those ( sla
.. es) ..,hom your
right handJ posseJJ. Peril)'. AIMh does not like such
a l' tlte proud und
boosl/ul, Those II'ho are miserly tlnd enjoill
miserliness on other mell
ulld hid" what Alliih has besloII'ed UpOIl Ihem 0/
His BOllnlies. Alld
We ha~e pr~par~d fOl' 'he Jjsbdi"ve~s u
disgruceful tOl'm""I. And
(tl/Jo) 'hose ..,ho JfH!nd of their ~ub5tallc~ fO be
U~II of m"n, tlnd
",,/iUt IIOt in If fltih und rh" Lasl Day (rh"y tlre the
frie:ndJ of Shlliran
248
",,,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,",,,"
"'""""
(SlItan)) and wh(HI'er '/lin Shui/un (Sillan) tu /I
compunion; then
",fuu /I duudJul companion he has!" (An·Nisa, 36-
39)
b. The Qur'an declares:
) G:J ~I .:1~ ~~t ~~ i~,F:l i."49-~ ;~l11 iJ','.-:' ~j
45.;.i'; 1
, ~~.;; ( ~1;; w.~ 1; -1\ 1,1.# ~ t::.;¥
"And your Lord hDS decreed Ihut you H!(Jr...Jup
nOn~ but lIim. And
thaI you be dutiful to your ptUenfJ. If one of them
or bolh of ,hem
attain old age in your fife, 111.1' nOI 10 them II
word of disrespect, nor
shout III them hal addreu lhtm in terms of honor.
And fower unto
them the wing of slIhmission and humilily through
mercy. und IUY:
"My Lord! 8estow On them Your Mercy 11$ they
did bring me up
when I II'1l.I young." (AI'[$,a, 23)
In addition to the above, there are other
commandments,
admonition, directives, orders, and prohibitions,
which abound in
the verses of the Noble Qur'an.
Related to this:
a, Qur'iinic directives are accompanied by
emphatic particles: An
example of this is Allah, the Almighty's saying:
~ 6 Jj ~ -I~ .:?1 Q; -l 4 ,
"JI~rill', in these lhings fher~ "r~ A)'al (proo/,
evidence, I~jsons,
signs) for the people ,.,ho understand," (Ar_Ra'd, 4)
And
~ sj:X; ,IA ~1 ~ <! 4 ,
" Verily, in llIese thil'gs, Iheu aU IIl'al (proof,
e~idencu, I~nons,
sigllJ, etc. ) for peop/~ K'ho reilecl." (Ar·Ra'd, 3)
And
~ 6J~ ' .; ;;il .yI,J 4~ -.j bI. ,
Verily, in this art 1I)'"t (pmo/, ~ .'ide" ct, ~erJts,
f~JSon', sign',
r~ .dQlio1U, uc.) for Q people ,.,ho listen {i.e. Ihos~
,.,ho think
deeply)." (yunu., 67)
b, the Qur'iinic directives are accompanied by
rhetorical question
particles, such as:
.i. Qil" : i " .j ~, .• ' \'~ '''. 'I: '"" ~ r ""tJ ~ ~-4 r-1
"""", ,",~. ' -1 ...(., u'c'.,;:- Jr.)' ..;..-~: .-~Ji ~iE 'rj )r.
"Or did tMY creute 'h", he' .. em and the t!urth?
Nay, but they ha.t!
nO firm Belief. Or urt! "'ilh them Ihe trtUJUUJ of
you, Lord! Or au
they rhl! tYNmrs ,,·jll. ,he llutlro~ily to do as Ilrey
like!" (AI-Tur, 36-37)
<E 5j.:Jl i1J; :..01 :l ;1 ,
"Or 1111£ lie ( Alllih) only daughters a"d )'ou have
SOliS?" (At·Tur, 39)
c. Qur";inic guidance is accompanied by rational
evidence: the
Qur'an declares:
.£« ~ ." ,.YIT " <. :." '< tr.':1 '~i J\ ! -'I' r~ ; ,~ .\ :1.
"t "~ .... ':f~ -P~ ~ .... · . ~· ~ .... ~ JT
"Had there bee,. therein (ill the heavens and the
earlh) iilihllh
(gIJds) buitus Alliih, then v~rily both "'Quid huve
be~" ruined.
Glorified U AIMh, the Lord of Ihe Throne, (High is
lie) ubo.e uJl
Ihat (~ .il) Iht!, aJsociate with lIim!" (AI -Anbiya,
22) and
~ ~ ~(t:;'1 <!.> <t> ~. ~, 0~1 .,b t
"Alld on the eurth are siglls for thou K'ho h, .. e
Faith with
cerlaillty. Alld also in ),our 0",11 seJ~es. Will you
not ,hell seer'
(Adh-Dhiriyil, 2G-21)
d. Qur'anic Guidance is aocompanicd by the
comprehensiveness of
Islam: for example, Alliih fa says,
.I. <. , " " .. / :,'.' ~" ,",~' . , 7 1 U;-, ,,~<.ji /'1;(: 0'" ~
"(...",.,.....,. ..... ~.... :.0 " ,.,. ~ ". ' _ 'J'-' 7'
"And W~ hau smt down to )'ou tM Book ( thl!
QUT'Un) as an
exposition of I!rl!rything, a guidQllu , a mercy, and
glad tiding, for
those ... ho hu~e submitted Ihemul~es (to Alftih us
Muslinu)." (An.
Na~ I, 89) and:
~ ,';J. "! ~ ~ 8.) I.! t
"We hure neglected nothillg ill tM Book, then unto
their Lord
'hey (ull) ,hull be gathered," (AI·An'am, 38)
e. Qur'iinie directives arc accompanied by rules of
legislation: for
example, Alliih's saying about the ru!e of judicia!
justice:
"And that wlren you judge bet",'u n men, j'OU j
udge ",,;th jwtice ,"
(An,Nisi, S8)
- And about tbe rule of cOnstitutional counsel
"S/u'rii":
~ ~f.;T .j ~.tLi" ~
"Alld cOllsult tlrem ;1I t ire uffairs"," (At 'Imr:!n,
IS9)
The Messenger ~ took interest in giving advice,
and directed
educators and callc!> to tbe way of Alliih to give
admonition, and
called upon every Muslim to be a caller to Alhih
everywbere he
goes, so that whoever has a good heart would be
influenced
positively by his admonition and guidance, [n this
way he may save,
through calling and giving admonition, people who
are involved in
pre-Islamic practices, debauchery, loss, and misg
uidance. Following
are the most important of his di rectives $:
concerning giving
advice, admonition, and c.1J ling to the way of
Alliih:
- Muslim quoted Tamim Ibn Aws Ad-Dari *' that
the Prophet $
said, "Religion is advice," They asked, " For
whom?" He said,
"For Affah, fli5 Messenger, Ihe leiUkr5 of
Mu.I'/im.I', and their
commoners,"
- AI-Bukhari and Muslim quoted the discoun;c of
Sahl lbn Sa'd
As-Sa'di that the M es~engerof Alliih $. said to Ali
Ibn Abi Talib
.. when he directed him to conquer lS ~aihar:
<OEmer quietly, calf
Ihem to blam. and tell them abaut Al/ah '5 ,ighu
Iluli arc
inrumbem on them. 8y Allah. thm Ife guides Olle
perSOII through
you 10 /slam . is belfer for you than capturing the
best WffU'/S."
Our first teacher 4f;. had his own best method, and
his ideal way
of delivering admonition in various styles and
ways of exposition.
li ere is an example of this method:
A. Taking up the lIa rrative method: for example,
the story of the
leper, olle amieted by ringwonn and the blind.
AI-Bu~~iiri and Muslim quol~-d Abu
Hura;rah.:.So as saying thai
he heard the Prophet e. say, "There were three
men from Bani
Isrri'i/. a leper. a man aff/icted wilh ring ..... orm.
ami a blind man whom
Allah wanted to leSI. Therefore, Ife sent an angel
10 Ihem . He came
10 Ihe leper;
Angel: Wltal is the thillK you want mosl?
Leper: A good complexion. good skin. and Ihal
which made me
dirty in Ihe eyes of people to be gone. He rubbed
his skin
ami his blrmis/, disappeared lind he ..... <lS given a
fine
complexion.
Angel: What is Ihe be5/ source afweailhfaf you?
Leper: "Camels." He ..... 1lJ" gil'en a pfegnam camel.
Angel: May Alliih bless you ..... ilh il. He came 10 the
man lIff/icled
with rillgworm.
Angel: Whal is lire IIlilrg YOII like mosl?
RingwormI'd." Fine hair. and IhOl which made me
dirly in Ihe eyes
of people 10 disappear, fie rubbed him IIml ..... as
g;I'<>n fine
hair.
Angel: What is lile best source of weallh for y<)u~
Ringwormed: "Cows." lie was given a pregnant co
......
Angel: May Alllih blelS ilfor YOII.
III' came 10 the blind mall,
Angel: Whal is lire th!IIg you (ksire mO.~I?
Blind: "Thai Alfijh restores my eyesight for me so
that I may see
people." fie rubbed him and restored Iris eyesight
for him.
Angel: Whal is lire heSI souree of ..... eallh you like?
Blind. "Slreep." He was given a pregnam sheep.
The animals
multiplied. so Ihal the three men Irad a I'alley frtll
of
camels, cow.<, and sheep. respectively. Then lire
Angel
came /0 the previous leper man in Ihe form of a
leper.
Angel: A poor mall who Is CUI off from hi3 people
wandering aroulf{l.
so I hal'e no mOlley IOdoy except from AlIiih Ihell
you. 1 ask you
ill Ihe nome of the One who gare you the fair
complexion, good
skin. and monq 10 give me a camel 10 eat duritlg
my travel.
Leper: Ilul\'e mOllY debtsi
Angel: II seems as if I know you, Were you nOt U
leper considered
dirty by people? Were YOIl nOl poor thell Allah
mode you rlcM
upcr: I inherited Ihis money from my IlIIteSlors.
Angel: If you Ilre a hllr. may Alltih reSlOre you 10
your p re "iou,~
conditiOl.! He came 10 lire man p,e~lously
afflicted wilh in the
fnrm of a man afflicled witlr Ihe some ailmenl.
Angd: A poor man ..... hn is CUI offfrom Iris people
wondering around, so
I have no money loduy except from AlIiih tirell
you. I ask you ill
Ihe nome of the 0111' Who gave )'au good hair.
good looks, and
mOlley to gi"e me 0 cow so Ilrat / may 1'01 it
during my Irtn'e[l
Ringwarmed: My debt.r are mOlly.'
Allgel: II seems 10 me Ilrat I kllow you. Were you
n011l m(m uf/licted
with ringworm wh05e people cOTUiderrJ IlI'IY?
Were you nOt
poor Ihell A lltilr made YOII riclr?
Ringwormed: I inheriled Ihis money from my
ancestors.
Angel: If you are a liar, may AIMh reSlOre you 10
your previa" .•
condition. Then he came 10 Ihe man wlro had bel'li
blind ill Ihe
form of a blind man,
Allge!: A poor mall who is CIII offfrom his people
wandering arOlmd,
so I hOl'e no money laday exeepl from AIMh Ilren
you. f /lsk
YOII in lite name of Ihe One who reslOred your
eyesjghl 10 you
Ihal you give me a sheep 10 eat (Juring my lra,e!.
Blind man: I was blind then A/Mh reslOred my
eytsight 10 me. Tilke
whatever yOIl want and leave ... lratever you want.
By AIM/i, I
will not contradict you concerning any thing you
tllke for Ihe
s,/ke of Alliih •.
Angel: Keep yO!" things_ You h{.u bun pullO Ii'SI.
A!/iih is satisfied
wilh you, and dissatisfied with )"our comrodl's.
A good adviser, a wise educator, and a well-guided
caller to the
way of Allah can adapt the exposition of a story to
a style that suits
the mentality of the audience. They can also infer
from the story
the most important morals and admonition, so
that the effect may
be more touching. and the response st ronger,
B. Utilizing the method of dia logue and catechism:
this is done
through posing questions to friends m order to
draw their
attention, stir their intelligence, and feed them
dTeetive admonition
in the form of conviction and catechism. An
example of this is
AI-Bu~~'lri and Muslim quoting AbU. Hurairah '*'
as saying that
the Messenger of Alliih G: said, "Do you kllow who
is bankrupt?"
They sa id, ·'A bankrupt to us is who has no dirham
or property."
He said. "A bankrllpl in my nallon is he who comes
on the Last Day
with prayerJastillg. zakiih. and hajj. but he had
sworn at lhis (man)
and slandered thlll. devoured sOll1l'One's money,
shed Ihe blood of
onothcr, and beal someone. This man will be gi'"en
from his good
deeds. aJJd thai man wi!/ be given from his good
deeds. If his good
deeds are spell1 before he IHlyS his debls, he
willllike from Iheir bod
deeds. which will he lidded 10 his, Ihm he will be
thrown into Ihe Fire. "
C. Startmg admomtion with sweanng by AIHih: th
is is intended to
caU the attention of the hearer to the importance
of the thing that
is to be said. in order to do it or avoid it. An
example is what AIB
u ~~iirl quoted Abu Shl/raih 40 as saying, that the
Messenger of
Alliih ~ said, "8y Alliih. he is nOI a befiever; by
A1f6h, he is no/ a
be/ieoer: by A/fiih. he i$ /10/ a believer." It was
asked. "Who 0
Messenger of All iih?'· He said, "'Ihal person whose
neighbor does no/
fnf safe from his evils."
D. Combining admonition and jesting: this is
mtended to stir the
mind, prevent boredom, and arouse Intcrest. An
example is what
Abu Diiwlld and At·Tirmidhi quoled Anas *' as
saying Ihat a man
camc to the Messenger of Allah asking him for a
camel from
charity so Ihat he m11y carry his household things
on it. The
Messenger $ sa id, " I will give you a baby camel.
The man said,
" 0 Messenger of Allah , what can [ do with 11 baby
cametr' The
Messenger of Alliih $ said, "And do /I!male camels
give birth
except /0 baby camels?'"
E. Being concise in specch to prevent boredom:
Abu Oiiwud
quoted Jiibir Ibn Samurah as saying, "The
Messenger of Alliih
used to not prolong the sermon on Friday. [\ was
only a fcw
words."
F. Controlling the audience through the effect of
admonition: it
was stated In Ahmad'S Musnad and by Muslim that
Ibn 'Umar .$
said that Ihe Messenger of Allah read this verse
onc day on the
minbar (pulpit):
~p~'- )! ! , .,. .• ~.... ...~. .... .1 "f)):"J- ._~., .f.-r -..'.I
!I.t.">-~'o ,;"- TIt..
A"{ ~/ -"-Yr:-' ~ .gr"<'-J ~r ''; .' --: .•. .":... .....,.: •:,•
" They made nOI u just estimate 0/ Alliih such U&
iJ due 10 Him.
And an rhe Day 0/ Rtsu,reclioo the ",hole 0/ 'he
earth "'ill be
Krasped by lIis Hlmd unu rhe hearens "'ill In rolled
ap in Hi& RighI
Hand. G/tH"ijieli is lie, aod High is lie aoo.t all rhat
they InsociAte
as par/nen with lIim!" (Az-Zum ... (7)
The Messenger of AlI iih # was saying this with his
hand,
moving it back and forth, saying Ihe Lord glorifies
Himself saying
J am the Potenate; I am the Proud; I am the King; I
am the
Generous. The minbar shook with the Messenger
of Allah, so that
we thought it may fall; wilt il collapse with the
Messenger of Altah
if;? The admonishing caller 10 the way of Alliih
cannot have this
dominating efTect unless he has a sincere
intention, a kind of heart,
a pious soul, and clean of inner feelings; otherwise
the
responsibility is so great towards AlIiih, the Lord
of the worlds.
G. Admonishment by giving appropriate examples:
the Prophct ~
used to clarify his words by gIving e ~amples that
people easily
understand what they recognize with their se nses,
and what is well
within their reach, so that the clTcel of admomllon
may be stronger
and firmer in their minds. An-Nasai in his Swum
quoted Anas 40
as s;\ying th~lt the Messenger of Allah 3: said, ",-I
beliel'ef who
rewis Ihe Qu,'all is like ulruj)ult (u[ruil simi/ur 10
orange.!). II i$
[,ag,anl alii/lUSty. A believe, who does 1101 fead
Ihe Qur'an ijlike a
[,uil which is IOsly bm nOI [ragram. An impious
mun who 'eod$ Ihe
Qllr 'an is like slI"eel basil. which is [Wg'IIIII, bUI
tasles biller. An
impious ma/I ,..ho does no/ read the Qu,'lin is like
a coloc}'nlh which
is biller-lUsling. amI 1101 [ragrll/II. A bad
companion is like u mun
... ·lto works Ihe bellows; if you do 1101 gel
s/(Iined by him, his smoke
will harm ),ou. -'
H. AdmOnition by gesture: for example, AI-Bukhari
and Muslim
quoted Abu Musa AI-Ash'ari.:Ji, as saying that
Alhih"s Messenger
3: said ... A believe, is 10 II bellel'er like 0 buildillg
whose purts
cOllSoIidale each mher; Allah·.1 Mc.lsenger
inlerll'lIrmil his fingers."
1. Adomnition by drawing and illustrating: for
example, AIBukhari
quoted 'Abdultiih Ibn Mas'Od 0$ as saying, "Allah's
Messenger ;'j: drew a square for us, drew a line
outside of it, and
drew smaller and yet smaller lmes in the middle of
the square. Then
he said, "This is man, and this is his life-time
surrounding him; that
which is outside i.e. the line is his hope; these
smaller and smaller
lines are a~idents and sudden affiictions. If he
missed one of them,
another will snatch him. If he missed all of them,
he will be
affiicled with old age."
J. Admonition by means of a practical act: for
example, Al-Bukhari
narrated that the Prophet $ once led people lit
prayer while he
was on the pulpit so that all of them could sec how
he was praying,
and may learn by watching what he does. When he
finished, people
came to him and so he said, "0 people, I have done
this so that you
may follow my example, and teach others how I
pray."
K, Admonition by seizing opportunities: for
example, Muslim
quoted Jiibir" as saying that Alhih's Messenger ~
passed by a
market and entered it with people surrounding
him. He came
across a dead goat with small ears. He caught it by
the ear and
said,"Who would like to buy this for a dirham?"
They said, "We
would not like it even fo r free; what would we do
with it?"~ He said,
"Would you like 10 have il?" They said, "By Alliih,
even if it were
alive, its short cars would be a defect, then how
about if it were
dead1" He said, " By Alliiil, this world is more
/ri,iol/o AIMiI than
thi.! is to you."
L. Admonition by paying attention to (he more
important issues:
for example, Al-Bukhiiri and Muslim quoted Anas ..
as saying
that an Arab of the desert asked Allfih's Messenger
3:. "When will
the Last Day be, 0 Messenger of Allah?" The
Messenger of AlHih
4: said, ., What did you do 10 prepare for iI?" The
man said, "The
love of Allah and His Messenger." The Messenger
s<lid, "You will
be with those you love."
M, Admonition by showing the prohibited thing he
is fo rbidding
people from: for instance, Abil OfiwCid, An-Nasal,
and Ibn Majah
in their Sunol! quoted Ali Ibn Abi Tiilib 4J, as
saying, "Allah's
Messenger 4: held some silk in his left hand, and
some gold in his
right hand, then raised them with his hands saying,
"These are
prohibited jor the males of my nalion, but are
allowed for the
f ellUlles."
The above are the most important methods which
our firs!
teacher 4: used in guiding adults, teaching
youngsters, directing
the elite, guiding commoners, strengthening
virtue, and redressing
deviation.
IV. EduCi tion by Observation
The meaning of education by observation is to take
care of the
bel icf and moral formation of the child. to observe
him in his
psychological and social constitution, and to
continually inquire
about his physical upbringing and his Jearning
progress.
There is no doubt that such education is one of the
firmest bases
in forming a well-balanced and integrated human
being who pays
everyone his due, who fully shouldcn; his
responsibilities, and who
is a true Muslim . Such a Mushm is the corner
stone in establishing
a firm Islamic basis by which the glory of Islam is
established and
on which the Islamic state comes to fruit ion,
Indeed, Islam is the
means of civilization.
Islam, with its comprehensive principles and
Divine system, has
urged parents and educators to take interest in
observing their
children in all aspc<:ts of life and education. To
you, my brother
educator, I present the most important texts
dealing with this
observation. Alliih '1ft says,
~\:i.;, l~ !tr- ~ i;4G .;6! (i;~;; CG ~~.t ~11; !fX iJr
Q~ t
~ ~1 !: S;i" fa) t .if ~,,'-; y
"0 ),ou "'ho belie~e! Ward off/rom yourselves and
>'our families a
nre ( llefl) "'hose/uel is men and stones, over ",hich
are (uppointed)
angels Jtern (Qlld) u ~C'e, "'ho disobey not, (from
exeCUTing) the
Commantb they reaiVl! from Alfiih, but do that
",hich they au
commanded." (At.Talyim, 6)
How Can an educator protect his own family from
the fire if he
docs not command them, prohibit what is evil. and
docs nO!
observe them?
Among the Prophetic Traditions that urge
accompaniment and
observation is the one narrated by AI.Bu~~ari and
Muslim
quoting Ibn 'Umar 40>: "And a man is the guardian
of his
household, and is responsible for his wards, and a
woman is the
guardian in her husband's house and is
responsible for her wards_"
Our lirst educator and most honorable guide
Muhammad"
used to give his nation an ideal example in taking
care of his
Companions, inquiring after them, warning those
who fell short,
encouraging the charitable, sympathi7.ing with the
weak and poor,
educating youngsters, and teaching the ignorant.
Here are some
examples of his observation and inquiries after his
Companions:
_ Concerning social education we find that AI-
Bukhari and Muslim
narrated Abu Sa'id AI-J9.1udri ., who s.aid that the
Prophet 3-
said, "Beware of sifting in roads. They said, "We
cannot help our
sittings where we talk." Allah's Messenger" SOl id,
"Jf you COlmaf
help if, thel' give the road il3 due. " They s.aid,
"What is the due of
the road, 0 Messenger of Allah?" He s.aid "
Lowering Ihe gaze,
not inflicting IUlrm, remming greeting,
commanding goodness, and
prohibiting evil."
- Concermng how the Prophet ~ warned against
prohibitions we
find Ihal An-Nawawi narrated in Riya!J A!-$Iili~;n
quoting Ibn
Ahbas.;io as saying that Alliih's Messenger#. saw a
gold ring on
a man's finger, so he look it ofTand threw it away
and sa id, "One
of you takes a piece of fire and pUiS if on his hand."
After Alliih's
Messenger left, it was said to the man, "Take your
ring and make
use of It." He said, "By Allah, no. I will never take it
after Alliih's
Messenger $. took it ofT my finger."
_ Concerning how he educated youngsters we find
AI-Bukhari and
Muslim narnl ted 'Umar Ibn Abi Salamah"" as
s,1ying, " ] was a
boy in the lap of Allih's Messenger $. Ii. e. under his
observation] and my hand used to move
everywhere in the
dish, so AlIiih's Messenger tI;:. said to me, "0 boy,
mel1lion lire
name of AIMh, Cill wilh your righl hand, and eat
from the nearl!sl
place /0 you."
259
_ Concerning how he guided adults we find tnal
Abu Diiwud and
AI-Bayhaqi quoted 'Abdullah Ibn Amir 40 as
saying, "My
mother once called me In the presence of Alliih's
Messenger it in
our house, and she said, "Come here and r will give
you
something." Al1flh's Messenger said, .. What dQ
you want 10 give
him?" she said, " I want to give him dates." Allah'S
Messenger
said, "Iiyou do nOI give him anything ilwill be
wrillen 08 a lie."
_ Concerning moral education we find thai AJ- B
u~~iiri and
Muslim quoted Abu Bakrah -$. as saying that a man
was
mentioned to the Prophet $ and another man
lauded him, The
Prophet ¢. said, "Woe 10 you: you held you, f
riend's neck. I
repealedl}' .!oid, "/f anyone is inevitably lauding
another, he should
say, I guess so and so even lfhe thinks he is right.
AlIiih suffices/or
him and no one should be lauded 10 Alliih."
_ Concerning psychological education we find Al-
Bukhiiri and
Muslim quoted An-Nu'miin Ibn Bashir 4\1. as
saying that his
father brought him to Alliih's Messenger and said,
" I gave my
son a slave of mine." Allah 's Messenger said, "
Have you giYt'n Ihe
lik!! 10 all your sons?'" He sa id, "No." The Prophet
said, "Theil
/ake /rim back." My father returned and took the
slave back.
_ The e~ample of physical education is found when
he saw some
people drinking in one gulp like a camel, so he said
to them, as
narrated by At-Tinnidhi, "Do not drink in one gulp
as a camel
does, but drink in two or three gulps, ond mention
Allah's nome
before you drink. and thank Him afle, you finish."
_ Concerning how he educated to the way of Allah
and was gentle
to people is found In Al - B u ~ ~iirl and Muslim
who quoted Anas
.. as saying, " I marched with Alliih's Messenger
who was
dressed in a Najnin coarse garment. An Arab of the
desert went
up to him and pulled at his ganncnt so violently
that it left a
mark on Allilh's Messenger's neck. Then th e Arab
of the desert
said, "0 Muhammad, command that I be given from
All iih's
money which you have access 10. The Prophel 4:
turned to him
laughing, then commanded that he be given some.
- Concerning how he raised the status of women
and gave them
their due, we find that An-Nasai and Ibn Majah
narrated that a
young woman came to the Prophet tt: and said,
"My father
married me to his nephew so that he may raise his
status by me
i. e. cover his defect and I hate him. Allah's
Messenger sent
someone to fetch her father and commanded him
to leave the
matter up to her. The woman said, " I approve of
what my father
has done, but I wanted women to know thai this
matter is not up
to their fathers."
Among the important things which an educator
should know i~
that education by observation is not confined to
one or two aspects
of reforming the forrnallon of the human self, but
should include
all aspects: faith, in tellect, moral, physical,
psyehological, and
social aspects. If th is is observed then education
may be fruitful in
forming a sound, integrated, balanced Muslim
individual, who
gives everything its due in this li fe.
Obsc:ning the aspect of b(> licf in children
- The educator should I3ke of the principles, ideas,
and beliefs that
the child is taught and who undertakes the
orientation of the
child and his or her education at school or
elsewhere. If he finds
these to be suitable, he should praise Alliih. If he fi
nds them
defective, he should shoulder his great
responsibility in implanting
the principles of monotheism and consolidating
the bases of
belief, so that the child may be saved from sinful
atheistic
teachings and dangerous secular orientation.
- He should take note of the books, magazines, and
publications
which the child reads. If he finds that they include
ideas of
misguidance, principles of atheism, and of
missionaries, he must
confiscate these books, then show for the child
how such books
and ~imilar ones corrupt the pure belief of
Muslims.
_ The educator must also observe the companions
and peers the
child befriends. Ir he fi nds the child'~ company
one of atheism
and misguidance, he must severe their relation
with them, and
secure virtuous and pious companions who Will
refonn him and
make him strong in belief and inner peace.
- The educator should also observe Ihe groups and
organilations
Ihe child is affi liated with. If he finds Ihat these
groups are
alheistic in principles and orientat ion, he should
be strict in
preventing him, should persevere in observing
him, and sei7,C one
chance after another 10 convince and orient him
until he sees thaI
it is wrong to be inclined towards other than what
is right. He
should ensure that the child has returned 10
guidance, and is
continuing on the straight path.
Observing the moral aspect of the child
- The educator should observe how truthful the
child is. If hc finds
that he lies, plays and appears in the commumty as
a hypocrite
and a liar, he must lake care of the child the fi rst
time he tells a
lie, and show him in great detail the consequences
of lying and
liars, and hypocrisy and the hypocnles, so thaI he
may never tell
lies again .
. The educator should also observe how honest his
child is. If he
finds that the child is stealing even trivial things
such as coins
from his siblings or a pen from his friend , he has
to deal with this
very quickly and make him understand that this is
prohibited
because it is usurping money unjustly. Hc also .has
to sow the
seeds of observing A1Hih and fearing Him so that
he may return,
be reformed, and make his manners straigh t. If
this is not done,
the child will become dishonest, get accustomed to
deceit and
theft, and even become wretched, betraying, and a
criminal of
whose bad deeds prople and the community will
complain.
- The educator should also pay attention to hi~
child's speech. lfhe
finds that he swears at people, calls them bad
names, and utlers
impolite words. he has to deal with this wisely and
give it due
attention and care. He should try to discover the
reasons why his
son speaks rudely so that he may severe him from
the causes,
then he should show him in an attract ive way the
attributes of a
well-mannered child, and the merits of a polite
person, so that he
may be attracted to the grace of the soul and to
noble morals.
- The educator should also observe the
psychological will-power of
the child. If he li nds that the child imitates others
slavishly and
exaggerates in easy luxury, listens to music and
un-Islamic
singing, has an effiminate appearance, behaves
suspiciously,
mingles with women, watches improper tele vision
movies. goes to
the cinema, reads indecent magazines, buys 5exy
pictures and
love novels, he has to deal with this immorality by
means of kind
admonition sometimes and threatening at other
times, and by
ofTering incentives or innictmg punishment.
Obsen"ing the intellectual and acade mic aspect of
the child
- The educator has to observe the child's academic
achi evement
and his cultural formation, whether this education
is an
individual duty or a common one. He should
observe if the
child has learnt that which is an individual duty,
such as reciting
the Qur'an, the rulings of worship, the l;.wful and
unlawful, the
ballies of the Prophet tj., because he is responsible
to learn these
things and will be accountable to Allah if he fell
short of them.
However, if the child is learnin g that which is a
sufficient duty
such as medicinc, or engineering fo r example, the
educator
should ob5eTve hIS perseverance, excellence, and
progress so that
when he gmduates he would benefit his nation th
rough h,s
specialization and establish the bases of
civilization in the
Muslim community th rough his scholarship and
talent.
_ The educator must also ohserve the intellectual
enlightenment of
the child regarding his association with [slam both
as a religion
and as a State, with the Noble Qur'ii.n as the creed
and
legi,lation , with the Messenger 3. as the !cilder and
example to
be foHowed, with [slamie history as the source of
pride. with
Islamic culture ,I, the spirit and thought, and with
calling \0 the
Way of AI1ii.h enthusiilstically. This cannot be
achieved except by
keeping the child's company, orienting and
arousing his interest
in reading intellectual books, religious magazines,
Islamic
brochures. listening to useful Islamic lectures and
effective
orations. The educator's heart is broken when he
finds that the
child is memorizing the biographies of Western
philosophers at
school, knows much about great Eastern figures
and their
opinions and theories. but knows only very little
about the
hIstory of Muslims, the life of greal pious people
men,
conquerors, and disting uished Muslim scholars.
- The educator should also observe the mental
health of the child,
paying attention to the corruption of drinking
intoxicants and
us ing narcotics because they ravish the body and
cause hysteria
and madness. He also has to watch fo r thc secret
habit of
masturbation because it is a sin.
OlJ,;crving the phy~ica l sta tus of the child
- The educator has to make sure that he provides
for his children
adequately, including good food, shelter, and
clothing, so that
their hodies are not prone to illness and disease.
- The educator should also take note of the hygenic
rules which
Islam ordained regarding eating, drinking, and
sleeping. The
educator should make sure that the chi ld does not
overeat, eat
more than what is normal or more thun what he
really needs. He
should muke sure that the child drinks in two or
three gulps,
prevent him from breathing into the drinking
vessel, or drinking
while standing up. He should also make sure that
the child sleeps
on his right side, and docs not go to bed
immediately after eating.
- The ducator, especi311y the mother, should take
procautions if her
child contracts an in fectious disease, through sec
luding the sick
child from the rest of the children so that the
disease may not
spread.
- The educator has to watch for the preventive
means of preserving
his child's health through directing him not to eat
unripe frUlt or
unwashed vegetables. He should also wash his
hands before
eating, and not blow into the food vessel, and
observe other
hygenic instructions ordained by Islam,
. The educator should watch for all the factors tbat
attack the
body, ham health, and cause diseases, such as
intoxicants,
narcotics, smoking, masturbation, adultery, and
homosexuality,
which have many negative affects on the physical
and emotional
hcalth of the individual.
Obscn-iug the psychologiclIllIspect of the child
- Paren ts should watch for shyness. If he finds that
the child suffers
from seclusion and shunning away from people
and the
community, he has to encourage him to overcome
his syhness
and to mingle with others, and to promote in him
intellectual and
social understanding, enlightenment, and
maturity,
- He should also observe the phenomenon of fear.
H he finds that
he suffers from cowardice, fear, and low self-
esteem before
incidents and tries to escape hardships, he should
cultivate in him
self-confidence, steadfastness, forwardness, and
bravery so that
he may be able to face life with all its problems
with a satisfied
spirit and a smiling face, The mother, particularly,
should not
terrify her child by talking about ghosts, dark,
strange creatures,
jinn, to prevent the child from becoming fearful, so
that fear will
not control him .
. Parents should also watch out for an inferiority
complex in the
child. If he finds that h,s child suffers a litt[e from
this reding, he
has to deal with it with wisdom and hnd
admonition, and
eliminate the causes that led to it.
- He should also deal with the phenomenon of
anger. If he finds
that the child gets angry for the slightest reason,
he has to deal
with this by emdicating the causes. [f it is caused
by sickness, the
parent should hasten to treat him medically. If it is
caused by
hunger, he has to feed him at the proper timc_ If
the cause is
unjust reprimanding, he has to punfy his tongue
from the words
of insult and blame.
- If anger is caused by his being spoiled, he has to
treat him
norma!!y, and get him accustomed to be satisfied
with simple
things in life_
Obsen 'ing the social as[lC'Ct of the child
- Parents should make sure that the child is doing
his duly towards
others. If he finds that the ehild is not doing his
duly towards
himself or his mother, his sibhngs and relatives,
his neighbors, his
teacher, or older people, he has to show him the
negative
consequences of this, and the result of this
treatment so that he
may understand, hcar, and stop not giving
everyone his due, and
stop his carelessness aOout social docorum.
- The educator should also pay attention to the
rules of docorum
concerning mixing with others. If he finds that the
child fai ls to
observe table manners, or the manners of jesting,
speaki ng,
sneezing, condoling, or any other social manners,
he has to cxert
his best effort to acquaint the child with the
manners of Islam,
and to make him accustomed to the best habits
and manners.
- Parents should also be sure that his child has
noble feelings
towards others. If he finds that the child is selfish.
he should
guide him to preferring others to himself; and if he
finds that he is
inclined to hatred. he should implant in him the
seeds of love and
friendliness. If he finds him failing to abide by the
lawful and not
avoiding the unlawful, he should command him to
piety and
remind him of AlI iih's torture and the Hereafter,
so that the creed
of observing Alhih and fearing Him would become
deeply rooted
ill his soul. Should the p;lrent find that the child is
affiicted with a
hateful situation or a disease, he should teach him
to accept fate .
Thus an educator can implant in the soul of the
child these
psychological bases of belief, piety, and being
conscious of Alliih
fi , and implant in his pure heart the feclin g.~ of
preferring others
to himself, sympathy, and punty so that when he
grows up and
attains the age of ordinance, he gives Allah and
people in general
their due.
Obsl.'ning the chi ld 's spiritual aspects
- Parents should observe in his child the quality of
being aware of
Allah Sl!: through making him feel that AIEih hears
him, sees
him, and knows his secrets. what he looks at, what
his bosom
hides, and that nothing is hidden from Allah the
heavens and the
earth. This cannot be achiev~-d except by guiding
him to belief in
Allah, His miraculous Omniscience. His
magnir~ent creation,
and submission to Him in all things. Thus he would
feel the
Greatness of Allah 1l'II this observance while he is
work ing,
th inking, and feeling. Observance would even
become a deeplyrooted
principle in his inner feelings, and a basis of
responsibility
in his heart, feelings, and emotions.
- Parents should also observe the aspect of
submission, piety, and
bondage to Alliih, the lm d of the worlds. This can
be achieved
through calling the chi ld's attention to the all -incl
usive greatness
of AHah in the young and the old, the inanimate
and the living, in
a fully-grown plant, a growing tree, a fragmnt
colorful nower,
and in millions of millions of diverse, wonderfully
and
magnificently-composed creatures. Thus the
human soul cannOI
help but feci piety and submission to Allah 1ft.
Among the
things which strengthen the child's submission to
Allah, and
consolidate in his inner feelings the true essence of
piety is to get
him accustomed, when he is at the age of reason
and
discrimination, to show submission in prayers, and
crying or
attempting to do so when hearing the verses of the
Qur'an. If he
gets accustomed to these qualities and applies
them, he will be
among those about whom All5h said:
ii"-:J if;1: -.:::::J.J( 0 0;;;': ~ 1; 'j:" ...J;" 1 Ji ;t;J} ...... >t
'11,
A. ./ ~~, '( ..;.;......,.
"No doubt! Verily, the Aufiya. ' of Alfih ( i.e. Ihos~
",ho befie .. , in
the Oneness of Affih and f ear Affiih milch (ab.lfain
from aff kinds
of sins and e"if du ds "'hieh He has/o,bidden), ond
fo~e Aftlih much
(pe,fo,m oil kinds 0/ good du ds lI'hieh lie has
ordained)) no feDr
sha.1f come upon lhem nOr shall tfrey K,iut!. Those
",ho belie.ed (in
the Oneness of Afflih - Islamic Monotheism), and
used to feur
Alliih much ( by abstaining from evil du ds and sins
and by doing
righteoo. duds)." (Yunu., 62.63)
- Parents should also observe how the child
performs worship by
means of commanding him to pray at the age of
~evcn in
fulfillment of the saying of the Prophet $,
"Command your
chiM'lm /0 pray whl!ll Ihey arl! seW'n years old:'
By analogy,
through training h'm when he is still young to fast
some days m
Ramadan if he is able to do so, and to take him to
perfonn
pilgrimage if the parent can afford it, and also to
get him
accustomed to spend m the way of Allah, even a
small amount
every now and then, so that he may get used to the
obligatory
worship of paying the poor-dues when he comes of
age.
- Parents also have to strike a balance while
bringmg up their child,
between the spiritual struggle and striving for the
sake of Alliih,
so that he may fight rnjustice and disbelief as
much as he resists
the e~il-inciting of the so ul. This is because if
parents neglect to
arouse in the child the duty of calling to the way of
Alliih, or the
duty of striving in His way, the duty of enjoining
goodness and
fo rbidding evil, the child wi ll undoubtedly get
used to seclusion,
inactivity, accepting the status quo, escaping from
struggle, and
submItting to the power of tyrants and unjust
people.
- Parents should also observe the application of
supplication
through helping their children memorize the most
import.1nl
supplications of the day and night, going to sleep
and waking up,
eating, entering the house and leaving it, puning on
clothes and
taking them off, as well as the invocation when
travelling,
invoking Allah for guidance during the fall of rain
and the time
of the crescent, insomnia, illness, and sadness, as
well as other
invocations and sound, firm ly established
supplications.
V. Education by Appropriate Puni~hm cnt
The ru lings of the Islamic Jarisprudence (Fiqh)
with their
complete justice and comprehensive principles
focus on guaranteeing
the necessities which man cannot do without. The
scholars of
Fiqh concluded that they are five in number. They
called them
"the five necessities" or "the five generalities."
These are:
maintaining religion, self, chastity, mind and
wealth. They said
that all that was included in the Islamic system of
rulings,
principles, and legislations aim at securing these
generalities and
maintaming them. For Ihe sake or preserving these
generalilles.
Islamic Jurisprudence has laid down severe
punishments for those
who trespass and breach them. These
punishments arc known as
"hut/ud" or "prescriped punishment"· and "Ia'z ir"
or "discretionary
punishments." The set !imits are punishments
determined
by Jurisprudence as the rights of Allah !.ii. These
arc:
1. The punisllmcnl for a poslacy: this is death if onc
insists on
Icaving the religion or on atheism aner his rerusa l
lo repent, [f he is
killed he is not to be washed, shrouded. pnlyed on,
or buried in
Muslims' graves, The basIs for this punishment is
what was
narrated by the six narrators and Ah mad Ibn
Mas'tid 4;. quoting
Alliih's Messenger 3. as saying, " The shedding of II
Muslim's blood
is 1101 lawful excepl in Ihree cases: an udullaer
",1.0 is Mu.lfim
married. life for life. ulld Ihe uposlille who departs
fTllm Ihe
commrmily . ..
2. The punisllmenl for murder: If it was murder in
cold blood, lhe
punishment for it is death, because of Alliih's
saY'"I:.
:;:. '&'i\ &\iG ,.:;.i~ .t:it .J~ )S J!.ii ~ ;'l-::';ii ~ -; ;1;
~,; ~i c::~ ,
4. ~'~ ·\,.II ft~\· "::"\ ~'':ii !.~ .... ~ : ~ ' ,' 'I: r., "'. !J
y~ <..""" .r' ,', ,,!, .J;"
"0 )"ou who fHliel'e! AI-Qislls ( rhe Law of Equufity
in punishment)
is preserihed for )"ou in cau of murder: Ihe fUI! for
Ihe frue, the
sla ~e for Ihe sla re, and Ihe female fOT the femule.
Bul if/he killer
is forgh'en hy the brother (or the re/ati,'u, fl C.) of
Ihe killed
against Mood-money t"en adhering to it "'ilh fairne
ss. and payment
of the blood-money, 10 the heir should fH made in
fairnus." (AI.
Baqarah. (78)
3. The punisllmenl for theft : tllis is cuUmg olT the
tlliefs hand from
the wrist if lhe lheft was nOI motivated by need or
compelling
circumslanccs. This is ordained by AlIiih's .aying •
.J. ~ !,' ~f ~{ "{ ., -l!t J , ~~ . .;n c_ r t:.• t;j.".I 'C ( ""J.'
1~-' (1l i ~~ t::J1J' "~. ....--:'LJI' T).
"And (aJ for) Ihe male thief and the f emale, cut off
(from Ihe
"'risl joint) their ( right) hand a.< a recompense for
that "'hieh they
committed, a punishment hy "'ay of I!xample fmm
Alliih. And AI/iih
;s AII- Po,,'erful, All-Wise." (At -M.·j.dah, 38)
4. The punishment for slander: this is eighty lashes
and non·
270
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== PanTh~
acceptance of testimony, according to All:1h'$
saying,
'> .... ,, - "'i -., .• " ",. , " "'~ 7:" N ~ "t" '" ''''u ", 'J .. ,
u.,1;~ r ~ ~-'; ..... ~: .. ;>~ ;~';"..>\!i. J (';" .I ""'.:..:
i.!:~ r
.I. "{ ~~) • ,'~-I "~: '..'.'..;.J. ·!1.'t
"And the "n~~ II'ho throw accusalion upon
1O'0mell in wedlock. And
thereafrer they do I/ot come up "'itll four "'itnesus,
then lad them
with eighty /ru bes, "lid do not aca pt any
/eslimony of theirs at all;
and thou aYe the ones who lire immoral." (An_Nfir,
4)
5. The punishmrnt for adultery: Ihis is onc
hundcrd lashes if the
adulterer is unmarried, and stoning to death if he
is married. The
QUI'an declares:
~ ?{ l;~ 1':=: ~5 J ~~ J)I~ ~3i ,
" The womun and the man gll;lly of illegal sexual
inlerciJurse, jlog
each of them "'itb a ""ndu d stripes ... " (An-NUT, 2)
"Stoning to death is based on the Prophetic
Tradition about
Ma'iz Ibn Mii lik and the Ghlmidi woman whom
AlHih's
Messenger 3- commanded that they be stoned to
death because
they were both married.
6. The punishment for spreading corruption on
earth: this is to be
kIlled or crucified, or their hands and legs be cut
alternately, or
exile from the land. The majority of religious
scholars, including
Ash-Shiifi'j and Imam A~mad , arc of the opinion
that if
highwaymen kill and take money they are to be
Killed and
crucified, but if they only take money without
killing, their hands
and legs are cut asunder alternately, and if they
terri fy people but
do not take money they are to be exiled from the
land. The basis of
this is Alliih's saying, j' IJV~ jll;:;;; J I~G J:j)i :;. ':'7!J
;1;.;;.if ':;;.,l~ ~Ji Ij'5.; Cl'
C•~ i <..! •... . ,-.- .."....",1 -/-."...h..~ '~.~ ·'- .Ji ~~..
>"r"<!' .·~...... :d-o..~:- ~~ 1")~ .-. ..'o -f.""'-"J to!! ;;i
.I. .!.J.; ~ I~ . - . :Yr . _w '" _ .... I.J'; ~ ..-+' ..
"Tu recompenu of those "'ho ,,'all" "'lIr against
Afliih and lIis
Messenger and du mischiefin the land i$ Qn/)' Ihllt
they shllll be killed
Qr crucified 01' their hllnds lind their feet he cui
off from 0ppo$i/t
sides, or he ailed from the /tmd, That is Iheir
disgrace in this ,,'arId,
and a ~ rerlf lormenl ;$ theirs in the Hereafter."
(At_Ma'idan, J)
7, The punishment for drinking intoxicants: this is
for ty to eighty
lashes, based on the fact that the Prophet's
Companions ~
estimated the penally during the time of the
Prophet e to be fo rty
lashes_ Ash-Shawkani reported that the Prophet ~
lashed those
who drink in toxicants with two lashes about forty
times,
'Urnar suggested eighty lashes after consullmg the
Companions
and they made the penalty eighty lashes when they
saw that some
people went too far in drinking intoxicants. Their
reasoning for
this is that Ali " said, " If someone dnnks an
intoxicant, he ge ts
drunk and if he gets drunk, he raves, and if he
raves he WIll
slander," and they made thi$ analogous to the
penalty for
slandermg women in wedlock.
Discretionary punishments an: undefined
penalties which are due
to a human being for any wrongdoing for which
Ihere is no dearly
stated penalty or expiation. They are similar to set
punishmenlS in
deterrence and in reformation. If the quantity of
discretionary
penalty is nol set a ruler has Ihe right to determine
a proper
punishment, which may be reproach, beating,
imprisonment, or
confi scation provided that il is nOI as severe as a
sel puni'hment.
No two people would disagree about the f;'c t thl.t
Is\;.m
legis lated these established and discretionary
penalties for the sake
of achieving a happy life filled with security and
stability so that no
one would show injustice 10 anyone else, no
strong person would
hann a weak one, and no rich man would control a
poor one. All
people lITe equal in fron t of Allah, with no
advantage of an Arab
over a non-Arab, or a while over a black, except by
piety_ This is
272.",==================================
====== Pa"TO~
the meaning of Allah's saying,
~ ~p r-WJ y:j\i( <J}~ ;;:. ~~( .! rtJ; t
"And there is (a ¥u.illK of) life for you in AI-QisllS
(the LQ'" of
Equality in punishment), 0 men of umlers/unding,
(Illd you mlly
become AI-MUI,aqin (Ihe piom - see V.2:2).
(AI_Baq.rah, 179)
This is what is intended by the Prophet's saying, "
By lie Who has
my soul ill Ilis hultd. if Fu!imah, the daughter of
MI,~ammad Hofe, I
would CUI off her hand. "
Whether the penalty is a sct or a discretionary one,
it is the
decisive treatment for reforming people and
nations, and
consolidating peace and stability throughoullhc
world. A nation
that has no penalties for criminals is an immoral,
spoiled and
debased nation, which lives in continuous social
chaos, and in
criminal confusion. The best example of this is
America where
most sholars of modern education frown upon
punishment and
hate to even mention it. This has resulted in a
debased. spoiled,
irresponsible generation that craves for corruption
and crime. It
was this situation which incited the late Amercian
President
Kennedy to declare in 1962 that the future of
America was in
danger because its youth are debauch, spoiled,
lustful, and
irresponsible. Among every seven youths who arc
would-be army
recruits there aTe six who are unfit because of lust.
irresponsibility.
and immorality have destroyed their physical and
psychological
well -being.
When AlIiih 16 legislates penalties for His
bondmen, He is the
Most Knowledgeable of that which He has laid
down for them.
U n les.~ he knows what penalties achieve security
for the individual,
and stability for the community, He would not
legislate them or
include them in His Divine legislation.
The punishment given by parents or educators
dirrers III
quantity. quality, and method from that given to
people III
general. Here is, my brother educator, the way of
Islam in
punishing children:
I, Dealing wi th the child tenderly and mercifully is
the basis: AIBuk
hari narrated in Al-Adah AI-Mufradthat All iih's
Messenger tt
said, "Be lender and avoid violence and obscenity_"
2. Taking into account the nature of the child to be
punished:
Children vary concerning intelligence, flexibili ty,
and responsivness.
Their temperaments also differ, they can be quiet,
peaceful,
and the moderate, or nervous and violent. All these
kinds of
temperaments are determined by beredity, the
influence of the
community, and the facton; of upbringing and
education. A
frowning look at some children is sufficient to
deter and rdorm
them, while another child may need to be
reproached. An educator
may resort to striking if il will be beneficial for the
chi ld.
Many scholar-s of Islamic education, including Ibn
Sinii, AIAbdari
and Ibn ~ald[jn, are of the opinion thai an
educator
should not resort to punishment e~cept in case of
extreme
necessity, and not to resort to beating except after
threatening
and intercession. The intention is 10 reform the
child and to form
him morally and psychologically. In his book
"Muqadimah"
(Introduction), Ibn Khaldun states that excessive
violence towards
the child develops in him a weak will, cowardice,
and escaping
from hfe's resposibilities. Among his statements is
the following:
'The one who was brought up wi th violence and
submission,
whether a learner, a Marnluk, or a servant,
humility will se ize him,
will make him displeased, inactive, and lazy. It will
force him to lie
and be cunning for fear of hands stretching out to
subdue him. II
wi\1teach him trickery and deception which will
become habitual
and such qualities will spoil his humanity."
3. Gradation from the lighter punishment to mOTe
sever pUlllshment:
the Messenger tj; outlined to educators clear
methods for
dealing with a child's bad behaviour, making him
polite, and
274 Pan Th"",
setting his behaviour alright. These methods which
" 'ere clarified
by the first eduC<ltor ~ are:
I. Calling allention to the wrong doing through
direction: AI·
Bu~~firi and Muslim quoted 'Umar Ibn Abu
Salumah as
sa~i n g, " J was a little bo~ in the lap of Allah's
Messenger 3:
[i.e, under his care] and m~ hand used to go
everywhere in
the dish, so AII>1.h's Messenger said to me, "0 boy
mention
Alhih 's Name, Cal willi your right hand, and from
Ihe IIearellt
place 10 you. "
II. Pointing out the wrong doing with gentleness:
AI~Bu~~,ir\ and
Muslim narra ted Ihat Alliih's Messenger lii$:
brought a drink
and he drank from it. There was a bo~ on his right
side and old
people on his left. Allilh's Messenger said 10 the
bo~, "Do you
allow me 10 gil'e 10 those?" 'This is gentleness and
a clear method
% rientation. " The bo~ said, "B~ Allah, no. [would
not prefer
anyone to myself drinking immediately after you."'
The
Messenger of Allah ~ put the drink in the boy's
hand. This
boy is 'Abdullah Ibn Abbfis.
III. Pointing out the wrong doing by means of
gesture: Al-Bukhan
quoted Ibn Abbiis'" as saying, "AI-Fad I was in the
company of
Alliih 's Messenger $ when a woman from ~~
atham came. so
AI·Fadl started to look at her and she started to
look at him.
Allilh's Messenger * began to turn A l-Fa~\'s face
to the other
side. She said, "0 Messenger of AlHih, Allah has
ordained
Pilgrimage on His bondmen. and my nlther is an
old man who
cannot stay on an animal of burden, should I
perform
Pilgrimage on his behalf? The Prophet said, 'Yes'.
This was
during the farewell Pilgrimage."
Thus, we see that the Prophet 6: dealt with the
wrong action of
looking al women by turning the man's face to the
other side.
which affccted AI-Fa~1 positively.
IV. Pointing OUi the wrong deed by rebuke: AI-
Bu~~ar\ quoted
Abu Oharr as saying. " I swore at a man, trying 10
make him fccl
ashamed of his mother. He said, "0 son of a black
woman:'
Allah's Messenger .$ said, "0 AbU Dharr, did you
Iry 10 make
him f eel ashamed of his moillef? You are a man
who sl il/ has preIslamic
ways." Thus Allah's Messenger ~ dealt with Abil
Dharr'g wrong deed when he tried to make a man
fccl ashamed
because of his means of dark complexion, by
means of rebuke
and reproach.
V. Poinling out the wrong deed by desertion: AI- B
u ~ ~ari quoted
Ka'b Ibn Malik when he did not join the Prophet $:
in "the
battle of Tabuk, as saying. "The Prophet #.
prevented people
from tal king to me for fifty nights," until Allah
revealed our
forgiveness in the Noble Qur'an. Thus we see that
the Prophet
(f;: and the first generat ion of his Companions
punished by
means of desertion fo r the sake of redressing
wrong deeds and
straightening deviation from pie ty so Ihal the
person may return
to the straight path.
VI. Pointing out the wrong deed by means of a light
bealing: Abu
Oiiwud narrated that Alliih's Messenger .$ said,
"Command
your children 10 per/rom prayer ... hen Ihey are
seven years old,
allli beallhem/or not per/arming il ... hen Ihey arc
len. Wid keep
male (/Ildfemale childr~n apart ill beds. " In Slirah
An-Nisii, there
is a Verse that reads as follows:
" ... As 10 Ihou ",omen on whose part )'ou su ill-
ctIl1duct, admolliJh
them (first), (II~Xt) , rt'fuse to share thl!ir beds,
(olld losl) heat
them (liglrlly, ifil is uuful) ; hUI iflhey relurn to
ohedil!nce, serk
not oguinst IIrem mealls (of 0""0),U"Ct) ," ("n·Ni,i,
34)
276
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== PanTh~
VII . Pointing out a wrong deed by means of
appropriate
punishment: the Noble QUT'an has ordained Ihe
principle of
admonishing punishment in Allah's saying, "And in
rtrafiation
there is fife for you, 0 men Il'ill! intellu t." This
TCtaliation leads
to prevailing peace and security and reali zing
tranquility and
stability, and deterring evil souls from going too
far in injustice
and criminal activity.
When Islam ordained the punishment of beating,
as mentioned
above, It surrounded Ihis penally with a circle of
boundaries and
conditions so that the beating may not be
transferred from rebuke
and reform to vengeance and revenge. We deal
with these
conditions of the penalty of beating in the
following order:
1. Thatlhe educator should not resort to beating
except aller using
all the aforementioned methods of discipline and
reproach.
2. That he should not beat when he is in a state of
anger lest he
should inflict hann on the child, in abiding by the
command of
the Prophet $ , "Do /lot be angry ", as narrated by
Al-Bu~~iiri.
3. That he should avoid beating vulnerable places
such as the
head, face. chest, and abdomen, in conformity with
the saying
of the Prophet ~ as narrated by Abu Dawud, "and
do /10 /
slrike the face. '"
4. That the first beating times should be light and
unpainful. It
should be on the hands or feel with a flimsy st ick.
The beatings
a rC between one and three if the child has not yct
reached
puberty. If the child is about to reach that age and
the educator
thinks that three strikes would not deter him he
may strike him
up to ten III conformity with Allah's Messenger
trad ition, "No
one .,!wuld be give/l more (hall /ell lashes except
III a pUIiIshmelil
for breaching OM of AlI6h's bounds."
5. That he may not beal a child who in under ten
years of agc.
according \0 the aforementioned Hadiih:
"Command your
children to pray when they are seven yellf$ old.
ami bf!(J/lhemfor
not perfo rming il when they (Ire len."
6. If the wrOllg deed is done by the child for the
first time, he
should be given the chance to repent fo r that
which he
committed and apologize for what he did . He
should be given
the chance for people to intervene and prevent the
punishment
in rcturn for a promise from him that he will not
do this wrong
deed again.
7, That an educator should beat the child by
himself, and not leave
It to a brother or a peer so as to preyent grudge
and disputes
from arising.
8. In the case where the child is approaching the
age ofpubcrty and
has wet dreams, and the educator thinks thaI ten
lashes are not
enough to deler him, he may increase the number,
and even
make them more painful. and may repeat the
beating.
Finally, I would like to say that an educator does
not lack
efTeclive methods of rcbuking and deterring the
child. The
aforementioned methods are among the most
important de terrent
fo rms of disciplining and reforming. It is
necessary that the
educator uses wisdom in using them and choosing
the most
appropriate method.
Chapler Two
The 8asic Principles or Education
Before dealing in detail with the basie principles
educators
should use to form the chi ld's personality and
prcpan: hIm to be a
straight, well-balanced person, it is important to
deal, however
brieny, with the basic qualities that should
characterize the
educator so as to heighten his innuence on the
children, and to
make their response to his advice better,
The Essential Qualities or the Educator
i. SillCerity
The educator must be sincere to Alliih in every
educational act
he undertakes in education, whether It is a
command, prohibition,
advice, observation, Or punishment.
Sincerity in word and deed is one of the bases of
belief, and a
requirement of Islam, wilhout which Alliih does
not accept any
deed, It was also inequlvocaHy commanded in
Allah's Ik>ok and in
the words of our Prophet 3;, Alliih Ifl sa ys,
~l .ii!:,; ijS)1 ~~..; ;),,:.11 ~',.l~ ~;,~~ ~i A ~,4 il
~?P! 111;.;J \::; ,
,"",w, i
"And tltey wue commanded nor, hut rhar ,hey
should worship
Affah, alld "'orship nOne bur Him Alolle (abuaining
from " scribing
panllers 10 Him), and perform A!l-Snlm (Iqmm-as-
Salt) and give
Zakat. and thut i~ tlte right religion." (AI·llayyinah,
5)
He also says,
"""t c;:!A.;I. ',.T~ , J!t:'!' .j.'} ~, ~ j':-'~ .,'.:J' ;UI• i't'v".
~f o"r, }T"
",.,so ",houer hopes for Ihe Meeting wilh his Lord,
let him 'Mrk
righteousness {lnd tI.Isociute none U.l {I porrn~r
in Ihe "'o~$ltip of his
Lord." (AI,Kahf. I to)
The Prophet 3: says. as narrated by AI-Bukhiiri
and Muslim,
"Verily deeds are by in/ell/imlS. and every
indil'idaallVil/ be rewarded
according 10 his inlell/ion." He also S<IYS, as
narrated by Abu
Diiwud and An-Nasai, "Allah fft doe.l nOI occepl
any deed unless it
is sincere olld in/entred for His sake."
ii. Piety
Among the most important qualities of an
educator is peity,
which is defined by eminent scholars as "Alliih not
~ing you
where He prohibited you to be, and not missing
you where He
commanded you to be." We find this principle in a
conversation
which took place between 'Umar Ibn AI·Kh<lttab
3nd Ubayy Ibn
Ka'b it in which 'Umar asked Ubayy about picty. He
said to him,
"Have you ever gone along a thorny road?" He sa
id, " Yes." He
asked "What did you doT' He replied, " I got ready
and did my
!)est." He said, "That is piety." Qur'anic verses call
for and
command piety:
~ .!<i"i s;. ~I ~i !f.:1: ZtJI ii~ ,
"0 )'011 who befie~e! Feur A!falr (by doing u!f
tlrut He hll3 ordered
and by ab$taining from aff that lie has forbidden)
as lie should be
feuud. (Obey Him, he rhunkful /0 Him, und
remember lIim
u/wuys) .. ," (AI 'Tmran, 102) And:
~ r.,( -1) iJ;~ ~i ~i l:X ~~i ~b; ,
"0 YOll who belie~t! Kup YOII' dary /0 Afliih und
feur Him, und
(ul,,'uys) speuk the /,utlr. " {AI_A~ ""b, 70)
Piety was also called for in many of the tradit ions
of the
Prophet *_ AI-Bu~~ ari and Muslim quoted Abil
Hurairah .. as
saying, " ' t was said to Allah's Messenger, " Who is
the noblest of
people?" He said, "The most pious." Muslim also
narrated that the
Prophet ~ said, "This life is £\I'UI and glfen; Allah
hill made you
vicegerents in ;/ ami sees whal yOll arC doing, so
beware of Ihis
world, und beware of women, since Ihe firsl
lemplalion of BanI /s"m
WQS in women .,
iii. Kno\O lcdgc
Among the mailers which no two people would
differ about is
that an educator should be knowledgeable of the
principles of
education on which Islamic Shur/Qh
"Jurisprudence" IS based. He
should also be knowledgeablo aoout the lawful
and unlawful, the
principles of morality, the Islamic system, and the
rulings of
Juri sprudence. This is becausc knowledge of these
things makes an
educator a wise scholar who places things in their
right place, rears
children on their principles and requirements,
coincides with
refonnation and education on the firm ground of
the teachings of
the Qur'an, the guidance of Mu~ammad 3-, the
noble model of
the biographies of the first generation of the
Prophet's Companions"
and those who followed them in piety, However, if
the
educator is ignorant. the child will become
complex, morally
unstable, socially weak and helpless person,
Hence, Islam calls for
knowledge and scholarly formation and reform.
Therc are
numerous verses and traditions which command
Muslims to
acq uire knowledge. Among these verses are:
~ t;l;: -i 4J~ Sp;; i.4( .sF j:; j ,
"SIlJ''" Are those "'ho know equal to 'hose who kno
... nor!" (AzZumar.
9) And:
.I. '. ,--' , ! ii i! j < '\("t' WI~ ' ,;li ~l , ., }.
"I: ~ ""1 ~-' "'-"!':> ~..... V!, ~ r
"Alliih wiff exalt in degree 'hose of you "'''0 believe,
ilild rhose ... ho
haoe bu n grflllted kno,,·/edge." (At.Mujidatah, 1 t)
Among the Prophet's traditions are: " Whosoe ~er
goes along {/ way
seeking knowledge, Alltih will make a way /0
I'a,ad~~e easy for him."
(Narrated by Muslim). " Whosoewf goe,1 out
seeking knowledge. he
is in the way of Allah umil he returns," (Narrated
by At-Tinnidhi)
iv. Patience
Among the basic qualities which help and make an
educator
successful in his mission is equilibrium and
patience, by which the
child is attracted to his teacher, and responds to
his sayings
acquires praiseworthy manners and abandons
hateful ones. For
this reason, Islam calls for patience and made it
desirable in many
Qur'ilnic verses and Prophetic traditions so that
people, especially
educators and callers to the way of AlHih, may
reali7.e that patience
is one of the greatest psychological and moral
virtues which help
man to achieve the best of manners and perfection.
Among these
verses are:
"Thou "'ho spend (in AlI"h's Cuuse) in P~osM~ify
und in
udrersity, "'h" repress ungu, and "'ho pardon men
.. perily, AlI"h
IlJI'u A I-Muhs;n ;n (the g""d-doe~))." (AI ·Imran.
134)
~ ':::::"WI ;j .;.;lJ .,;.:::J~ ~t ~T ~ ,
"Shm" f"rKi.eneu, enjoin ... hut is good, and turn
""'''y fmm the
foolish (i.e . don't punish them)" (A I·A ·r;lf. 199)
Among the tradi tions are:
TIle Prophct tt said to Ashajj Abdul-Qays. "You
Ill"'/! 1"'0
qou/ilies ,.'hiel! AI/"b likes: pUliene/! and an
ul/hurried mWI!U!r."
Narralcd by Muslim
Abu Humirah reporled Ihal a man said to lhe
Prophet ti:.
"Advise mc." He said, "Do 1101 get ongry." The
In;1n repeated
the same req uest several limes and lhe Prophel
said, "Do 1/01 gel
allgry." Narrated by AI-Bu~~iiri
Patience is a branch of kindncss in all matlers:
'Aishilh ~ said,
" Alliih's Messcngcr:; said, 'Allah i5 GCII/le alld
likc5 gemlenC55
ill all mu/lers.· Educalors have to be patient. genlle
and unhur ried
if they wanl to refonn a nalion. guide the
gencrations, and
educate children.
v, Feding Res ponsible
Islam has given parents and all educators Ihe
responsibility of
education in its widest sense, and has warned
thcm that Allahia
will hold them accountable for discharging th is
responsibility on
the Day of Judgment. Here, my fellow educator, is
what Islam says
about shouldering I'l..osponsibility or ncgle.:;ting
il. A1Jij,h fit ~ays:
~ ~ ~\; ;JI ;'I~ .ill.Ol ;~ ,
"And I'njoin AJ-Sillill (lhe prayer) on your filmily,
ilnd he palienl
in offering them {i.e, prayus) ... .. (Ta-H§. 132)
The Ila$ic Pri"" J>k! of Ed""", Oo"
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 283
.t. f.G Y,-r, t/~~ rj 1" \: '~( ,'!'t!; lr.
"1;" '7-!!''J -""....;{,,,, - r
"0 you wlro believ~! W"rd off/rom ~'OUTJ,!I.es
and your families /I
Fiu (Hdl) "'/rose fuel is men rmd stonn ... " (Al-
Ta!'rim. 6)
" But SlOp them, verily they au /0 he questioned."
(As-SMlat. 24)
The Prophet $ says: "A man is" guardian. and is
responsiblefo.
his subjects." Also, "A falher cannOI give his child
beller Ihan good
manners." Narrated by At-Tinnidhi
Speaking about feel ing responsible [ would li ke to
present to
you, my fellow educator, the plans at large to
corrupt the Muslim
individual, the Muslim family, and lhe Muslim
comm unity, so that
you may be enlightened and execr! more effort in
saving your
children and re fo rming your fam ily. I mean lhe
conspiracy made
by Zionists, Masons, the Crusaders, and
Communism. These plans
aim at spoi ling the ereed of the Muslim Nation and
destroying its
essential morality through atheistic principles,
liquor, promiscuity,
and gratifying of lusts. Here are. my fellow
educator, the plans of
the conspiracy one by one given in incidents and
figures.
a. The plans of communism: In one of the secret
documents
published by Kalimal Al-Ifaqq magazine in Mu
~arram, [1387 A.H.
1967 C.E.] we find the terrib le plan to eliminate
Islam which was
prepared by commumsts in Moscow and which
was presented to
their followers in one of the countries of the
Muslim Middle East
so that they may carry it out. They took to
implementing it
accurately. Here we quote Kalimar Al-I!aqq
magazine about some
of the components of the communist plan to strike
Islam in
Muslim coun tries. lbe document says:
" Although Communism has existed for about fifty
years in the
Soviet Union, and despite the violent strikes which
the strongest
socialist power in the world has given against
Islam. the comrades
who watch the religious movement in the Soviet
Union have
announced, acco rding to the Russian magazine
"Science and
Religion" in the issue of January 1st, 1964 that:
'We, in the Soviet
Union, are facing internal challenges \0 Islamic
areas because the
princi ples of Lenin are not absorbed by the blood
of Muslims',
" In spite of the evil powers which fight against
religion, Islam
remains, and is still powerful. The evidence for this
is that millions
among the new ge ne ration in Islamic areas
embrace Islam and
publicize its teachings."
The document also says, AmOng these plans is thaI
Islam itself
should be used to destroy Islam. Therefore, we
have decided to:
I. Make a truce with Islam so that we may
over<:ome it and attract
Arab peoples to Socialism.
2. Defame men of religion and religious monarchs
and aecuse them
of being agents to Imperialism and Zionism.
3. Propagate the study of Socialism in all institutes,
colleges, and
schools in all stages and to crowd and besiege
Islam so that it
may not become a power that threatens
Communism.
4. Prevent the rise of religious movements in the
country however
weak they may be, and work continually to
eliminate any
religious revival, and beal mer<:ilessly, even to
death, all those
who call to religion.
5. To support atheist writers and give them a. free
hand to attack
religion, religious feel in gs, and religious
conscience, and
implanting the idea in the minds of man that the
age of Islam
has come to an end and that nothins remains of it
except
ceremonial worship, which includes fasting,
prayer, pligrimage,
marriage and divorce contracts, all of which will be
subject to
socialist systems.
6. To kccp people busy with socialist motlos, and
leave no chance
for them to thin k. Also to keep them busy with
nationalistic
patriotic anthems, nationahstic songs, poli tical
party organiza·
tions, sedarian lectures, while at the same time
blaming
backwardness, imperialism, Zionism, feudalism,
and men of
religion for any economic retardation, starvation,
poverty, and
illness,
7, To continually rally support for the revolu tion,
and inculcate in
people's minds that the revolution is the first and
last savior of
the people from their backward rulers, The
revolution promises
the paradise 10 the advancing public_
8. To declare that socialists believe in true religion,
not in the false
religion which people embrace out of ignorance.
Thi s. Irue
religion is Socialism and the false religion is the
opium which
numbs peoples' mmds.
Have you reali:ted, my fellow educator, that
Communism wants
to develop atheism, and misguidance, while
eradicating Islam and
Muslims?
Have you realized that they want to eradicate the
Islamic creed
from every Muslim who says, "My lord is Alliih; my
Prophet is
M u~ammad 3 and my religion is Islam" so that il
may be
replaced by the creed of disbelief, error, and
apostacy from Islam?
~ ~ •. .f"""ii ~ _'-- ~ ,,- , ~ .. . J <It ", .-<''' ' ".\ " '. , ~ .
.o" .J -'" • , )" '{'-II~ '~1'-' /J1' -'." -:I .. 0.t;.-, -t!:" ~.J.J'
-"'"""'- ... ~-'""'''' yo
" They (the diskeJie"crI, the Jews and Ihe
Chris/iulls) ",un/ to
ex/ingu;s" AUii" 's Ut;'" (wilh ... lIic" Muhummlld
4= hus keen senl /
s/Ilmic Mono/"eism) .. 'ith their moat"s, bal Allii" ...
i11 nor allo ...
excepr that IIi! Ughr .<IlIIu/d be perfected " fell
,"ough rhe Kufirull
(mIlle/ie"",.!) "Ille (ir), " (At. Tawbab, 32)
b, The plans of the crusade rs: after the first
Crusades which, lasted
for two centuries, failed to eradicate Islam, the
Crusaders made a
more detai led study, a cunning and mean plan to
elimioate the
nation of Islam and destroy its people. Their plan
was as fo llows:
First: ending the Islamic reign through terminating
the Islamic
Caliphate reprcsen ted by the Ottoman Empire.
The Crusaders.
represented by the Englis h, the Greck>, the
Italians, and the
French, sei:t.ed their chance when weakness of the
Ottoman Empire
and its internal differences were apparcnt, and
then severely
attacked it with their massive armies and got
control over all its
territory, including the capital Istanbul. When the
negotiations in
the Luzan Confcrcnce began between the warring
parties, England
made conditions to the great Tur k i ~h trai tor Ata
Turk that it
would not wi thdraw from Tur ki sh bnds except
aner carrying out
the following:
Abolishing the Islamic Caliphate, ousting the
Caliph from
Turkey, and confiscating his property.
That Turkey should pledge to subdue every
movement by
supporters of the Caliphate.
- Turkey should sever its relation with Islam.
Turkey is to adopt a secular constitution instead of
its
constitution which is based on the rulings of Islam.
England
also stipulated the abolition of Islamic L:lW Courts,
religious
schools, publ ic endowments, rulings of
inheritance, instituted
the call to prayers in Turkish, and replacing Arabic
letters with
Latin le tters, and abolishing Friday as a public
holiday. All
these conditions were carried out by the traitor
Ata Turk, and
the English and the Treaty recognized Turkey's
independence,
praised Ata Turk's abolition of the Caliphate,
seculari:t.ation of
the state, and his fight against Islam.
Second: eliminating the Noble Qur'an because the
Crusaders
consider it thc basic source of the power of
Muslims and th eir
means to regain their might and past power and
civilizatio n.
Gladston, raising a copy of the Holy Qur',in to the
audience in the
British House of Common said, "As long as this
Qur'an remains in
the hands of Muslims. Europe will not be able to
control the East,
nor will it be safe itself." The Crusader missionary
William Gifford
Balhaf (I) said, "Once the Qur'an and the city of
Makka are
shadowed in the Arab countries. we can then see
the Arab going
along the road of Western Civilization away from
Muhammad and
his bool.;:,"
Third: destroying Islamic Thought and Severing
Muslims'
Relations WJth Alliih. Samuel Zoymar, (l) the
Chairman of
Missionary Societies in the Jerusalem Conference
for Missionaries
held in 1935 said:
The mission which Christian countries have
delegated to you in
Mubammedan countries does not involve making
Muslims
embrace Christianity, since this is guidance and
honor to them.
Your mission is to make Muslims desert Islam. so
that they may
become creatures WIth no relation to God. and
hence having no
relation to morality. which na tions depend on. In
so doing. you
will be the vanguard of the colonial conqnest in the
Islamic realm.
You have paved the way for all minds in Islamic
countries to
accept following the path which you have sought,
namely making
Muslims forsake Islam.
You have prepared a generation in Islamic
countries that has
relation with God. and does not want to have it.
You have taken
the Muslim out of Islam but did not make him
adopt Christiamty.
Consequently, the Muslim generation has become
35 Imperialism
wanled them to be i. e. they do not care about great
issues, they
love rest and laziness, and do not pay attention to
anything except
to lust. If they learn, it is for the sake of lust; if they
collect riches.
it is for the sake of their desires; if they occupy the
highest
(I) The 'pelling of thi' name is uncerlain becau", Ihe
author only provided Ihe
Ambic ".n, litemlion.
(l) ibid
Pan Th .....
positions, it is for their desires; and if they sacrifice
everything 10
attain their desires your mission is being carried
out perfectly."
Fourth: el iminating Muslims' solidarity: priest
Simon (I) says,
" Islamic Arab unity combines the hopes of Islamic
people and
helps them escape European control. Missionary
activity is an
important fac tor in breaking this movement.
Therefore, we
should, through missions, divert Muslim's di
rection away from
Islamic unity.' ·
Fifth: corrupting the Muslim woman: this is done
through
consolidating the emancipation of women, raising
discussions
about her rights and her equality to man, refuting
the Islamic
system of polygamy and allowing divorce wi th the
aim of casting
doubt on the validity of Islamic J urisprudcnce and
its ability to
cope with modern life. The Missionary activist Ann
Mililigan (2)
says, "We could gather girls at the Faculty of Girls
in Cairo, whose
fathers arc dignitaries. There is no other place
whcre we may
assemble such a large number of Muslim girls
under Christian
control. Hence there is no closer road to crumble
the fortress of
Islam than this school."
Have you now realiz(:d, my feHow educator, some
of the evil
plans of the crusaders to eliminate the Islamic
creed from the souls
of our young men and women and severing their
relation to Islam?
And have you rea lized that their utmost aim is to
rupture Islamic
unity so that they may realize their hopes and aims
of defeating
Muslims?
If you have already known this, then you have to
give this
responsiblity, which Allah has entrusted to you, its
due right so
that you may shoulder it as you should in order to
finally reap the
( 1) ibid
("I) ibid
best fruit in raising your children 3nd refonning
your fam ily.
c. The plans or judaism and the masonic
moo'ement: in their
Protocols the Jews have announccd these
misguided opinions to
corrupt people's creeds, conscience, and minds_
They adopted the
ideas of Jewish and non-Jewish figures who call for
destroying
religion and the principles of righteous morals _
_ They announce that they have adopted the
viewpoints of Freud,
who interprets everything in human behavior
through sexual
instinct and indulgence in lust and pleasure, The
Jewish Protocols
include: "We should strive to make morals collapse
everywhere
so that our having control becomes easier. Freud is
one orus, and
will continue to propagate sexual relations so that
nothmg would
remain sacred in the eyes of the YOUlh, whose
major in tent would
be sa tisfying their sexual instincts, and thus their
morals will
disintegrate."
- They have adopted the viewp<)int of Carl Marx,
who has
corrupted the hearts, conscience, and minds of
many people, and
attacked belief in the existence of the Creator.
When Marx was
asked. "What i~ the alternative r~r the creed or
Lordship?" He
answered, "The alternative is the theater. Keep
them busy with
the theater." The Thirteenth Protocol includes the
following: " In
order to keep away the non-Jewish people, we will
keep them
busy with various kinds of amusement, sports,
etc."
The Jews have even gone as far as laying down a
plan for
humanity, which they started to implement
through mass
communication media, publishing houses, the
theater, the
cinema, radio and television programs, Masonic
organizations
which they founded, and every treacherous agent
and paid
writer, They could by means of their cunningness
and
wickedness, corrupt people via general
information, arts,
amusement parks, brothels, etc. The Ninth
Protocol states:
··We will mislead non-Jews, corrupt their morals,
and teach
290 = ==================== Part Th=
them the principles which we consider invalid
despite our belief
in them."
The fo llowing also occurred in the minutes of
Masonic Movement:
. The minutes of the 1922 Masonic lklgrade
Conference sta te that
"We should not forget that we, the Masons, are
hostile to
rehgions and should spare no effort to eliminate
any of their
practices."
- The minutes of the 1900 World Masonic
Conference Slale Ihal " II
is not sufficient for us \0 achieve victory o ver
religions people and
their places of worship : our basic aim is to
elimina!e their
existence."
Have you now realized, my fellow educator, what
Masonic
Judaism aims 10 achieve through these cunning
and wicked plans?
If so, then exert double efforts and whet yonr will
in order to bring
up your children on belief and morality, and to
prepare them
intellectually and psychologically, so that Jewish
contrivance docs
not shake their belief and destroy their morals.
d. Impcrialislie plans: By imperialistic plans [ mean
Ihose which are
closely connected to the Crusaders and
Orientalists with the aim of
fighting Islam and diverting Muslims away from
the most sublime
goal, namely striving in the way of Alliih, and flood
ing the [sla mic
community with debauchery and immorali ty_
. One of the prominent figures of these imperialists
says, "A goblet
and a whore CUn be mOre effective in destroying
the M uhammc·
dan nation than one thousand cannons. Therefore,
drown it in
love of materia listic things and Ius!."
_ Randolph Churchill 0) after the fall of Jerusalem
in 1967 said,
"Ta king Jerusalem oUi of the control of l s l~m
h~s been thc
dream of Jews and Christians alikc."
(I) ibid
- We have quoted enough sayings from the
impcri,Li islS who arc all
united in carrying out the mcans of destroying and
wiping out the
sanctuaries and principles of [slam and Allah
refuses anything
except to pcrfe<:t His light even though the
disbelievers hate that.
Finally, my fellow educator, you should not
overlook the
activities of agents in M us[im countrics, who arc
closely connected
with atheist commUnl,m, grudging Crusadership,
cunning Masonism,
and misleadmg imperialistic sects, which day and
night,
inculcate the principles of disbelief and libirtinism
in the land of
[slam and in Islamic communities everywhere,
You should also know that each of these
treacherous groups has
its own agents, its diversified methods, its
penetrating principles,
and its continually renewed organizations, TIIOse
who h"ve sold
themselves to Satan are ccntered and widespread
all over the
world, m jobs, ministries, radio, television,
educational institutions,
labs, organizations, and elsewhere, Their means of
propagating corruption, misguidance, and atheism
are various
and diversified ,n newspapers and radio
transmission some times,
in television serial s, and popular plays at other
times, Also, in
symposia and cultural centers sometimes, and in
starting various
organizations time after time,
[t does not escape your mind, my fellow educator,
that these
agents possess of logical style, temptation, and
misguidance that
enables them to innuence the faith , ideas and
morals of our
children,
Among their ways is misguiding children by means
or the
Western clivi[ization or Eastern principles.
claiming that thc people
of these ci vilizations lind principles did not
achieve what they did
except by leaving religion behind. Among their
ways also is casting
doubt on the Is[amic systems such as saying to our
children that
the principles of Islmn have come to an end and
are no longer valid
in the modern age and the age of te<:hnology and
science. Among
their ways too is orienti ng children towards
indulging in librtinism,
lust, and committing Ihe crime of adulte ry,
fornication and
homose~uality,
Have you now realized, my fellow educator, what
those
treacherous agents aim at by Ihe doubts they cast
and th
uncertainties they raise'! Undoubtedly, they want
to link the fate
of Muslim generation, and the present Islamic
commumties, wi th
Ihe reign of their masters of the creeds of disbelief
and errant sects,
so that there will not remain anything resembling
Islam to the
Muslim youth and the Muslim woman.
If you, my fellow educator, have reahzed these
plans made hy
Communism, Crus.1ders, Jewish Masonism,
Imperialistic seets and
treacherous agent groups, it necessitates that you
double your
enormous efforts and activate your staunch will in
order to under·
take your duty which Islam makes incumbent
upon you tow,lrdS
educating your children, teaching your fam ily, and
orienting those
you arc responsib le for educating. Your
responsibility towards
your family is a Irusl, and it may be a source of
shame and regret
on the Day of Doom e~cept for those who have
fullilled it and
discharged their dnty towards it. AlIiih iii says,
"And hid them
stund,- surely they lire to be questioned." He also
says, "So by)'our
Lord indeed We shall drftnitdy ask them all
together eonrerning
"'huterer they ,,'ere doing. ,.
The Basic Principlcs of Child Education
The basic principles of education center around
two principles:
The Fi rst: Connection
The Second : Warning
The Principle of Conn«:tion
Undoubtedly, If at the age of di scret ion, a child is
connl.'eted to
links of belief, and to spiritual, intellectual,
historical. social, and
athletic links, until he progres~s in age to
adulthood; becomes a
boy. a young man. a man, thcn an old man. hc will
possess the
belief, certitude, and piety that will enable him to
transcend preIslamic
beliefs, principles, and error. Moreover, he will
strive
against all those who adopt a hosli le att itude
towards Islam, or
attack its Divine principles. Why is that so?
Because the child has
been linked with Islam as a creed, worship.
morality, system.
legislation. applicat ion, as well as strivin g and Cll
n , state and
religion, Book and sword, thought, and culture.
Here arc. my fellow educator, the most important
connections
which achieve good ness for your child. So, take
care that you apply
them as far as p<:>ssible so that you may see your
child among
righteous believers, the pious. the frt.'C fighters for
the sake of
A[liih All this is easy for AIl:'ih. These Connections
are as follows:
First: Belief
We have previously mentioned in the section on
"The
Responsibil ity of Education in the Fai th" that a
child must be
linked since the age of discretion with the basic
pillars of belicf, the
Unseen, and all that has been absol utely proven,
through authentic
texts. Conscquently, an educator should implant in
a child belief in
AlHih iii, in His angels, Books, Messengers, Fate
and Destiny,
questiomng by the two angels and the to rture of
the grave. I do not
think that I am in need of reiterating the scope of
your
responsibility for educating the child as far as
belief is concerned
since the topic has alre:ldy b .. :en
comprehensively dealt with under
the section on "The Responsibility for Education in
the Faith."
Second: Spiritual Con~ction
This means thaI the child"s spirit should be
chilracterir.cd by
purity and r<ldiilnce, and thilt his heart should be
filled with belief
and sincerity, and that his soul should be elevatcd
to an
atmosphere of purification and spirituality. Islam
has its own
way of linking a Muslim with various spmtuul
connections so that
he may preserve his purity, radl;mce purifiwtion
and sincerity.
This can be llchieved by the following:
II, Worship; thIs is established by the narration by
AI-I:!akim and
Abu D,\wud that Allah's Messcnger $: said,
"Command your
childrell 10 pray II"/'en Iheyare se,'en fears old.
and beal Ihemfor 1101
performing ;1 II"hen Ihey (Ire len years old and
keel' male and female
children apart ;n bed." By amllogy, prayer links the
child with
fasting, if the chIld can bear it. You, my fcllow
educator, have to
make your child understand that worship in Islam
is not limited to
these pillars alone, bUI includes every righteous
deed in which a
Muslim abides by Allah's Book. The educator also
has to acquaint
the youngster with both goodness and evil, the
lawful and the
unlawful. Ibn lanr reported that Allah's Messenger
3: said,
"Abide by obeying Alliih, fear disobeying Alltill.
and command ymlr
cll;ldr~n 10 abide by His ordinances alill avoid Ihe
forbidden. since
lhis keeps y011 and /hem away from Ihe Fir!!."
b, The Noble Qur'an: A!-"!abarani TCp-ortoo that
Allah', Messenger
$ said, "Bring lip )'Ollr childrell on Ih ree amibUles:
Ihe love of your
PNiphel. Tile I,m' of his family. and reciling Ihe
Qu,'lin. since IhO.<c
.,.,ho memorize IhI! Qllr'lill are in Ihe shade of
Allah's Ihrone wilen
Ihere is nO shade bUI !fis. wilh flis PrQl'helS ami
selecled ones." In
his Mllqadimah (Introduction) Ibn Jo;~ aldun
pointed OUI the
importance of teaching the Noble Qur'an to chi
ldren and helping
them to memorize it. He also made it clcar that
tcaching the
Qur'fin is the basis of educalion in all curricula in
Islamic
OO\lntric~, , ince It is onc of the rites of religion. It
lead. to
consolidating the crced and firmly establishing
bclid, In his book
1!lyd Vlu", Ed-Di"n Imam AI-Ghaziili
recommended teaching the
Noble Qur';in, the stories of the righteous, and
religious fulings,
We h~ve ;'I lready diS(:ussed in some detail the
mterest which our
pIOUS anceStors took in educating their children.
This was done
under the clmpter on "The Responsibility for Faith
&lueaton"
which we refcr you to
e, MOS4jues; this is established by At-Tirmidhi's
report quoting
Allah's Messengcr ~ 3S saying, "If ),ou see " ma/I ..
"ed 10
frequenT ing mosques, te,flijy 10 his belief" You
should be informed,
my fellow educator, that the mosque in Islam is
one of the most
Import.tnt bases on which the fonnation of the
Muslim individual
is established, and on which the Muslim
community is founded
throughout history. The mosque is still among the
most po,,"'erful
pillars in constitllting the Muslim individual and
the commumty
both at prescnt and in the future. Without the
mosque your child
cannot be brought up spiritually and on COTTect
belief, or be
established morally and socially. Without the
mosque, YOll and
your family would not he;'lT the most sublime call
"AlI iih is Great"
ringing in thc sky, touching onc's innermost fee
lings and moving
the chords of thc he,lns. Without thc mosque a
Muslim could not
listen 10 a word of admonishment and truth with
which his soul
and self interact, and h" sentIments ;'Ind feelings
become igni ted.
Without the mosque, Ihe Muslim public could not
know
anything aboul the conditions, troubles, and
aspiral ions of
Muslims in the East and West. These are only
SOme of the
functions or the mosque as it was at the time of the
Prophet $ and
at the time of Ihe Caliphs and our pious
predecessors throughout
the ages.
Do you know, my fellow educator, thai among the
functions of
the mosque is that hearts ;'Ire made tranquil by
mentioning Allah?
Let us lis ten 10 what the Prophct ii: says, as
quoted by AtTinnidhi,
"1/ you pa.1S by liu meadows of Paradise, Ihen
rf.'joice.
They asked, "What are the meadows of Paradise, 0
Mt."Ssengcr of
AlI iih?" He said, "CQ/Igrega/iornfar mentioning
Allah,"
Do you know, my fellow educator, that among the
functions of
the mosque is the study of the Noble Qur'iin? Li
sten to what the
Prophet ~ says, as quoted by Muslim, "If a group of
people
gOlhers in one of Allah's Houses or mosque /0
recile AIMh 's Book,
and .!I!ldy il among Ihemselves, lranquilily will
S!l,eiy descend on
Ihem, mercy will iH>fallrhem, angels will surround
rhem , and Allah
will menrion Ihem wilh rhose III.' keeps,"
Do you know, my fellow educator, that among the
ructi o n ~ of
the mosque is a place for the congregalional prayer
to be
perfor med? Lislen 10 what the Prophet e says, as
quoted by
Muslim, "ShallI lell YOII aboullhal by which Alhilt
eliminates $ins
and raises ranks? They said, "Yes, Messenger of
Alhih," He sa id.
"Making ablluhllr in t au of afjliclion'/requenlly
gOing 10 mosques,
and waiting for prayer after prayer: Ihis is the
struggle,"
Emanating from these Prophetic directions you
should make up
your mind and be determined to link your children
to the Houses
of Allah Ill, so that they may raise their souls,
cultivate their
minds, behave themselves, and acbieve unity and
cohesion between
the members of the Muslim community,
d, Celebrating Allah's praises: tbis is establiShed by
Alliih's saying,
" Thueiore umember Me (by prayillg, glorifying), I
... iII
rtmembu you" (At.llaq. rah, 152); and His saying,
, ~ £?; ;.;.\ ~\ !};( ~ji C~ ,
"0 you lI'ho believe! Remember Afliih lI,j,h much
remembrallu."
(At.Ahl.3b, 4] · 42)
The Prophet ~, as quoted by AI.Bu~~arL said, 'The
simililude
of he ",ho celebrates his Lord's prajses and who
doeJ nOI is like a
[i.ing person and a dead Onl!." The Prophet $. also
said in A/Hadilll
AI-Qudsi (I) (a divine discourse). as reported by
Al-Bu~~ari
and Muslim, "/ am ar my bondman's expectation,
and I will be willi
him iflle celebrares My praises. Iflle mentions Me
in himself. I will
mention him in Myself Ami iflle menliorl.'l Me in a
congregation, I
will menlion him in a belle, congregation. And if he
gelS closer /0 Me
a fool, I will gel closer /0 him a yard. And if he gelS
closer /0 Me a
yard, I will gel closer /0 him a much grealer
dirlance. And if he
comes 10 Me walking, I will go to him as speed."
Celebrating Allah's praises means calling 10 one's
attention the
greatness of Allah .$ under all the circumstancrs,
whether this
calling be from the mind, heart, self, verbal
expression, aT deed,
and whether it be while standing, silting, or in a
reclining position,
in working, conttmplating Qur'anic verses,
listenmg to admonition,
consulting Allah's Jurisprudence, or perfonning a
deed by
which ht seeks Alliih's rewards, The meaning or
celebrating Allah's
praises was mentioned by Allah on many
occasions:
- About the intellectual and psychological meaning,
the Noble
Qur'an says,
~ ,~l;;; t; ~;.~ it'Jf,[JJ iJ!<Jf ,,~~ ~i h';' C! 1~ ~ 1
·~.~r.1 jl;-I 1
..: ~,""':!l.;~1J ....:;..,jiii
"",ltn whom neither trade nor slIle (hulilless)
diverts them from
the Rnn~mbrance of Alltih ( "';,h h~lIr' fllld
tongu~), 1I0r from
performing AI-Salal (Iqmut-ill-Salat) , 1I0r from
g;"illg the Zilka!.
They fear a Day when hearts and eyes will be
overlUrned (out of the
hl}1'o' of rhe torment of the Day of Resu"tction ... "
(An-Nur, 31)
. As far as the heart is concerned, the Noble Qur'an
says,
"£t. ..',.,..I.~.;. ( ~•- G ~_ i J ? "'. ll~_i .Jt'' ~J.. --"tI.tl"~
&;-(:,O-J n'J" : ~ej i Tlr.
"Those who belie ~ed (ill tke Onenus of "fllik -
Islamic Monothe-
(1) Af.lladilh AI-Qllds/ i. what Allah haJ told to Hi.
Prophet 4: by in.pi.alion o.
by a dream, Or in sJeep and the Prophet 4: in hi,
own phrMMlogy_ (editor)
ism). Imd H'hose hearll find u SI in Ihe
r~memhrance of Allah: Verily,
in Ihe rememhrlmce 0/ AIl;;h do hearU find resl, "
(Ar-Ra'd, 28)
- About the verb,,! meaning, Alliih's Messenger, as
'luoted by Ibn
Majah and Ibn Hibban, says, "Allah la says, I will be
with My
bondman if he remembers Me, and verbalius My
remembrance,"
At-Tirmidhi quoted ' Abdullah Ibn Basran as
saying that a man
said, "0 Mcs.<:enger or Allah, the rulings of Islam
arc too abundant
for me, so lell me about something to cling to," He
said, "Always
keep your tongr/e sweel/med by mentioning
AI/dk"
- About deeds, the Noble Qur'5n says,
rU (.7 -':'1 ["'1I-.i1 [ 'e:. _ [~Zr ,;,'M . i ' -<·t i)-:'Il . -.
~ (,~ l. ~ !& V''-' _ ....- ~ :.>"-'. ,-,,~ <! ~ ~ • T
~ &;.#
" Tlren H'hen Ihe (Juntu'ah) Sa/al (prayer) is
ended, you may
dispene IhrouXhoul lire lund, and seek the Bounty
of Alltih (by
working, elc.), und remember Alltih much: that
),OU may be
successful." (AI·Jumu'ab, to)
. About the overall meaning, the Noble Qur'an says,
.s:Jl 0" ,~i~i .J~~ ",41 ;lfJ~.0r j'!:'t ~~t;~ .;..5'-~ ll
j:.- ~.i.!'
G:; : ;1< (; c~ <i'~\.J.~ .;..:;:_0l1 :jI.. ~ $~; rtt).;. .jO;
(,;J; [I (l 011 :,;;s:,
~ -P ';'I~ ~ ;(,~ ., ~
"Verily! In Ihe crealion oflhe hca l'cns Imd Ihe
earth, und in the
ulternatiO/t of niglrl and day, Ihere are jndeed
signs for mI'll of
underslunding. Those who remember A/hih
(ulway,<, und in pruyerJ)
sfIlnding, silling, and lying down on th~j~ sides,
und Ihink duply ubout
the ereul;on oflhe heal'ens und Iht tllrth, (suying):
"Our Lord! You
ha~t nOI creuled (ull) this "'ilhoul purpose, glory
to You! (Exlilltd
ure You aho~e ult Ihul they a.\Jociale H'ilh You as
partners). Gi¥e u.'
sul,"lh)ll from the torment of Ih~ Fire." (AI 'tml"in,
19(1, 191)
The ract that the Remembrance or Allah includes
the recitation
or the Noble Qur·ftn, is cstablished by Allah's
saying,
"V«ily We, it is We WAo ha"e sent aown the Dhikr
(i.e. the
Qur'an) and surely, We will guard ir (from
corruption). " (AI -l:Iijr. 9)
It includes asking questions about the religion and
consulting
scholars, is established by AlIah's ft saying,
~ :::::..; '" '1 :'t .:oj ~i j;.\ ~:.j ,
"So ask the people of thit Reminder (Scriptures -
the Taurat
(Tarah), the InjeeJ (GO$pe/)) if you do not know."
(At .Anbiy •. 7)
That the Remembrance is inlended for
worshipping Allah, is
eSl3blished by Allah's saying,
~ ~( Ii .ill ij;..:~ ; ~. ' it .u. "" j~. 6,) !ill;:r: &.~( ~b; ,
"0 you who be/iae (Afuslims)! When the calf is
proclaimedfor
rhe Salat (prayer) on flu! day of Friday (Juma'ah
prayer), come to
the remembrance of AlNih (Jamu'ah religioas talk (
Khutbah) and
Salat (prayer)) ... " (A j·Jumu·ah, 9)
Have you realiud, my fellow educator, what is
meant by the
Remembrance of Allah? Have you learnt that it is
not limited to
one case only, and that its meanings are not
peculiar to certain
rites? If you have real ized this, then exert your
utmost to raise your
child on these meanings by contemplating the
greatness of Allah,
fearing Him in private and public, while In one's
residence and
while travelling during peace and war, at home
and at the market,
when sleeping or awake, and so on, so thai he may
be among those
whom Allah meant by His saying,
j;~ (~I r:-;G .t::.I: .. /.k : '~( (~~) :\r) 'oil Al'~1 :%JI
';:::";";i1 0 . ,
~ z,;t;.; -=i~
"Tk bdieoers are only thou "'ho, when Alliih is
mtntioned,/ul a
f ear in their hearrs (lnd ",h~n Hu verse! (thi~
Qur'an) are ucited
unttJ them, they (i,t, the rersu) iMu(ls~ tMir Foith;
and tllty pllt
tlreir trust in their Lord (A/one), .. " (AI-Anflll. 2)
c. Voluntary worship: this is established by Allah's
saying,
~ (,;::1 cit" 4; ;t:-~ oJ ~ J ~G .~ ; -;..~; ~( ~.:; t
"And in 10ml< parl$ of ,hI< nigh, (also) offl<r the
Salal (praya)
",ith it ( i.e. recile lhi! Qur 'an in 'he pro.J"'r), as o.n
o.ddi,ional prayer
( Taho.jjad op,ional prayer - Na"'fil) for you (0
MahllmmaJ $) It
may be Ihat your Lord ",ill raiu you 10 Maqaman
MahmaJlln (II
Jlalion of praise o.nd glary, i, e. 'he honor
ofinurcession on 'he J)ay
of ResurreClion.Y (Al. h ri. 19)
. It is also established by the saying of the Prophet
g; as reported
by AI.Bu~i1 a ri and Muslim, "And if he (j.e. My
bondman) gel.l·
closer /0 Me a foOl, , will gel doser 10 him a yard,
and if Ire gels
closer 10 me a yard, I will get closer 10 Irim a
milch longer dis/wKe.
And if he comes to Me walking, I will go 10 him at
speed."
Voluntary worship refers to worship other than
the supererogatory.
1t is perfonned on many occasions. It may be in
order to
remind you of its most important kinds in tenns of
pray and
fasting, so that you may JlCTfonn them yourself
and teach to your
fa mily:
a. 11Ie supererogatory prayer: it mcludes,
I. The forenoon prayer: this is established by what
Muslim quoted
Allilh's Messenger ti;. as saying, "Anyone of you
may woke up
with a dl!ed of charily on el'ery small bone in his
body; ;1 suffices
for Ihis 10 pray IWO rak'om in the forenoon."
Muslim quoted
'Aishah as saying, " Allah's Messenger $ used to
pray fo ur
ruk 'ahs in the forenoon, and sometimes increased
the number as
he wished." The time for the fo rell00n prayer
starts half an hour
after su nrise until about an hour before noon.
2. The prayer of the ever-resorting: it is composed
of six units of
prayer after the sunset prayer, according to what
Ibn Majah
quoted the Prophet 3: as saying, "Whosoever prays
six ,ok'aiIs
afrer rhe .<rInset prayer and be/ween which he
does no/ ~ay
anything had, Ihey will be reckoned for Irim a,v Ihe
worship of
twelve years." Two rak'alrs would suffice.
3. The two rak 'ahs of greeting the mosque: Mushm
related that
Allah's Messenger oj: said, "If any of you enters (J
mosque, Ire
should nOI sit down before be performs IWO
rak'ahs. "
4. The two rak'ahs of the Simnah after ablution: Al-
Buk hiiri related
that Al1ilh's Messenger 3: said to Bil;ll 4 "Tell me
about tbe
bes/ deed you did ever since you became a
Muslim: I heard the
sound of your foo/seps close 10 me in Poradise."
He said, " I did
not do any deed betler than that I never cleansed
myself by day
or night without praying while in this state of
purity whatever
Allilh willed me to pray,"
5. The night prayer: At-Tinnidhi reported that
AlIiih's Messenger
.tf; said, "The second besl prayer is Ihe nighl
prayer. " The
minimum for a night prayer is two ruk'ohs, but
there is no sct
maximum.
6. At·Tarawi~ prllyer: optional night prayer in
Ramadan. This is
twenty rak'ahs with ten tcnninations (i.e. two rak
'ah,' at a time)
every night of Ramadan, it can be prayed in
congregation after
the evening prayer. (I)
7. The prayer of invoking Alliih for guidance: it is
two ruk'olrs after
which a person should make the supplication
related by Jiibir as
seen in s..a~f1!: AI-Bu~~iiri : "0 Allah, Ilnwke Your
Guidance wilh
Your knowledge and Your Omnipolence. I wk You
of Your greal
Grace. You are Omnlpclenl, bUl l am helpless; You
knowbul l do
not: and You are Ihe Kno"'ef of Ihe Unseen. 0 Aillih,
if you know
Ihal lhis mailer is good for me in my religion, life,
and in ils
consequences. 50 tU!sllne il for meJocililale irfor
me, tlren ble5S II
II) il can atw ~ 8 rak'ah •. (editor)
302 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ r\onTh~
fo, me. If you know 11m/ Inis mailer is nil for me
in my religion,
life. (md in ils cQIIseqaerces, so lei it I'err away
from me, and lei me
~ee, tlfvoy from ii, £1"'/ de.'line goodness for me
whert!l'er il may he,
Ihen make me satisfied wilh il ." A person then
namc~ the maHer
in question in thc place of the words " this matter"
in the
invOC<ltion, then he Should do whatever he feels
inc1inded to do.
b. Optional rastin~: it is established by what
Muslim related
quoting All:ih's Messenger * as saying, "If a
bondmimflul .• 11 tilly
for Ihe sake 0/ Allah. lie will make /l! iJ dtl)'
separate hetween him
(llId Ihe Fi,e Jar sncmy /011.1 . .. There afC '!everal
kinds of fas ting:
I. Fasting on the day of 'Arafah: Muslim related
that AII;lh's
Messenger 3 said, "Fmling Iilc Day of 'A fllj(l/i is
reckoned by
A/Iii" 10 expime lire year before illllld Ilrl' )'I'''r
after il."
2. Fasting Tasl,'a and 'Ashl,ra: these arc the ninth
and tenth days of
M uharram, according to what Muslim related
quoting Qatiidah
that thc l'ropMet $ said, " Fl/sting 'Ashrir<i is
reckonl'd wilh A/hih
10 f'xpime Ihe year bt1orl' il alld Ihl' )'I'lif after i i
,"
3. Fasting si~ days in Shawwlil: Muslim related
that Allah's
Messenger ~ said, " Wlwsoe~er fasu
Raml/~Jillihellfollow,f Ihis
by fo,<lillg six day.! of Shawwal, il is like fasting
collciOl.sly."
4, Fasting thc three 'while days':(/) At-Tirmidhi
reported that
Alliih's Messenger ~ said, "If ),01' ftlSl IhTU day.!
ill a mOlllh,
IiiI'll fasl all Ihe liriNeell/1r ./OImrelllh, alld
fiftel'ntir days. "
5. Fasting Mondays and Thursdays: At-Tirmidhi
reported that Ihe
Prophet $ used to fast them. When Ihc I'ro phel
$was asked
about it, he said, "Deed.~ aTe reviewed all Mooday
and Thursday,
ami I like liral my .:ked! be reviewed while I am
fastillg ."
6. Fasting every olher day: Ihis is the way D~lwlrd
)1Slil used to fast,
(I) They at< <0 cal~ btc.use lht sky;s Iii by
rnonligh! (In Il1c nighrs of those
day"
according to wh;t[ AI-Bukhiiri said quoting AII.'ih's
Mcs'\Cngcr
3: as S:lying, "Nw a day lind break your /,UI II day;
Ihis is Ihe
/aslinK 0/ Dtiwrid ,'tj;i!., wilich is lire besl "kind 0/
fIM'/ing ."
These are the most important optional forms of
worship whi~h
have been proven to be ];twful ;tccording to the
Prophetic SlI/1/ra/r.
So, he keen, my fe llow educ;ttor, on setting a good
example for
your family by pcriorming optional prayer and
fasting in order that
they may learn from you and follow your example.
Then let this
good example be followed hy kind words and good
admoniti011 in
calling for the virtue of optional and voluntary
deeds.
F. Fearing Alliih G'! ' this is established by Allah's
saying,
1" ~;> ,<l[ .,i ;, j;;; $ ~ ~ .il:;; .... )1 ~
"Who sees }'O/I (0 Muhammad :i:) when )'ou -
flaRd up (allme al
night for Tahajjad prayrts) . ~ (Ash-Shu'"" .. 2\9)
It is also established by His saying,
• ;:r , '" ;:;.: h •
"And lie i. with )'all (hy Ilis Knowledge)
,,'hrr~"or!'l'r you lIIay
he. And Alliih is the A/I-&er o/wha/ plU do." (A
I.I:bdid. 4) and
1" ,r~"" !i .j 1~ <t}ii " ~:.> ,j; J.i.i: -i ;,ir ~l ,
"Truly, no/hing is hidden from AIMh. in the earth
Or in the
hearen •. " (AI 'lmran, 5)
In this respect, the Prophet ~ says, "Doing good
means /{}
worship A /ltilr liS if )1011 see 1/ im: if you do
1101 .we him, lie sees yOI/. "
The I'rophet also says. as related by At-Tirrnid hi.
"Fear Alltilr
wherever you are, allll make a good deed/oil"", II
had deed so l/rlll il
may eliminate ii, and deal ",illi people wit/r good
manners."
We learn from the sum-total of these QlIr'iinie
verses and
Prophet ic traditions that Islam cares much about
the upbringing of
the M u~lim ind Ividual on the basis of fearing
Allah. both in public
and in private, reckoning oneself. and being pious
at atl times.
When you, my fellow educator, behave like this
with your child,
and implant in the bottom of his heart the seeds of
fearing Alliih,
reckoning himself, being pious, and raise him on
fea ring Allah
when he works and on reckoning himself when he
thinks, and
experiencing pious feelings, he will be sincere to
Allah, the Lord of
the worlds in all his states and deeds and in all his
behavior. Hy so
doing he will not do any deed except for the sake
of winning
Alliih's satisfaction.
These are the most important articles in the
Islamic way of
linking a Muslim spiritually, and fonning him in
belief and morals.
It is certain that if a child is linked, from his early
years, to the
worship of Allah in word and deed, and with
reciting and
contemplating the Noble Qur'an, with frequenting
mosques, with
continually celebrating Allah's praises, with
perfonning voluntary
worship, and with fea ring Allah, the child will
inevitably become
characterized by purity and goodness. He will be
known for his
belief and sincerity, will be fearful of Allah and
pious, and will be
marked with a trace of submission to Allah, the
Lord of the
worlds.
Third: the Intellectual Connedion
This means linking the Muslim from the age of
reason and
discrimination, through his boyhood. youth, and
manhood, with
the system of Islam both as a re ligion and a state,
with the
teachings of Islam and the Qur'an as a constitution
and legislation,
wi th the sciences of jurisprudence (fiqh) as a way
and rulings, with
Islamic culture as a spirit and an ideal, with Islamic
heritage as a
civilization, and with the methodology of the
Islamic Call in both
action and enthusiasm.
We have previously mentioned in the section on
"The
Responsibility for Intellectual Education" some
suggestions for
educators in raising their children intellectually.
Now I am going to
summaritt what I have previously written. and I
will add some
points, which are closely related to the points
previouly dealt with.
These points aTe given in order as follows:
1. The eternal nature of Islam and its being proper
for every time
and place.
2. Our fo refathers did not achieve thcir might,
power, and
civilization except by cherishing Islam and
applying the system
prescribed by the Qur'an.
3. Uncovering the Islamic civilization, which has
been a lighthouse
for the whole world, guiding mankind with its
light, and
quenching its th irst fOT knowledge throughout
history.
4. Exposing the plans delineated by the enemies of
Islam. These
are: evil Jewish plans, brutal impenal plans,
atheistic communistic
plans, envious crusades.
5. Continually reminding of the fact that the nation
of Islam will
not restore its well-merited place unless it adopts
Islam as a way
and legislation, the Noble QUT'an as a Constitution
and rulings,
and takes the following saying of 'Umar ~ as a
mOllO, "We are
people whom AlHih has endowed with might by
means of Islam.
No matter how hard we try to seek might by a
means other than
the one Allfih has endowed us wi th, All iih will
cause our
humiliation."
6. Continual reminding of the fact that the
backwardness, disunity,
and division which have amicted the whole
International
Islamic community, and this imperial Jewish
dominion which
has imposed itself on Palestine and Al-Aq? Mosque
is nothing
but a consequence of the Mus lims, leaving the way
of Alliih and
failing to carry out His Commandments.
7. Continual reminding that the future is for Islam,
regardless of
how hard the enemies conspire and the
disbelievers plan. This is
established by the authentic Prophetic Ifadiih
reported by
Imam Ahmad, " The jim Slage of your religian is
Praphelhood
and mercy, which lasl willi you as long as AIMh
wills il 10 10$/.
Then Allah 1ft willlifl il. Then Ihere will be a
Ca/iphOlefollowing
Ihe way of ProphelhooJ, which lasts 0$ long 0$
Alltih wills;1 10
las/. then Allah RiI will lift it. Then there wi! he
unjUSI rule. which
will last as long as Alhill wills ilIa losl. Ihen Allah
Iii! willlifl il.
Then Ihere will be compu/;'nry rule, which will
las/ as long as
Allah wills illO last, then Alltih iii will lift il. Then
there will he
a ColiphlJle following the way of Prophe/Mod,
applying Ihe
Prophet's Sunnah 10 people. Islam will he jirm in
the land. so that
the dweller in hea"en ami/he dweller an Ihe enrt"
wi/! he salisfied.
Hem'en Will1Wlletlve nland Willwul poI/ring
heavy rain on it, and
Ihe eartb will nO/ withhold any plant or blessings
but will give nll
of Ihem forth."
What we infer from this lIadiih is that it is now the
turn of
compulsory rule, the token for which is the many
coups which
bring those who have led them to rule regardless
of the opinion
and will of the people. These dictatorships were
sta rted by Ata
Turk in Turkey then followed one another in every
place.
However, the promising evidence for Islamic
awakening denotes
that this will not last for long, and the day will
come when the
Caliphate will follow the way of Prophethood. Let
us hope that
this will come true soon. Allah willing.
8. Continual warning against pessimism which sa
ys, "Everything
has come to an end and we have failed", and "Stay
at home;
Work and glory are or no benefit." The Noble
Qur'an warns us
from this impeding group when it says,
~ ~ :,1 (f) ':1j 1: .;i$ $';\ 1.; 'C:lj rt rt'J-"t ~TiII ~
:;.;.:n :if ~ ,J. ~
y:;.S G~ :;"Pf £,: ~ ~ ~1' j.'r;j ~ Ul;il ~ t;I~~ ~j.li .;;
III ~
~ ~tV;j:it ~ [:..:; j..1tl);;,rJ ~ i~) if,.,. hJ\ fr-;J:..1~
"Af/ih o.lready blows those amollg you who keep
hack (men)
from fig hring ill AfM" 's Calise, alld those who say
to thdr bret hr~n
"Come hue to,,'ards a .• ," ","if~ they ( themu freJ)
come not to the
bartfe except a fitlfe, Being miserly towards yoa
(as frgards help and
aid ill Alltih's e aa,.r) . Then when fear comes, you
,,'iII see them
fooking to you, thd r ~yes rerolring lik~ (thOSf! of)
one 'wer "'hom
hm'us dearh; bur "'hell the fear departs, t"ey "'il/
Jmitl! you ",it"
sharp ton!Jues, miserly IOII'ards (spendillg any
rhing ill any) good
(and 01111' COPelOlI.' of homy and ",ealth). Sach
"ave not befie red.
Thuefore A 1M" muke .• their deeds fr"j/feu ... "(AI
.A~tib. 18. 19)
The Messenger 3: warns us against this group of
hinderers
which impedes the political and struggling
progress of Muslims. He
says, .. Whoso<'ver SU)'S. mankind hllve become II
wellk is theftrsi one
who deserves 10 be so des/royed." You should,
fellow educator,
leach these facts 10 your family day and night and
should
continually remind them so that all may move
towards Islam with
an enthusiastic optimistic spirit, high aspirations,
and firm
believing hearts,
Among the ways Ihat link your child with Islam
intellectually
and emotionally is listening to enlightening
ordtions, valuable,
sophisticaled lectures, and good historical plays.
So, be keen, my
fellow educator, to choose the appropriate mosque
where you
pcrfonn the Friday Congregational prayer, to
choose the proper
place to lislen to lectures, and to choose the right
place to watch
plays. These are the most important mcan~ which
I suggest to you,
to link: your child mtclle<:tually, and prepare him
in lenns of creed
and belief.
Fourth: the Social Conn~lion
The social connection is such that the educator
should e~ert his
utmost 10 link the child from the age or discretion
to comprehend
the essence of things, with a righteous, clean, social
environment,
Pari Three
form which he acquires cleansing for himself,
purity for his heart,
consolidation for his belief, useful knowledge for
his mind, healthy,
good manners for his body, Islamic enlightenment
for his intellect,
sincere struggle for the sake of his call to Islam,
divine light for his
spirit, and believing enthusiasm for his religion.
But what is this righteous social environment
which helps a
child acquire these noble attributes, and makes
him that righteous,
enlightened, and ideal? In my opinion it can be
realized through
three connections:
I. Linking the child with the guide.
II. Linking the child with righteous company.
III . Linking the child with the call and callers to
Islam.
I. Linking the Child with the Guide
If the child is linked with a righteous, sincere
guide, who
understallds the authentic sources of Islam, who
struggles for i t,
applies its rulings, commands, and prohibitions,
and who fears no
blame as a result of his following what is right, no
two people
would disagree thal this child will be perfect in
belief and morals,
he will also be mature intellectually, will be able to
struggle and call
to the way of Alliih, and will be generally raised on
firm belief and
sound Islam. However, if we look around, right and
left, and triy
to examine the conditions of those who undertake
guidance and
raising souls, what do we lind?
Unfortunately, we will find that most of them give
their pupils a
distorted negative picture of Islam or offer a
certain aspect of it,
neglecting others. Some examples of delineating a
negative picture
of Islam are the following sayings:
- Islam does not have a system of government.
- A good Muslim should not be engaged in politics.
-!fyoll saw your guide in a sinning state, YOll
should think that it is
obedience to Allah.
- If the follower docs not approve of everything
said by his guide,
even of an evil thought, then he is not keeping the
pledge to him,
besides other similar sayings which lIrc in
contradiction with
Alliih's law and the system of Islam.
Here are some examples of those who command a
cerlain aspect
of Islam at the expense of others:
. Some concentrate their orientation and care on
reforming and
cleansing the soul, but neglect the dUly of
commanding goodness
and preventing evil, and fighting injustice and the
unjust.
- Some care about an Islamic appearance regarding
the spirit and
worship but neglect action and Islamic unity for
the sake of
establishing the Rule of All,ih on earth.
- Some aim all their concern on the conveyance of
the Call to
Alliih iti , but do not care at all about any
movement, activity,
or deed that may lead to establishing the State of
1,lam.
However, we should bear in mind that Islam is an
integral
whole, and that its legislative rulings do not lend
themselves to
division and separat ion. Allah Q says,
;j'r '. /,~,S j ~;; _~ 're- ~ , .. , ~ ,!}-<, ,~""'1(.·~ ~ !
:!"\ l.
i - . V' • -'" ~ '-'IV"-'-' '":;"""'>' ~ " .............. T
1 ' "t '7! Ii;JT ,'.....~.~ .<JI j s~~ .'I,. ;'(;"j(r '-- "J- '.t!.J
1 i /.; .H ...... .,;:.,0:;.; -
" Thtn dtJ J'ou bdievt in II pllrt of the Saipturt lind
reject 'he ru t!
TMn NIhil' is tht ruompi!nse of thou who do so
IImong you, Uctpt
disgract in the lif~ of this ""or/d, tllfd on ,ht Day of
Resurrection thq
s101l11 bt conJigned to the most grit_OIlS
torment." (At·Baqarah, 85)
A guide abiding by Divine Commands and a
sophisticated
enlightened scholar is the one who delineates an
integrated pic ture
of Islam. According to the Religion of Allah he is
not permitted to
withhold his knowledge, remain si lent about what
is right, overlook
any evil, be lenient about a duty, distort the Words
of Allah, fear
any human being, show favoritism to anyone with
power or
authority, or is silent about an improper saying
about Allah. If he
did anything of this, he would be concealing the
Signs and Guidance
of All;ih, and will even be among those wllom Allah
does not look a\
or cleanse on the Day of Judgment. Rat her, he wi ll
be among those
whom Allah and the people will curse. Alliih ra
says,
~ft.;1 .: '9 4 ...:6J ~ ,"':~ t: y::; ~ ,,:a1.1 ': ~rjl ~ GJj1
'(:; &;:e: 0;-)1 ~l ,
(,\- \ .,~ ..::.. ~~ ....;),.j.t; I'.''' i ' r -j- j'li" ~ Jl -11 ....
::::..; .. ~( ; 'ti;- ~\ ;;"i; ~ rr-- _", . "~.J"""' '' ~.;t, • '"" .
.J .
~ ; .Ui ";'~i
" Yerily, thou "'ho eORu of 'he clear proofs,
c¥iu","us and Ihe
Ku;duna, ~·h;ch We luwf' sent do"'", a/ur We have
mude;1 dear for
Ihe pl!ople in the Book, they ,,'c tile Olll!! cursed by
Alllih and cursed
by lhe curRl's. Except tho~'e who repent and do
r;/:frleous du ds, and
openly dec/au ( the t~uth whirh they concealed).
Theu, I will accept
theu ~epentunce. And I am the One Who accept.1
repentance, the
Most M" Ciful." (AI· llaqarah. 159-160)
The Messenger ij; has warned of Hellfire, anyone
who
wi thholds knowledge thai is religiously useful or
who remains
silent about the violation of a righl Ihat is well-
established by the
Religion. Ibn Mi"ijah quoled Abu Sa'[d AI-Khudri as
saying that
Allah's Messenger :t said. "Whoever withholds
knowledge with
which Allah benefits people in the malter of
Religion, AI/lih will
bridle him on the DIIY of Resurrection with a
bridle of fire."
Sincere guid~ and scholars who have. in the past,
shouldered
the respons ibilty of leading reformation,
education, guidance, and
cleansing themselves enjoyed, in fact, a great deal
ofpcrfcct Islamic
Ullderstanding, and were characterized hy a great
deal of fear of
Allah and piety, and abided by the Islamic way,
which is the Book
of AIHih and the S,mno/J (traditi o n~) of His
Prophet 3;. They also
prese nted a true picture of Islam in their social
conduct, their
Islamic understanding, their mission of guidance,
and their
educational orientation. They never remain silent
about any evil
which they thought was their duty to change,
never overlooked a
right which they thought was useful to speak
aboul, and never fe ll
behind any holy struggle when the need arose.
TheIr abiding by
j urisprudence and the Noble Qur'fln and the
Swmoh, lei us listen to
what the major guiding Imflms and scholars have
to say:
_ The knowledgeable scholar Imam Shaikh Abdul-
Q.ldir AJ-Kiliini
says in his book Af-FathAr-Rabbiinf, p. 29: "Every
fact that is not
compatible with Jurisprudcllce is a heresy. Flee to
All.lh !iii with
the two wings of tile Book and the SlIImah, Go to
Him with your
hand in the hand of the Messenger $_"
_ lm,lm Sahl At-Tastari -;\!ll says, "The principles of
our way are
seven: abiding by the Book, follOWing the Smmoh,
eating what is
lawful, preventing harm, avoiding wrongdoing,
adhering 10
repenlance, and giving everyone his due,"
- Ahul-Yazid At-Ba~!{jmi says, " If you look at a
man who was
given blessings until he achieved ascendancy, do
not become
dazzled, and try to get to know him in the face of
thc commands
of Allah and His prohibitions, observing the
Bounds of Allah,
and commitment 10 Sharf'ah regulation, As for the
stand in
raising the banner of truth, against untruth, and
the Holy
struggle in the way of Alliih, lei us listen to Ihe
noble words of
those great scholars from among the leading
masters o f
guidance regarding their noble struggle in Jihiid
and calling
for the words of Allah and educational
reformation.
Here the eminent scholar Abu Zahrah <I:l: says
about Imam As·
Sunusi, "When Imam As-Suniisi slarted
reformation among
Muslims he began by havmg muridi" (adherents)
oriented towards
Jihiid (striving) by practicing j~velin throwing, In
this way thcy
kept assailing Ihe Italians for ovcr twenty yea rs at
a I,me whcn the
Onoman Empire failed \0 do so,
Again, the eminent scholar Abu Ilasan An-Nadawi
in his book
"Rijdl Ad-Deen wa Ad-Va'wah fi AI-Islam"
(Thinkers and CallcN;
in Islam) speaks about thc great scholar Shaikh
Abdul-Qadir AI-
1115.ni saying, "His followers were over 70,000;
and over 5000 lews
and Christians embraced Islam through his
endeavor; and over
100,000 avowed repentance to Allah through his
preaching, His
succeSSON; and disciples also followed his
footsteps in education
and missionary work, with the resu lt of reViving
the spirit of "Mil
(striving), and salvation from decadence, and
liberation from
foreign rule."
Another instance nf memorable advocates of
religious guidancc
is the great Turkish scholar and leader Shaikh
5a'id An-Nawrasi,
whose surname is Badi'-uz-Zaman ~ . This leader
began to see
that some of his students and disciples became
servile towards him,
as a personification of all religious values, so much
that he
admonished them, saying, "Never try to imagine
that the truth I
call you to is my personal capability. That truth
really em3nates
from the sacred Book of Alliih; and [ am simply a
mere guide to
the favors of the All Merciful Allah, Exalted be His
Name. Let all
of you know that I am not infallible."
So educators have to look out for such eminent
scholars who
3re of similar standards of excellence and try to
seek their trust and
guidance for your youth to make sure that they
obtain a complete
understanding of religious duties that help them
\0 adopt the noble
principles of Islam and the true example of our
forefathers and
without any personal traits of the caller himself.
Thus we have 10 beware of leaving Our children to
be misled by
those pretentious callers, and ignorant sufists, and
gangs of
hypocrites, and how many such pretenders there
are loday! So a
leadcr who claims in fallibility fo r himself, or who
asks his dise iples
for confession, is an igrlOmnt impostor. Similarly, a
caller who
ignores the guidance from the Noble Qur'an and
S,mnah, or who
does not clearly inform his followers of the
dividing lines between
obedience and sins is also an ignorant impostor.
Also a caller who
keeps any religious information, or limits his
teachings of ishim to
some religious forms of worship, ignoring
important areas like
systems of government and Jihi;,} is also an
ignorant impostor.
Finally, a caller who acts hypocritically towards
rulers, and is
always in wait of personal favors from them, is
also an ignorant
impostor.
•
II. Linking the child ..-ith righteous company
One of the important factors in religious, ethical,
social. and
psychological education is the companionship of
good people that
provide chi ld ren with thc right attitude, useful
knowledge, and
high cthical standards. $Q educators have to make
sure to balance
between rel igious orientation and good
companionship, since the
lack of such in tegration leads to serious danger
The first of these dangers is duali ty in orientation.
The second is behavioral deviation.
By duality I mean that If the child is brought up
from an early
age in a religious atmosphere and then is
accompanied by others
who are not adequately oriented towards similar
religious goals,
would consequently waver between right and
wrong, ending in
bewilderment leading to psychological connict.
What J mean by behavioral deviation is that when
the child sees
that his educators ofTer him radically different
orientation from
what he fin ds with other groups that are less
religiously commitled,
he begins self·qucstioning which leads to
bewilderment. So
integration between religious orientation and
righteous companionship
is essential for the chi ld's healthy ethical and
psychological
personality. Here the educator has to make sure to
provide
the child wi th these fou r types of righteous
companionship:
1_ Family
2. Local
3. Mosque
4. School or job
1. Companionship Wilhin lhe Family
This refers to the companionship of brothers.
sisters. and
relatives for these are the first group with which
the child comes in
conwc!. So. it is natural lhat the child begins to
acquire habits
from them. So, the educators have to watch the
behavior of these
companions to makc sure of their orientation. Here
the older
sibling. as is well known, is usually the exemplar
ooth In right and
wrong, and thus the innuence is great on the
younger members of
the family. So it is vcry important that such
companionship is
under close supervision so as to protect children
from any possible
deviation. Together w,[h thi~, educators hal'e to
be selective in
children's companionship by kccpmg ,t in the
sphere of righteous
members of the family, to make sure tlmt
companionship helps
towards highly ethical behavior on the part of the
younger
children. In the absence of such righteous
members, educators have
to advise the older (deVIant) generation to keep
away from the
younger children; and then righteous
compamonship outside of the
family has to be sought.
2. Local Companionship
It is a well-known f;lct thM many among the
younger generation
are far from being well -behaved, as seen and
heard from their
modes of trealment to others of the same
generation as well as to
older people. They use abusive language and other
forms of bad
behavior. So educators bave to choose the right
companionship for
children from among neighbors, who would keep
them oompany
while going \0 mosques. physical activities, and
innocent play.
3. Coml'anionshil' at the Mosque
I-!ere I think it is pertinent 10 mentiol1lhat the
mosque and local
companionship is strongly desirable, for little will
he gained by local
companionship itself. wIthout the mosque as the
center of such
friendship, for as we know. the mosque i~ the
main place to worship
Allah. Here also there should he constant
encouragemen t for the
children to get into the habit of frequenting the
mosques of Allah
for regular prayers. reciting the Qur·an and for
religious education.
4. Companionship :It Sc:hool or al Work
Again. here educators are of course aware that
sehools in m:my
countries have become a fertile field for devious
ideas, false
philosophies, and unconventional ethical values.
These imported ideas seem to have the sole aim of
spreading
agnosticism and fighting against Islam by groups
of students who
have adopted these ideas in Ihe fonn of the seclS
and parties with
which they are affiliated. Some feminine groups
have no aim CJ[cept
to attack Ihe modest dress of the Muslim woman,
sometimes under
the prelexl of emancipation of women or falscly
claiming equality
between men and women. Schools are no! frcc
from such
deviations, and few sehool educators adopt correct
ethical values
and sound educational concepts.
So educators, in the face of all such deviations,
have to try hard
to save their children, during these periods of their
growth, by the
careful choice of righteous school communities
starting from the
primary, secondary, and continuing up to the
university stage. It
would be preferable lhal such sehool communities
he the same as
those that the young were attached to in their local
and mosque
communities.
Another aspect of child education is that of raising
female
children. Since gir l ~ are cmotiool sensi tive and
more naturally
inclined towards novelty, these may be the cause
of deviation
from the right path, and vee ring away from sound
j udgment.
which leads to grave consequences. So gir ls
should have a greater
share of their parents" and educators' attention
than boys, to
make sure of their righteous upbrin ging. Some of
the best ways 10
ra ise girls is [0 encourage them to join Islamic
fema le
organisations and male friends of righteous girls of
the same
age group. Since such organi sations are not easily
fo und, more
care should be taken of girl s.
The same pre<:autions have \0 be taken in job
communtics, for
some of these inst itutes have so many worthless
companions who
may have embraced a theist or oommunist ideas.
Here Islam in sists
on ca reful choice of the jobs and inst itutions for
our young, where
they have righteous companionship. In sueh good
companionship.
advice is given whcn a member of this community
is about to
falte r, and help towards the right path is otTered.
Here we have
these noble words of AlIiih '1ft:
Ul,' .71 ~lv: '" i.::: .1 "Ii " ~. , or: -. "'" ., y. ....... '"' rJi <-
i'i•. ~_ J_l__._._- : .".. •;.::..: igf 1'"I'' I -I~'i .~.-." ,~~..".
. T1.
,I.,{" ' ."j, 'J , ~,' ~,~ 'z: -~ . ,- <::...-" - _f~1 · '· ...... .,{ ,, -
'"
'" '-'~ ;;':>V ~I 0~-, -.I~ :>1 ...... ".-,;.1' if ~ J....OI .... -
'"-'f W)(;
"And (rememhu) the Day when the Zulim (wrong-
d{}er,
(}l'prtssor, polythei.<r) will hire af his hands, he
,.'ill say: "Oh!
W{}uld Ihal I had ,aken a path "'ilh the Mcnenger
(Muhammad ~)
"Ah! Woe 10 me! Would /hut I hud ne.er tuken so-
and-so as a Khalii
(un intimale friend)! " Ill' indeed led me us/ruy
from fhe Reminder
(this Qur'un) afteT il hua comc to me. And Shailan
(Satan) is 10
mun ereT deser/er in the hour of need."
(AI·Furqan, 27-29)
Once more we read these words:
,I. ......,; ,1:1:> .\ ~ ,;.- . ~ . ? .~j.I t C' ' !< ''; l.
'" , _.- " .... "" ~-, . " M/ oJ" T
"His companion (Sulan - dnil) will say: '·Our Lord! I
did not pash
him to transgresl, (in disbelief, oppI"eSJion, and
e~iI deerb) but he was
himMIf ill error far astray." (QM. 21)
Again, we read these words:
~ C,FH
" Fri.-nds on Ihut Duy I<'ill he foes one to ullolnu
excepl A{M,
lIfllqill (pious) - (su V.2:2) . (Az·Zukhruf. 67)
We also read the l!m!illr, narratt"<l by At-Tirmidhi,
saying, "A
person adopts tire religion of his close friend; so
lei elw)'one of )'01/
look eor.-fully for wlroever he is /lIking as a close
friend."
III. Linking the Child '"";th the Call and those ... ho
Call to Allah
One of the basic factors of the healthy
development of the
personality of the young is to relate them to the
Mission of Islam
and its callers, for that helps him to embrace Ihe
call 10 Alliih,
,~teadfaslness, and persever.mcc in lhe call for
truth. This results in
persistent endeavor that knows no hindrance or
obstacles. But how
do we educate children to be callers and what are
the stages of
achieving this goal?
I. Ps)'chological Preparation
Thc materials prc:scntcd to the young have \0
transmit the true
picture about PTevalent backwardness of the
Muslim world, its loss
of morality, and the common allitude of
recklessness and despair
on the part of the majority of its population. The
young should
also be acqaintcd with the aggressive attitudes of
Zionism and
imperialisim and their incessant conspirucies.
2. Lessons (rom Islamic ~Iislary
Such lessons inculcate the glory of the past and the
need for
revivul. This insti lls in their minds the n~"ed far
missionary work
and the readiness for sacri fice, regardless af the
obslacles.
Our hislory lells us that even after the death of the
Messenger
~, and at the beginning of the Caliphate of Abu
Bakr ., pagan
tribalism began to re-appear. and many Arabs
apostacized. some
31._==================== p,,, Three
of whom refused to pay the Zakiih (poor-dues),
wbllc Olhers
stopped performing prayers. So, Abu Bakr took
upon hImself 10
fight those who bad apostacized; he even severely
reprimanded
Umar, who was not as resolute as AbG Hah , who
said, "As a
potentate in pagan times, now become cowilrdly in
[slilm! By AII5h
I am going to fight those apostates as long as 1 am
able to hold a
sword in my hand ! By Allah, r shall definitely fight
tbose who stop
performing prayers or stop giving Zak:ih." Thus,
Abu Bah was
able, through this courageous anilllde, 10 saw the
world to Islam
and restore unity and stability_
We also learn from OUT hlstory that when the
Crusaders
occupied a great deal of Muslim lands and capt
ured Jerusalem for
about a century, we find Salah A d - D~-en
(Saladin) rising up to
consolidate the Mus lim State and heat the
Crusader'S at the Ilallie
of Hittin.
Of course the most noble c~emple is that of I'
Tophet himself
who came with the Noble Message fo r all
humamty. His
Companions fought in the way of Allah and
sacrificed nobly for
the cause or Islam. Then we also hilve such
illustnou, leaders like
Al·tj:asan Al- Ba~ri, AI-' lzz Ibn Alxlus-Salam,
Mundhir Ibn Sa'id,
A~mad Ibn l:Ianbal. Abu Ghayyath Az-Zfihid, Imam
Hasan AIBann,
1. Sayyid Qu!b. among so many others.
3. The Noble Call to Allah
Educators should clarify fo r the young the great
rcw<trd for
those who call to AlI;"dl and His Ete rnal Me'sage.
The nobility of
the callers is emphasized in these noble words:
" "\ , "{ :" ~.~".:.',. .. (: "' j( if- ",'-/'.> .n+-,'J. ..........'..:..-
.\..1 l ~~ J.",.. t 0 ,-:j .'.1 '-: '!.l- l. ....: . _ --r ,.. # ....... T
"You ("Ut belie.us in Islamic Monotheism, "nd
ualjollowt rs oj
Propht t Muhammod $ ond his Sunnoh) ort tM best
ojMopltJ t l'er
ra;ud up jIJr mankind; )"IJU enjlJl'n AI·Mu'ruj (i.t.
Islamic
MotlOlheum atld all that Islum has orduitltd) "nd
jorbid AI·
Munkar (polytheism, dishelief and all that ldum
has forbidden), and
} 'OU beliee" in Aillih:' (A I '[mnin, [ W)
Thus the callers are prosperous and lnumphant in
the present
life and in the Hereafter,
~ 1#11; Pi .; 5*) .,..Lii~ 5.V~; ;.1i Jl 5;~ t;1 ~ J:<i; 1
..: G;'!?il
"Lei there arise out of you a group of people
in"iting to all that is
guod ( Islam), enjoining A l-Ma'ruf (i,e, Mamie
Monotheism and all
,hat hlam orders One 10 do) andforbidding AI-
Mankor (polj'lheism
and disbelief and alllhal Islam has f orbidden) ,
And il is 'hey who are
Ihe -TUfuSSfUI," (AI 'Imran, 1(4)
Again the Cllllers arc the rairest good doers,
.I. 'I: ~,_ , -'i f ~:~l.l jli"- ~_ ~-L .~J- 9< lJI• 1';;; .,.<..".
..-,.r.. .:,-:.1 .~J"-J -}T.
"And ",ho;s bella in spuch than he ",ho (says: "My
Lord is Alliih
(btlie" ~s ;11 llis Olleness):' and then slands firm
(acts upon His
Order), and) ill ~;lts (men) TO A lliih 's (ldamic
MOIlolheism), alld doe,.
righteous du ds, and says: "I am olle of the
Maslims." (Fu~~ilat. 33)
So, the young are made 10 understand that callers
to AlIiih arc
rcwardt.-d ror their good deeds, as well as the
good deeds of their
rollowers, without any PMt of their own rewards
being diminished,
for the Prophet $: said, "Anyone who mils 10
guidam;e will have.
besides his own reward, Ihe reward of all those
who follow him,
wi/haul any diminishing of Ihe reward of Ihe
fol/owers."
4, The Prcccpl~ of the Mission
Educa tors have to elucidate the precepts of the
Mission. Such
principles present the correct wny to proclaim the
Mission without
deviation o r loss of insight. These precepts m1ly
be summed up 1lS
follows:
i. The caller should be well qunli fied so as to make
sure that his
message is in conrormity wi th the Shartah of
Islam. Here we
have the Revelation from Alliih,
~ ~;j:-: ~ za;~ 5~ ~Ji .sF j; ji "
Sa)': "Are IhO!;~ ",ho kno'" ~quul /0 thou ",ho
kilo", nott" (M __
Zumar, 9)
n, Again there should be conformity between what
the caller says
and what he actually does, for then the response
on the part of
the followers will be more forthcoming, although
many arc
those who can achieve such happy confonnity, and
how foolish
are those who ask others to be righteous and
forget about
themselves, How true are the words of Allah,
-1 , ))); J ~\ .J.:., ~ ;:E- ~ 5)' :; '1 , .:::::.)); ?_ ~(. ':':~1
t;.1I; "
~..:e:.~
"0 you "'ho heliu~! Wh), do J'(JU SQ)' thQI which
you do 1I0t do?
Mosl "iluful il ;s 1i';lh A/liih thaI you say IhQt ,.'hie"
you do not
do," (AJ-SaIT, 2-3)
iii. There should be consensus about what is
prohibited, or else the
general public may become confused
psycologically and
socially, especially in matters which should be
decided only by
eminent Imams and jurists_ So, it has been said of
old, "Anyone
who imitates a scholar, will be safe when he meets
Allih."
iv_ The fight against prohibitions should be
gradual, resorting
firstly to giving advice, then reprimanding, then
changing with
the hand, and this represents the height of
wisdom. Thus Allah
18 says,
~ rd (? ~i .iii n ,:,it.s~.;:;"
"Hl grants Hikmuh 10 lI'hom 1101 pleaus, and he,
to ,.'hom lIikmah
is granf~d, iJ indeed grQnleJ Qbu"dQ"t good."
(At.Raqarah, 269)
v. Good manners are also an essential prerequisite
for calling
people to Islam, fo r a good word is capable of
producing a
positive response. So true are the words of Allah,
'~/ '1~uli •~ ·, ...'.W. ! j-7~'f\ .Jl:;:' ;¢'ojr\. C';i Irt. .
"Illvite ( mallkilld, 0 Muhammad $) 10 Ihe Way
ofJ'oUT Lord (i. ~.
blam) "'ilh ... isdom (i. ~ . ... ilh lhe Oirille Re
~elarioll alld Ih"
QUT'llll) Illld fair prellchillg" (An.N, !"', 125)
VI. Endurance should also be OIle of the essential
trai ts of a caller,
especially in the face of ignoT3nce, ridicule, and
arrogance.
5, PraClicai Application
At th is stage, educators should try to entrust the
children to
reliable callers who teach them the principles of
the Mission. Then
comes the role of individual young callers to
pT3ctice calling for
piety and reform on their own. Finally there comes
the role of the
educator or guide to see what the young C;lllcrs
have achieved .
Fifth: Sport
One of the most useful means laid down by Islam
that
discipl ines individ uals physically and increases
good health is to
make them spend their spare time in doing hard
work and
practicing military and sporting activities
whenever possible.
This is due to the fact that Islam with its tolerant
princi ples and
lofty teachings, simultaneously gathers both
seriousness and
innocent play, harmonizes between the
requirements of the soul
and needs of the body. and pays due attention 10
educating the
body as well as to healing the soul. As soon as he is
old enough to
comprehend things precisely, the child deserves
attention to be
paid to his health and physical formation.
Moreover, he deserves
all the attention that can be paid to whatever is
healthy for his
body, and might and the vita lity and energy of his
body. Ther a re
three reasons for this:
- He has a lot of leisure lime.
- To prote<:t him rrom disease .
• To get him accustomed, rrom his early years, to
sporting practices
and acts of Jihtid.
Here, dear eduClIIor, we present to you some
glimpses at the
honored texts showing Isliim's outstanding care
for physical
education and military preparation:
- Allah tliI says,
,~j~; ,.if j~ <~ ~;,.;; .,P.Jl ~(;~ ~..; j;; ~ .~·t'".l ~ ~
~~t "
'"And milk" r"ady again .• , rh"m IlII you ('an of
powt', indJlding
.• , .... ds of wllr (tanks , planes, missiles, arrillery)
10 I"reillen The
enemy of AI/lih and ),our enemy ... " (AI·Anfat, 60)
- Imam Muslim narrated that Allah's Messenger tt
Sllid, "A
strong believ{'r is beller and more {Dyed by Alliih
llian a " ... ak
believer." AI-lJukhari also narrated thai the
Prophet #: once
passed by a group of lianG Aslam who were
competing in archery
in the market. He encouraged them, saying, "Shoo!.
0 sons of
I5nui[l; your falher ",as un archer. Shool (HId I am
w;/Ii Balli' of so
and so. One of the two parties stopped shooting.
The Prophet ~
asked them: Why don 'f you shool? They
answered: How dare we
shoot while you are with them? The prophet e
said, "ShoOl and I
am wilh you all (bOlh parlies),"
It is clear through such texIS that Islam legalized
practicing
Jihad exercises and sporting games such as
wrestling, running,
swimming, archery and horseback riding, fo r the
Muslim
community to acquire the appropri"te means of
dignity, victory
and sovereignty, and to get its followers,
individuals as well as
groups, disciplined in strength and Jihad. This is 10
carry out the
words of AllIih lit thaI read:
.J. ) -'"", <\ ,,- ,.., 4 <'¥ ,," _ - , "r.'\ < '.11 '- \' •
"( ~:...) ~ JJ<. -!t ",-,~j .,4-11 -l!"Y1...:.>'..J r".;,i .... < I,;
I'"+' 'J-4~ .,
"And makt! ~tiildy against thtim all you cun of
power, including
Tho B"it Principles of E<lLlCll,ion 3 23
$U~th of ,<'lIT (Wllk.<, plulles, mi$.lile1, unilfery)
to thu llten the
enemy of Allli! ilnd your enemy ... " (Al-Anflll. 60)
No one can dispute the fact that when the enemies
of the
Muslims know that the Muslim commumty has
prepared itself
militarily, accomplished its faith and sound
psychological stature
and is determined to strive in the cause of Allah,
they (enemies of
Muslims) undoubtedly are defeated from within by
their anxious,
fearful, and weak souls even before they taste
defeat in the
battlefields of JiMd. This is what may be termed
today as "Anne<!
Peace." Also, Lt may be what the Prophet .$
referred to in his
saying: "I was gil'en ~iclOry by fear alone mOlllh's
march."
Getting the child to be active In sport cannot be
fruitful or even
satisfactory unless it is practiced in accordance
WIth the method
prescribed by Islam. To all educators we introduce
landmarks of
this method and its prescribed boundaries:
I. Making a 8~ hlllce
It is not acceptable that sports are practiced at the
expense of
other duties that must be observed and
accomplished by the child.
He may busy himself most of the time in playing
footbaH,
mastering wrestling, swimming or practicing
archery at the
e.-<pense of the right of Allah in term~ of worship,
or the right of
his own self in terms of seeking knowledge, or the
right of his
parents to be obeyed and righteously dealt with, or
the right of his
religion (Islam) to be propagated and conveyed to
all people.
Therefore, sport should be a subsidiary activity
with the child and
should be mild and moderate, striking a balance
between it and
other duties. This emanates from what the Prophet
&: said to
'Abdullah Ibn 'Amr Ibn AI-'A; "Allah has a righl
oyer you; your
body has a righl over you; your family h(JJ a right
oYer you; so. give
e~cryone his due righl."
2, Obse ..... ing the Rounds of All i h
One who shoulders the resposibilily of educating
lhe child
should observe the following:
A. The child's training suit should cover the part of
his body from
the navel to beneath his knees. Imam Al-Bukhiiri in
his History,
Imam Abmad, and Al-~iikim narrated that the
Prophet 0'1;
passed by Ma'mar (one of the Companions) and
saw his thighs
uncovered, so he said, "0 Mo'mar. cover your
thighs, for the
thigh is [X'rt 0/ your private para."
B. Physical exercises should be practiced in public
places due to
what has been narrated by 'A.ishah, Mother of the
Believers,
who said, "HI! who belil!vcs in Alldh and the lAst
Day, must not
be seell ;11 suspicious places."
C. Encouragement of sporting excellence should be
with legal bets
only as narrated by compilers of the SUIIOIl and
Imam Abmad
on the authority of the Prophet 4 who said, "No
belling is there
in other than roc;ing hut camels, horses, Or
archery."
We may conclude frOm this Prophctic huditll that
legal
betting may incur two conditions: first, bets are
made in training
on the means used in fighting and acts of Jihad
such as racing
on the mount of camels, horses, shooting arrows,
or modern
mCllOS of war. Second, the reward declared for
winning should
be alTered either by someone other than the two
competitors or
only one of them,
3_ Declaring a Good Intention (NiYJ'llh)
The instructor who undertakes lhe responsibility
of disciplining
the child and his physical and psychological
welfare should
remind the child that whatever he does as physical
exercises and
military and martial activities is intended to
strengthen him in all
respects and to implement within himself the
saying of the
Th. 8 •• ie l'tiocipi .. or EdUClllion 325
Prophet t§;: that reads, " The suang believer IS
beller and more
loved by Alliih Ihon Ihe weak believer."
Dear educator! You should realize that declaring a
good
intention is not only for sporting exercises and
train ing in Jihlid
rather, it encompasses all vi tal activities and
permissible bodily
pleasures such as eating, drinking, sleeping, going
out on picnics
and enjoying all good pleasures. If any Mushm
performs all these
activities with the in tention of obeying the
Ordinances of Allilh, his
activities due to that intention become acts of
worship which make
a Muslim come closer to Allfih • .
2. 1111.' Principle or Warning
If we read Alliih's Book , the Noble Qur'iin, and the
Simnab of
the Prophet :1i, we find that the manner of
warning against evil
and uncovering falsehood is clearly shown in many
Qur':i nic vcrses
and Prophetic Hadilbs . Among these Qur'ank
verses and
Prophetic Hadiills are the following:
In Surab AI-Isrii, Alliih 1li says:
~ 1..~,;; t;.:.: -(:;.; ;'I: ~!;'or e. j-'~ -1,
"Set nol up "'itb Alliih any otlrer ifah (god), (0
mall)! (Tlris
u rse is uddnssed to PropMt Muhammad ~ but its
implicatiOlI is
gene,al/o, all munkim/) , or ,-ou "'ill sit down
reprovedJorsuken (in
the lIefl-jire)." (AI- I'''., 22) And,
~ ~':i t): ,,' n ~ .. ~ J I-I(' ~ 1; :Ij'~ dl ~fo ;I~ j-~ 1; ?
"And let not your Irand be tied ( like a miu r) to
J'our neck , nor
streich it/orth to it.< utmost uach (like a
.<pendthrift), so that you
become bla~"'orlhy alld ill seFere poverly, " (At-
rHa. 29) And,
~ 1.:" ;t:::"; ~ {~ i;f ;;l ii)! ~ 'i; ,
"Alld come II(Jf uear to linlaw/ lil uXlIal
intercOlirst. Perily, it is
a Falrislralr (i.e. allytlrillg Ilrat transg reSstS its
limits: a great siu ),
alld an e~il way (tlral leuds one to Hell unless
Alltilr/orgi"es him)."
(Al·lmi, 32)
The Prophet $: said, "Beware 0/ te/ling lies, for
telling lies is
contrary 10 belief." Narrated by A~lmad and
Compilers of the
SWlan; and said. "Beware 0/ making many oatbs
u< Ibi.< renders one
as hypocrite and then invalidall!5 (all his deeds}. "
Narrated by
Muslim who said. "Beware of suspicion os
suspicion is (umongst)
Ihe mOSI obscene lies."
Of course, there are many other Qur'anic vcrses
and Prophetic
Hadflhs thai warn against perpetrating evil and
mischief. 0
educator! rollowing are some of the most
important warnings:
First: Warning AgairlSl Apostasy
By apostasy we mean: a Muslim renegades from
the rchgion
that was approved and chosen for him by AlI iih
and embraces
another religion or faith that contradicts the
SlwrF'ah of Islam .
Apostasy has many aspe<;ts:
A. One of the aspects of apostasy is <ldvOC<lting
slogans that make
a Muslim deviate from taking Allah as his only end
and the only
One Who deserves to be worshiped or make him
deviate from
holding Islam as his goal and aim. This sort of
apostasy
encompasses many cases:
i. One may advocate the slogafl of Natioflalism
making it <In aim
and efld to whic h he calls others. He stnves for it.
This is part of
the Pre- Islamic practices that the Prophet $.
warned in his
saying that reads: "lie who calls o/hers /Q grollp
chauvinism does
nOI belong /0 iLl; Ire who fig/liS for Ihe sake of
group chavinislII
does no/ belong /0 liS; curd he who dies
IIpholdlng grollp chauvinism
does no/ belong /Q us." Reported by Abil Diiwild
ii. One who advoc"tes P"trioti,m "nd holds it as his
"im afld end
for the sake of which he calls others. and strives.
iii. One who advocates the slogan of
Humanitarianism without
takiflg heed of the fact that Allah has o rdered him
to try to
guide all mankifld to the straight path and 10
become
acquainted with ,,11 peoples.
B. Among o ther aspects of apostasy is to oITer
loyalty, submi s.~ i on>
and obedience to other than Allah. Alliih lit says,
"~{ ~~'. f" "(r" "[.I '~:;' ~ ~(JI:1 L . ~. ;1 C.-J-'Jl.r,.
"And "'hosoever does not judge by ",hut Altiih hlU
revealed. such
are the Kajirun {i.e. d;sbdiererJ - of a lesser degree
IU tMy do not
act accOI'ding fQ A fliih's lAws)." (AI·M ii·idah. 44)
And,
f,~" ~,.f-:. k "i ""'" , :- , u • ••• :rd .,'~ :;',.\ <id" ;"l1
i.l. .~ ' '"1"(, ~.:JI ,,,~}. ~ r"'" r"'-'"' .r~ oJf"' .',} ...-
o.;~ ~ -. ,,,... ~. "' .1"
~ ~J"l ri.ii oS! I: -i .if
"0 you ,.'110 Mlie"e! Tuff! nO/1M il!WS and the
Christiuns as
AufiYIl' (friends, prO/u FO's, he/pt .s), tlrey are hut
Auliya' of One
uno/her. And if uny amongst you tukes Illem (as
Au/iyu') , tlren
surely he is one of them. Yerily, Alliih guides nor
thou peap/e
who are lite ZufimUII (po/ythdsfJ and " " OIIg-
<loe'J fmJ ullja •• r) ,"
(AI·Ma'idah, 51)
C. Among the aspects of apostasy is to d'slike some
ritual or any
practice assigned by islam, as in the case of one
who may say " I
dislike fasting for it retards the Community' s
economy." Another
may say, '" di slike the monetary system of Islam
for it prohibits
usury" or the lik e. Concerning these people, Allah
says in His
Noble Qur'an,
~ ~ .t;:.t ~l ,t.\ t ~f ~~ .!Jt~ q) 'jV';! .t.t ;1 C.J 1$
~~t ~
"But those "'ho disb~/if!.e (in the Onenes, 01 Afliih
- Isfumie
Monot~ism),lor tlrem is dtstruetion, und (AI/lilt)
"'ill make their
duds Nin, Thut is Mcuu .• e t~y Irale ,lral ,,·hiell
Alltih has sent down
(this Qur'an and Islamic la",s, ele.); so Ill' lias mude
,IIe;r du ds
Iruituss." {Mu!'immad, 8_9}
D, Among the clements of apostasy is the aet of
mockmg
something or a given ritllal of Islam. Allah Uti says,
.;lk .A:-» . .?I:.; ;'\I.} '~1i.J ..;.;, Illo- dl :-!' j;.;\ .'.-:;t;:
~.J ,
~ "§ :/~ s.:.; 1:7 ~ "\ {,{:, ~ Q .:uo,iti
"II you ask IMm (about ,his). they declare: " We
,,'f!re only
talkillg idly and joking." Say: "Was i, at Alliill
(glorified and
exalted M He), and His A)'al (proofs, evidenus,
~erses, lessons,
siJ;lIJ, u~d(j(ions, elt:.) und His MesungtT $. tha,
}'OU weu
mocking'" Make no ucu.<e; yoa disbdie~ed after
you JuuJ belie.ed. ~
(A t-Tawbah, 65-66)
329
E. Among the clements of apostasy is to declare
what Al1:ih has
made prohibited as lawful, and what AIW.h has
made lawfu l as
prohibited . Allah iii says.
~$Jl ;'1 J ~ r~ Ih; j;i;. ~ ':'$]1 ;4',; )\ ,';. /- lJ, I)';'; 1J ,
.i. ,," ' ,.;--:, « " ' ,'- ,~- < 'I: ,,~ ... ....,.....,1 ,. Joo ..... J.'.: ~I
"l
"And say not conct'rn;ng IIral "'hielt ),our tongun
put forth
fulsely: " This is la .. {"1 und Ih;s is forbidden," sa
lis 10 in~cnf liu
against Alliih. Verily, 'hose who ;"unl lies against
Alliih will neVer
proJ~r." (A" -N .~I. 116)
F. Among the elements of apostasy is to beheve in
part of the
religion of Islam while disbelieving in another. So
one may believe
that Islam is mere acts of worship, and disbelieves
that it is a
complete system and legis1:llion for the whole life;
or may believe
that Islam advocates spiritual, moral, and
cducation31 aspects
only, and di sbelieves in the other aspects such as
the social,
e<:onomic, or political systems. AlHih !Ii! says,
" .} ' . .... ~-:; j~;~ .' :1'" Co ' . " ell'<'. ·~~i( ." c~ ;~ '.
\ l.
"":I" . v- J:' ~ ~J ~ ~ ",-..:,:..> T
... ·!til ~, ", 5 ~" .;(;j( ,-, t':'l1 iJ;'!( J .:. "'t: '>' • ll, J'I. . ".
PJ' . . . u~
" Thm do you be/ie~e in a part of the Scriplure
and r~jeel Ihe resl!
Then "'hat is Ihe recompt nse o/ Ihose "'110 do so
among you, excepl
disgrace in Ihe life o/Ihis ... odd, and On Ihe Day of
Resurrection Ihey
shall be consigned to the mas/ grie vous lorment.
And AII<i" is no/
ulla)<'are of ,,'hal )·ou do ." (AI· JlaqaTI!h. 8S)
G. Among the clements of apostasy is to believe
only in the
Noble Qur'an and to rejoct the Prophetic S"nnah
such as the
Qadyani sect which were instituted by the Engli sh
in Indli' to
demolish the Islamic Shartah and raise sus picions
around the
prophethood of the Prophet 3. The Noble Qur'an
invalidates
the faith of the one who does not submit \0 the
adjudication of
the Prophet $ during his life and to his S,mnuh
aftcr his dcath.
Alh,h Iti says,
· ~.;1 . i U 1 H .~~ ~ ,/~ ,-- , .!i~~'~ ,~' /. ~ " '1 '"'#
~ l.
I t . 'I -' ." r-" ~ r":'- '"""'e ~ ~ .:.:.>. ........ !!. ,JJ T
."iI.; ~_ 1~"-'-" '~.:~ ;; ~. _"F.
"R,., no, by)'our Lord, they c"" I .. IV~ no Failh, unlil
'he)' make
)'011 (0 Muhammad fS) juJge in all disputes het"'u
II rhem, {lndfind
in ,"emu/ves no re.<istance against )'ou~
decisions, Ilnd acupt (th~m)
with full submission ..... (An. N;", 65)
Also, Abu Diiwild reported Ih3i Prophet
Muhammad 4: said,
'"I have bee" gi"ell Ihe Book {l he Noble QUf 'dn}
m,d il,f like ",ilh il."
H. Among of the elcmcms of apostasy is to ridicule
some 3Ct of lhe
Prophet 3: such as polygamy during his time. Allah
1ft says in
Sura" AI-I-! ujunil:
.;r J;i\ ;.l ~ 1; ~i .;oj:. ,j] [h:;.:.t ~) 'i ~,: ZtJi t;';\i; ,
•
.' .. " -''<~ '• l'"'"I' ;,l''l' i''\ p'" . ".'-- ' ":~ . -v- -" " ~ i
_,
"0 J'OIl K'/W helil!l'e! Raise IIOf y our w;us Qbor~
Ihe roice 0/ the
Prophet a:,:. nor speak uloud to him in lulk as y ou
speak aloud to
one anolher. lesl your dud,' should be rendered
fruitless ... hill! you
JH!rceive nol. ~ (AI·t.lujur.il. 2)
Stcond: Warning Against Alhtism
Alheism means disbelief in Ihe Divine Being, denial
of the
Divine laws which were sent with the Messengers
S and disdain
or all the virtues and values pertaimng to Divine
revelation.
Alheism is a kind or apostasy. yet ;1 may be more
dangerous
Ihan apostasy itselr, as will be shown talcr.
Unfortunately, 31heism
has become an independent ideal. which is
adopted by poweful
stales, that impose it on Ihose who arc under their
power through
suppression, and with the power of obligalion and
coercion. These
stales have agents and headquarters every-where,
openly call ing
for atheism and denial of religion and prophets
shamelessy.
Moreover. we lind that these alheist countries,
which adopt the
principles of Mau and Lenm, concentrate their call
on Muslim
countries. This is d ue to the fact that they Know
how the principles
of Ishim have cul tu ral, political, and scient ific
invigorating power,
and that these principles contain ingredients of
comprehensiveness,
and characterist ics of renewal and continuity,
If we trace these countries' call for atheism, we see
how they
fabricate plots and plans in order to propagate
thcir atheistic
principles, and they find a good market for their
blasphemy,
Sometimes they dress Marxism with the garment
of Islam and
say: M u~ammad was the first to call for socialism,
the first to
declare the rich and the poor as equals, and the
first to cancel
coll ect ive ownership. So, he i~ the messenger of
Marxism and the
Prophet of Communism. They sometimes S<lY,
"Religion is
someth ing, and political and economic principles
are another. It
is not logical to confuse or mix religion with
politics, economic
systems, or scientific theories." They frequently
say, "There is no
god. Life is a mere matcriali,tic matter; " Religion is
the opium of
the peoples"; and " Prophets are lial1l and Ihieves,"
To cin:ulate their atheism they use scientific theo
ries and try to
convince those who went astray that they are
established facts. For
example, Ihey circulate Darwin's theory that deals
with the origin
of human life and how it developed from lower
species to higher
ones un til it reached its final destination
represented by man,
although science has proven this theory to be inval
id.
They also circulated Freud"s thCQry that re lates
everything 10
sex and lust, interpreting evcry aspect of man's
conduct in tenns of
sexual mSlinct.
Although atheism is a parI of the concept of
apostasy, it is more
dangerous and has a worse effL'(:t on the i n
dividu~ 1 and society
than any given apostasy, such as embracing
Judaism, Christianity
332
~======================================
~ ~n1nnx
and so on. This is because atheism kills the feeling
of reslXlIIsi bility
in the heart of the atheist, destroys in him belief in
the Unseen and
eternal values and ethical principles. It pushes him
to live like
beasts with no religion to direct him, or conscience
10 guide him.
Aniih iii says in this regard:
, r1 /? ~6t ;:;'\;1 S~ c.r i.Jt Z;~--:: l7 ~G ,
" ",hile ,hoJ/! ,,·110 djsbdi~ .e er,jo y themuf.cs "nd
eut as caft/" "ut,urld
the Fire Iriff In! their abode." (Mu!"mmad, 12)
Islam is clear about apostates. It has prescribed
the punishment
of death by the sword for their insistence on di
sbelief, and for
leaving the clear-cut truth. Imams Al-Bukhiiri and
A~mad report
the Messenger of AlIiih $ as saying, "Kill
whosoe\'ef changes his
religion. " 'slam has prescribed this severe
punishment for apostates
for three rcasons:
I. Not to allow int rigues to aUract the irrcsolutc
and push them
towards apostasy as a response 10 seduction.
2. Not to let a hypocrite attempt to embrace Islam
and then leavc it
in order to encourage the movement of apostasy
or atheism and
plant instability and dis.cord within the Muslim
community.
3. Not to let the power of disbelief grow stronger
and be the
greatest danger facing the Muslim community and
then prepare
for war which WIll be to annihilate Muslims when
suitable
ci rcumstances arise.
To expose the plonings of atheists and their
factionalism, and
conspiracies I am going to present for educators
the following
historical precedents to reveal what atheists want
to do with
Muslim when they find suitable opportunities and
circumstances:
Communist China and Russia annihilated sixteen
million
Muslims: one million a year. Such annihilations are
still
continuing. Similarly, Communist Yugoslavians did
Ihe same to
Muslims as they annihilated one million Muslims
since Yugoslavia
became Communist after World War II untill now.
Gtlnocide and
savage torture against Muslims urI' still
continuing. For example,
they throw Muslims, males and females, into meat
grinders that
turn them into a soggy mixture of flesh, bone, and
blood.
What is practiced nowadays in Yugoslavia can be
witnessed in
all other communist countries. Whe have heard
many times about
the massacres committed by communists in Iraq,
and their
culpability and assassinat ions at the city of Mawsil
(Musil) dunng
the era of Abdul-Karim Qasim, and how they
imprisoned,
murdered, and mutilated the believing callers to
Islam, and the
Muslim community living there. Allah !Ii says
about them:
~ ~'" ;'11 r:. /'!.;Ij~; U~ 1~ ~t .:rJ.! -l ~;li ~ ~
"They respecr neirher consanguiniTY nor treary
loward .• · a believer;
and thou are the ones who are Iransgressors." (Al -
T.wbah, ]0)
Third: Warning Against Prohibited Entert ainment
With its noble legislation and wise principles,
Islam forbids
Mus lims to practice certain types of
entertainment and amuscment
due to th ethical harm to individuals, the economy
of the society,
entity of the state, the dignity of the nation, and the
integrity of the
family. At this point I am going to present for
educators these
types of prohibited entertaiment as a warning.
This is after
presenting exemplary models in avoiding and
relinquishing. May
Allah help us to adopt the moderate way.
I. Playing ba~ k ga mmon: Playing backgammon is
a form of
prohihited entertainment, whether it is based on
bets or j ust fo r
mere entertainment. The proof of Ihis prohibition
comes from
what Imams Muslim and A~mad reported on the
authority of
Buraydah that the Prophet ~ said, "WhoeYN plays
backgammon,
his cose is as if he dyes his hand with the flesh ond
blood oj a swine."
The ra lionale behind this prohibition is that
playing backgammon,
even if it is not with betting, wast~s much of the
play~rs' tim~. Such
a time could have been spent in practicing their
religious,
educational, and worldly duties. Moreover, it may
lead to betting
which is exactly like gambling, while the Muslim
was created to
fulfil a message, convey (a word of trust) and carry
out a duty.
2. Listening to singing lind music: another aspect
of prohibited
entertainment is listening to singing accompanied
by music. The
same ruling applies to singing that is nOI
associated with Islam,
which stirs desire and lust, singing that describes
the shameful
attributes of a certain woman, and singing that
advocates false
slogans and principles. The texts indicating the
prohibition are
as fonows:
Imiims AI-Bukhiiri, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and others
rep-orted the
Prophet ~ as saying, "Certainly thae will be in my
communily
Jome people wh() will Jilstify zina (i. e. adultery
and fornication).
silk. wine, and musical instruments." Ibn ~ibbfin
reported on the
authority of Abu Hurairah 40 that Allilh's
Messenger ~ said. "'By
the end of time, a group of my Ummah will be
Iransfarmed into apes
and pigs. They (the Companions) said, '0
Messenger of Alliih! Are
they Muslims?' He answered, 'Ye.!'. alld Ihey testify
that Ihere is no
god bul AIMh, and thai I am Ihe Me"u nger oj Alllih,
and observe
fmling'. They said, 'So what is it wi th them, 0
Messenger of
Allah?" He said, 'They will keep 10 Ihe use oj
musicul instruments
and tambourines and Ihey will drink wine Imlif
they sleep in lire abyss
of Iheir drinks and enlertainmenl , WId will be
transformed before lire
next morning '."
As for what is permissible and what is lawful
regarding singing
here is the gist of what the late scholar Shaikh
Muhammad AlHamid
said in his thesis " Isbmic Ruling Pertaining 10
Singing,"
based on the sayings of jurists:
"Singing is pennissible if il is used to reactivate
people to bear
hard work, or for amusement during journeys in
the desert, such
as the composition of poems in meter as the
Prophet and his
Companions did while building the Prophetic
Mosque, and
digging the Trench, Also, singing is permissible
while driving
camels in the desert by thc Bedouins. The same
ruling applies to
singing which contains neither mdccency nor a
description of winc
and its taverns, nor love sonnets about living or
dead women, nor
defamatory poems against a Muslim or a Jew or a
Christian
under the Muslims' protection, for singing about
all these things
is prohibited."
If love sonnets are not about a particular person,
they arc
pennissiblc, as Ka'b Ibn Zuhayr recited similarly
lines of poetry in
the presence of the Prophet $. Women singing for
children to help
them sleep is also permissible, and so is the
singing by women on
wedding occasions away from men's hearing.
The rationale of this prohibition is obvious: what
will the person
who pursues the meetings ofpronigate singing,
theaters of rapture,
and the places of entertainment with musical
instruments find? He
only finds shameless and indecent dancing by
professional
prostitutes, glasses of wine being served here and
there, noise
and rioting of the drunk, shameless and insolent
words,
irrespectable intennilling between disengaged
persons sunk in
insolence and dancing, whcre thcre is ncither
manhood nor hOllor.
Shortly, he finds irrespectable freedom and
pennissiveness in the
worst of manners.
Shaikh AI-I-:!'amid says,"This is the scheming of
colonialists,
by which they drown their colonics with floods of
profligate songs,
and by lustful theatres and with wine and women
in order that
their people may not do a duty or rise to call for a
mighty cause.
3. Going to the Cinema, Theatre and watching TV:
In the chapter
PartThro::
entitled " Responsibili ty for Ethical Education"
above, we
mentioned that possessing television sets,
watching them, and
listening to their current programs are among the
greatest of sins.
By the same token going to cinemas and theatres
and plao:x:s of
profligate entertainment is also prohibited for the
following
reasons:
I , One of the objectives of Sharl'a" is to maintain
the lineage and
honor of man. Most of the shows presented aim to
destory
honor and virtue and spoil lineage, so going to
them is
considered to be prohibited, sinful. and may incur
the wrath
of Allah and His Messenger.
2. Imams Malik and Ibn Majah reported the
Prophet # as saying
"No "arm should be inflicted or mutually inflicted
in Islam." And
considering that the current movies and night
plays lcad to
looseness, adultery, and indecency, Muslims are
forbidden to go
to such places in order to maintain the morals of
the individual
and society.
3. 1t is known that what is presented in cinemas.
night theaters, and
places of entertainment is accompanied by musical
instruments,
irrespectable and profligate singing, and dancing.
Considering
that these things are prohibited, as pointed out
earlier, then
entering such plao:x:s and watching their shows
are aspects of
prohibited entertainment. As we are talking about
television
sets, the theater, and cinemas, I want to show to
those who
believe in Al1 iih and His Messenger the following
established
facts.
The Jewish plouings inelude the degradation of
morals in nonJewish
societies. In Protocol No. 13 , we read: " In order to
drive the
non-Jewish people astray we are going to distract
them wi th
di fferent types of entertainment and plays. Such
new pleasures are
going to distract the people's minds from thinking
about matters
which we will differ with them about. Once people
gradually lose
the gift of reasoning they will all agree with us ... "
Some may claim that there is no objection to
watching movies if
the content is useful for the Ummah i. e. if the
content relates to
religion. ethics, or history. However, this claim is
invalid for the
following reasons:
I. The free intermingling of men and women which
is prohibited in
Islam.
2. In historical films or plays, women often appear
displaying their
attractions and there is sometimes seductive
dancing or indecent
songs.
J. Movies and theaters often show corrupt,
immoral and seductive
attractions.
However, we should keep in mind that if a
religious body
supervises a particular place that presents
scientific, social,
educational, and historical films and plays, then
the youth are
permitted to go there and benefit from their
programs. Others may
argue that there is nothing wrong with watching
useful programs
on TV such as educational services and listening to
the Noble
Qur'an and news and refraining from watching the
immoral and
corrupt ones.
In fact this claim has nothing to do with reality or
truth since
the one who watches TV programs usually
watches other
programs. Satan, on the other hand, usually
impresses on man
that the useful program will come immediately
after this one, this
song, or the news, till the program ends. Also if we
suppose that
one can select the presentation during his
pre~ence in the house
then how can he make sure that it will be under
control during his
absence?
Sometimes a jealous father decides to turn off the
TV to prevent
his household from watching immoral shows then
dispute and
differences may creep into the house and among
Ihe members of
lhe family which often result m unpleasant
psychological and
sodal cfTccts lind dangerous consqucn~s_ In facl
dispute arKI
differences mostly lead \0 dIssension and divoTtc
among the
members of the family . Moreover. i( should be
noted that some
parents buy TV's with the intention of preventing
their chidren
from going to movies and immoral places for
entertainment! In
f;lCI. their claim is mvalid for the following
reasons:
l. Evll should not be replaced by another evil.
2. Evil lhal results from Ihe TV is more heinous
than going to
immoral places of amusement since Ihe corruptive
innuence of
TV shows is continuous and daily.
3. Watching TV results in serious social and moml
consequences
owing 10 the intcnnixing of families, ncighbors and
friendswomen
and men, when they pastime watching programs.
In fact
this free mixing often Icads to defaming honor
shedding blood
and spreading dissension.
Watching TV causes many other negative crrccts.
In the field of
health it weakens thc sight: psychologically it may
fill [he heart
wit h lovc for a prctty act ress; educationally, the
chi ldren ncglect
their study; intellectually it disturbs one's memory
and understanding;
and c<;onomiCiilly it wastes time and money.
4. Gambling: Islam prohibits all kinds of gambling,
Gambling
included in spons and games in which profit goes
to One player and
loss to anothcr, dcpending on chance and luck.
Gnmbling is
forbidden by the fol!owing Qur'5nic verses:
rW :X.i .;iL~~[\ p ,:,.: .;:,., ~;; ~G.~"1; ;.,;:.rr; ;:if Wl
t;;,: ~Ji ~~ ,
A'; ;$";; ~_ ~jG ~ ~ ;T~.rj~ i;C.:il ;.t; eM J '>:'i'i ~; q
$ ~#
.I. 'Y~ " . ~ ~-<- -- <, "{ ~~ f ...4' ~I i/'~ ~,
"0 you whu he/iere! Inroxicants (all kinds of
alcoholic drinks),
lind gllmbling, lind AI-Amllh, lind AI-A 7.lIIm
(IIrro"'! for seek ;nx luck
or derision) 11ft an aOOminalion 0/ Shailan's
(SIlIan) handiK'ork_ So
III'oid ( .,'ri(ll), 1111) Ihtu ( II/)ominlll;on) in
OI'der thllt ),ou ma)' be
saccess/ul. Shaitan (Satan) ",all ts ollly 10 u ciu
tllmity Illld hatred
beIK'UII you ",ith i"toxiclI"t .• (alcoholic drinks)
IIml gambling, Ilnd
hi"der you from the rememManct of Allah and
from A .• -Sulat
(,"ayer) . So, ... ill J'/lU "01 lhe" IIbSla;,,?" (AI
.Ma·idah. ')0.91)
The Objectives of ProhIbiting Gambling:
1. Gambhng makes a person dependent on chance,
luck and vain
wishes. taking him away from honest labor and
seriOUS work.
2. Gambling destroys families. wa,tes wealth.
impoverishes the
... ·ell -to--<lo, and humiliates dignified people.
3. It excites enmity and hatred among gambler.;
since it is a means
of taking the property of other.; through unlawful
means.
4. It bars persons from the remembrance of Alliih
and from prayer
and leads the gamblers to the wornt of moral~ and
customs.
S. 11 causes anxiety, illness, addict ion and
hostility. Moreover. it
often leads to crime, suicide and madnes~ .
• ·orms of gambling
- Lottery is a form of unlawful gambling since it
depends on chance
and luck. Therefo re, there should be no aputhy
towards il.
- Betting is also among the forms of unlawful
gambling; it either
takes place on playing football, racing with
pigeons, or horse
racing playing chess, etc. In these games, two or
more per.;ons
specify a reward for the winner. However, it
should be noted that
games that are related to Jihad and war lik.e racing
on horseback
and camelback are excluded from this prohibition.
In fact, while Islam prohibilS cerlain forms of
sports and games
for their spiritual, psychological, moral, and social
harms, ;t
permits many kinds of games for Muslims as a
source of enjoyment
and recreation that at the same time perpare them
for worship and
other duties. Imam Al-Bukhiiri narrated in Al-Adab
Al-Mufrad
that the Companions of the Prophet used to throw
watermelons to
eaeh other, but in times of seriousness they proved
themselves to be
the true men of action. Ali Ibn Abu "!"iilib I/j, said,
"Minds get
tired, as do bodies, so treat them with some kind of
humor."
Accordingly, there is no blame on Muslims to seek
enjoyment
and pleasure through permissible sports or play,
but the pursuit of
pleasure should not become the goal of life so that
they devote
themselves to it. Therefore, Islam permits the
following sports:
a. Running ra ces: Islam permits running
competitions. The
Companions of the Prophet 3: used to race on fOOl
and the
Prophet e used to encourage them. The Prophet 3.
himself raced
with his wife 'Aishah in order to please her, to
enjoy himself, and
to set an example for his Companions.
b. Wrestling: the Prophet ij; once wrestled with a
man called
Rukiinah "who was well-known for his strength"
and the Prophet
threw him down more than once." Narrated by
Abu Dawud
e. Archery: the Prophet & once passed by a group
of his
Companions who were competing in archery. He
encouraged them
saying: "Shoo( and I am wilh you." However, the
Prophet g:
warned archers against using callie, chickens and
the like as targets
for practice. Imams AI-Bukhari and Muslim
narrated from
'Abdullah Ibn 'Umar 4;1. that he once saw a group
of people
using cattle as targets in archery and told them,
"The Prophet ./j:
cursed the one who takes anything possessing life
as a target."
d. Judin thro .. ;ng: we mentioned earlier that the
Prophet if;,
allowed some Abyssinians to display their skills
with spears in the
Mosque and he allowed his wife 'Aishah to watch
their show.
c. HOl"SI.'back riding: At·Tabarftni reported with a
good chain of
transmission that the Messenger of AlIiih $ said,
"Any aelioll
wilhoUi Ihe Remembrance of Alliih is eilher II
diversion Or
forgelfalness excepting four acts, walking fram
lorgel 10 larget
during archery praclice, I, ai,ring a IlOrJe, playing
willr one's wife
ltotl5ehold, I",d learning how 10 swim, "
J.'. Hunliul:: AlIiih lf'!; says:
.I. (;" '~'~ G «~I 'i--: '~_1: •. , . ~"~"".~ ·(:-1 r::,~:
"a- '''( 1· ...... ,M 1 ll..
'I( :.r"- -I" • ~ tr~ ~ r ,.. ~.rJ - r"" ...... l'
"~u"'ful fI1 you i. (1M pursuil of) .. 'Uler-gume "ud
ilS me for food
_ for (he benefit of }'"UTse/veJ and those who
travel, hut forbidden is
(the pu,sui, of) land-game a,f fonK as )'ou ure in u
state oJ lh,um (for
flujj or 'Um,uh).,." (AI.Ma'idah, 96)
g. Playing chess: the Companions of the Prophet 3;,
the
successors, and jurists have IWO dilTerent
opinions regarding the
legali ty of playing chess_ Some view il as an
unlawful game. They
are Ali Ibn Abu Tiilib, Ibn Umar, Ibn Abbas, Imam
Malik, Abu
1~lanifah , and A ~mad Ibn rlanbaL Others
consider it to be lawful.
Among them are Abu Hurairah, Sa'td Ibn Al-
Musayyab, Sa'id Ibn
Ju bayr, Ibn Sirin and Imam Ash-S hiifi 'i. Those
who maintain the
permissibility of playing chess say that the original
principle is the
permissibility of aClS if no text is fou nd
prohibiting it. Moreover. il
differs from backgammon in two aspects: first,
backgammon is a
game of chance and therefore is companble to
divining with
arrows while chess is a gamc of skill and strategy
that may be
compared 10 archery. Second: chess may be used
as training fo r
war while backgammon is JUSI wasting time and
effon for which
Ihere is no avai l. However, playing chess is
permissible only if the
fo llowing three conditions arc met:
1. One should nOI gCI so absorbed m it that he
delays his prayer.
2. There should be nO betling gambling involved.
342 Po" Three
'J. The players should not utter obscenities or
vulgarities. Thus, if
any of these condit'ons is not met, it will be
considered as ~artim
prohibited.
t"ourll1: Ilem Worship
One of the most significant matters which
instructors should
consider is waTtling the child against leaving
himself to be driven
to blind imitation without reasomng or renection.
This is to be
kept in mind because of the following reasons:
- Blind imitation is the token of psychological and
spiritual defeat
and disbelief in oneself; It also means that the
personality has
dissolved and self-identity has been lost in the
entity of that
whom the person loves and imitates.
- Blind imitation tempts marly people to the
charms of this world.
Undoubtedly, this leads to self-conceit and pride.
- Blind imitation of ill-natured manners, inevitably
leads to a life of
decay, unsteadiness, and looseness.
- Blind imitation drives nations and people to
inevitable
destruction. This is supported by the followmg
texts:
At-Tirmidhi reported the Prophet $ to have said.
"Let none of you
be a blind imitator, who says: 'J am with people; if
they do right I do
righl and if Illey do wrong. I do wrong'. BIll yOlI
shoilid make
youru/;-es do right if people do right and a.·oid
wrong if Ihey do
wrong. " Imams AI· Bukhari and Mushm reported
the Prophet $
as saying; '"The Jews and ChriSlians do no/ dye. so
be difJeremfrom
Ihem IlIUI dye." Imam Al-Bukhari reported Alhlh's
Messenger ~
as saying. '"AI/tilr Iras cursed men who imilille
women and women
who imila/e men. ,. The prevention which thesc
Prophetic traditions
involve pertains to the imitation of non-M uslims
in conduct,
m1l11ners. conventions, and clothing.
As for imitating non-Muslims in what may bcnerit
the MU81im
oommunity scientifically and promote it
economically and culturally,
such as benefiting from the sciences of medicine,
engineering
and physics, and secrcls of the alOm, up-lo-da te
means of wilrfilr/,
and Ihe like, such imitation is unanimously
permissible, for II is
mentioned in the general meaning of the Qur'anic
leX! lhal reads:
.L ; ' : " ~·r:·.1 \! , '.1 i'- 1'}.
"( ,Y '"" - r-r !).4 ~ 7
"And muk~ ready ugU;nJl Them all )'ou cun "i
po'''''' '' (AI_Anflil, (0)
Likewise, we read the following Prophetic
tradition: "Wisdom is
Ihe long-cherished ",lsh of every wise lIlall: if Ire
finds iI, he kcomcs
Ihl' fim person entil/ed ro il_" Here arc some of the
most significant
aspects of blind imitation practiced by our women:
- They go out clothed but yel scantily clad. with
their faces unveiled
and f1unting their finery. The Prophet stated that
they would not
enter Paradise, nor would they smell its fragrance.
Imam Muslim
reported the Prophet as saying, "Two categories of
people I ha~e
nOI $ffn yel: People holding whips like the tails of
cows, who heal
people Iherewilh i.e. lyranl5. and WOffiCII who are
clOlhed but yel
naked, seducing and being .<educed, their Irair
slyled like Ihe humps
of coml'ls; such women will 1101 enter Pu,adise or
even smell its
fragrance thorlgh itsfragrallce cault! he reached at
u di.!/(mce affive
hWldred years walkillg."
- They wear black clothes at funerals. imItating
Christians.
- They congregate at wedding parties listenmg to
singers and
watching dancers.
- They appear unveiled before men for whom it is
not pennissible
to see them such as brothers-in-law and cousins.
Regarding men, thcy let their hair grow long,
appear
effemina tc, and imitate woman. These are some of
the most
mamfest aspocls of bl ind imitation practiced by
our young mcn.
Interest ingly enough SQmc of these young men
protest, saying: as
the Messenger let his haIr grow long until it passed
his ears, how
could scholars disapprove of the appearance of
those who let their
hair grow long? In reply, 1 say:
1. In case it is proven that the Prophet let his hair
grow long, no
doubt he never used to go out to people with his
head uncovered;
he used to go out wi th his turban ~ the crown of
prophecy and
the emblem or Islam.
2. Letting hair grow long has nowadays become an
emblem of
unsteadiness and a symbol of looseness. So how
could a sane
man say that Islam could be satisfied with its
young men
increasing the number of Ihe people of
unsteadiness and
looseness? In this connection, the Prophct is
reported on the
authority or Abil Va'lii to have said "He whQ
increases Ihe
number 0/ some secl is one of Ihem."
3. Is It not that the phenomenon or letting hair
grow long down the
shoulders indicates the disgraceful imitation of
women? And
AlIiih !li! according to some traditions, has cursed
men who
imitate women.
4. How could those who let their hair grow long
agree to belong to
the dirty Hlse<:t called scarab, as they imitate It HI
~hape and
appearance? AlIiih I1'i says: "And indeed we hlll·e
dearly honored
the seeds of Adum."
Firth: Warning Alla in'll Keeping Bad Company
No one can deny that bad company is one of the
factors
contributing to the psychological and ethical
deterioration of the
child, particularly if he is slow·witted, with Shaky
Faith and of
unsteady morals. Thus, he is quickly influenced by
accompanying
people with bad characters, and acquires the
lowest habits and the
ugliest qualities_
In the first part or this book in the Chapter entitled
"Causes and
Treatment of Children's Waywardness" we sai d
that Islam directed
parents and <..>d ucators through its educational
teachings to watch
their children carefully especially during the age of
discrimination
and adolescence in order to know those whom
they accompany.
Sixw: Waming Against Bad M~nners
Earlier, in the Chapters " Responsibility for Ethical
Education"
and " Responsibi lity for Physical Education", we
said that there are
certain widespread phenomena among children,
which educators
should tra in them to avoid. In the Chapter ·'
Responsibility for
Ethical Education", we have eJ:amined:
a. TeJling lies
b. Stealing
c. Abuse and Insults
d. Unsteadiness and Looseness.
And in the Chapter '· Responsibility for Physical
Education, we
tackled:
u. Smoking
b. Masturbation
c. Intoxicants and Drugs
d. Adultery and Sodomy
Set·enth: Warning Against Unlawful Things
According to the scholars of the Princip les of Law,
the
unlawful is what the Shartah definite ly forbids \0
such an extent
that he who goes against it deserves painful
punishment in the
Hereafter or legal penalty in this present life, such
as homicide,
commItting adultery, wine-drinkmg, gambhng, and
devouring the
property of orphans.
Thus, as expected, the I'rophct $. urged educators
to habituate
their children from lhcir early years, 10 follow
what has been
OTdained and avoid what has been forbidden Ibn
Jarir and Ibn AlMundhir
reported that the Prophet 3. said "Aci in obediel
lCl' /0
AINih and ward ofl disobedience 10 A/Mh, mrd
order your children 10
follow .. ·hal is ordained ond avoid what is
forbidden/or lhi" prfJIec/s
them agoins/ Ihe Fire."
Thus educators should know that what is lawful is
what Alliih
has made lawful, and that what has been
prohibited is what Allah
has made prohibited. Consequently, no human
being can prohibit
what Allah has made permissible, nor can he make
lawful what
Allah has made prohibited. Whosoever commits
any of these sins,
in fact goes beyond the limits, and violates lhe
right of the LQrd in
making legislation; and whosoever approves of
such actions
undoubtedly takes him as partner 10 AlIiih and
thus is an atheist
and a disbeliever in the Qur'iin. Alliih iii says:
."I{. ~ ".. . .q.,.,: ;. r·'1" ~ ...·.,,...",. ill~~· ('"+~" Cf:T'~-
'.~r' ~{;. "-'\" -·' "i r·X }1."
"Or hare they porlners >I';lh Alllih (false god.f)
K'/IO hare ill.dituted
for them a uligioll which Alliih has not n~dained?"
(Ash·Shura, 2])
The Noble Qur'iin condemns the People of the
(loQk the Jews
and Christians, who gave the power of legislation
to their rabbis
and monks_ Alliih n says:
1-' 1 ~" -/-- ....... \ ~ '1i' <\ '.' ,... ...... ·l ",/.,. ., A... .... i
!~/ji}.
~\ ......... I""'.J'"" ""-" ~" ~ """ .... ~ ~"""".J " t •. 'JJ
r"~~ ... ~ 1"
".{I ."--,y,r;.' \,...;..; ,,, ../. ._, . y~"~,l "..:J l"''I- "" """":.0"
''+·"' l,.~J {':. ,_\ ·';1i l
"They (Je>l's alld Chris/ialls) look their rabOO and
their mOllks /0
be thtir lords besides Allih (by oheyillg them ill
thillgs >l'hich they
math 10"'/111 or ullla""/111 accordillg to their
OWII desires ... i,hollt beillg
orde,~d by AlIih), alld (th~y also took as thei,
l.ord) the Messiah,
SOli of Maryam (MIl'y), ... hik they (Je ..... and
Ch~istilllls) ... ere
commanded (ill tb~ Taura/ (Toruh) and the Injee/
(Gospel)) to
"'orsbip 1I0n~ but On~ Itah (God - AlIlib) La ilaba
ilia Hu ... a (none
bas the right to be "'orshipped bllt lie). Praise and
glory is to lIim,
(flU ahove i, lie) fwm having 1M parlnn, Ihey
associate ( with
llim}." (At·Tawb;l.h. 31)
In Ihis conle ~ l . we are going to present 10 you
the most
signifICant of the prohibited things to serve as
guidance, hoping
that this may contribute to the task of warmng and
di~tion to
the best way.
I. Prohibited Foods and Drinks
The prohibition of carrion i. c. dead meat and
blood and the
Oesh of swine and what has been slaughtered in
the name of other
than AlIiih, and the animal that died by ~trangling.
and the animal
that was beaten to death, and the one that toppled
to death or
gored to death and that eaten by wild beasts of
prey and what has
been slain for the sake of idols. Allah 18 says
(prohibiting them):
-;;!;::ii) ;j;';i~ ;i;P'i"G '!l. ~i ~ 11 c; ,..,AI ~ Pi) ;::'--H
~ ..;:.;.. "
1: ~1 ~ b.t c;.:; foJ1 ~ -1, ? i ;ji ~; t:.I,1I;
" Forbiddell to you (for food) au: AI-Maiwh (the
dead animals cattle-
MilSt no/ slaughteud) , Mood, the j1e~h of SWillt,
and ,hat all
K'meh AllUh's Name has nOl been mentioned
while slaughtering, (thm
l4'mch has Men slaughtered IU a sacrifice for
others thall Alldh, 01' has
heen slaughtered for idols) and that "'hieh has
heen kiJled by
strangling, or by a f'iolent blow, or by a headlong
faJl, or by the
goring of horns - and that which has betn (partly)
eaten by a wild
animal- unles>' you are able to slaughter it
(hefOTe its death) - fUld
that which;s sacrificed (slaughtered) on An-Nusab
(stone altars)."
(AI.Mii·i-dah, J)
Carrion i.e. dead meal is the flesh of animals and
fowls that die
naturally. The rationale behind prohibition is that
all animals and
fowls that die of natural causes may die because of
chronic or
incidental diseases, or because of eating poisonous
plants. Thus,
undoubtedly, eating such meat is harmful.
'Flowing blood' is the blood that flows out of the
anima!
whether it is caused by slaying or whatever. The
rationale
behind this prohibition is that hlood IS
incompatible with natural
taste, and it is the storehouse of microbes, so, it is
as hannful as
dead meat.
The flesh of swine in most strictly prohibited in
Islam because it
IS naturally fil thy and detestable. The rationale
behind this
prohibition is that it damages health and implants
weakness of
jealousy for honor. It harms one's health because
eating the nesh
of swine, as modern m(>(]icine has proven, causes
the exis tence of
the deadly microbe, and creates instability in the
stomach and the
digestive system, for its nesh is not digested.
Anyhow, science may
in the future discover more hanns of this nesh
other than what we
already know.
Thus, the flesh of swme implants weakness in
jealously fo r
honor because the nesh of animals, as medical
specialists state.
contain substances which may transfer to the
person who eats them
i.e. the qual ities of the an imal itself. Dr. ~abri AI-
Qabbani cites this
in "Tubibak" (Your Doctor) Magazine no.32, p. 189.
What has been acclaimed to other than Allah is the
animal
that has been slain while mentioning a name other
than Allah-s
over it, such as the names of the idols AI-Lat and
AI·'Uzti.. Such
animals are prohibited for upholding monotheism
and for
fighting against ploy theism and the
manifestations of idolatry,
Some other types of carrion are:
• Stranglcd: the animal that has been strangled by
some means.
- Beaten: the animal that has been beatcn to death
with a stiek or
the like.
- Toppled: the animal that has fallen from a high
place and died,
- Gored: the animal that has been gored to death
by another
animal.
_ Eaten by Wild Beasts: the animal that a wild
beast of prey has
eaten part thereof and that caused its death. The
mtionale behind
the prohibition of the aforementioned types is that
harm is
expected from eating them. and the prohibition is a
reprimand
and blaming of the owner of the animal, if he
neglects it. As for
the prohibition of the animal eaten by wild beasts,
it is forbidden
because it is hannful to man, and so he should
refrain from
eating what wild beasts leave behind: Allah 'Ii!
says,
~ i~' ~ (;"}" ~.J ,
"And indeed We hare hOllored ,he Children of
Adam •.. " (At_l"a, 70)
- What has been slain on the standards 'for the
idols': standards
for idols are idols and stones that used 10 be
installed around
the Ka'bah to be glorified as signs of the Taghul i.e.
what is
worshipped apart from AlliJ.h. The people of the
pre-Islamic
period used to slay animals over and beside such
standards,
aiming to get close to their gods and idols. Slaying
animals over
and beside such stones makes the slain animal
prohibited.
whether the slayer mentions a name other than
Allah's over it or
not, since he intends to glorify the Toghu/. It is
prohibited for the
same pervious reason: intended for other than
Allah. The Law of
Islam has exempted fish and locusts from the
prohibited carrion,
and liver and spleen from blood that is prohibited.
Imams AshShiill't.
Ahmad and Ibn Majah reported that the Prophet,
on the
authority of Ibn Umar, said, "T .... o types of
corrlOfI ha"e b€en
made lawful 10 us: fish and /ocus/J and IWO Iypes
o/blood: Ihe liver
and Ihe spleen."
All these prohibited things are only forbidden in
case of having
the merit of choice. But when being constrained,
they are lawful to
eat on two conditions: I. The eater must not be
ineqUitable i.e.
satisfy the desire of eating. 2 He must not be
aggreSSive I.e.
surpassing lhe limit or necessity. This is the
meaning pinpointed in
the following Qur'iinic verse:
. t; ~ 't' 'I ,-' .'( fi. { j C' "' :..:..ii -:'i' '.lIt' ;: --jl >', .1< -.-
\3\ ~ ~- . .r--<r' ..... _~~ .J #'7r--'r -' - i . r~.r
"lie has forbidden )'OU only ,be Muitoh (dead
animals), and
blood, and the flu h of 5"'illl', and Ihat ",hieh is
slaugh/tired as a
sar:rijiu for others IllIm Alliih (or has bU ll
slaughttudfor idols, Oil
",kif" Alliih's Name hos /10' been nlml;oned ,.,hile
sfuughtering ). But
if one ;, fOTud by nt!ceSJily ,.,i,hou, wilful
disobedit!nce nor
mmsgressing due limits, then Illeu is flO sin "n him.
Truly, A{Iii"
is Ofl-Forgiring, Mosl Merciful." (AI ·Daqarah, 173)
The rationale here is to protect life against
destruction and there
is no sin on the onc who is in dire necessity.
2. The prohibition of eating the flesh of
domesticated donkeys, and
every wild beast having fangs, and every wildbird
havmg claws.
Imam AI-Bukhari reported the Prophet $. to have
forbidden
eaticg the flesh of domc~ticated donkeys on the
Day of Khaybar.
Imams AI-BukMri and Muslim reported the
Prophet ~ to have
forbidden eating every wild beast having fangs,
and every wild bird
having claws." Wild beast refers to every
predatory animal having
fangs, such as lions, tigers, wolves and the like.
wild birds refer to
every fowl having injunng claws, such as vulture,
falcon, hawk,
kite and the like.
3. The prohibition of what has been slaul:hlered
unlawfully: as killing
animals by electric shock, or letting them be
slaughtered by the
hands oran atheist, a Magian or an idolater. Lawful
slaughtering
is to be carried oUI on the following conditions:
I. The animal must be slaughtered with a sharp
instrument that
causes blood to be shed and cuts the jugular veins.
2. Slaughtering must be on the throat, including
the cutting of the
gullet, the windpipe. and the two jugular veins. the
laner being
two thick veins at both sides of the neck.
3. It is necessa ry to mention the Name of Allah
.over
slaughtered animal al the begimnng of the process.
Allah WI
says,
~ ~j: .~ ;r i4 ::I; ~ r:i J.:l ~ (;.0 ,
"So ~al ofthar (m~at) on ... hieh AII"h's Nam~ has
been pronounced
("'hile slaughtering Ihe animal), ijyou are
belie~ers in His A)"al
(proo!., ~"idenas, OUstS, I~ssons, siKnJ, rHe/arion!
, ttc.)." (AIAn
·am. tt8)
The rationale behind mentioning the Name of
AlliJ.h is Ihat the
slaughtercr does not do this as a means of
supremacy over these
creatures, but he does it with permission from the
Creator~.
Thus, he hunts, slaughters, and eals in the Name of
All.lh.
4. The slaughtcrcr must be a Muslim or one of the
People of the
Book i.e. a Jew or a Christian. According to the
majority of the
four Imams, the slaughtered animal is not lawful if
the
slaughterer is an atheist, Magian or an idolater, or
following
a Ba!inite creed, such as Ihose that made Imam Ali
.to or the
Fa!imid Caliph Al-~ iikim bi AmriHah, as gods.
The condition Ihat the slaughterer must be a
Muslim, this is
because he follows the religion of the Truth, which
has been sent
with M u~ammad 3:,. The slaughtercr may be one
of the People
of the Book because Allah 12t says:
~ ? ~ ;t3~ :tl ~ ~ \.$) £4r ~.J ,
"Made lawful 10 j'ou this day lIre AI- T"YJ'ib"t ( ,,1/
kinds of Hall
( I""'ful) fomls, which Alliih has made f«wful (me,,'
of sl"ughtered
ealab/~ animals, milk products, f"u , ~egerabfeJ
andfruits). The
foml (slaughtered callf~, ~a'ubf~ animals) of ,h~
people of rhe
352 Part Thr«
Suiptur~ (J~"'J and Christians) is la ... /ul to you
alld yours is
la ... / ul to ,h~m ... " (AI_Mi'idah. S)
According to the conditions mentioned earlier
concerning the
slaughtered animal:
- It is prohibited to eat from what has been
slaughtered unlawfully
such as killing animal by electric shock or the like,
because the
animal was strangled and was not slaughtered by a
sharp
Instrument.
_ It is alS<) prohibited to eat from what is
slaughtered by the hands
of an atheist, a Magian, or an idolator, because it
was
slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah.
_ It is not lawful to eat animal meat preserved in
cans, if il is
imported from atheistic countries, which do not
believe in the
Creator or Divine religions.
_ Such canned meat is alS<) unlawful, ifi! is proven
that it has been
obtained from unlawfully slaughtered animals, if
Ihcy were
strangled or electrically shocked for example.
_ Fats or cooking butter preserved in cans are not
lawful, if it is
proven they were mixed with the grease or milk of
pigs.
_ Fish preserved in cans is permissible to eal, for
the Prophet $; is
reponed by Compilers of Hadith to have said, when
he was asked
about sea water: "liS water is pur/!, and iu dead is
lawful."
4. Taking wine ynd drugs: taking wine and drugs is
unanimously
agreed upon by scholars to be unlawful. Earlier in
the chapter,
"Responsibility for Physical Education", we cited
all the harms
which wine and drugs cause. We alS<) cited in
detail the lawful
ruling on taking both of them. Now, we need to
deal with wine
made from things other than grapes and dates. Is it
lawful to drink
it or not? Imam Muslim reported that the Prophet
$. was asked
about the drinks that wert made of honey, maize,
or barley; and
upon that he answered: "Every in /Oxicam is ",iIII'.
and ",ine is
prohibiled.·· According to thi s: all products that
are made from
fruits or barley, or from any other substancc, are
wine- lik e, as long
as they mtoxieate and befog the mind. Im :'im~ AI-
Bukh"ri and
Muslim reported 'Umar 40 to have declared on the
pulpit of the
Prophet t;., /\homr i.c. wine is everything whieh
befogs the mind."
As long as such products intoxicate, they are
unlawful in any
amount. Imams Ahmad, AbU. D5wud and At-
Tirmidhi reported
the Prophet :I: as saying, "Ally tiring Ihal
inlOxicOlI'S in large
amounts is also ulIl""'/I,1 in small amOllnls."
The Prophet not only forbade drinking wine in any
amount, but
he also forbade buying, selling, and trading in it,
even wi th nonMuslims;
thus it is not lawful for Muslims to import, export,
make,
or carry wine. Th us the Prophet :I: said, "AIMh has
cursed ",ille 0111/
Ihe one who drilliu it, the 0111' who sen 'l's it. Ihl'
Ottl' who sells it, Ihe
one for whom il is sold, tlte one for wlrom it is
pressed, thl' 0111' 11'/10
carries it. the 0111' for whom il is carried, and Ihe
one who gains ils
pricl'." Narrated by Abu Diiwud and At-Tirmid hi.
By the same token. Ishtm ordains that the places in
which wine
is served and the people who drink it must be
avoided. Imams A~mad
and At-Tirmidhi reported 'Umar Ibn Al-Kha!!ab ~
to have S<lid. " I
heard Albih's Messenger ij; saying. "Let him who
believes in Alldlr
olld the Last Day not sil at a tabll' on which wine is
sen ed."
II. Prohibited Clothing, Adornment and
AI/IICaranee
With its fair instructions. Islam permits Muslims to
appear in
handsome and dignified clothes before oth ers. For
such reasons
Allah has created every sort of adorment, clothes
and vestures
which man may enjoy. Alhlh 18 says:
<f: 'iL-p ~:~;:.. .s;;' ~ $::')< OJ' l ;,t; -.;::i ,
"0 C/tildrtn of Adorn! We /tare bestowed raimenl
upon you /0
cover youru/r/'s (SCrel'lI your prirllU par/~) Q/ld
«.f ulludommenl.,."
(AI.A'rar, 26)
Additionally, Al-Bukhiiri reported the Prophet 3:
to have said,
Eat, drink, get dfl!ssed and give on eharilY all wilh
neilila
eXlravagance nor pride. "
Caring for the appearance of a Muslim, Islam
orders him to be
clean, as cleanliness is the basis of every
adornment and good
appearance in it self. Ibn I-.! ibbiin reported Alliih's
Messeger $ to
have said: "Be clean,for Islam is cleM."
In its consideration for good appearance, Islam
calls for
cleanliness, self·beautificalion in places where
people meet, al the
times of Friday prayers, and the two feasts (Eids).
Abii Dawud
reported Alliih's Messenger ~ to have said, "Lei
anyone of you. if
he Jws Ihe abilily, make 1>\'0 garments for Friooys
olher Ihan the 11110
garmenls made for his work."
As Islam cares about proper appearance, it also
urges the
Muslim to tidy his hair and beard. In his book ( AI-
Muwalla"),
Imam Malik reported that a man came to the
Prophet 3. with his
hair and beard untidy. The Messenger waved to
him with a signal
meaning he should lidy his hair. The man did and
then returned.
Thereupon, the Prophet 3: said, "lJ not Ihis belfer
Iilon Ihal any
one of you come,' wilh his hair ond beord unlidy
like 0 devil?" Islam
nol only pennits all these things hut it also urges
proper
appearance and reprimands those who forbid or
prevent them.
Allah ti says:
~ ~~I ~ ;~:~Ii; .,~ (;.1 ~I ~i i.::j r;' z:. j t
"Say (0 Muhllnlmlld ~) Who htuforbidden the
IldorlltiQn Hlilh
clorhes gi.tn by Allah, Hlhirh lie has JWoduu dfor
His sla~/'s.u"d AITlliyyibal
(all ki"ds of IIlllul (/Ilwful) lhings) of food~" (Al.A'
rar, 32)
But Islam forbids Muslims to use certain kinds of
adornment,
clothing, and appearance fo r valid reasons. 0
educators! Here are
the most significant of these prohibitions:
I· The prohibition of gold and sih'er for men: Imam
Muslim
reported that Allah's Messenger .$ saw a gold ring
on the hand of
a man. He took it ofT and threw It down, and solid,
'"This is as if a
matI Qf YOII liaS wken ajirebrand and pili il on 10
his "and. '" After the
Prophet had gone, people said to the man, 'Take
your ring and
make use ofi!.· But he said: 'No, by AIlIih I will
never take it after
the Messenger of Allah has thrown it away." Imam
AI·Bukhilri
reported Hudhaifah 4f" \0 h;we said, "AII;lh's
Messenger ~
forbade us to drink or cat for silver utensils, or to
wear silk and silk
brocade, or to sit on them."
The silk that is prohibited is pure and nalllra] silk,
which IS
produced by silkworms, but art ificial silk is not
prohibited.
Similarly anything that is made of silk ml~cd with
another
material is e ~emptcd from prohibition even
though they may be
equal m weight. The same ruling applies to
embroidering and
sewing using silk. Abu D;i.wud reported Ibn
Abbas" to have said.
"Allah's Messenger 3 forbade only the garment
wholly made of
silk i.e. pure silk but using pure silk is lawful only
when neces,ary
for e~ample, treating scabies or having a shelter
against dcSlruCilvc
cold or heat or covering a shameful part if the
person does not
find anything else to cover it with. Imam Al-
Ilukhiiri reported
Anas 4f" to have s;,id, "The Prophet e: gave Az-
Zubayr and
Alxlur-RaJ:tmiin permis,ion to wear silk because
they ha,1
scabies. "
Gold and silver are only prohibited for men. They
are, however,
permissible for women to wear. The reason why
the wearing of
gold and silk is prohibited for men is to keep them
away from
being effeminate, which is incompatible with
manhood, to fight
against opulency that leads 10 looseness, to uproot
pride and
Port Th"",
boasting, and to maintain tile international
monetary balance of
gold, A woman is exempted from th is as a matter
of consideration
for her femininity, recognition of her instmct to be
bea ut iful,
responding to her nature of loving adornment, and
excitement fo r
her husband when he sees her in the best ti llery.
2. The prohibition of man imit at ing ~'oman and
"ice versa: Imam AIBukhari
reported Ibn Abb.'is 40 to have said, "Allah's
Messenger
e cursed men who imitate women and women who
imItate men:'
3. The prohibition of wearing garments for
ostentation and pride:
Im~ms Ahmad, Abu Dfiwud and An-Nasai
reported the Prophet
3- to have said. " Whoever lI"ears a garmel1l for
the sake 0/
ostentation. AIMh will dress him in u garment 0/
humilily on Ihe Day
oj Resurrection,"
By garment for ostentation we mean wearing
fancy and
expensive dothes wi th the intention of showing
ofT and boasting
before people. No doubt tllis incites pride and
conceit, and Alliill
docs not love anyone who is always conceited, and
ever-boast ful.
Imams AI-Bukhari and Muslim reported the
Prophet $ to have
said, "'Whael'Cr drags his garment/ar the sake 0/
canceil, Alllih will
nOl look aI him On the Doy 0/ Resurrection ."
4. The prohibition of altering Alhi.h's creation:
Imiim Muslim
reported Alliih's Messenger ~ to have cursed the
woman who
tattoos and the one who is tattooed, and the
woman wllo shortens
teeth and thc onc whose teeth arc shortened.
Tattooing is the act of deforming the face and
hands wi th a bille
color and ugly drawUlgs. Shortening teeth is the
act of sharpcning
the teeth and making them short, like what
happens today in
plastic surgery. Bllt there are cxceptions in case of
operations that
arc necessary because of physiological and
psychological pain,
such as remo~in g the appendix or the tonsils,
S. The prohibition or sha.ing the bu rd: Imam
Muslim reported Abu
Hurairah '*' to have said, "AlI,ih's Messenger oj:
said . "Trim Ille
mous/{Jclle and lei Ihe beard grow long. allil be
different [ rom Ihe
MaXlans." And [milm Allmad reported on the
authority of Abu
Hurairah that the Prophet a:.: said, " Lei Ihe beard
grow ond Irim
Ihe mo"Slachl', atld do nOl ;nli/Ille Ihl' Jews
1IIIIIIhe Chrislians ."
6. The prohibi tion of using gold and si[,cr utensils:
Imam Mus[im
reported on the authority of Umm S.1[amah that
the Prophet 3:
said, "Whoever eats or drinks f rom gold alld
sifloer !UellSils, infaci
drags Ihe Hell-Fire into his belly."
7_ The prohibition of statues and figurl'S: [miims
AI-Bulr.:hari and
Muslim reported the Prophet 3: to have said, '''nil'
mOSI se"erely
tormented Jlf!op/e on Ihe Day of ReSZlrreClion are
those who make
figu res (pictures). Imams Al·Buk hari and M us[im
also reported the
Prophet $ to have said, ., The onge/s do nm ellier
Ihe house In ",hic·h
IllerI' (Ire dogs Or Slailles. "
An these Prophetic traditions obviously indicate
that statues
and Ilgures are prohibited, whether they arc
embodied or not.
whc\her they have shadows or not, and whethcr
they are made as a
proression or not, as they all involve the imltation
of what AIl"h
IjQ creatcs. But making Ilgures or lre<:s or any
objt"Ct contaimng
no soul is exempted from the prohibition. The two
Imams AIBukhari
and Muslim reported Sa'ld Ibn Abu A[- ~ asan to
havc
S<lid, "A man came to Ibn Abbas and said, I am a
man who earns
his living (rrom things) made by his hands, and I
m;lke th(..'SC
figures." Therupon, Ibn Abbas said, " [ will not
answer you
exccpl with what I heard from AlIah'S MC!!senger.
I he:.rd him
say, . Whoel'i'r makes /I figllrf'. AIMIt willlOrmt'n1
lu'm until he blows
a SOli/ 11110 ii, bUI he will never blow il.' Then,
the man became
terribly frightened. So, Ibn Abbas said to him. 'Woe
to you' if
you insist on doing this, then make figures or trees
and every
thing containing no so ul.'
Children's toys Me exempted from the prohibition
of statues,
because they involve no intcntion of glorificat ion
or pride. Imams
AI-Bu~~ari and Muslim reported 'Aishah, the
Mother of the
Believers, to have said, "I used to play with girls i.e.
dolls shapt'<i as
girls at the house of the Messenger of AlUih, My
girl friends used to
come to me, and they were afraid of the Prophct."
But the
Messenger of Allfih was pleased that they came to
play with mc,"
Taking pictures with mi!chines i,e, photography, is
denoted in
the literal meaning of the prohibition derived from
such
comprehensive and definitive texts, However,
obligatory and
necessary photographs such as those needed for
identity cards
and passports, and of criminals and suspects are
exempted. The
same ru ling applies to thc photographs used for
direction and the
like, These are included ullder the general ru le
sayillg: ·'Necessity
permits the unlawfur·, or ··Necessity docs know
law,"
It is noteworthy that many Muslims hang large
pictures on the
walls of their houses, saymg they are just
memories of fathers,
grand-fathers, and the fami ly, They also decorate
their houses with
statues of objects Ihat have souls, putting them
here and there, and
with carpelS on which there are ligures, hanging
them on walls
everywhere. Such practices belong 10 the pagan
period, and they
are aspects of idol airy, which Islam has
condemned,
III. The Unlawful Beliefs of the "re-Islamic Period
No one knows Ihe Unseen but AIl:lh, He does not
make anyone
acquainted with His secrets except a Messenger
whom He has
chosen, Alliih .. states:
~ ~;.; ~,;1.:};' ~l ~ I~,~ j.; :t4; X ,,: ;;iI ~ ~
" lie is tire KIWK'er of rlre Unseen, $0 He does not
disclose His
Unseen to nnyone excepfing 10 suelr /I Me$sengu
11.1 He ;$ Dj~inely
satisfied .. ·ith ... ., (At·Jinn. 26-27)
Th us, whoever cbims that he knows the Unsecn is
blaspheming
against Alliih and people_ Al1flh ti'i! says,
~ -::',J"'. ~q ~ ~ ~i ~l ~'j,ii ~j'-j1 .;6'-< ,1 .j ;. j'~ --1
j,
"So)': "(1,'0111.' ill the hcavells alld Ihe earlh
kllows Ihe Ghaih
(Ull ftCII) exct'pt Allah, nor call Ihl.'1' perui.I:
,,'hl':n Ihey shall he
resurrerud." (An_Namt, 65)
Hcnce, Islam forbids the followmg:
Bdicvcing in fort une-tdlers or astrologers: Muslim
reported that
the Messenger of Allah ~ s,:, id, "Wlux'\'er 801's
10 U soolhsu)'/?f
Imil IIsks Ilim aboul something, lind be/ie,'es Itim.
will ,WI IU/I'e his
pw)'tr.\ IIce/'pted for forly days."
2. Divination with arrows: Islam forbids this
custom. All iih lD
says:
tiJ :;{~t }.:r'i .F';': :;':". ~~!; x,.1.;;; ;.~i;; ;ri WI ;;::,;
~Ji c.~,
~ 5;' ~
"0 )'ou who hdi ... ,,! illluxicunls ( all killds of
alcohofic drinks).
olld gambling, and Af-Ansab, and AI-Azlam
(arrows for su.killg
furk Or decision) are all ahominatioll of Shairall's
(Satall )
handiwork. So aMid (strictly all) rhat
(abomination) ill order
that ),ou may be succts,<juf." (AI.Ma·idah, 90)
Arahs used arrows for divination in the Pre-
Islamic period.
Those arrows were marked either by god
commands, god
forbids, or they were blank, Wherever they want
to engage in a
WH, or conclude a marriage, they would come to
the temple of
the idols or the place of arrows and adjure division
by them.
Then they acted according 10 the chosen "rrow
But if they
chose the blank one they repeated the trial till they
obtained a
forlunale one. Currently in some Muslim
communities we lind
similar heinous acts li ke the so---ealled seashells,
geomancy, lea
leaves, etc. Undoubtedly all these practices arc
unlawful.
3. Sorcery: AI-Bukhari and Muslim reported
thallhe Messenger of
Allah $ said, "Avoid Ihe SHe" hcimwl/5 sins! They
a~ked, "0
Messcnger of AIl,lh' What are these heinous sins?
He said,
"They are urcrihillK associates 10 Allah, sorcery,
killing a I","'olt
hcillg ... ilhoU/ a legal Calise, acceplillg usurious
gai", ... rongfr,/ly
cOIISuming on orphan ',I property, fleeing from
combat in Jihad.
amI charging believing ... omen , unmindflll thvllgh
jnnocelll, wi,h
"dllllery . ..
Some Muslim jurists are of the opinion that
sorcery is an aet of
disbelief. Other jurists are of the opinion that the
one who
practices sorcery should be killed to protect the
community
from his mischief and deviation.
4. The prohibition to hang Tama'im (good luck
charm): Ahmad
reported, "May AI I,lh nOI fulfill the hopes of Ihe
one who wean;
a charm; may Allah not protect the onc who hangs
sea-shells."
Tomimah (amulet) means what a man hangs
amulets on his
body or clothes. or beads, believing that they can
heal or
combat envy and evil. Nowadays, we see many
deceivers and
fo rtune-tellers who mislead common people
through written
amulets that consist of ambiguous writings and
figures on which
they recite unknown incantations. Then they try to
peT'Suade
people that these amulets would protect the one
who hangs
them from all the harms of jinn and envy.
However, we should
keep, in mind that prouxtion or words of he,lling
are permi\ted
by Islamic Law, as An-Nawawi and AI- IFi!i~ Ibn l-
]ajar state,
when there is need fo r them, provided that three
conditions are
met:
a. '(bat they consist of the words of Alliih r.a, His
Names, or
His Attributes.
b. That they be !O Arabic.
c. Thallhe user does not believe lhallhe words h"ve
any effect
themselves, but are rather empowered to do so by
All;lh 1&.
Among the protective words stated by the Prophet
~ to
prot~'Ct children and others is the fo llowing
'!adirh narrated
by AI-Bukhar; on the authority of Ibn Abbas. "The
Mes.enger of Allah used to recite some prot~'Ctive
words on
Al-t..! as"n and AI-l:'usaYII: .. / seek refuge for you
in Allah 's
perfect words f rom e>"ery dail. reptile IlOrmfilf
insects. and e~jl
eye. '" (I)
S. Omens " nd pessimism: the Prophet 4: said, "Ne
is not olle of us
wha seek.! evil amells ar for wham e~i1 omens are
sought."
Reported by AI-Bazzar.
IV. Unlawful Earnings
The most heinous earnings as illustrated by the
Prophet $ arc:
I . SeHing Hardm (unlawful) goods: it is narrated
that the Prophet
.; sa id, "Otlce something is prohibited by Allah. il$
price is
prohibited as well." Hence, .elling wine, statues
that embody
living creatures, swi ne, musical instruments,
crosses, and lottery
tickets, are prohibited in Islam.
2. Sales in which there is chance or risk: Muslim
reported that the
Messenger of Alll'ih g prohibited sales of whatever
a pehble ("l)
thrown by the seller hits, and sa les In which there
is chance or
risk (gharor) meaning it is 1I0t known whether it
will come to be
or not, such as selling fish in the water, birds still
in flight .
3 Fraud und price munipu!:ltion: the Prophet $. s.a
id, "Lel /!Jeu
be no harming nOr uciprocaling !Jarm.·· Narrated
by Ahmad and
Ibn Majah. In [slam, the market i, essentially free
and permi tted
(I) The Prop,,"1 ~ spoke lhese word •. he did not
write Ihem on amulels.
(1l s..1ting of pebbte i$ an "&=l1'I<nl beld bel",...,n
a setter and a buyer 10 buy
whal .... e," pebble Ihal is Ihrown hits.
to respond to lhe natural laws of supply and
demand.
In this respect, when the prices rose during the
lirelime of Ihe
Prophet 4: people asked him to fix them. He
replied, HAINih is
the One Who fixes prices. Who wilhholds. Who
gives (lfftllently
and WhQ provide.f. lind I hope Ihlll when I meel
Him none of you
will ha>e a clilim againsl me for IIny injwilice wilh
regard 10 blood
or properly.·· A~mad and At-Tirmidhi.
However, if the market is monopolized in essential
commodities,
bidding up priccs. and exploiting some particular
cin::umslances,
price control becomes permissible to protect
community interest
and 10 safeguard the majority of the nation from
the monopolists
and usurers. This is regulated by the general
principlt.'S of
[slam such as the principle that says: "Avoiding
harm lakes
priority over receiving benefit."
4. Monopoly: Muslim narrated that the Prophet 4:
said, "No onc
mrmopolizes sales so Ihal Ihe price rises. bUI a
sinner. H A sinner
here means guilty or si nful. Alliih ilia says:
• ~".i. l.Z6. w~ ~"'Y ~;) ;Q ,
"Va-ily, Fir 'au" (I'haraoh), lIaman (lnd their hosrs
"'ere sillnen'
i.e. gwhy." (Al-Qa.u_,. 8)
Ibn Miijah and AI-Hakim reported that the Prophet
$ said.
HHI' who brings goods 10 Ihe mllrket is b/e.Tsed
wilh bounty by
Alliih. bUlthe one who withholds Ihl'm is cursed."
Monopoly 15 to
hide some necessary goods, such as foodstuffs, to
raise the price
at a specific time.
S. Fraud and deception: Muslim narrated that the
Messenger of
Allah ~ passed by a man selling grains food that
looked ripe.
But when the Prophet $: put his hand in them his
hand felt wet.
He said, "What is Ihis. mert halll?" " [t became wet
by the rain",
the man responded. Then the Prophet said, "Why
did you 1101
pUI Ihe wei portion on lOp sO Ihal people eQuid
see il,~ fie who
deceive,' us is II0t 0/ us," Fraud is to conceal a
defect in the
commodity without informing the buyer.
AI,o, stinting in measures or weights, is a kind of
fraud. Allah
16 cautions.
~;'jj ) ~jf I~ Cl) ~;p ~6( J, [.Iill Il\ ZtJ; Cl) ::.::Wij
;1:.:; t
~ ~fj( ~ ';6; ;~ ii Q ~ a Q) tj;':: P ~j' ~ 'l1 CD ~
"WO<! to Al-Mutaffifin (thou who gil'I! less in
measure am1
,,·eigh/). Thme ,.'hfl, ,.·hen Ihey have 10 receirt! hy
meaJure frQm
men, demand/ull m/!asure, And ",hen they have
10 g;"e by meaSure
Or weighl If! (Mher) men, gil'e less than dut!. Dfl
they nM think
Ihal Ihey will he ruurrt!eud (for rukoning), fin a
Great IJay!
The Day "'hen (all) mankind will stond before Ihe
Lord of Iht!
'Alumin (mankind.jinn and all Ihal l'xisu)!"
(AI.M':13mmn, 1·6)
6. Trade through thert or wrongfully obtained
property: AI·
Bayhaqi narrated that the Messenger of Alliih $
said, "lie ... 1.0
deliberalely buys a (s/Olen article) will be stained
by its vice and
shame. "
7. Usury and gambling: Alliih a says:
!.;i".' p~ ~ e ~ _~ . t ;,l t;>Ji &: :;. C I;':;; <!1 t:Jl !J:.:c.
6;i tt.l:!; ,
~ ..:::::,;;;;; 1; ;:~/! g -1 ~1 J..J~~ it Jl :~:~ ;,lJ :-<!Y~
~l ~ 'i":; i;;t
"0 you ,.'ha helierel Be afraid of Alliih ond gi" I! up
what remains
(due to you) from Riba (usury) (from no,,"
onward), if you are
(rl!alty) bdie.ers. And if you do not do it, then take
a notice of
"'ar from Alliih and Ifi., Mesunger bur if you
rt'pent, you shall
hare ),our ~apital .'"m.'. l)eaf not unjustly (by
asking mOl"I! rhan
your (llpitul Slims), and )'011 shall nor be dealt
"'itlt unjustly ( by
receivinK less Ihan )'our capital slims),"
(Al.&qamh, 278.279)
Muslim and A~mad also reported that the
Messenger of Allah
$ said, "Cursed ore Ihl' ones who I'IlI of uSIlrif!llS
gain (riba) ,
feed alWlher wilh iI, "'rile an agreemem involving
iI, or act as
witnesses IQ it. " The Prophet further said, "They
are alike." As a
matter of fact, Islam prohibits all types of usurious
gain such as
credit, (l) overplus (1) investment, and
depreciation. We should
keep in mind that these eases are prohibited
whether there is
small or large amount of interest. Alliih !Ii states:
~ ~( r;;J ~r ~i J.."t ,
"A/Nih has permitted Irade and forbidden Riba
(usury} ... .. (A\.
Ihqal1lh. 275)
However, it should be noted that Islam prohibits
usury for the
following reasons:
a. Lack of equity between effort and output,
because the debtor
does not exert any effort. He does not carry any
responsibility
for work, loss, or gain.
b. The laziness and idleness of debtors lead to the
economic
downfall of the society. They just depend on the
interest
burdening those who are indebted with
commitments of
USU riOUS gam.
c. The moral downfall of the society due to those
selfish
individuals who deal with usury.
This definitely leads to the deterioTlltion of the
community and
the prevalence of selfishness rather than sac rifice
and affection.
Hence, usurious gam is forbidden in Islam. It is cl
assified
among the most heinous sins; and Allah, the
Angels, and all
creation untill the Day of Judgment curse those
who deal in
usury.
(1) It iJ called delay of pa~ment ; any interest
obtained by the lendcr to be paid in
a urtain do)aye<! period.
(1) bhlnge of foodstuff. Or gold of tho sarno ki nd.
How does Islam fight usury?
Islam permits the following:
1. Silent partnership ( Muti,tiraiJah): it consists of
two or more
partners. One of them puts up his capital. whereas
the other
manages it, on the condition that Ihey divide their
earnings
between thcmselves. Loss is incurred by owner of
the c11pital
alone.
2. Buying m advance ( Salam) : it means the sale of
deferred
merchandise in return for an immediate price \0
be delivered to
the buyer at a certain lime. Thus, he who needs
money now can
buy what will be produced (reaped) in return for a
suitable price,
tak,ng into account that there are certain
conditions, mentioned
in the books of Jurispmdcnce, thaI must be met in
order that
buying in advance is valid.
3. Sale fordeferrcd payment (credit): it is an
increase in the price of
buying gold. It is permissible in Islam for the
(lCQple's interests
and for getting rid of usurious gain.
4. Islam encourages the establishment of
organizations presenting
interest-free loans to individuals, communities,
and governments
for the sake of solidarity among people.
S. Islam also allows some organizations to collect
7.a I'::ih (poordues).
These organizations pay money to the needy, take
what
fullils their needs, and improves their condition.
Gambling has
been dealt with previously under the tit le of
forbidden
amusement.
V_Forbidden Arnu""rnents Ilating from the Pre-
Isbmic Period
Many abominable habits and customs have erept
into the
Muslim Society. These customs have become
ingrained in Ihe
people and their homes. They adopt them like a
religion, thinking
that they are doing the right thing. Among the
most heinous
customs from the pre- Islamic period a re:
L Chau~inism
This heinous custom is apparent among immoral
classes that
support their relatives without regard for whether
they arc right or
wrong, just or unjust. Wathilah Ibn AI-Asqa'
narrated that he said,
"0 Messenger of Allah, what is chauvinism?" And
he repl ied,
"That is to help your people in wrongdoing." The
Prophet ~
disassociated himself from anyone who practices
it, saying, "He
who calls 10 group ciJOIl<'inism does no/ belong
/0 us; he who fightsfor
the sake of group chauvinism does /lot belong /0
us; and he who dies
upholding group chauivinism does no/ belong to
us."
2. Boasting about One's Lineage
It is sti ll common for people to boast about their
lineage. This
is done by those who have neither morals nor
character. What is
the benefit of lineage when they are disbelievers
and misled? Alliih
Q sta tes:
"" ~. ~,c .f' . '.- .,-- -L..-,' "ii ._!. li . 0 1'" }.
"{....... • 'J k~ ..+":!- .... ,p- '" C-" 'r Y'
" Then, wlren the TrumM' is blo,,·n. rllert will M no
killsM" amonK
,hem that Day, nor "'ill 'hey /l .• k of one llIIorhe~."
(AI·Mu·minun, to\)
The Prophet ~ launched a fierce attack against
tho>c who
boast about their forefathers. saying: '"Let people
ce<lle 10 bO<ll/
about their ancestors who died. who m e merely
fuelfor Hell or they
wili certainly be of less OCCOIIIII Ihol/ the beelle
which rolls dung with
il$ nO$/!, .Allah has removed f rom you Ihe pride
of Jrihi/iyyoh
( Ignaronce) of Ubayyail and its boasting aboul
ancestors. One is
either a God-fearing believer or a wicked sinner.
Ali people are
children of Adam. and Adam was created from
dust. " Narrated by
Abu Diiwiid and At-Tinnidhi.
During the Farewell pilgrimage, when thousands
of Muslims
gathered in the sacred Precinct, the Prophet ~
de~vered his last
public address, emphasizing the basic principles of
the Rights of
Man. "0 people, YOllr Lord is One. Know Ihal Ihere
is no superiorily
uf on Arob over 0 non-Awb Or 0/0 nOlI-Arab OW!r
an Arab Or 0 while
over a black or 0/0 black over a while. excepl
Ihrollgh piely 10 Allah
( Taqwti). Verily Ihe mO£1 honorable ammlg you
in Ihe sighl 0/ Alldh
is lire one who has Ihe mOSI raqwa (prely). "
3. Mourning the Dead
Among the customs of Jrihiliyyah which is
denounced by Islam
is the practice of wailing, lamenting, and showing
eJl.cessive grief
for the dead such as slappmg cheeks, tearing
clothes, and crying
out in the manner of Hrhiliyyah . The pre- Islamic
way of mourning
for the dead is strictly fo rbidden for Muslims. The
Prophet 3
declared, "lie who slaps his checks, (cars his dOlks,
or erie .• in Ihe
ways 0/ Jdhiliyyah is no/ one of us."
However, we should keep in mind that as grief and
the
expression of it arc nalUral, one is permitted to
mourn and weep
but without wailing or shouting. Before moving on,
we have to be
aware of the followi ng:
I. The Muslim is not permitted to wear a sign of
mourning, discard
his adornment, or change his usual atlire to
express his so rrow
and grier for it is a characteristic of disbelievers. It
is taken for
granted that imitating the disbelievers is
prohibited in Islam, for
the Messenger said, <O fle who imilOle.! ollrers
(non-Muslims) is
nOl one ofw. Do nOI imilale Ihe Jew .• Or
Christians."
2. It is also pari of blind imitation to place bunches
of flowers upon
the coffin or in the grave. Apart from being among
the actions of
disbelievers, it is also of no benefit, for it wastes
money. On the
other hand, the placement of plants or flowers
separately on the
tomb without the intention of imitation is
permissible as shown
in the Prophet's tradition.
3. Among the aspects of blmd imitation is to place
the deceased's
picture over the coffin or in the home of the
deceased, regardless
of its being an act of non·Muslims. We have to keep
in mmd that
it is an unlawful act in Islam; since taking
unnecssary
photographs is prohibited in Islam.
4. Playing funeral music in front of the coffin or the
house of
consolation is a kind of unlawful imi tation. It is
forbidden as the
sound hadtths - mentioned under the ti tle of
forbidden musical
instruments· indie:,te.
S. Smoking at the time of the funeral, esp-I:cially
when the Noble
Qur'iin is recited; since smoking is essentially fo
rbidden and the
Noble Qur'an should be listened to when It is
recited.
6. or tbe common offensive actions after the burial
is to whiten the
grave with plaster or build over it. Muslim related
on the
authority of 15.bir, 'The Prophet ~ forbids us to
whiten the
grave's plaster, to sit on or to build over it."
4. OUICT rorbidden customs;
. Among the deep-rooted pre-Islamic customs in
modern day
communities is that the people gather during
weddings and on
different oe<:asions to listen to songs, music, and
to watch
dancers. Also, we have to take into account that
these concerts
are not without wine, music, insolent laughter, and
foolish acts
from drunkards. It is also customary to see shots
fired by
irresponsible people.
_ Among the pre-Islamic customs is attributing the
child to a man
other than the child's father. The Prophet ~ listed
this practice
among the abominable evils which entail the curse
of Allah, the
Angels, and people. Al·Bulchari and Muslim
narrated that the
Messenger of AlIiih ~ said, 'The One who claims
desccnI from
somem'e olher thon his real father. and the slave
who ollachcJ
himself 10 someone OIher than his real mOliler.
are cursed by Allah,
His Angels, and the people. Alldh will llccepineilher
repenlance nor
ransom from Slich II person On Ihe Day 0/
Resurrection."
. Likewise, Islam prohibits what is known as
artificial insemination
if the donor of the semen is other than the
husband. It is a
despicable crime and a major sin and is classilicd
in the same
category as adultery, for they are similar in nature
and clTce!, in
thaI both bring forth a child through illegal means.
These
heinous crimes are rejected by all Divine laws.
However, we
should keep in mind that ta king care of a child to
rear and to
ed ucate him is not prohibited by Islam - that is,
when a man
brings home an orphan or a foundhng [0 rear,
educate, and treat
as his own child.
- Among the pre-Islamic customs that still e!<ist in
many places is
depriving the woman's right of dowry and
inheritance although
these rights are mentioned in the Noble Qur'iin:
~ GN~~ .. '~1 -'.I) ~ -:' .• ' r'!i ':;';;'i~ .;t\~( JI; (;. ":
__ < ~~A ,
.i. G. ,,~ ,f. _" ~;- -j -t. tr "{ :lr' ~ J" .J _ "
"T/te~e is /I sh/l~e for men /1m! a shure for
womenfMm w/tat is left
by purents und those neurest re/tJted, whether
the property be small
ar large - a legtJ! shtJre." (An-N;"', 7)
A ~ for dowry, Alliih says:
~ i~~t .;; ~L4 ~;;~ -~{j:; ~.G~ ~ Jri:: -I ;j;) .:v ,
~ dl;t ~~ Ji.1~; ;.;~s.:t .<;)1 <Ill (lj ~lJ (,~ I' f.,lJt-..U
i::/.
,"/{. d;.-J_l (;,~__: I '- , , ~.-:- ~\~-
"Bul ify"" inrend tQ repltJfe /I "'ife by anolher and
YOII hUfe giren
one of them tJ Qinrar (of J;ofd i.e_ a great amount)
/IS Mohr, t/lke
nor the least bit of it bark : would }'ou take it
,.'rongfully ,.·jthout u
right und ( • .,jth) u munifest sin? And 111> ,.,
could ),ou take it (bark)
,.'hife }'ou "uve gone in unlO eUfh other, und Ihey
huye ,aken from
)'011 /l fi,m IJlld ' ''0''8 to r""/l,,tr" (An·NiA. 2O-2t)
Dear educators, the uboye-mentioned (I re the
most heinous
crimes that Islam forbids. and il punishes those
who commit one or
more of them. Thus. you should avoid them, set a
good example to
others, and caution those whom you educate lest
they go astray
and incur punishment upon themselves.
Chapter Three
Necessary Suggestions Concerning Education
Lastly, I would like to draw the atten tion of teache
rs to some
necessary suggestions concerning education.
These suggcstions are
as important as has been mentioned in the
previous chapters
concerning the responsibi lites of teachers towards
their students,
effective educa tional methods, and the main
principles with which
childreo should be raised. These suggestions may
be summed up io
the following points:
1. The child should long for the most honorable
gains
One of thc most important tasks a teacher should
do is to
encourage his students to join involuntary work,
whether
industrial, agric ul tural, or commercial. It must be
noted that
all the Prophets of Allah _ used to voluntarily work
and they
specialized in ,orne professions and craft s. In this
way, they gave
the succeeding generations and nations a good
example of
joining involuntary and Haltil (legal) work . Thus
Nil~ ~
learned how to build ships as AlHih ordered him
10 make one.
Allah HI says, in this regard,
~ ~," ,: " ~I (->;1. "{ " ..... .-"" r'" r'J'" '~- tj, j ~. ...Y .
_~ l J' c..>.; .O"J. ! ~..\ ~~"< ;r~ ~ -1"' .1".
"And eOf/g/ruel IN: $hip undtr Our f..""ytS aud
,.,i,h Our Rel't!/alion,
and eafl not upon Me on behalf of thoSl! ,,·ho did w'
ong; they tue
surely to be drowned." (H lid. 37)
Again. Mfisa :W devoted himself for Shu'aib, one of
Ihe
Prophets of All;lh, to feed and take care of his
sheep for years in
return for marrying one of his daughters. Alliih Q.
says in the
Noble Qur'an:
.. ~' , .:("\ ~b J ~ X,: $.1 ,sJ;.l 6":4 ~i~' "4! j li ,
"1/1.1 suid, "Surely J "'ould fikt to murry )'OU to
one of these, my
two daughters, on condition ,hal you hire yourself
to me for eight
pilgrimtlges i.e. yetlrs. (AI-Quas. 21)
Prophet M U~3mmad #. was a shepherd and a
trader before his
Propbethood. It is he who said, "fused /0 lend
sheep for the Makk{/Jl!i
in relurnfor wages." This is narrated by AI-
Bukhiiri. He also went for
trading trips to Syria twice ; the first wilh his uncle
AbU nlib when
he was twelve ~ars old , and the second lime he
was sent by Lady
Khadijah with her servant Maysarah, to trade for
her with her money
and he did welL At that time he was twenty-five
years old.
Here, Islam, with its comprehensive principles and
integrated
legislation, has venerated the perronnance of
honorable work and
considered gaining one's sustenance as one of the
most pious and
honorable acts. Thus, Allah ta says:
.I. . {Itl ..:5,: :"" '. 1'''' ·-..-c . I {i; 11~ ~'~I''co .5<: ,sJ(
" }. "1;';'>-- -.j.> _~ ~ ~ ... 'ft., ... :.- j' "'.. r - ..... 7
" Ill' it is Who has made tht eMth ~ubur.ienr to you
(i ,e. eluy for
you'o K'ulk, 10 Ii,e and to do agriculturt Oft it); so
Klalk in the INlth
thueof and tut of Il;s prlu ision. And to Him will be
the
Resurrection. " (A)"Mul~. 15)
And He also says:
1-'" ,,. .1I ''1f'.lf ,.:;. f" ·" "N<' f' "C-«'< ,' .' On. ~ !&
Ctr'''' _ ".---- ~ !.I'"' .... ~.) ~ ~ ~ ~ : 7
'P;'~
"So, when tlte pru,·u is accomplished, then spread
abroad in the
land, and seek of,he Grace of Alliih, and reme.mber
Alliih much, ,hu'
possibly you Klould prosper." (AI.Jumu'sb. ]0)
The traditions of the Prophet $ also have a lot to
say regarding
the importance of work. Al·Bukhiiri n3rrated thllt
the Prophet 4:
sa id, "It is beller for one 10 take his rope and bring
a bundle of wood
on his bock Ihan /0 ask people for alms, wlro may
give or no/." And
he also said, "No one would eat beller food than
Ihol he gained
himself. DaWlid, the Prophel of Allah, used 10 Ii.e
from ... hal he
hilllJel/ earned."
In turn, our pious predecessors said the following
concerning
unemployment and the unemployed. Ibn AI-Jaw'l'
narrated that
'Umar Ibn AI-Khat~ab . met some people who
were reluctant to
do any work. 'Umar asked them: Who are you?
They answered,
"We are relying on Allah." Angrily, 'Umar said:
"You are lying.
He who is relying on AIJiih is the one who sowed
seed in the ground
and then trusted in Alliih ." And then 'Umar stated,
" None of you
should stay at home without going out to look for
his sustenance,
praying "0 Allah send me my sustenance; since the
heaven (sky)
does not rain gold or silver." Sa'id Ibn Mansur said
that Ibn
Mas'lid '*' said. "I hate to see an unemployed man
who does not
have work to do neither for this life here nor for
the Hereafter."
These quotations indicate that Islam pays great
attention to
manual work and professional education. They
also condemn
unemployment and laziness and encourage
individuals to work and
gain their sustenance.
In teaching children professions and crafts we
~hould
differentiate between two kinds of chi ldren: the
first group are
those who do well in their studies. They are mostly
mtelligent and
should continue with their studies until the end
while at the same
time, they should be trained during vacati011s;
and whenever a
chance pennits, they learn professions or crafts to
which they are
inclined; no one would know what the future hides
for them. The
second group are those of moderate intclligencc
and the third arc
not very intelligen t. Students of the sewnd group
should be taught
the necessary religious and worldly duties. Then
they would turn to
professional jobs and specialized crafts. It ;s wrong
for a father or
he who is in charge, should let the third group
continue in their
studies in spite of the fact that it is difficult for
them.
Women and girls should be given a well-grounded
education 3S
well as to be taught crafts and professions that
SUIt their nature and
individual abilities.
Islam has exempted women from many jooo and
rcsponsibili ties
because of the fo llowing:
- Some jobs and responsibilites do not suit their
physical
cababilities and feminine nature. So being a
fighter, a construction
worker, or a blacksmith is inappropriate.
- They may result in dangerous social immorality,
as in such cases
the woman intennixes with men.
- They may be against her nature as a mother,
Thus working in
demanding occupations while at the same time
being a wife who
has children to rcar would be cxhausting for her.
In brief, m:mual work and professional erafts are
of the mOSt
important and honorable jobs, so we should direct
our children to
them.
2. Keeping in mind the innat~ capacity of the child
Onc of the most important facts that teachers
should bear in
mind, is trying to know the crafts a child would
feel inclined to,
what professions suit him, and what hopes and
goals he has in lifc.
There is no doubt that children are different in
their interests,
intelligence, and cnergy. Hence a wise teacher, or a
prudent parent
is the one who leads the children lO the correct
positions, which
suil their inclinations and intercsts and congenial
environments.
Thus if the child is intclligelll and has a keen
interest to pursue his
studies, then thc tcacher should prepare the
required mcans and
help him achieve his goals in lire. On the other
hand, if the child is
of moderate intelligence and has inclinations to
learn a profession
or a crafl, the tcachcr should help him to achieve
his avowed aims.
Again, if the child is not very intelligent, the
teacher should direct
him to a job, which suits his mentality, temper, and
cap3city.
This is whal is me3nt by 'Aish3h $ in her saying
that was
narrated by Muslim: "The Prophet 3: ordered us to
dIrect the
people to their suitable position s,"' Here, guided
by the Prophetic
instructions of taking into account the child's
desire, and giving
him his rank, Mu,lim educational leaders, he..1ded
by Ibn Sina
advocated observing Ihe inborn inclinations of the
child. In Ihis
regard, Ibn Simi said, "NOI every craft a child likes
is appropnate
for him but the one that suils him is Ihe one that
goes with his
temper. If professions and crafts were to be
roHowed by means of
guesswork alone and not by appropriateness and
options, no one
would be lacking the ability to learn arts or crafts.
Th us, it is
important for the one who guides II child who
wishes to choose a
given crafl to first consider judging the temper of
the child, probe
into his talent, and examine his in tell igence:.
Accordingly, the
teacher can choose for the child the appropriate
craft on this
basis."
Here, the educator is not lacking the means by
which he could
know the psychology of the child, whether he is
intelligent or not,
and the crafts or studies he is lIIclined \0. Then the
child goes his
way in life through what suits him and what is
good for him;
whether he continues with his studies or learns
crafts. Both choices
wi!! be good for him, his people, and his oountry.
3. Giving the elliJd the opportunity to play and be
entertained
Islam is the rel igion of realism and it has a method
that judges
human beings according 10 their inclinations,
psychology, and
nature. Hence it does not suppose that all our
speech should be
praising and remembering Alliih, our silence as
contemplation,
neither should mediation be considered as lessons
from which
people would learn. nor our leisure-time should be
wholly spent in
worshipping Alliih. Islam approves of .tll that
human life r<'-'<Iui re"
i.e. happiness and cheerfulness, playing and
entertaining, wedding
and enjoyment, provided that these activities do
not go beyond
what Allah has pcnnittcd or the domain of good
manners.
This is clear in the saying of the Prophet ./$ to
I:!a~alah AlAsadi,
"[ swear by Ihe One Who holds myself ( Allah), If
you (Ihe
Companions oj Ihe Prophet) keep on remembering
and praising
37' ","""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" PanTh~
Alltih. {ike in Ihe eme you do while you Ilfe silling
wilh me, al1ge/~
would have shllken hand' with y(1It in YOl jr beds
and roads wherever
you tread. But, Ilanpllah, there is a time and a time
some time for
praising Allah and some other time fo r worldly
alTai rs and
entertainment. The Prophet $ repealed the words
(rilere is a
lime and a lime) three limes. This is narrated by
Mu~1im.
There are many methods which Islam considers
legitimate
concerning physical preparation fo r c:<crcise.
These methods show
that Islam is a realistic religion, which allows its
adherents to
share in wholesome play and entertainment as
long as it is for the
advantage of Islam and in the domain of entertai
ning one's family
and children. Of these methods is the saying of the
Prophet ~
which was narrated by A[-Bukhari: "EI'I':rything
olher than
remembering and praising Allah is diyersion Or
heedlessness except
four acts: one's lItolking between two IOrgeu (for
shooting),
training his horse, playing with and entertaining
his family, and
Icarning 10 swim."
Our Prophet ~, the best cltample of virtue in an
things, used to
play and entertain his family and the children of
his Companions
and he used to amuse and befriend them. He also
enoouraged
them to practice pcnnissib[e games and
entertainment. Here are
some examples:
Imam Ahmad narrated with good transmission
that the
Messenger tt. used to gather 'Abdulhih, Ubaydullih
and Kathir
Ibn Abbas IIJ, and say, ··Whoever races me lirst
will be given so
and so." Then they would race with one another till
they reached
thc Prophet and touched his back and chest. The
Prophet then
kissed them and gave the winner his due prize.
Abu Va'li reported
that 'Umar Ibn Al-Kha_t_tib" said. " I have seen AI-
':Iasan and
AI-':Iusayn riding on the shoulders of the Prophet
4;. So ·Umar
said "What an cJlcellent horse under you." The
Prophet then said,
"And what excel/ent horsemen they are."
Nevertheless Muslim educationalists assure, m the
light of the
above-mentioned, that the ehild is in need of play
and entertainment
after times of study. Here, we quote the saying of
Imam AIGhazali
in his book 1~lya Ulilm Ed-Dill, with regard to this
issue:
"After the time of studying, Ihe child should be
permitted to
engage in good exercise to relieve himself from the
labor of the
office. but he should nO! indulge in playing till he is
tired. As a
matter of fact, if the child is forbidden, 10 play
along with the
hardships of study, his heart will be hardened, his
intelligence
will be weakened, and his life will be troubled to
the extent that
he will sed:: to flee from all these troubles under
any pretext."
However. a teacher should bear in mind, conccring
children's
play, two important things. The lirst is that playing
should not
result in exhausting the child because that will
hurt the body of the
ehild and weaken it. Here the Prophet $- says.
"NOIIO harm others
nOr to be done harm by (Olhers). " The second is
that playing should
not take the time allocated for other duties a child
is required to
do. [n this regard, the Prophet 3: says,"Slick 10 .....
hal benefils YOIl,
(l$k for the help of AIMh, and da nOI feci helpless,"
4. Cooperation between the home, mosque, and
school
Building the child in knowledge, spiritually, and
physically IS
established through firm cooperation between the
home, the
school, and the mosque.
It is known that the respoosibihty of the home is
mainly rearing
children physically, and the one who ignore~ the
rights of his
children commits grievous sins. Abu Dawud
narrated that the
Prophet ~ said, "The mOSI horrible sin one might
commit is /he sin
of wasling (ruining) those whom he is in charge
of."
No doubt that the role of the mosque in Islam is
concerned
mainly with spiritual education since ~hih
(Prayer) in congregalion
and reciting the Noble Qur'an involve continuous
spiritual
insight and heavenly mercy. Here Al-l.Iukh5ri
narratC'd that the
Prophet 4: S:lid, "Onc's praying in congregation is
beller Ihm' his
pT(l)'ing alone ( in his house or in the markel-
place or any oliler
place) by Iwemy five degrees." Thilt is because if
he makes ablution
the right way and then goes \0 the mosque
intending only ~(/"ilr
(not any other worldly affairs) every step he takes
is a good deed
wrillen for hIm (in his book of deeds) and a bad
deed (a sin) is
erased. And when he finishes hi~ prayer, the
angels will kccp on
asking forgiveness of A1Jilh for him as long as he is
sitting in the
mosque and did not spoil his ablution. Angels will
invoke Allih for
him saying, "May Allah have merx:y on him, may
Alhlh have
mercy on him." Again, he will be considered as if
he were praying
as long as he is waiting for the prayer."
The role of the school is more concernC'd wi th
C'ducating the
cbild, since teachers have a great innuence on
forming the
personality of the student. Thus, knowledge and
education have
this great status in Islam. Among the merits of
learning and
education are: "Anyone who goes on a way for
learning, Alhih will
surely make his way e,l,y to hcaven." 1t is narrated
by Mus lim that
"Angds would stretch Iheir wings do .... n
oppro"ing of .... ha/he Ihe One
asking for knowledge" is doing, Those all earth and
in Ihe hem'en,
even wholes it! Ihe .... aler. would ask Alliih's
forgiveness for Ihe
scholilf. Narrated by Abu Oi1wiid and At-Tinnidhi.
When we say that the home should cooperate with
the mosque
and the school, this means that the child would
have an integmted
personality sprilUally, physically, mentally, and
psychologically.
M oreo~er, he would be an influential member of
his society and
would participate in the progress and welfare of
his nation and
scrve the dignity of his person. This kind of
cooperation would nO!
be fulfilled unless two conditions are met:
I. There should be no dualism or contradiction
between the
education of the home and the school.
2. Cooperation should aim at establishing
mtegr:ltion and balance
in bui lding up the Muslim personality.
Thus, if coopcralion between the msoque and the
school met
thesc two conditions, the child would develop
spiritually and
physically, and would be equipped mentally and
psychologically.
So, the child would be a balanced righteous man
who would gain a
good reputation among the people and would
become a
distinguished person. In the field of cooperation
between the
home and the school I wanlto point out the
following facts:
a. Many teachers and educationalists In our
schools and
universities do not know much about education.
They blindly
adhere to the manners and morals of foreigners.
For mstance,
they imitate the Europeans In their customs and
traditions and
adopt their beliefs and behavior .
h. Some of the books that have been laught to
students in schools
are full of false ideas and skepticism. Thus, they
raise doubts
about religions and advocate atheism and
apostasy. Here I
quote some e)lamples that are found in the
secondary schools
books in Syria. In a hook on "The Society'" we
read: " Every call
advocating the establishment of independent
states based on
religion is nothing but a stupid one.'" Further, in a
book on
literature, the veil, which a Muslim woman or girl
wears, was
discussed elaborately and la beled as a "sign of
backwardness'";
and the histo ry of Islam was described as "a
history of
feudalism and degradation."
c. Only a short amount of time is devo ted to
religious subjects
compared to other scientific lind li terary subjects
taught at
schools. Thus, a Muslim cannot redte the Qur'an in
the right way;
he can not know the laws of ShQ"~Qh , nor can he
know the facts
about the biography of the Prophet $ and his
Companions and
the history of his religion, since schools do not
leach him all these
subjects. The result is that students graduate from
schools with a
limi ted cullu ral background and with lillie
knowledge of the
Islamic sys tem, the $Cj ence~ of the Noble Qur'an,
and the hi story
of his fo refathers and their heroic deeds.
Hence if the p~lTent or guardian does not perform
his
educational responsihlity towards his children in
the right way,
the child might be convened to another way or
develop bad
character. In th is case no gUIdance would either
avail nor would
any means improve his behavior.
In brief. if the parent realizes that his child is not
brought with
the principles of Islam in his school, nor takes his
share of the
instrucations of Shar{'ah. then the father has to
take his
responsibilty in a scrious manner, i. e. to rear his
child on the
sound principles th3t Islam is a religion of
worship, morals, and
legislation. He should also connect the child WI th
the mosque,
righteous companions, and wise organizations. In
this way the
parent and teacher will protect the child through
linn bel iefs and
Islamic mora ls,
S. Furmin!; a close relation boehl'cen the instructor
and the child
One of the important educational principles on
which
psy<:hologists, sociologists, and educationalists
agree i, forming a
close rela tion between the teacher and the child,
so lhat scien tific,
psychological, and moral upbringing would be
integrated. Surely
those wi th sharp ,"sight would agree lhat if there
is an emotional
gap between the child and his teacher, there would
be no sound
education, and no proper rea ri ng. So, parents and
teachers have to
look for effective methods to make children love
them, promote
cooperation between lhem, and make teachers and
parents helpful
and merciful towards the children. Among these
methods are the
following:
The teacher or parent should always smile. In this
connection.
At-Tirmidhi narrated that Jarir Ibn 'Abdulliih said,
"The Prophet
3: never rerused to meel me since I converted to
Islam and
whenever he met mc he would smile to mc."
Encouraging the chlld
by giving him a present whenever he does
something weI!, or
whenever he excels in his studies. In this regard,
At-Tabar;
narrated that the Prophet #: said, " Preselll gifts 10
one ,mOl"er so
Ihal )'ou mighllou aile wlOli.er." Showing care and
sympathy for
the child. [liS narrated by AI-Bukhiiri and Anas
that the Prophet
$ said, ··He who docs nOI curl! jar "is Muslim
brolhers (all
Muslims) is nOI a /n/e Muslim."
Treating a ehi[d with tenderness: At-Tirmidhi, An-
Nas5i and
AI-~:ikim narrated that the Prophet 3: said: "A
.HI/slim believer
..-/lOse jaith is the best alUl is t"e m{)3t pious is t"e
anI! w"o hus Ihe
be.!! manners and Ihe one w"o is most lender lo ....
ard.\· his relal;;·l!s."
Being familiar and easygoing with the ehi[d and
joking with him.
At·Tabari narrated that labir said. "Once I entered
the Prophet·s
house, and I saw him moving his hands and knees
while AI- ~Jiisan
and A[-Husayn were riding on his hack and the
Prophet was saying;
.. Your ramd is t"e best {md )'ou are 1M be.11
11'.'0 riders."
Thus, with such tender afTcction the Prophet $;
used to meet his
people, every young man and every child. They aH
loved him heartily
and faithfully. Moreover, they sacrificed
themselves for him and
believed in him. So they were described by Allah
thus: " TMY do not
deJirousiy care more jor thtmulo·es t hall jor
himself. " (AI-Tawbah_ 120)
What assures us of this true and honest love is the
saying of A[i
Ibn Abi-"!Iilib '*' when he was asked about the love
of the
Companions for the Prophet ~. He said, "The
Prophet was dearer
to us than our rich es, children, parents, and cold
water in case of
thirst."
Again At-Tabar5ni narrated that a man named
Thawban, came
to the Prophet 4- and said, "0 Prophet of Allah, you
are dearer 10
me than my relatives and my riches. When I
remember you I
cannot bear it lill [ come to you. When r thmk of
my death and
yours, I know that you enter Paradise 10 the rank
of the Prophet~
and when you enter Paradise [ cannol sec you
again." After that
Allah revealed the following QUT'anic verse:
1~-1,(- .'.,.k;.)I' :""1 ~- ~ -:it ~,\ : jl __ ;",.".1, J " JI' '.«
.V ." l.
• ....-~ ~.". . _ J • • ~ 1,.-- r" '-!. t: "'T";IO 7" ~ 12::'
<rJ r
.i1L:.- :.~,.~ ~ > n Z.. . (II. '\ .,J ~-' ';"--J _, ~
"And ",/rmo oheys Alliilr and the Messenger
(Mu/rammud ~)
rlren they l<'ill ht! in Iht! rompany of 1I1(}"e on
K'IIom A/liih has
hl!SIOK'td //;$ GracI!, oflhe Prophus, tht Siddiqi"
(Ihou!ollowers of
the Proplu!rs who K'Crtftrsl IInd/oumast /0 luliut
in ,hem, like Ahu
Bakr As-SiJdiq) 'he murty rs, tlnd 'he righleou,\'.
And how excell"" ,
these comp{lnions urer (An-Ni,", 69)
From what has been di:;cusscd IIbove and the
effective uttitudes
which the Pro phet $ advocated, it is eleur thut the
most important
basis for forming the personahty of children in the
shade of good
character munners of Islam is to establish the
relations of love,
brotherhood, and understanding between tcachcr
and student.
Hcre both would achieve the expected benefits.
Thus, the tcachcr
would gain the fruit of his cfforts and the student
would be among
the most righteous and pious ones.
6. The daily educational program
The most important task a teacher should take
care of is to follow
a specific educational course with the student so
that he beo:.:omes
familiar with it and find~ it easy to follow in the fu
ture. Now here
are. my fellow teachers, the details of this method
as inspired from
the teachings of Islam so that you might make use
of them.
A. In the morning, a teacher sbould follow the
following progam:
- The worthiest thiog one can do when he wakes
up in the morning
is to remember and praise Allah. One should begin
his day wi th
the fo llowing invocation: .. / praise Allah who gaye
U.f life again
afler we had been dead lmd /0 him is 'he
Resurrection," (Agreed upon)
- When the child wants to go to the bathroom, the
teacher should
teach hIm the way to cnter the bathroom i. e. he
should enter with
his left foot and when leaving he steps out with his
right foot.
This is ))ec;luse it has been recommended that we
use our right
hands and feet when doing good things and use
our left hands
and feet when doing impure things.
- The student should be ta ught to say (when
entering the
bathroom): "0 A/hih! I ask Your proteelion from
devils. moles
ani/felllalel _" (Al-Bttkhfiri and Muslim)
- The student should be taught not to take with
him into the
bathroom, anything th;,t includes a form of
Remembrance of
Allah, books, articles, Holy books, or rings Ihat
bear the name
of Allah on them," In th is regard, the narrators of
the
traditions of the Prophet .i: from Anas ... s,1id that
the
Prophet ~ used to take ofT his ring and leave it
aside when
going to relieve himself. The words: "Muhammad
is the
Messenger of Alhih were engraved on it." (AI-
Hakim)
• The student should learn not to speak while
relieving himself.
Here Imam Muslim narrated that, "A man passt'(i
by the Prophet
it while he was urinating. The man greeted the
Prophet e: but
he did not return his greeting."
- The student should learn how to cleanse his/her
private pilrts
after relieving himse lf/herself ;Iud not to let any
impurity stain his
body or clothes, since most of the punishment in
the grave
neglecting to wash one's privale pariS after
relieving oneself. [n
this regard, Al-Bukhari narrated Ihal the Prophet
e: sa id, "Wruh
your OItler sexual organs and anuses afler you
Ijrinllle Or defecole
since mas/ of Ihe punishmem i/l the gra)'e comes
from Sllch
negligence . ..
- The student should learn to wash his private
parts with his leO:
hand, since the l'rophet $ said, "Jf one of you
urinaled, he should
nat tauch his sexrwl organ or ... ash it ... ilh his right
hond, nor ,,'arlid
one breathe in a ''esse! while drinking," (Agreed
upon)
- The student should lear to leave the bath room
with his right foot
and invoke: "Praise be ta A/liih, The One Who
remm'ed harm from
me and healed me," Narrated by Ibn Majah
- Then, he makes ablution,
- The merits of ablution are that it obliteral~ sins.
In this regard
Imam Muslim narrated that the Prophet II; said,
"When one
make,5 ablution ond starts by .... ashing his face,
allihe sins he has
commilled wilh Iris eyes dmp from his foCI! with
the running water,
And when he washes his feel allihe sins he
COmmilled wilh his feel
drop ... ilh Ihe "'nning of the wmer or with the last
drop of wa/er,
So, he gelS purifiedfram all his sins,"
- The student should learn to Solly the Prophetic
invocation after
perfonning ablution: "[ profess that there is no god
but A/Mh;
Ihere is no Msocial/: with flim, and MU!l(lFIJmad is
1Ii$ Prophet and
Messenger_" Muslim narration is: "0 AIlIih! Make
me of the
penitent and the purified,"
_ The student should learn to pray two rak'ahs
whenever he finishes
ablUlion, A~mad and Imam Muslim narrated that
the Prophet
tl; said, "Any Muslim who performs ablulion the
right way, then
he prays twa rak'ahs with pure hearty intenlion,
his d!le re.mrd
must be Paradise."
_ To pray with him any number of rak'ahs at night.
Muslim and
Abu DawGd narrated that the Prophet it; said, "If
one of you
geu up 01 night, he sho!l{d start 10 pray a shori
rak 'ak •. " Praying
at night, after praying the evening prayer, has no
definite number
of rak'alts. You can pray as many 3S you can, two
by two, since
the Prophet tl; said, "Niglrl pra)V!r is /11'0 by two,
and if you
SI.speCI Ihal the dawn prayer has approached,
pray one sitlgle wilr
rak 'alr. " Among the bl essings of praying and
praising Alliih at
night is that it paves the way to Paradise. At-
Tirmidhi narrated
that the Prophet 3: said: "0 people, greel one
anolher "say may
peace be uFOn you ", feed OIlier (U!op/e from your
food an" pray {JJ
nighl wlrile people are asleep, so yr'u enter
Paradise peacefully."
- To urge him to pray the d~wn prayer in Ihe
mosque: to teach htm
to invoke All:ih after thc <:all for praycr. Imam
Muslim and Abu
Dawud narrated that the Prophet t1; said, "When
you hear I/,e
A dhan (calling for prafcr) , repeal what he is
saying. Say: "" eace
be lipan Mu'!nmmad, sillce "'Iwever says Peace be
"POll me allee,
len good deeds will be writ/en for h'm in his book
of deeds, andafter
Iha/ osk AI/iih 10 gralll me AI-Wasflalr , ",lIich is a
place nOI
altained by any servalll of Ihe seroants of Alliih.- I
hope ' canallain
il. The (>Ire who a.~ks for me AI-Wll$ilah will
dcserve my
interce$$ion on the Day of jlldgmelll ." [nvoklflg
Allah. and
asking for His Mercy and Forgiveness, should Ix:
done in the way
that has been reported from the Prophct ij:_ Al-
Bukhiiri narrated
that the Prophet ~ said, "Whoevcr slIys w/ienel't'r
he hears Ihe
Ad/Ilin Ihe (calling for prayer) "0 Alliih. Lord of
rhis e"er-pf'rfec/
call. l/ie Lord of lhis cominuing prayer, gram
Muhammad A/Wasi/
ah and virtue and give him the mast /ionorable
.~Iarus You
have promised him will deserw my imt'fcession on
Ihe Day of
jlldgmem."
- To teach him th~ merits of praying In
congregation In the
mosque. At-Tirmidhi and Abu Diiwud narra ted
that the Prophet
$ said, "Give glad lidings to those who walk in Ille
darkn e.<s 10
mO)'ques Ihat they will have great shming light on
the Day of
Judgment. "
_ To teach hIm to glori ry and invoke Allah after
finishing his
prayers. Imam Muslim narrated that Abu Hurairah
.. said:
386 =,",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",",,",,PanTh~
"W/wever says. sf/Mana Allah (Glory be to Allah)
thirty-Ihree
limes, ,,1-lIoIIUIlI Iillall "Praise be 10 A /liilr"
Ihirty-lh,ee limes. and
AI/aha Akbar "Alliih is ,he G,eales/" lbirly-Ihree
limes and then
comp/ele Ihe hundred by saying. /0 iloho ilia Allah
"There is no god
but Allii/r; Ihere is flO Ilssociole wilh Iflm.Jor tlim
is a/ll/w/ is in
Ihe earlh and Ihe skies Imd/or Him is praise WId
He has power ove.
aUlhings." all his sins will be obliterated nell if Ihey
were as much
as Ihe foam of Ihe sea."
_ To teach him that praying the SantUlh
(voluntary) prayers arter
the dawn and afternoon prayers are undesi rable.
AI-Bukhari and
Imam Muslim narrated that the Prophet $ said, "No
proy!"
afler dawn lin/ii/he Sun rises, nOr a/lfr the
afternoon prayer liIIlhe
sun fades oway."
- To instruct him that pr~ying when Ihe sun is in
the middle of the
sky us well as when it is fading away is
undesirable. Im:lm
Muslim narrated that 'Uqbah Ibn 'Amir said, "The
Prophet $
used to discourage us from praying al three times;
when the sun is
rising till it completely rises, when it is in the
middle of the sky till
il declin es, and when it fades till it completely fa
des away."
- Then teach him to say the invocation the Prophet
$ used to say
III the morning. Mentioning the Name of AU[ih and
remembering
Him is strongly recommended many times in the
Noble Qur·iin.
" Tller~for~ remember M~ (by /Wuying,
glo,ifying), I .. ·m remem"",
you ... " (At.Haqarah, 152) and
1'0 you K'lIo ,"Ii~ .e! Rem~mh~, A llah .. ·ith much
rerrumbrunce."
(AI . A~z:ib, 41)
The Prophet ~ said, 'T .... o .... ords are easy and are
beloved /0
AIM!., and yet are heavy in Ihe bola",:e (on Ihe Day
oj Judgment )
i,/'. Glory be 10 AIMh (llid so is Ilis pflliu; Glory be
10 A/fiih 1101'
Grealesl.' Narrated by Im,im Mllslim, Also, At-
Tirmidhi narrated
that Abu Il umimh said that the Prophet It used to
S3y in the
morning, "0 Alltih. By YOl4r power we wake up. by
Your power we
fil'e , by YOilf pOll'er we die 0111110 You is I"e
Resurr~cljo"."
- Reading with him some verses of the Noble
Qur'iin: there ,Ire
many sayings of the Prophet 3: regarding the
virtue and merits
of reading the Qur'iin. Muslim narrat~-d the
!ladiill: "Read 1"1.'
Qllr"all siMI' il wifl ill/ereeill.' (before Alflih) for
1110"1.' \\,"0 used 10
fcail il. ,. Al-Bukh,iri narrated. " The beSI of yOlI are
those who
leam (hI.' Qllr 'all alii/ teach it 10 olhers. ,.
- Playing some sport with him: AlIiih f.f.t says in
the Qur'an:
<f: :} ,:,.; ~ : t'''; t: ~ ~~t ,
"And make ready "Ruinn rlrem all j'oa can of
pall'er, indading
stu ds of lI'ar (tunks, planes, mi.!siles, arriflery) "
(Al-Anfal, (0)
Training includes all kinds of sports i.e. running,
gymnaStICs,
jumpmg, wrest ling. weight-hfling, and so on.
- Then teaching him some cultural subjccts: AW;h
001 S;IYS in the
Qur'an,
"Say: "My Lord! Increase me in know/edge. ,. f!§-
IH, 114)
If the child is a student, teach him his school
lessons. The student
should prepare the lessons he wil l study. He may
study his sehool
lessons whi le reading other cultural books, On the
other hand, if
the chi ld is a worker, teach him related cultural
subjects. The
child would learn, in the early hours of the day.
some f,lcts of
science so that he might reach ;\ moderate level of
mental growth
and c ultural awareness.
- Praying the l!u~ii (forenoon) prayer with him:
AI-Bukh5ri and
Muslim narra ted that Abu HuralTah 40 said, "My
beloved
•
Muhammad e advised me to do three things: to fast
three day~
every month, to pray the twO Rak'ahs of the
forenoon prayer and
to pray at least a single Rak'uh before going to
sleep," The
minimum oflhe ~rll!1i prayer (forenoon) is 1wo
and the maximun
is eight rak'ulu. The time of this prayer begins
about thirty
minutes after sunrise and forty-five minutes
before noon.
- Eating breakfast with him: the teacher should
stick 10 the
etiquette of ea ting and drinking as has been
mcmioncd above.
- Teachmg him how to leave his house
- Teach him 10 put on his shoes beginning with the
right foot, and
when taking them off he should begin with his left
foot. Imam
Muslim narrated that the Prophet 3: said, "When
0111' ofyOl/ is
pUlling on his pa;r of shoes. he should begin wilh
hi.I' right foot oml
II'heli taking them off he shoilid begin K'ilh his left
fool."
- Teach him to invoke AlIiih when leaving hi~
housc. At-Tirmidhi
narrated Ihal the Prophet 3: when leaving his
house would say,
"'In the Nome of A/liih. / pul my trim in Alliih,
Ihere is 110 po .... er
save I<'llh A/hill."
- Tcaching him the etiquettes of walking on Ihe
streel: teach him 10
walk in a leisurely manner since Al1iJ.h 9iI says III
the Qur':in:
~ ~ ~~ ~i ;,n·' ~ 0';> ..6"i' .; ~ /!Ji ';;')1 ~~.:; ,
"And Ihe ""ndmen of the All-Merciful ure the ones
",ho wulk on the
cur,h gently . and M'lIen the ignorant uddUJY them,
they say,
" Peaa. ,. (At.Fu rq ;;n. 63)
- Teach him 10 lower his gaze and nOI look al the
opposite sn who
arc not his kin. AII:ih says in the Qur'an:
t:... r < iol it "1 ?II :.,~ ~,,, >, b~;:';;; ....... ·l , ! ~> • .....
p .• ~ lr.
,~ "l r a.; """ --» rA'-'" ~ :.>-'! ~ _ " T
~ &j':';
"5IIy to the "male" helje"ers thai 'hey cust do",,,
their gu,"", and
pre.lu.'e tlreir pri"ure purts; tlrat i1 more
cfl!U"5ing Jar tlrem. Surdy
A lI<ilr is E re,...Cog ,,!:ant of ,,'hau"cr Ihey work
mit. " (An.Ni". 30)
- Teach him how to greet people by saying, " Peaee
be upon you";
and ,f one greeted him he should reply, " Peace,
mercy and
blessing of AII,ih be upon YOll."
- Teach him that if he meets onc of his brothers in
[slam and
fricnds that he should shake hands with hm1. At-
Tirmidhi
n,nrated that the Prophet ~ said. "'If two M'lSlim.<
mel each other
amI they shook hands, (Ir,mked Allah, amI '"'ked
lIis forgi "cl1/'Ss,
He would forgi ..: thclIl . "
_ Teach him to avoid the hazards and risks he
might mect;n the street,
road. etc. This may be done through watching out
for cars and
lorries driving along roads and streets. He is bener
10 walk on Ihe
pavement. [n this regard, All.ih !H says:
"And do 1/1>1 Ilrrow you.selru inlo deIlruction"
(AI-Ilaq.rah, 195)
B. [n Ihe e.'ening: a teacher should fo llow Ihe
program below:
- Be sure that the sunsc\ and evening prayers arc
performed in the
mosque. Then, do your best that children wear
their best clothes
whenever they pray, since Alhlh t.\1I says in the
Qu,'an:
~ )-; ': J ."4 ~~ iJ;. I"; ~ ,
"0 children of Adam! Tah your ad,)rllmenl (by
wearing )'ollr cleun
clotlres) , ,,·lrife praying and going roulld ( tire
TIl"'llf of) fire
KIl'blllr" (AI -A'rar, 31)
- Be careful that they should not cal garlic or
onions before going
to pray in Ihe mosque for fear of bad ordor from
theIr mouths. [n
this regard, A[-Bukh,.ri and Muslim nar rated that
the Prophet 4:
said, " Wlrae<'eT ale garlic Or oninn.r should keep
away from Our
mosqlle." Ik careful that they should enter the
mosque quietly
and politely. The Prophet $ said. " When you come
10 Ihe
mosque, you mllsl keep qlliet; pray Ihe rak'ahs ),all
CWI allain with
the COllgregalioll, oud those rak 'ahs you missed
you MW! 10
perform by YOliself, ,. Be careful to pray two
Srmnah (voluntary)
r(Ik'uhs before sitting as a greeting to the mosque,
AI-Bukhari
and Muslim narrated that the Prophet ~ said.
"Wlren ane 0/ you
comn 10 lire mosqlle, It is belle, Ihal he prays IWO
rak'ahs before
he sir.< dow"," When one leaves the mosque, he
should go out
wilh his lert foot first and invoke Alliih with the
following words:
"0 my l ord, forgive my sins and open to me the
gates of Your
Bounty," Be careful that your children do their
homework and
tell them to do their jobs in the best way. to
Implement the saying
of the Prophet 1$: " Verily . AlIiih wanlS thai if one
0/ YOll hOJ done
a job, he 1.(1.\- 10 do il per/eelly." Narrated by Al-
Hukhftri
C. AI nighl: be careful to teach your children virtue.
good social
behavior, historical episodes, or scientific facls so
that your
children might benefit from your guidance and
advice. For
instance, when Muslims celebrate a great occasion
such as the
10urney of Ascension. you should gather your
children and leach
them the following facts:
I. The night journey of the Prophet 3. is a great
miracle by which
AlIiih honored His beloved Prophet, when he was
in one of the
distressing periods of his life. It was a period in
which he and his
followers were badly treated, challenged. and
punished sevcrely.
This great event occurred onc year before the Hijra
(migration 10
Makl:ah). II was a blessed and an honored Journey
to the vast
domalll of the heavens and the carth conferred
only on
Muhammad $.
2. What is the meaning and significance of the
night journey to AIAq!>
5 Mosque and the ascension to the seven heavens?
AI-Imi'
(night journey) refers to the journey which the
Prophet MU1]ammad
~ made to Al-Aq~ii Mosque beginning from
Makkah. This
Mosque is situated in Jerusalem in the state of
I'alestine. AI-Miriij
N==-ry S"gg<>tion, Concerning 1'.<I"", "on 391
(ascension) refers to the ascension of Prophet
Muhammad it to
the seven heavens. Both journeys werc by body
imd soul. So this
great miracle would be considered as one of the
many true proofs
of the true Prophethood of M U~lam1ll3d 3.
3. What arc the most important sights that the
Prophet ~ saw
during his blessed journey? AI-Ruk h5ri and AI-
Bazzar narrated
thai: '"The Prophet 3 passed by some people who
were sowing
seeds and soon they were gathering (harvesting)
the crops: :tnd
whenever they harvested th eir crops they grew
again as if they had
not harvested them. Here the Prophet G: asked
Jibr,l: " What is
this?·· Jibril answered: "Those arc the ones who
fought in the way
of Alliih. each one good (ked they had done was
mulhphed into
seven hundred ones and the money they spent in
the way of Allah,
surely Allah would TCward them for it since He is
the Ever, Rest,
and Unique Sustainer." The Prophet :t passed by
people whose
heads were broken by stones. When they were
broken down, they
returned to their in itial state, and then broken
again and so on. The
Prophet wondered, "0 Jibrfl, wllo are Ihese?'· He
said: "Those are
the ones who come 10 prayer with laziness." Then
the Prophet g:
passed by some people having patches on their
outer sexual organs
and their anuses. and they weTC wandering hke
animals and were
eating Du"'-· (a bitter and thorny plant in hell),
Zaqql'm (a bitter
t r~-e in hell), and stones which will be heated in
the fire. So the
I' rophet i$ asked Jibri1: ··Who lire those?'" Jibril
answered: Those
are the ones who did not pay Zakilh, and Alhih did
not do them
injustice since He never docs injstice to those who
are His
servants:· Then the Prophet ~ passed by some
people with thick
lips like those of camels. They were devouring
embers of the hot
fire of Hell getting out of their bodies. The Prophet.
asked Jibril
about thes.c people and Jibril answered. "Those
are the ones who
devoured the money of orphans unjustly.·'
4. What is the relationship betwccn the Sacred
Mosque in Makl::ah
and Al-Aq~ Mosque in Palestine? Dr. Mu~tara As-
Sibil:;, <Il1I ~aid:
"The relationship between the Aq~ii Mosque and
the Sacred
Mosque is that of equal esteem since the
inhabitants of Makkah arc
the most honorable people on earth because they
arc the guardians
and servants of AI-Ka'hah since the time of Ibr'-
ihim. AI-Aq~i
Mosque has been thc home-place of all Prophets of
Alliih for
extensive periods of history. Thus liberation
movements must
spring from these two Holy places and the
battalions of faith should
set out from these two holy places to guide the
whole world to the
right path and the Mes,age of Islam."
5. What is the duty of Muslims towards Palestine
and the captured
Aq~ Mosque? In fact, our duty towards I'alcstine
and Al-Aq?
Mosque is a very difficult responsibilty facing the
present, past, and
future generations who should carry it out before
AIl:ih and history.
The Prophet tj: cntrusted us with a great task. that
is. to liberate the
Mosque and its surroundings from the Jews and
Zionists and to keep
Palestine as an indispensable part of our larger
Muslim Community.
So we should liberate every spot, even as small as
a span of land or a
grain of sand, of the land of the journey of
a'iCcnsion, from the hands
of tho'iC unjust and disloyal Jewish invaders, who
now occupy the
Holy land. Thus. whoever is in charge should
enlighten his children
every time he sees fit morally, socially, his toricall
y, and cul turally.
Give your family happiness and fun. This may be
done through:
<I . Holding a quiz between your children to lest
Iheir level of
information. The aim of this competition is 10
encourage and
help them to learn new aspects of culture and
sciences and
provide 11 sense of cheerfulness and joy in the
house.
b. Telling amusing jokes, witty remarks, and
narrating some
wonderful tales. The aim is to rcfresh those who
are in the house
and to overcome any sense of annoyance from
which somc
might suITer_
c. Play ing some sports and g3mes, undertake
some literary
dIscussions, and act some social and historical
cpisodes_ The
aim here is to refresh blood cIrculation and to
keep up mQraL
Be careful that you all sleep early because keeping
awake at
night is harmful for the health, wastes the blessing
of waking up
early to enjoy fresh air, makes one unable to pray
the dawn
prayer, and also makes him Hlactive and letha
rgic_ On the other
hand, waking up early in the morning is one of the
traits of
education in Islam. The Prophet ~ disliked
sleeping before the
evening prayer and staying awake after it for no
beneficial
purpose. In this regard, AI-Bukhari narrated that
the Prophet
4: "disliked sit!l'ping before the e''fning prayer or
fatking with
olire,s afrer il." However, if talking to others is for
some useful
or urgent mailer and virtuous teachings, then it is
welcome_ AIBukhiiri
and Ah-mad narrated that 'Umar Ibn Al-Khat-t-iib
....
said, "The Prophet $; and I used to spend some
time at night
with Abu Hurairah in his house discussing with
him some issues
concerning Muslims."
Spending some time of the night with one's family
is acceptable.
Imam Muslim narrated that Ibn Abbas said: "]
slept in the
house of Maymunah for one night, when the
Prophet i$: was
with ber, to see bow the Prophet tf;: talked with
his wi fe,
Maymunah, for some time and then slept." As for
spending the
night talking untruthfully about other people who
are absent or
in watching TV for a long time are not acceptable.
Waking up
early is one of the recommendations of the
Prophet $. gave his
nation. AI-Bukh5ri narrated that the Prophet 3-
said, "The
early hours of the morning are bleJ5ed for my
lIalion."
Being careful that children should kiss their
parents before
going to bed, and invoke Allah with the Prophetic
supplications
intending to wake up at night to pray the night
Sunrwh prayer
(tahajjud) and the dawn prayer so that they could
begin their day a
fresh. [t is Sunnoh, when one is going to bed to
dust off his bed lest
any harmful insects might bite him; then he should
lay down on his
right side, II is beUer to make ablution before
going to sleep and
say: "Praise be to Allah, who aITords us with food
and drink and
the One Who protects and shelters us." Then one
reads the ~erse
about the throne of Allah, blows air onto his hand,
and reads thc
following chapters (Suruhs): AI- Ikhl:ls i.e. (I) Say,
He is Al\:ih,
One. (2) Allah , Thc Everlasting Refuge, (3) He has
not begotten,
and has not been begotten, (4) And to Him none
could be co-equal;
and Al-Falaq i,c, ( I) Say, I take rcfuge with The
Lord of the
Daybreak, (2) From the evil of whatever He has
created, (3) And
from a dusky night when it overspreads its gloom,
(4) And from
the eVIl of the women who spillle on knots, (5)
And from the evil of
an envier when he envies"; An-Nas i,e. (1) Say, I
take refuge with
the Lord of mankind, (2) The King of mankind (3)
The God of
mankind (4) From the evil of the ever-slinking
whispers in the
breasts of mankmd, (6) Of the jinn and mankind."
Afte r he finshes
reading, he ruOs all parts of his body as far as his
hands can reach,
One should do this three times," (Agreed upon)
Then one says,
(Sl jbhulla Allah) "Glory be to Allah," (AI-
Hlmul!llillah) " Praise be
to Allah" (Allaim Akbar) and "AIl;lh is the
Greatest," each one of
these thirty three-times, Narrated by hnam Muslim
Then one puts his right hand under his chock and
says three
times: "0 Allah!, May You protect me from Your
punishment on
the Day of Resurrection," Narrated by At-Tinnidhi
Finally, one should recite the following invocation
to Allah: "lJy
Your Name [ repose my side to skcp and by You [
raise it again, If
You lake my soul, have mercy on il and if You send
it back to my
body, protect it with what you protect Your
righteous servanls,"
But if you suITer from insomnia, you read the
following
invocation to Allah, then you will sleep quietly hy
thc will of Alliih,
Al-Bukhiir! narrated that Khfilid Ibn AI-Wa1id said
10 the Prophet
~, " I cannot sleep at night because of insomnia."
Thc Prophet 4:
told him, "When you go /0 bed, you say _ "0 Allah,
Ihe Limloflhe
se"en earths and all that is in them WhOleyer, and
Ihe Lnrd of all
de"ils and Ihose whom he beguiled, be my
neighbor and prQleCl me
from Ihe evils any ane of YOllr crealures might do
/0 me or do me
injustice, Your neighbor is ,he most prolected one,
Your praise is
sublime, Ihere is no god bur You, ,.
One must notice the following remarks concerning
the program
I have just outlined:
L This program suits teenagcr~ and those who are
slightly older,
But for those children who are less lhan ten years,
a teacher
should follow another educational program which
is summed
up in two points: a- Teaeh them the foundalions
and principles
of Islam and also teach them the forms of worship,
and most
importantly prayers (SII/t,/r); b- Teach them the
principles of
Islamic ethics i. e. truthfulness, honesty, filial
gratitude, and
speaking to people in a friendly and polite way.
2. Whenever you h,lVe the chance to go with your
family on a
picnic in a garden or to a beach, do not hesitate to
make use of it
so that they might become refreshed and lcarn to
SWIm, or
games they did not have the opportunity to learn.
3. Fast with your family the SUfUlah (voluntary)
day!!. So, when
you sit down with them al the table to have
breakfast (break the
fast), let them see you cheerful and happy. And
they would be
accustomed to fasting the voluntary days laklllg
you as their
good example.
These are tht most importAnt concepts, which I
think educaton;
should follow in educational programs day and
night. So, be
careful, dear educator, to [ollow them so that you
could raise your
children and students according 10 the teachings
of Islam,
7. Providing useful cultural means
Due to the educationill responsibility of parents
and educators
towards children, they should prepare useful
cultural means in all
fields of knowledge to provide the young with
adequate education
and trai ning. The following means may be useful:
1. Special library ror children that contains:
a. A clear edi tion of the Noble Qur'an for each
child.
b. A suitable book of exegesis of the Noble Qur'an,
especially the
short Siirahs, for young children.
c. A general exegesis of the Noble Qur'an lhal SUIts
adults.
d. Appropriate books of Prophetic HaJ[I/,.
e. Books about Islam, written in a narrative or
discourse style.
f. Appropriate books on Muslim Jurisprudence (
Fiqh).
g. Simplified books of the Prophet's Biography 3::
and the history
of Islam in general.
h. Suitable books that show Islam as a way of life
and a system of
laws to refule the attacks on Islam by non·
Muslims.
I. Books on science, history. and literature etc.
Dear educator, below are some books with which
you should fill
your library so that they may fulfill the children's
needs in the
future. I seek Allah's Guidance; He alone guides to
the straight
Way.
l. ¥usllf Al"A~m, the series of Ma'a A/·JiT A/-
Mus/im. The
following have already been issued: a. Barli'im
A/·/Sllim, the first
book is on Creed. b. BauYim AI·Is/lim, the Second
book is on
life. c. AnQshfd wa Aghiirfd for the Muslim
generation. d. Ad'iyah
''''1 Adiib, for the young Muslim generdlion. e.
Mashdhid wu Ayul
for the young Muslim generation. The above are
for those from
7-12 ye3rs.
2. AI-Abraslli, M U~3mm3d ·A~iyyah, The
Religious LIbrary for
thc Child. 30 storics, 7-12 years.
3. AI-SiL~~5r, Alxlul -~Jamid Judah, Scrie~ of the
]' rophets' Stories.
12-16 Years.
4. Muhammod All Qu!b, the seriel of ··Mus/imal
Klliilida(·. age
12_1~.
5. Muhammad Ali Qu!b, the series of ··Ghazoll"iil
AII-NaM· :1;,
agc. 12 - 16.
6. Abu AI-~lasan An-Nadawi, Ma}muiQl Qa!a.! An-
Nahiyy'", age
12-16.
7. M u~ammad Ali D3wlah, Majmu·al Siyar
IsliimiyyalJ . ages: over
15.
8. Najib AI-Kiluni"s Qa.!as, over 15.
9. MU!1ammad Ali Dawlah, Q!J.!<1-! Wa lfikaytil,
3ges over 15.
Books for Thought:
l. Shaikh Ahmad ' Iuud-Din AI-fllyanuni, '·Hat!yu
AI-Is/lim, age:
over 15.
2. Shaikh Ahmad ·Izzud-Din AI·BayanGn!, the
series of "AI'
Aqa ·irl·. ages: over 15.
3. Dr. Mu~ amm3d Sa'id Rama~an AI-Bii~i and
others, the scnes
of ··Ab~!lilhfi AI-Qimmlllr.'"
4. The !.Cries of ··Buhuth I.<lIimiyyah fllimmail",
age: over 15.
The f3mous authors who wrote on the general
principles of
Islam are:
l. Majmu ·at Rasa·if of martyr Imam l:! asan AI-
Banna JIli;.
2. Shaikh Sayyid Qu~b
3. Sllaikh MuJ:tammad Qu ~b
4. Abu AI-Hasan An-Nadawi.
5. Ali At-Tant.lwi.
6. Fathi Yakan.
1. Sa'id Haww;"i.
8. Yusuf AI-'Azm.
9. Dr. Muh-amm3d Sa'id Ramad-lin AI--Buli.
10. Dr. YCisuf Al-Qara~awi.
2, Subscription to a "'« kly or monthly magazine
The magazine concerned should fulfill the
following needs: A. It
should be of Islamic andlor pure sciell tific
orientation. B. It should
keep away from devi ation. C. It should lIot contain
immoral
pictures. Among these recommended magazines
are:
- A/-I!odarah, in Syria.
- Ai-Muj/ama, in Kuwait.
- AI-wa'y A/·ls/ami, in Kuwait.
- A/-Ha'ih AI-blumt, in India.
- Ad-Do'wah, in Egypt.
- AI-'Itisum, in Egypt.
- A/-A zhor, in Egypt.
- A/-Ummoh, in Qa!ar.
- Matrar AI-lsMm, in the Arab Emirates.
3. Making use of films and projedors
In fact, scientific, historical, geographical, and
educational films
along with projectors may be used by the
instructor to cnrich the
culture of the young. This is one of the most useful
means that
embraces and fi:otcs culture In an interesting
aspect in the life of
children .
As a maUer of fac t, Muslims should find joint-stock
companies
to produce suitable scientific, historical,
geographical, and
educational films that suit the age and intellect of
the children
for each home, district, and coun try.
4. Using mea",~ of illust rat ion
Such means are, of course, among the useful means
in educating
the young since they explain what they may not
understand. lbese
means may contain;
A. Geographical maps that illustrate to the children
the boundaries
of the Muslim World in general.
B. Maps that illustrate the Muslim countries and
their frontiers,
important sites like Mosques and firms, and all
that is related to
their general wel fare.
C. Pictures that illustrate Muslim civilization
through the ~arious
centuries and the contributions of our forefathers
in the fields of
civili:alion and science.
D. Pictures that illustrate Muslim conquests
through different ages
to reprcsent the digni ty of Islam.
5. Visiting museums
Undoubtedly, visiting museums provides new
insigh ts in the
fields of culture, civi lization, and history to the
child. At the Silme
time, it relates the child firmly to his dignified
forerathers, whose
achievements cannot be forgotten in the history of
humanity or
among modern generations.
6. Visiting public libraries
Visiting public libraries, whether archaeological or
modern, IS
one orthe most interesting means of culture that
should aUraCl the
attention of the educators and instructors. Visiting
libraries has
many benefits for the young:
- Making (he child familiar with the ways of
borrowing and
reading books.
- Training the child in good manners and
etiquettes that should be
observed in public places and scientific centers.
9. Arousing the child's desire 10 rcad
Under the banner of Islam, we should say, in the
words of the
Qur'an:
~~.p~.;..J j.;,
"Say: " !lty Lord! lntuast m~ ill kllo,,·fedge." (Ta.Ha.
114)
",.{l .~.,; i::• 1 <o.! ..1 ",1~' "~.."...~-: i-1'~il ,J;mj -!
vi-~ T1.
"Are tlrou ... lro kilo", equal to rlrou ,,·lro kno ...
II0t?" (Az·Zumar. 9)
The responsibility of parents and instructors
towards the young
is to leach the child the ooncepts of Islam, as
religion and state, the
Noble Qur'iin as ideology and legislation, the
history of Isliim as
an honor and a good example; Islamic cullUre as
all-embracing and
comprehensive, and there should be oommitment
to the call with
conviction and enthusiasm. However, this cannot
be achieved
except through attentive and comprehensive
readings especially in
the following fields:
- Reading thoughtful books, which illustrate the
pennanence of
Islam since they are characterized by
comprehensiveness,
revival ism, and pennanence.
- Reading historical books that illustrate the
dignity and honor of
Islam and Muslims .
. Reading books that expose cultural imperialism
and the plots of
our enemies, ineluding the Judaism, Pagan
Communism, and
envious Christianity.
_ Reading books that highlight the Noble aspects of
Islamic
civi lization founded by our forefathers through
different ages.
Now, the question is what is the way to achieve the
abovementioned
targets? Undoubtedly, the answer lies in the
consistent
and conscious reading and wise direction, [n fact,
the child
becomes uninterested in reading without ta king
measures that
make reading an interesting pastime.
These measures and means may be summarized as
follows:
_ To conclude a comparison between knowledge
and ignorance, to
let him know the difference between scholars and
the ignorant.
This is the style adopted by the Noble Qur'iin when
arguing to
convince and establish evidence. Alliih. says, "Suy:
"Are IhoJC
who kilO'" equal 10 Ihose who know /lOI!" (Az-
Zumar. 9)
Undoubtedly, the young wi ll be satisfied with the
importance of
reading and study when they are acquainted with
the merits of
the scholar and the wretchedness of the ignorant.
- Mu';iz Ibn Jabal. said, "Knowledge is the revival of
hearts after
ignorance, the light of sight against darkness, and
the strength of
the body against weakness. Through knowledge,
man reaches the
degrees of the most charitable men and the highest
ranks in this
world and the Hereafter. Engaging in it equals
fasting, and
studying it equals night pra yer. By means of
knowledge, the
bonds among relatives arc maintained and the
lawful is
distinguished from the prohibited. Knowledge is
the leader to
work, and work is subjccted to it. Only the happy
possess it while
the wretched arc deprived of il."
- Setting up cultural contests among the children.
Contests may be
held among children. For instance. we may let
them compete
with each other in fasting or reading at a specifie
pace. Then a
final test may be held and the winners are to be
given prizes as
encouragement.
- Teaching the child that whatever useful books he
reads can be
considered acts of worship if they are
accompanied with good
lTItention as the Prophet's statement says,
"AC/ions are judged by
402 Part Th ....
intenli(Jn,5, tmd everytme will have Ihe reward of
whal he has
intended." As a mailer of fact , scholars conclude
from this
statement the rule that "Good intention changes
customs to acts
of worship."
· Preparing a comfortable, and quiet place,
equipped wi th suitab le
lighting, warm in winter and cool in summer.
· Making available the various books in the home
library, or that
of the school, mosque, etc.
· Teaching the child about the value of time; since
time is too
limited to fulfill all one's duties. Muslim narrated
that the
Messenger of Allah 4: sa id, "Be careful aboUI what
is oflunefil
and seek Allah'J Help and never feel helpeJJ."
Finally, reading cannot bri ng avowed fruits except
through the
following:
l. Psychological readiness before reading i.e. to
intend that the
child reads with the aim of building up his capacity
to carry out
the message of Islam and be of assistence to his
nation.
2, Pay due concentration and attention during the
time of reading.
This can be achieved through conscious read ing of
all that he
reads.
3. He should underline the main points and ideas
so that he can
grasp and remember them.
4. Writing the main poin ts in the margin of the
paper.
S. Writing down the important titles and
rescarches In private
notes with reference to the books and pages in
order to be easy
to refer to.
6. Writing the most important citations orlhe Pro
phetic trad itio ns,
literature, poems, historical events, scientific facts,
juristic
verdicts, etc, Undoubtedly, these notes are the fruit
of reading
in the course of time, and surely they will benefit
the reader in
his educational and practical life.
9. Feeling responsible towards Islam
Parents and in st~uctors should pay attention to
the chi ld
regarding the following facts:
A. The first group of believers who were brought
up at Al-Arqam's
house were youths; the Messenger of Alhih 3 was
forty years
old at the beginning of thc mission; Abu Bakr was
three years
youngcr; 'Vmar Ibn AI-Khauab was twenty-seven,
Vthman
was younger than the Messenger, and Ali" was the
youngest.
Fu rther, 'Abdullah Ibn Mas'Gd 'Abdul·Ra~ man
Ibn 'Awf, AI·
Arqam Ibn Abi Al-Arqam. M u~'ab Ibn Vmayr, Biliil
lbn Rabii~
... were also youths.
B. Thcse youths were the ones who shouldered the
burden of the
Islamic call and were good examples in patience,
forbearance,
and sacrifice. They worked night and day to
propogate the call
of Islam and make it dominatlt throughout the
earth.
e. The first Muslim generation of Ihe Compamons
of the
Messenger 3 and the successors achieved honor
and success
through tht following; first, adhering to Islam as
Faith (Aqld(Ih)
and thnught, theory and practice, comprehension
and implementation.
Thcrefore, they achieved victory, and domi llation
over the enemies of Islam. History bears witness
that when
'Vmar Ibn Al-Kha!!ib observed that the conquest of
Egypt was
moving slowly, he wrote to his leader of the
Muslim amy 'Amr
Ibn AI-' A~saying: " J wonder why the conquest of
Egypt has
la~ted for two years of fighting. To me, this delay
is due 10 your
innovation (in Islam) and interest in the joy~ or
Ihis world as
you r enemy does. But you should keep in mind
that AII,ih never
grants victory except to the men of truthful
intention."
second, propagating the message of Islam
throughout the world
should be achieved through Jihad, sacnfice,
patience, forbear·
ance, and steadfastness. Muslim armies reached
the Far West
when 'Uqbah Ibn 'Amir, the leader of the Muslim
army, stood
on the coast of the Atlantic with his horse wading
in lIS water
saying, "By Allilh, the Lord of Mubammad! If It
were not the
sea, I would conquer the world for Your Word
Keep Witness 0
Allah." They reached also Ihe Far Easl, when
Qutaybah AI·
B<"ih ili marched to the innermost parts of China
and sa id, "With
my trust in victory from A1I5h, J marched. If I have
breath my
last equipment will be of no avail."
D. If we, Mushms of today, fo llow the footsteps of
our forefathers
and adhere to the precepts of Islam concerning
Jihiid, sacrifice,
patience, forbearance, steadfastness, etc. we will
surely achieve
the dominion of Islam again, establish the Muslim
State regain,
wIth the help of Alliih ident ity and honor, and
then deserve to
be the best nation raIsed for mankind, if we are
truthful men as
our forefathers were. Allah !Ii praises the truthful
intention of
men when He says,
t::; 3~:~ J j';:? r;;; ;;:. .; I ~:.:; ; :' ~f!"L I'~ t.: !J:: j,,:,1
~f ~"
~~;;~
"Among the helie ~er$au men 11'/'" harl bu n true
to their covenant
with Alliih (i,t. they hart gone Ollt /0.- Jihad (/or
the calise 0/
Allah), and showed not thei, backs to the disbelura
s); 0/ them
SOme hare /ulfilled their ohligations ( i.e. have
been martyred);
and some o/ them are stifl"'lliting, hut they hau
nert" changed
(j. e, they naer p,o"ed treacherous to their corenant
which they
,ond"ded "'ith Alllih) in the least," (Ah\!cib. 23)
E. The world today is straying in the darkness of
oppressive
materialism and immorality. It abides in the
shackles of
oppression and tyranny; it struggles in the gloom
of false
ideals and principles. The super powers plot to
destroy human
ci~ilization, morals, and the Prophets' missions.
They launch
war!\ 10 subject men, occupy lands, usurp
property, and drive
men, women and children and the aged from their
homes.
However, the question now is, what can save us
from these
devastating crises? What can protect people from
degradation
and immorality?
Many Scholars, thinkers, and p:'ilosophcnI agree
that Islamic
morais, and [slam's poh tical and social systems
have the ability to
reform the current interna tional cri;i. and protect
humanity from
deviation, immorality, and corruption. The famous
English
philorophcr Bernard Shaw said, "The religion of
Mu~ ammad
deserves high estimation, since it comes with
surprising faciors of
revival. [t is the only religion that deals with all
aspects of lifc. To
me, Muilammad should be called the savior of hu
manity. A man
like Muilammad can solve all the problems of the
world."'
10. bculcaling Ihe spirit or Ji/I/id into Ihe child's
mind
One of the most important issues to which
instructors must
direct utmost oonsideration is the inculcation of
the spirit of Jihiid
into the child's mind. They must also impress upon
his mind, heart.
and feeling the ooncep!s of determination and
patience particularl)'
in the modern age in which Muslim! are not
governed by the law of
Islam. So transgressors have become sovereigns
and r ulers.
n,en, what are the stag"" through which
instructor& should
proeted in inculcating the concepts of Jihtid in to
the children's minds
and louIs? This process can be achieved through
the following:
l. Th~ child should oonstantly reel that the
achievement of l ~lamic
identity and the establishment 0:' Muslim glory
can only be
achieved through Jihiidby which the word of All;lh
is above all. In
this Jegard, the Noble Qur'an says:
""," il l: .I.j oZ' , ... ,... ,,:/' I ~~. •rt, e!,. oIJ.>,': . ~1
~.~_ S.".".".",' '.._... "."-......f.".., . ,t'--". i>. ""I .~.-. ' &_.J ;
,T-o1\£. Tlo.
<if H'i !:j 5;~ oj; ;'1 ~ 4 c"l.#-. ~ JO JJ
"0 )'ou who INlie.t! Whoe~u from <lmOIlg ),OU
,u,n.< b4lck f,om
his ,eligioll (Islam), Allah will bring a people whom
He M'ill/m'e and
'hey M'ilf lo.e !lim; humble tow<I,ds 'he belie.ers,
.'Urn ,owa,dJ the
disINfie.ers,jigh,;ng ill the Way of Alllih, and ne¥tr
fea, the bI<lme of
the b/<lfMrs"," (AI-Ma'idah. 54)
2, The child should understand that JihQ,l In the
cause of Allah
in cludes the following:
- Jihrid with one's wealth, by spending wealth for
the sake of Allah,
as Allah 12t says:
~ ~:;t : -; '~;1 ~1 ./. ~ ;ijJ.i ~l t.! ,.
"Veril)" Alllih has purchased of the belie¥tu Ihei,
Jives <lnd their
p,o(ll'rlieJ for (tlu! p,ice) thaI theirs sh<lf/ be the
P<lradise ... " (At_
Tawbah, II I)
He also says:
~ ;1 W • PC ;!.lS'I ~ 1Gb 'c.. \,;.;; ~
"Mauh forth, M'helher }'ou aU fig'" (being healthy,
y oung und
wellllh),) Or heavy ( bein!; ill, oJd and poor) , strive
h<lrd ... ith your
wealth ufld )'Ol/r fives ill Ihe CUI/se of AI/lih, "
(Al-Tawbah, 41)
Here we have Ihe Hurliih reported by At-Tinnidhi
and An-Nas;'ii
in which the Prophet tj says, " lVhoel'u sJH'l1ds ....
eolth ofhisfo,
Ihe sake of Aillih shalf r('Ceil'e iu re .... ard IhTee
/"mdTt'} j(,/d. "
- Proclaiming Jiluid by proclaiming the mess.1gc of
Islam verbally
and providing clcar~ul proor lhal lhe religion of
Islam must be
adopted by disbelievers, hypocri tes, pagans, and
deviators. In
this regard Allah e says:
~ tJ.,::' ~~ (jj ~( 1l I:J ~;~,;;: oj; ;:~:;;.:; ~( ; ,v'" ~;r
./. ~J' ,.
"Those who cOilrey The Me.'Y<lge of Alliilr andft a,
!lim, ofldfear 'lone
sllre AlIlilr. Alld Sufficient is Alliilr <IS <I Rukoner."
(At-A~z:ib, 39)
Muslim also narrated a lIadrrlr in which the
Prophet ~ says,
N..,....ry Suggestions C<:>nc<minS I',d""",iou
=========== 4Q1
" lI'hoel'er calls for right guidance rhall earn Ihe
reward of it alld of
aI/who perform il afler him withowt diminishing
their own rewa,,"
in :he slightesl."
- Educational Jihiid by doing one's best for Muslim
education,
culturally and ideologically; providing a proper
perspective of th~
comprehensive concepts of Islam with regard to
cosmic and
h u:nan life. Concerning this type of JiMd, we read
the followjn~
verse of the Qur',ln:
,
L~1i~'i l',U. I·;'~ ;J).:t '" ;X Y~ t.~ !.L;' ~~ $J.4.l1 /,f
r;:; ~
.I. •• 1\ 1-'-' "('1:' ~.J (.,,. ..4"'..J,' 1~.' ,-'.,. .'. i.;: '-}-J" I
>.1
"And it is 1I0t (proper) for the befiutTs 10 go out
to fight (Jihiid)
aU together. Of e. ery Iroop ofth.m, a party ollly
should go forth,
thll/ Ihey ( lI'ho are Irfl hehind) may gel
instructions ;n (Islamic)
rdigioll, and thai Ihq may lI'arlll"";, JH'0ple when
Ihey rdurn 10
them" (At-Tawbah, 122)
At-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud both reported a l-
!adith in which
the Prophet .$. says, "Whoever was asked abolll
knowledge. then
concealed ii, on Ihe Day 0/ Judgement he will be
bridled with the
fire of Hell."
- Pclitical Jihiid by exerting effo.i5 In the
establishment of the
Islamic State on the basis of the principles of the
general
comprehensiveness of Islam. In brier, Allah is the
Sole Sovereign
and Law-Giver as Allah says in lhe Noble Qur'an:
J;1 t.,;,:; s;. -(1; ::: J ~~.J.:.l; ;:';~I eP -1; ~I J) ~ • ~:
~I .. I; ~
o( :. r.-"" '.,: ~ 't ,- ~ ~ J '~( :.: :"1 .:"kt; i '~"" ~l ~
"" ~ ~ '"'Y I'f.-" ~ ~ .,/. "",.-- ",-"~; •
.-I,.; .~... ~.-.-v,. ".p¥,"i- & J<"I ~~ ",''."-j ,,y--) "~",--'
",<tt."m"' jJ:?:il ......... ;'j~ . ::l
"And so judg~ (you 0 Muhammad $) amonK them
by what Afliik
has rev~aled and /IJI/IJW nIJI their ,ain desius, buI
he"'au IJf the",
leSl they turn you (0 Muhammad ,,*,l far all'ay from
sIJme o/Ihal
1I'lrich AI/tih has sellt dm" 11 to yIJU. Alld iftlley
turn away. lhen kilO ...
flrllt Alfli"', Will is ro pun;"h them for SOme Jin>' of
theirs. And
truly, most of men IIU Fusiqun ( rebellious rllfd
disobedient ro
IIf1lib) . Do they then .• eell: the judgment of (the
Days of)
Ignorunce! A.nd ,,'lro is betler in judgment than
Alfalr f or Il people
K·ho ha.e firm Fuilh. " (AI·Ma'idah, 49-SO)
e n the olher hand, Muslim narrated that never a
Prophet had
been sent berOTe me by Allah towards his nation
who had not
among his peoples (his disciples) and companions
who rollowed
his ways and obeyed his commands. There came
after them
successors who said whatever they did not
practice, and pracilced
whatever they were not commanded to do. He who
strove against
them with his hands is a believer, he who strove
against them
with his tongue is a believer, a nd he who strove
against them with
his heart is a believer; beyond that there is no raith
eveo to the
extent of a mustard seed."
- Jihiid by force by exerting utmost eITorts to face
any transgressor
who stands as a stumbling block against the Law of
Allah ml
whether such transgressors are during times of
peace or in the
baltlelield. In the Noble Qur·an we read the
rollowing verses: « ~ ~ t.:~i £~~ ~~\ .;:::,)3 1 ~
~):,<,; ,
"And fight them unril th~re i& no more Fitnuh (
disbelief und
pol)·'heism, i.e. worshipping ollu!rs besides AIlIih)
and the religion
(worship) .. ·iIl all be f or AIlIih Alone (in the whole
o/the world} ... "
(Al.Daqarah, 9J); a nd
.:"" ' " "1 "/ ,- ".-, .:,' . ,"( '"'I ,1' <t ./ ' ~ ,'...:-.j! tki l.
'J ,'-'p.)J .. r--- .. ". .... ,f. 'J.r.: -1-y. 'J 9> "'-'-'. .....-.. Y. ' '-
"<., .,
~ ~k-'-: ~; "*.; ~%-il ~ ~ ': ':5 n ~J1 /I~i ~ ~\ Zt.!-
.:::JJ.:,i;.
"Fight against those ",ho beliere lOOt in Alfiih, nOl"
in llu! LASt Ouy,
nOr /OI"bid thut which has been forbidden hy
AI/iih and His
Messenger (Muhammad $) und those w/w
ucknowledge not the
religion of truth (i.e . [sfam ) among the people of
the Scripture
( Jews and Chris/ions) , until Ilrey plly the Jizyuh
"'ith "'illing
suhmission, and feel tlremse/~es $uidued, (At-
Tawboh, 29)
Here we have what Rib'iyy Ibn 'Amir said during
the encounter
between Muslims and Rustum, the leader of the
Persians, He said:
"Allah has sent us forth to release mankind from
the servitude of
human beings to the worship of AlIih, and from the
narrowness of
life to ils ample ness, and from the injustice of
other religions to the
JuMice of Islam,"
3. Constantly reminding the child of some heroic
situations of the
sons of the Companions in order to make him
proud of Iheir
greatness and follow their example. Here are some
ellamples:
A. When Muslims marched outlO U~ud. the
Prophet $ sent back
some of the Companions due to their very young
age. Amon~
those were Rilfi' Ibn Khudayj and Samurah Ibn
Jundub. Then,
the Prophet $ accepled Rati' when it was said that
he was a
good archer. Later Oil, Samu, .. h c, il;>.[ u"d sa i<.l
tu iIi, father-inla"
l. The Prophet .II: accepted Rail' though I was able
to brin~
him to the ground in wrestling. Then, the Prophet
#. wa!
in formed of this. As a result, the Prophet ordered
them 10
wTestle with each other, and Samurah defeated
Riiti'. Hence, Ihe
Prophet .II: accepted Samurah.
B. When the Prophet ~ and his Companion Abu
Bakr 40
migrated to Madlnah and stayed three days in the
cave of
Thawr, 'Aishah and Asmii. the daughters of AbO.
Bab •
played a prominent role in carrying provisions for
them. Asmii,
cut her girdle (an undergarment worn around the
waist) and
fastened the opening of [he Jirab (vessel of food),
in order to
caTry food to them. Thus she was called the
woman of two
giTd les. Further 'Abdullah Ibn Abu Hakr also
worked in
communicating news. No sooner had he heard
something evil
plotted by Quraysh against the Prophet and his
Companions
than he came 10 lell them l>y night. Then he used
[0 stay SOmt
time with them !:>crore going out !:>cfOTe dawn.
In the morning,
Pan Throe
he looked as if he had never been absent from
Quraysh. It is
well-known that 'Aishah and 'Abdullah" were not
yet of age.
4. To help the child memorize Sarah At-Tawhah
and Slirah AIAhzab
and other texts of the Qur'an that deal with Jihad.
In
addition to memorization of the Qur'anie texts, the
child
should be taught the reasons for each revelation
and
interpretation of the Qur'anic verses along with
e~plaming
the heroic situations represented by the Prophet .$
and his
Companions ... during the battles of Badr, U~ud,
the
Trench, I:Iunayn, and others.
5. IncuLcating belief in fate and destiny into the
child's mind. He
should have firm belief that whatever affiicts him
is a matter of
destiny. He should also know that if all the people
of the world
gathered together to offer him some benefits, they
would not
benefit him except with something that has been
pre-destined by
Allah. Likewise, if they gathered together to harm
him, they
could not harm him except with something Allah
had
prescribed. When death comes, none shall be able
to postpone
it for an hour, nor put it forward. He should believe
in AIUlh as
the Only One Who gives bfe and death, might and
humiliation ,
benefit and harm, low and high ranks; and He is
the Best
Determiner of all affairs.
o instructors! These are the most important points
in the process
of inculcating the spirit of Jihad into the child's
mind. What is your
duty'l lt is to follow these precepts and leach them
to your (students)
so that they will be able to respond to the call of
JiJuid when it is
announced. Then, they will be ready to sacrifice
everything and fear
nonc but Allah. Also, they will not give up Jihlid
until the banner of
!shim is raised and victory is won. At that time, the
believers will
exalt in victory from Allah. He gives victory to
whosoever He wills,
and He is the Ever-Mighty, the Ever Merciful.
Final Word
From whal we have discusscd, above, concerning
raising the
children in Islam, you, my fellow teacher, may rea
lize the
following. It is clear Ihal Islam, wilh its complete
methodology,
distinguished manner and unique style in
educating children, and
in rearing them physically and socially, would
equip them with
good manners and a message 10 achieve. Thus,
children would be
able to undertake responsibili ties with the
supreme goal of
obtaining the blessings of AI15h 1ft. Then, they
would gain
Paradise and be far from Fire in Ihe Hereafter.
Among the issues that the scholars of ethics,
sociology, and
education have almost agreed upon is Ihe fo
llowing. If the
inSlructor, wbether a teacher, father , mother,
excrts his utmost
effo rt, and does his best to implement the above
Divine Message
that has been revea led to the Messenger of AlIiih,
the inevitahle
objcctive would be as rollows. TIle child would be
brought up in
faith and fear of Alliih, and the ndoption of virtue
and morality.
Then, he would be the best among his community,
being a wellmatured
person with balanced behavio r, good dealing, high
reputation, and companionship.
Finally, you should be close to A1l5h to strictly
adhere to the
Islamic way of raising children. Further, you have
to resolutely
and detenninedly carry out the arorementioned
methodology wi th
all its stages and aspects. If you accomplish this
goal, you will sec
your children not only as leaders of refonnation
and guidance, but
also as pious people Ireading on earth. They will
be well-known for
having pure hearts, great morals, good dealings
and maturity.
I believe that if the present gencralion observes
the principles of
Islam faithfully ~,"d practically and adheres 10 ils
tcachings, we
would reclaim the status of our pious predecesso
rs in glory and
honor. We would be able to build up a strong solid
international
412 Child 1',d\lC,l1;"" in IsI.m
Isl~m ic community matching our pIOUS
prooc<:cssors in their
dignity and nobil ity.
0 , fathers, mOlhers, and educators, the above
methodology is
the way of Islam In raising your children, and the
most proper
method for their well-being and guidance to
straightforward ways,
Therefore, you must undertake your responsibility
so that the
Muslim community may witness the reformation
of your children
and fami lies, and YOll muSI do your duty so thai
the Muslims may
witness the forces of strife and triumph in order
10 play their part
in guiding the world away from error, pre-Islamic
practices. and
materia li sm, tow~ rds Ihe ligh t of truth and the
mission of Islam.
Allah we says:
I:: ):1.~'.i .l;':!I~ .,;JI ;; III SJ~J::.~ L;..J.it ~;'.JJ tJ; ~ ~
\,Ll j; t
~ C)::i ;r
"And say, 'Do righteous duo; so Alllih ... iII sOOn sa
)'our doing ,
and lIis Messenger. and the btdiel'er5: Qnd you ...
iII SOOn be reverted
to the Knower of the Umun iUld the Witneued,
then fie "'ill fully
inform )'011 of ,.,1If1l1oever you ,,'ere doing ',"
(A.-Tawbah. lOS)
OUT final words are: praise be to Allah, the Lord of
the Worlds.
All"",:
'Ai"",
Alk,h..-AklKo"
'.(qi<lolt
'AraJait
Ayar:
Ay""", AI.Ta.hrUj:
&J,:
&i,. u/.Maqdir:
Glossa.,
(.h\') Th. coil '<> SiJlal (p .. ~r) pron<>unccd
loudly to
;,"'i""," ,h., ,1,< ';'00 or pr. y;n¥ i. due.
~ 'iI) "Leg.1 , t.tu,·. A= tdill3 1<> lolamic llw. lhere
I,.
five k;nd. <>r AM"",;
I. C<>mpulso ry (Waj'" ....... 'iJ ) .;-;.")
2. D<::Ur.bk bUI not ~mpulS<Jry (Muslu/oab "'-
"""")
3. Forbidden (MuJumam , ..... )
4. Di,liked hut no, forbidden (MaAruh .,;:e,)
S. Lawful and .U"",«I (lla/a/ J",,",)
(,M) A k.nowkdgtab:. penon or r.li!inus ICholar in
Islam.
(,.n"') A II.h i. ,1>< M ",t G,,",,,.
(.:.--I} 0 Allah. I<a:p' OUf in'·QCation.
().....o....:'iI) The Com.,.nion. or tile !'<ophe, r,om the
inhahitan .. of AI·M.dinah. who embra""d l>lam and
supported it and "'be rea:i..w ond cttlcnained lhe
Muo);m
emigrant. rrom M.k<lh and olhor placa
( ...... ) II is lbc .. erifocm& of """ or Iwo sheep on lbc
occasion
of the birth of a child. a. a loken of gratitude to
Allah.
('"A Th. nin'h day of the month Dhu/·h;iJah. on
which
(day of) the pilgrims "ay in 'AraJ", pl.in lill 'un"l.
("u"') The fOUf comple" of Alladilh Abu oa·wud.
No<i;.
Tirmidhi. Ind Ibn Maj. h.
(.:J-.O ...........) The compile" of ,he I'ropllotic AHadilh
on
Io)'mic juri.prudence.
( •• ...,:.u) The 10th of the mon,h of Mulw"am ('he
r,,,,
monlh;n Ih. l o)anticcalendar).
(,-',) Afternoon. ' ,1 ... prayer tin><.
(-"I"') p,,,,,r •. evidencu, ........ k<soTtl. ';11""
"",,"'ions. etc.
(~~ !t i • • lern> used for (he eleven lh. t .... lfth Ind
Ihirnenth of Dhul· Hljjah
W) " pl. "" about 150 k il""'~lo" 10 'he south of AI ·
M. dinah. whe.e the first a .... ' !:>aule in [5llmic
hi"ory
'''''k pl."" btlween tbt early Muslim. and the infidel.
of
Qu.aislt.
c..,""", "-<) ilait literally mea n. ·Hou .. ·: I mosque i.
Bid'a ~
Dhimmi:
AI·Fa,;lttJJt:
Fiqh:
froqLlCndy called baitullllh (the Hou .. of Allah).
&ril' u/M"'
IJi, i. the famous m""l"" in k nwkm wbicb i •
...... dro a. lite thi.d sacred mosque in IsJam. tho fi."
and occond boin8 A/.MtujiJ.. a/·/Iaram at MaUah
Ind the
"'''''ILIC of tbe P.ophet '" at AI· Madinah. (and it ......
I
Jewi'h ceI'Itre).
( ...... ) Any inIlovated practice;n relilion
("-.ilO) A non·Mu,lim living under the p'Ol<"Ction
of on
1. I.mic Government
( ...... ;) l1H: TIoclfih mODlh or Ihe Islilll1i • .al.od.r.
(i.WP. A Tho ele",nth monlh of the Islamic
calendar.
("'U) The fir" Su.ah in lhe Qur'on
( .... ) 1,Iamic juri'prude""".
(;,,;II) l~u .. l: FiuUl) Trill" persecution. confusion in
tho
religion. conf1~ and "rifc, among the Mu.lim,.
h"') Plural: Gha, ,,,,·,,t). A holy baUle: Or fishlin, in
the
cau .. of Allah con. istin, of a largo army unit with
thc
Prophet 4= bim .. lf leadin, thc anny.
(J...oI) A oxreroonial ba th. Thi. i~ fl=ry for nne
who "
JUllub, and also on olho. QCC.O.,ion'. Thi ••
xp.essi"" li king
a balh i. u<Cd wilh lbe special """n;ng of Ghu.l
mrnlioned
","
A/.Jladalh AI-<JJibGr: (,I)' "" ..... ~ State of uncl ••
nli ..... 11«: .... of ... uII di",harF'
AI· /lodalh A/.A"'8haT: (j...'11"",,",) r .... ng wind Or
urine or answering Iho call or
",,'urc.
Hadilh:
D,, 'lf ( ... ""k j:
(~,) PhUl ,l: AllaJilh (.:.., .... ~ Th. saying>, deed. and
app,oval •• ccuralely na'''' led f,om Ihe l'roph<1 4=.
FoUo",;n, ..,.. lhe f ..... clo .. if",ohon1 of AIf""ilh:
( ......... ) An ;naccura'e nafTation .. hich dOd nol
quali fy to
be cither Sahih (sound) or II",,,,, (fa i.) .• nd he"""
cannol
be used as • ba,i. of on Islamic opinion.
(..,...,...) (unr.milixr Or rare}a Ifadj'h or ",,,ion
repo.ted by
one rel i.bloc or unreliable """a!Or .... hich diffe" in
cont."
wilh anolhc< Had/lh or vc"';on reporl.d by a
g'<;Hlp of
reli.ble nlnolofl. A GhIl,ib Ifadilh can be Sahih
(sound) or
D.:r·lf( ..... k).
(.;,-J-') {f. ir}A iJ.Sltad Ifadilh narmt«i by . reliable
cltoin.
but nO! reaching Ihe B,ade of oahih (sound)
/lad/lh.
.lfa,!u':
Ma"quf:
Mudlilfih:
MwlUuil
SaJrih
/lojj
/la/aI:
HarM!:
415
(J~) (uRkno"-") - If there ;. an unknown I"'t«>" in
the
< ~ ain of narr.ted of . /fwi,h.
(tf'"'ry (dilCOmlt",ed) - (il II Ifudi,h eNling .. a TaW',
by
I>QIh a«;on and words. (ii) II If",/i,h "';Ih i.comrle
•• chain
of narrato,.. (iii) A Ifadi'h in which a ,,,/>db;
dcoc,ibe$
.oout ..,m<thing by u ying. "vo'. IW:d 10 do. _.'
(U}I)(I,..=bk). A lIadilh rcferr«llo Ihe Prophet 11;.
be .
it . uying or an ."tion whether Mu!laJi/ (conne<led)
.1/""'1"" (in lt""pl ed) or M.,Sd/ (di ... .c.ned).
(">h"l (untraceable) It i • • /ladirh abou, • Sahabi
(Companion of the Prop/lct 4:). 1\ drscriplion.
'OJ"'" or
an infonnation !p,.n by a St.habi. A lIIo",!"/ i. al<o
called
.nArhar
(~,:....u) (oonfound;ns) - 1\ lIadllh in which ,h. na ..
>10f<
di ... " .. on' panicular ",,\Ira: or on anf Oln.. "I'<"t
with
equally OIrong ground . with no """ibilily of
preponderating
01>< opinion again'l lhe olher, Thi. difT ... nce
could be
eilher on the chain of norratOr o. in the tut .
(p> (di,."nnected)_A lIadirh with incompk:te h.in of
nartOlO" or containi", in its chain an ~ nkn o,.. n
r.ponet.
( .... ; 11 (di,referred) - A lIadilh with the chain of
narr.to"
ending at. TQbi·i. without the rcr ... ence of th.
Companion.
quoting from the Prophet # .
(.L...l.) (.ubjecti •• ) _ (i> A /ladirA with a complet.
cII.in of
narrators ", •• bing the Proph.t # - Oil A HlJiijrh
collection
in "'hiell all the narral;ons of a rcporler .rc: g~l
hered
1011"'.'"
(..J...->I) (connc<:led) 0, /<Ia"",1 (J ..... .rl'> . A
H~JilA wi,h a
complele eh. in of no.",tors unti l i, reach •• it.
""U""'. It
can . ithe, be a Marfu' (t,aceable) referring to Ihe
Prophet
$. Or a Mauq.y(untnoccable) end ing at a SoMhi.
(~) (sound) . A ""Wllad HlJiiilh with an "nb,(lke"
ch.in of na"alO". 0""' na".,,,ed from 'r<: and .11
reliable
,el" "l<rs with ,0.0<1 m=lory up 10 lh. sourc.
without
being 0 Sh<lJh (iI> - odd) or. "'w'ol/a/ (Jl.lt f.ult~)_
~II l'ilgrim.ge to MaHah
(J",",) Lawful.
(r)-I) Unlawful. forbiddrn and punlshabk: from Ihe
.iewpoint of relipon,
/fijuh:
/I",,,,,,
I""",,:
'1>/,(.:
/"Iii<of:
hha"""m:
JahjJjya:
( ........ ,) !I. Io n8 dren preso;ribod for Mu.lim
wOmen 10 "'>..
,heir ",hole body from head t<> f",,_
(,>"") (Plural of Ihuld) Allah', oou<><lary limi .. for
Holal
(lawful) and Haram (uolawful).
(.r.>"" .... ) The four day', fe'ti,'. 1 of Mudims , ta"in8
""
the tenth day of Dhu/.llifjah (month).
()olIO .... ) The Ihree day', reSlival of MU$tim.
otarting from ,h. r,.-., day of SIID ....... I. the mO<l1h
tha, folio ..... Rnmadan.
n" lil.rally mea", 'bruiting lhe Sou'" (fas') Mu.lim.
observe rOOm (fall) Ihe wholo: of II.iI",ad(Jfl. lhe
ninlh month
of th. I.!ami<: calendar and wbtIl Sh"",~",' comes.
'hey
break their"""" (f • .,)
1r' .... )"I) A. ,\1'e in which One i. prohibiled 10
praeti .. oe<1ain
<l«ds lIlal 8re I.""ful at o'her tim .. The du,ies of
'U",,,'"
.<><1 /lajj .re porformcd dwin. ,uch ,lale.
(.01.-)') The penon wh<> leado olher> in lhe Sokr,
(prayer) or
lhe Mu,'im ""'iph (0' ruler).
( .... n Th. wording of A"""" i. reduced >0 that ,h.
wording
IhOi i. repe.",d ,wi"" in the lI"""n is .aid once in
/qtmliJh,
txctp' lhe laO! ph, ... of AI/ohu Akbar, and ,be p,ayer
i.
olf<rro immo;!ialely afler lh. Iq"",aJr
('''"'') Late evenins Solal (puye,), II. time . tart.
abou, 01><
and. half hou, .fIe, ou"",, ,ill the middle of _he night.
(, ........ ~~ 1\ sa/ar (prayer) con';S!ing of two
,ak'aru in ",hjch
lhe praying per .. m appeals to Anah 10 luide him
1m lhe
right W'Y. "'Iardin, a ctrlain matt~r he won .. 10
oDderlak
(."---VI) A $alal (proyer) cono;"ing of lWO rak'w
inV<)kinl
Allah for rain in ... """ of drought.
( • (, ."j Sech .. ion in a mooq ... for the purpOSe of
",,,,,hippinS Allah only. The on. in such. slole uould
not h." _ual reloliOl1o with hi, wife, and one io not
allowro to Ie."" tbe mooq"" except for I ~ry short
period.
and Ihlt io only for every urgenl rIOC"";ty e.8-
an""",ring
tlte ""II of oulure or joining. fun.ra l pr""'>sion
<1<(_)
Hell·fi",_
(;,t.II.') Ignora""" belonging I" lb. poriod befoTt the
.d .... n'
of tbe Prophel ii) Un-lsI. mic p~ wbich either
Ol'i"ed
or ,,'ore inherited from lite en briore lbe advent of
the
Gloua~o================================
=========" 417
Jana",},
Jannah:
Jihluf.
JWo'
Ji:)'a~:
KwoL.
Kunyalo:
Kouw/:
'{/-M~'
Manilla'!:
A/,Mru)id-<J/ Aq.I<T.
Mawq""'ah:
Propl><' a:.
('Jol") plurolja",,'i, #11 Fun<raL
(UJ) Par.di ...
("""j Holy r'ghting i. ,I>< D.uo< of AII.h o. a ny o,h.r
kind
of <rTort 10 make AII.h', "'ord (i,e, 1,I.m) ,uperior,
Jihad i,
"garded •• onc of Ike f" n<larntn,.l. of Isl.m.
lj--o) A c .... !ion, crOlted by AII.b from f, ... , liko
hum.n
beio&, from du .. , .nJ ,nReI, fTom light
(V'l H •• d!ox impo!<:d by lsl.m O".U """,Muslim,
living
unde-r the prol«:tion. of,n I.lamic gov<rnmonL
(~I) '" peTson "'ho i. in .... 1. of Jana/tah
(<,.s») '" "" .... re " on. building in A/·Masji<kl/ -
lIo.an, (the
lire", m"",,"< at Malek.h) 10 ..... rd ..... hich all
Muslim. f.""
in Sui'" (pno)'.r),
~) plural: k,.ga',() The 0"" ",'ho di,bdi."", in Allah,
Hi. M", .. ngors, all the angels.. ~ 11 lhe holy Kook>,
d.y of
Re. urr«:lion and in the AI-Qalkr (Divino
p«ordainmon"l,
1-""') H ..,.. , ~<u up ¥QI~ , "'VOI ~nd mon<y, 1""
Zakar or
.... hich has nol ba:n p:rid.
k)f.l) Th. people ... ho di ... n,e<! from lhe ... ligion
and
di .. g.-.od wi,h lho,...! of lhe Mu.li .....
(W ) D.lling. man, '0 f.,her of SO ·a nd"",!' or calli ng.
woman, '0 mOlhe. of SO -. nd·so!', 'Thi. i,. «&<lorn
of lhe
", .. br..
(...>,,-01 Sol., «:Iil'$<
(~I) Woll·known city in Saudi Arabia. whe ... the
Prophet's mosque " lit u01ed . It .... a. formerly
""lied
Ya lhrib,
( ... ,' '') Sun<el, c""nini Sa/m (prayer),
(,.11) Bridal money "vetO by 'he ku.b<ond 10 ,h.
wif •• , the
lime of n,.rriage,
('-rI') A SOrl of lift in lhe form of a .he-camel Or a
"b.tp
which i1 "yon 10 som~l>ody temporarily .., ,hal ilS
milk
m.y be used and lhc ,he animal i, ... !u.ned 10 ia
OWner.
~ .....,J') The moot o",,,ed m""""" ;n J<1usalnn,
( .. ,.}l) An animal healen 10 &alll wi,h a ",k~, a
",one or
the lik. wilhout prorer sI . u~b!erin,.
Mi',aj:
Mi'~'ak,
Mu 'aJh dJri~ :
Mu/wr,,,,,,,
MujaMJ'.
MUjliVliJwt:
MuroJo:
MUlillhabiJoal:
MUllajll'l'AIQih:
MUWQlla:
NikoJo:
Nisab:
Qad.:or:
<c' .... ')TII< Aocrnl oflhe Prophel ~ 10 III< h .. ~n,
(by saul
and body),
(:lOr-I .. ) A lOOlh bru>h made of A",Ie_Ire< tool<
(,;;") A call,,,,,, ••• "'ho pronou""cs Ih. AdA"" loud ly
calling pwplt 10 COme: and perform the &I~.
(prayer).
(.tl) A mea'ure or lwo-lhird. of a kilog •• m
(approx,) II
may be ~ or more.
(,0)0,) Til< fLfSt monlh of Ihe Islamic calenda ..
( ... ~1) (plural: AlMjdJoiJwo) A Mu.lim Ii&hl« in
Jihad.
(~"""') Independenl rtligiou. ""bola" who do nol
follow
rtli,;on. opin;o", "'''''Pi with p.oof from lhe Quran
and
lbe Proph<'\'s S_h.
(>f"ru) PolYlbeim. 1"'« ..... idolal." and dil btli .... n
in
th. Onenus of AI~h and Hi. M .... ngr' Muhammad ~
.
("""1 A Itmporory mamage which was allo ... ed in
the early
period of blam .,h.n on< w., .way [.om hi, home. bUI
1.«, on it .... , canceled (abrogated).
(",,-,I.>,j.I) Quranic V ...... which art nol cka, and a,e
diITocull 10 undentand
r ........ ) Me.ninl 'Agreed upon' . Th. letm i."~ ro, .
uch
A/olldilh " 'htch ar. found in bolh the collection of
AitaJilh:
Bukhari and Mu.slim,
(~,aL) [>;ou. and ri&hleou, .,ho f.ar Allah much
(a\lotain
from 011 kinds of si ns and evil d .. d. which He hI>
forbidd .... ) and 10,·. Allah much (pe,form all kinds
of good
need, which He h., ordained).
("'}') A Ilodi'h book compiled by Imam Malik Ibn
An".
('--'") (cahlmnitS) COIl""yance of disagree.M. faJ ...
<J"r") pl~ .. 1 of Nafila) Oplional practice of wo ..
hip in
rontraO! 10 oblil'lory (Fa,;daIo).
~iSOI) Marriag. (~Iock) according 10 I'lamic law,
( .......... ) Minimum amount of p'operly liab~ 10
paym.-nt of
lb. Zaka< •. J- Nisab of lold i, lwenlY (20) Milbqal i.e
.
• ppro •. 94 gram.; Ni sab of si l .... is Iwo hundred
(200)
di,ham .. i_e . ' ppfO •. 640 grams; Nj,aI! of food
grai". and
fruit i. ~ A~' ..... q i.e. 673.S kl'll1' NiJabofcamtls i. S
cornel, ;
NUi>h of cow. i. S co .... ; and Niklh of . beep is 40 .
bttp. eiC.
(ra) Divine pfto,daiftmtnl.
G~ry
~======================================
=== 419
Qih/a:
Qi,."..:
Qunul:
Qu,aiJl<
("W) A 1'<''''. who con",y. informalion from ..,me""e
(0
anothe, with the inlenli"" of c,u,ing harm a.d
enmity
between them .
(;j,Oll) The di .... t;.,n t"",·anl. III Mu,liml< f."" in
Sa/al
(p!Oyer) and (hal direction is loward. 'he Ka'ba~ in
M a~kah (S"udi Arabia).
~) La .... of ~"'liIY in puoi . hment for wound, <tc in
retaliation.
(r'o'Il The .tanding po"u", in Sa/al (prayer).
("' ..... ) An invocation in Ihe SGlal (prayer).
(,;.v» On< of the U"''''$l tribes in Ar.bia in Ihe Pre·
Islamic I"'riod of !vIora""" Prophet Muhammad be·
lonsal 10 this 'ribe. which h.d I"''' powen .ph'tually
and
fLnancially b01h before and ane. 1,Iam cam<.
( ....... ) Th ... is no proper equiv.l...,t for RoM in
Engli:llr
lanlnagoo. It ",e .. n. tI>e One Ind lhe Only lonl for
all.he
un i"" .... ito Crcator. Owner, Or&ani~r. Ptovide ••
MUle,.
Planner. Smt.;""r. (heri, her. and Oi"" of ,"""urity.
Robb
i, . Iso One of the N.".... of AII.h . W. ha", used the
word
"Lord" a. nearest 10 IWbb. All ooouraDCeS of
"lonl"
.ct".lIy me.n Rilhb 'Dd .hould be nodemood as , uch
..
(J, .. ~ to',) Third monlh of the [sllmic oakndar
(.,.... ,) The .. ",nih m,nlh of the I<lamie calenda,.
(W"» The $ala. (prayer) ot Mu<lim. con,i.u of
fInk'al
(singlular.fInk ·all. wbeh i, a unil of prayer and
consi", "f
One ... ndins. one bowing and \w" p.ostrati"n. ).
(.A>o.-,) 11>< mon.h "fo""" ..... inl Saum (fa,u). It is
Ihe nin'h
montll of the hlomir: ",lenda •.
( . ... ) U. ury. which i. nf two mojo, kinds: (a) Ribl
Na!Jj"ah,
i.e. inl~rc:sl on lent ""mey; (b) Riba FtJdJ, i .•.
takin8 a
, ul"'ri"r Ihing "f lhe .. me l:ind "f lood. by givinl
mo'e of
the samo kind " r 80><1. of inferior quality, •.•..
dates of
'Ul"'rior quali ly for d . ... of inf.ri"r quality in
grealer
a"",unl. islam . trictly forbid' all kind of usury.
(;.,....0) The "",n compile, of A H,wi,h· Bukbari.
MUSlim.
Abu Dawud. Nld.·;. Tinnidhi. Ibn Majah and Ahmad.
( ........ ) ... ny thin, giVO" in charity
('" • ..0) The Iwo Hadi!h book. of Imam AI·Ftukbari
and
SM'ba,,:
Shirk:
T~lwjj"d
Takbir:
Tflkb'r"h:
T",IwM ud:
Muslim
(,.-1) Forgetting (hore it ,,' oan, ror~"i ng how
many
Rak.'alu • person hal prayrd in whieh C1" he .hould
J>C'fform (10'(, prollration, or Sah ... )
(r,-') The rastins i,e, to not '0 cOl or ddnl or h .....
<exu.1
relation. Cle, rrom bcfOTt ,"" AJiwn of ,"" Fafr
(early
morning) pn~ 'ill the .unset.
("""") The eighth monlh of lho !>lamie colendar.
(.". ..'.1 The tenth monlh or lhe I,Jamie calenJar .
(»..c') A lype o( m. tri.~ in whieh pc"".' e.ch.nge
their
daughters or si.tt .. in morn a&< without Mah,.
(.:!? ) I'olylbd.m and it i . .... o,>IIip olhe .. alonl wilh
Allah.
( ...... C--"') The six book. or AHadil~; Compiled by
AI·
B"kh. n. Mudim. Abu D. wUd. N ..... ·i, T trmidhi. and
Ibn
Majah ,
( ...... ) The Ieg.1 w.y Or way •. o,do ... ac15 of
""""hip and
sla'cm<nl. of the 1"01'''''' Ii. Ihat h" .. become
model. '0
be follo .... d by 'he Muslim"
(_) Nigh' op'ional prayer al any ,ime aOer '/,ha
pmyer
and before lhe fQj, proyet,
(.:.1,-;1) H i. lbe hlarnic rustom. ry p'occs.s of
cbe~ing • pi<cc
of dote ele.and pu"i"1 a ""t 0( its jui"" i" I"" child',
moulh
.. d pronouocing Ad/IaJ! in Child's tars, etc.
(P) Sa)'ing Alloh"..AAbar (Allah i. lbe Mrut Gr<31)
( • .p) A , ingle u,leran«: of Allah ... Akba,
~J"") Optional Sal~, (pt.yns) offered aft .. 'he '/'M
p,a)'efS 00 Ihe rughts of R<>madan. These may be
performed
individu.olly Ot in congreplion
(~) The recitation 0( 'he invDCali",,: A,· '~hiyl~
lillhi .. ,
(up (0) .. ,~" <u~·had.. QIIna MwwmmoJan
·Abd:.llu ....,
k",.hJ.. """ile in Qw·"". i.e. '; U;05 pooture in Sal,
(prnyer),
~) On flni, hing lhe Sala, (p"'yer), Ono 'urn< one',
f....,
10 lbe righl and lheo 10 !he lefloa)'inc. ,11= 1"",,, 'A
I~ikwn
..... !W1Ima,wla" (Pcaceand Mercy of AJI~h be on
you), and
this &elion i. called T""lim.
Taw.id : (.y.",,) T~uJoidm .. no decl.tin! Allah 10 be
lhe only God. II
(Islamic monolheism) hi. lh .... a.peelS: (1) Qnc"ess
of lhe Lonl'hip 0( Allah;
Tau/titJ.ar.Rlllmbiyyt1l1 : To belie .... lb., . h e~ i.
only 0 ...
'Um'a4:
W"hy:
Arh - ThtiJalhah:
WilY:
W."":
7..akal'
421
Lord for all ,h. un:~or"' . (II) On,,,,, .. of the wo rship
of
Allah; rauhid.al.Uhlhiyyah: To beli ••• thol nooe ho.
Ih.
'ish '0 be worshipp«! . (111) On." ... of ,h. Na," .. and
Ih.
Qu.' i,;e" of An.h, T~uhiJ.a/·A ........... ·Sifo'.
( ..... }oIl The <ir<"mambula,ion of th. lia·beIt,
( ....... ) To put 0' stnk. lighlly Ihe har.d. O'-'1:r cic.1n
earth
and lhen p . .. 'he palm of eacb on Ihe bad of , ....
oth.r
blow off ,h. dust and 'hen PO" IhOll On the foc •.
Thi. ;,
"",foflned in".a<! of ablulion (Wudu) and Ghu,/ (in
ca .. of
J"""hal,
( .... ~ A .... U·kno",. mou"I.;o ;n Al-Mad;n.h. 0"" of
the
~r<a' bani" in th. 1, lamic hi"ory 'ook place .1 its
fOOL
Thi. baule i. called Gha;: ~'ah Uhud.
( ....... ) A vl,1I '" M,kkah dunog which 0'"' perfonn.
Ibe
rtlwar .round lhe AD'bah .nd thc Sa) belw...., ~:l-
Stira
and A/·Marwalo. II io .1.., called ·I .... r It ajj',
( ........ ) The Rovda"on 0, In.pimtion of Allah 10 Hi,
Prophets,
( • .,.,.) The 'hI« oom}ilers of A Hadilh - Abu Dawud,
N .... ·i
and TinnidhL
(; ... ) An odd number of Rak'ahs with whicb 00.
r.ni.h ..
0""" Sa/DI (proy<r.1 a' nig.ht afle, Ih. nidll prayer
0, Ih.
'I,,," prayer
( ......... l Ab1uI;oo. wbi:h ;. w .. hin"h. face and ,h.
hand, up
'0 the .Ibow .. .. ipinS Ih. head and .orS wilh .... t
f,"&<f. and
wa. hing ,h. f~' up to ankl •• for Ihe purpose of o
lfering
p,ayerS or M;"8 cir<umambulation around the Ii~
'ooh.
( ... } ) A «,Ia;" flx«J proportion of Ih . ..... Ilh and of
CVl:f)'
kmd ofth. property li.bIe 10 Zakal of. Muslim '0 be
p.oid
yea rly fo, th • .....,.fi' of 'he poor in Ih. M u.lim
oommunity
Til< p.oymenl of Zakal i. o bliga Lory . , ;1 i, o n. of
,h. r. ••
(lilian of lolam. :lakat ;. the mojo, ecQnomic: mean,
for
"labl;Koing social j"'l~ and le.dinS ,ho Muslim
..,dely 10
l"O,renty.nd "",.';ty ..
~ ,,..-) An obl;galory Sodaqa '0 b< siVl:fl by Mu.lim.
be(or< III< pntY'r 01 ·/d·a/·F;,,·,
(N<I) Noon. mid..Jay S~/a, (I'ntye,) i. calltd Z.hT
p,aY''-
Books Published in F..nglish by Dar AI-Salam
1- Child Education in Islam, by Abdullah Nasih
Ulwan, translated
hy Dr, Ghali and Dr. El-Khatib
2- Joys of Belief, by 'Abdullah Nasih Vlwan, transla
ted by Dr.
Ghah
3- Human Rights and Racial Discrimination in
Islam, by 'AbdulAziz
AI-Khayat, translated by Khalifa Ezzat Abu Zeid
4- Islam and Se~, by 'Abdullah Nasih Ulwan,
translated by
Khalifa Ezzat Abu Zeid
S- Salah Ad-Din Al-Ayyuhi (Saladin), by 'Abdullah
Nasih Ulwan,
translated by Khalifa E7;:at Abu Zeid
6- Polygamy in Islam, hy 'Abdullah Nasih Ulwan,
translated by
M. Ash-Shahat Al-Gindi
7- The Excerpt in Purifying the Soul by Sa'eed
Hawwa, translated
by Ibrahim Ma'ruf (in press)
8- Islam and Love, by 'Abdullah Nasih Ulwan,
translated by
Khalifa E7.Ult Abu Zeid
9- Islam the Law of Life, by 'Abdullah Nasih Vlwan,
translated by
Khalifa Ezzat Abu Zeid
10- Freedom of Belief in Islam, by 'Abdullah Nasi"
Ulwan,
translated by Khalifa Ettat Abu Zeid
11- Allah, by Sa'eed Hawwa, translated by Khalifa
Ezzat Abu Zeid
12- lfim AI-Muslim, by Al-Qahtuni, translated by
Khalifa Ezzat
Abu Zeid (in press)
13- AI- Islam, by Sa'eed Hawwa (in press)
14- Supplications from the Qur'an and Sunnah, by
Al-Qahtani,
               translated by Khalifa Ezzat (in press)

								
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