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Humanity's Top Ten Problems for next 50 years

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 60

  • pg 1
									Nano-Energy Applications
         Part I

          Wade Adams, Ph.D.

                 Director
 Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale
         Science and Technology
              Rice University

                                              1
                        Topics
• Why is Energy Important Today?
• Overview of Energy
• Why Nanotechnology is Essential for Meeting Energy Needs
• Nanotech Energy Challenges
• Greenhouse Gases/Global Warming
• Efficiency
• Fossil Fuels
• Hydrogen
• Nuclear Power
• Fusion Energy

                                                             2
Why is Energy Important Today?
Humanity’s Top Ten Problems over Next 50 Years:

1.    Energy
2.    Water
3.    Food
4.    Environment
5.    Poverty
6.    Terrorism and War
7.    Disease
8.    Education
9.    Democracy                           Figure 6.1: Photo of Earth.
10.   Population
                                       2003:      6.5 Billion People
                                       2050:      8-10 Billion People

                                                                        3
                  Overview of Energy
World Power Consumption for 2005




  Figure 6.2a: World power usage in terawatts.


                      Figure 6.2b: Global power usage in successive detail.
                                                                              4
Overview of Energy, Continued
Peak Oil?!




             Figure 6.3: World production forecast Made by Khebab
             of The Oil Drum. (December 2006)

                                                                    5
Overview of Energy, Continued
Global Energy Demand Growth




           Figure 6.4: World Marketed Energy Consumption, 1980-2030.

                                                                       6
Overview of Energy, Continued
                                                                  1,286
Projected World Energy Consumption
• World population now is 6B; in 2050, 10B?

                                                            826




                  Figure 6.5: World energy consumption (Quads).

                                                                          7
      Overview of Energy, Continued
  Projected World Energy Consumption by Region




                                                           Figure 6.6b: World regions.
Figure 6.6a: World energy consumption by region (Quads).




                     Figure 6.6c: Energy consumption.

                                                                                         8
Overview of Energy, Continued
Energy Use Correlates with National Prosperity




                     Figure 6.7: GNP versus Energy Consumption.

                                                                  9
 Overview of Energy, Continued
World Energy Supply and Demand




             Figure 6.8: Estimates of 21st Century world energy supplies.
                                                                            10
         Overview of Energy, Continued
     Energy Revolution: The Terawatt Challenge
                                                                                     50                            2050
50                                           2003
                                             2003                                    45                   2050
45                                14 Terawatts                                       40             30 – 60 Terawatts
40                               210 M BOE/day                                       35           450 – 900 M BOE/day
35
30                                                                                   30
25                                                                                   25
20                                                                                   20
15                                                                                   15
10                                                                                   10
 5                                                                            0.5%   5
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     Source: Internatinal Energy Agency




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                                                                                                                                     So
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                                                                Figure 6.9: The basis of prosperity.
                                                                                                                                                                11
Overview of Energy, Continued
United States Energy Perspective




                     Figure 6.10: Total world oil reserves.


                                                              12
   Overview of Energy, Continued
U.S. and World Energy Consumption Today.


                                                                     Quads
                                                                 412 U.S. Share of World, 2002




                                                                  98 Quads




Figure 6.11: Equivalent ways of referring to energy used by the U.S. in 1 year (approx. 100 Quads):
100.0 quadrillion British Thermal Units (Quads)    U.S. and British unit of energy
105.5 exa Joules (EJ)                              Metric unit of energy
3.346 terawatt-years (TW-yr)                       Metric unit of power (energy/sec)x(#seconds in a year)
                                                                                                      13
 Overview of Energy, Continued
U.S. Energy Flow
  • 34% of U.S. primary energy is imported.




                                                                           Energy Consumption Sectors
Energy Sources




                 Figure 6.12: U.S. Energy Flow, 2006 (Quadrillion Btu ).

                                                                                                        14
     Overview of Energy, Continued
   U.S. Energy Flow, 2006, Continued




                                  Figure 6.13: U.S. breakdown of energy flow.
 85% of primary energy is from fossil fuels; 8% is from nuclear; 6% is from renewables.
 Most imported energy is petroleum, which is used for transportation.
 End-use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial, transportation) all use comparable amounts of energy.

                                                                                                          15
Why Nanotechnology is Essential
 for Meeting Our Energy Needs
  Vik Rao, CTO of Halliburton:

  • “The debate is no longer about producing enough energy to
  meet demand, but about producing hydrocarbons and energy in
  a sustainable manner. At the same time, it is also about
  producing more environmentally friendly fluids for transportation
  and power.”




                                                                      16
Why Nanotechnology is Essential
 for Meeting Our Energy Needs,
           Continued
 R.E. Smalley, 2003:

 • Actions involving energy occur at the nanometer level.
         - Harvesting
         - Transformation
         - Transport
         - Use
 • Improvements will be made most effectively at the same scale.




                                                                   17
    Nanotech Energy Challenges
•   Photovoltaics – drop cost by 100 fold.
•   Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to methanol.
•   Direct Photoconversion of light + water to produce H2.
•   Fuel Cells – drop the cost by 10-100x + low temp start.
•   Batteries and Supercapacitors – improve by 10-100x for automotive and
    distributed generation applications.
•   H2 storage – light-weight materials for pressure tanks and LH2 vessels,
    and/or a new light-weight, easily reversible hydrogen chemisorption
    system.
•   Power Cables (superconductors or quantum conductors) to rewire
    electrical transmission grid and enable continental, even worldwide,
    electrical energy transport; to replace aluminum and copper wires
    essentially everywhere – particularly in the windings of electric motors
    and generators (especially good if eliminate eddy current losses).

                                                                          18
    Nanotech Energy Challenges,
            Continued
•   Nanoelectronics to revolutionize computers, sensors, and devices.
•   Nanoelectronics-Based Robotics with AI to enable construction
    maintenance of solar structures in space and on moon; to enable
    nuclear reactor maintenance and fuel reprocessing.
•   Super-Strong, Light-Weight Materials to drop cost to LEO, GEO, and
    the moon by > 100 x; to enable huge, but low cost light harvesting
    structures in space; to improve efficiency of cars, planes, etc.
•   Thermochemical Processes with catalysts to generate H2 from water
    that work efficiently at temperatures lower than 900 C.
•   Nanotech Lighting to replace incandescent and fluorescent lights.
•   Nanomaterials/Coatings to enable vastly lower cost of deep drilling; to
    enable HDR (hot dry rock) geothermal heat mining.
•   CO2 Mineralization schemes that can work on a vast scale, hopefully
    starting from basalt and having no waste streams.
                                                                         19
      DOE Research Targets
   Nanoscience for Energy Needs
• Scalable methods to split H20 with sunlight for H2 production.
• Highly selective catalysts for clean and energy-efficient
  manufacturing.
• Harvesting of solar energy with 20% power efficiency and 100X
  lower cost.
• Solid-state lighting at 50% of power use.
• Super-strong, light-weight materials for transportation efficiency.
• Reversible H2 storage materials at RT.
• Power transmission lines with 1 GW capacity.
• Low-cost fuel cells, batteries, thermoelectrics, and ultra-capacitors.
• Materials synthesis and energy harvesting based on efficient,
  selective bio-mechanisms.


                                                                           20
Greenhouse Gases/Global Warming




          Figure 6.14: Greenhouse Effect.
                                            21
Greenhouse Gases/Global Warming,
           Continued
Global Warming Over Past Millennium
  • We have entered
  uncharted territory – what
  some call the anthropocene
  climate regime.
  • Over the 20th Century,
  human population
  quadrupled and energy
  consumption increased
  sixteenfold.
  • Near end of last century,
  global warming from fossil
  fuel greenhouse became a
  major, dominant factor in
  climate change.                   Figure 6.15: Global warming over the century.

                                                                                    22
Greenhouse Gases/Global Warming,
           Continued
Global Warming Over Past Millennium, Continued




                           Figure 6.16: Rise of CO2.
                                                       23
Greenhouse Gases/Global Warming,
           Continued
Cost of Capture
• Single largest impediment to implementation of carbon
sequestration at a grand scale.




                           Figure 6.17: DOE fossil energy.

                                                             24
Greenhouse Gases/Global Warming,
           Continued
Nanotechnology for Greenhouse Gas (CO2) Remediation
   • Efficient capture mechanisms – membranes, high surface area.
   • Catalytic or other chemical conversion to useful compounds such
     as methanol.
   • Photochemical reduction to CO for fuel.
   • “Artificial” photosynthesis.
   • Convert to carbon nanotubes or graphene.




                                                                       25
                        Efficiency
Primary Energy




            Figure 6.18: Overall, 58% of primary energy is lost energy.

                                                                          26
                  Efficiency, Continued
  Petroleum Consumption




Figure 6.18a: Petroleum consumption by sector




       Figure 6.19b: Liquid fuels consumption
       by sector 1990-2030.

                                                27
      Efficiency, Continued
Household Vehicles




      Figure 20: Energy-intensity indicator for household vehicles, by
      vehicle type and age, 1985, 1988, and 1991.

                                                                         28
             Efficiency, Continued
Technology and Energy Supply
• Improving faster for efficient end-use than for energy supply.




          Figure 6.21: Energy-intensity indicator by passenger transportation mode,
          1985, 1988, and 1991.
                                                                                      29
                  Efficiency, Continued
Boeing                                 PHEVs
• The Boeing 787                       • Plug-in hybrid electrical
  Dreamliner will be more                vehicles (PHEVs) can reduce
  fuel-efficient than earlier            air pollution and dependence
  Boeing airliners. Boeing               on petroleum, and lessen
  will also be the first major           greenhouse gas emissions
  airliner to use composite              that contribute to global
  materials for most of its              warming.
  construction.




Figure 6.22a: Boeing 787 Dreamliner.
                                                                        30
           Efficiency, Continued
Petroleum Consumption of PHEVs




     Figure 6.23: Potential per-vehicle reduction of petrolum consumption in PHEVs


                                                                                     31
                                                    Efficiency, Continued
                             Lighting Large Fraction of Energy Consumption
                             • Lighting consumes ~20% of U.S electricity, but has very low efficiency.
                      1000
                                      U.S. Energy Consumption                                Efficiencies of Energy
Energy Consumption (Quads)




                                                                                           Technologies in Buildings
                                                                   ~96 Quads
                             100
                                    Energy                         ~37 Quads         Heating:                          70-80%
                                                                                     Electrical Motors:                85-95%
                                      Electricity
                             10                                                      Incandescent Lighting:               ~5%
                                       Illumination
                                          42% Incandescent
                                                                   ~8 Quads          Fluorescent Lighting:               ~25%
                                          41% Fluorescent
                                          17% HID               Projected
                                                                                     Metal Halide Lighting:              ~30%
                              1
                                   1970   1980      1990    2000      2010 2020       Figure 6.24b: Efficiencies of energy technologies.
                                                        Year
                                   Figure 6.24a: U.S. consumption of illumination.
                                                                                                                                    32
                  Efficiency, Continued
Synergy Between Solar Photovoltaic and LED
 Electricity
                 V                 LED




                                                                       SOLAR PV



                                                                                          V
     Figure 6.25: Converting between electricity and light – LED works as a reverse solar PV cell.



                                                                                                     33
               Efficiency, Continued
Solid-State Lighting: Semiconductor-Based Lighting Technology

  Inorganic Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).
                                                              Solid-state lighting is a
 • III-V semiconductors-                                      new technology.
   based device.                                              • Potentially 10 times
 • High brightness point                                      more energy efficient
   sources.                                                   than an incandescent
 • Potential high                                             lamp.
   efficiency and long                                        • Provides revolutionary
   lifetime.                                                  ways to illuminate
                                                              homes, offices, and
                                                              public spaces.
                       Figure 6.26: Closeup view of a LED’s
                       substrate. (photo by Randy Montoya)

                                                                                          34
            Efficiency, Continued
• Ultralight-weighting everything by new strong nanocomposites

• Nanostructured materials for insulation.

• Efficient nanodesigned lighting, reflectors to reduce heating.

• Improved combustion, higher fuel density.

• Light-weight energy storage devices in transportation.




                                                                   35
                       Fossil Fuels
Integrated Gasified, Combined Cycle Plants (IGCC)

• High efficiency
(50%), high wattage
(>500 MW) plants.

• British Coal
Gasifier: burns
sewage sludge.




                          Figure 6.27: Integrated Gasified, Combined Cycle Plants.

                                                                                     36
            Fossil Fuels, Continued
FutureGen (Zero Emissions Plant)
• In 2003, President G.W. Bush announced:
“… $1 billion, 10-year demonstration project to create the world’s first
coal-based, zero-emissions electricity and hydrogen power plant.”

• Carbon Capture
    - Initial goal: 90% capture
    - Ultimate goal: 100% capture
• Economics
    - <10% increase in cost of electricity.
    - H2 production at $4/million Btu’s.
    - S and N2 used for fertilizers.
• Power Generation
    - ~275 MW (small prototype).
    - 50-60% efficiency.                         Figure 6.28: Fossil energy prototype.


                                                                                         37
          Fossil Fuels, Continued

Challenges in Oil Patch
• Lighter systems for deep offshore operations (stronger, stable).

• Better sensors downhole (harsh environment).

• Smarter fluids.

• Enhanced recovery methods.

• Better catalysts.

• Better materials – corrosion, hardness.




                                                                     38
          Fossil Fuels, Continued
Nanotechnology for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production (E&P) – Part 1
• Stronger Pipe, Casing, Structures.
   – Metals, Ti, alloys and composites, nanotextured.
   – Composite, nanocomposite.
• Complex Fluids.
   – Mud, nano additives, conducting at 0.02%, shape, size.
   – Viscosity, friction, thermal conductivity, control surface interactions.
• Sensors.
   – Wide variety, multifunctional chemical, physical.
   – Imbedded, composite, concrete, in fluids, smart dust?
   – Reliability through redundancy – emulate jet engine sensors?
• Seals, Elastomers with nano fillers.
   – High temperature resistance, toughness, and elongation.


                                                                           39
                            Fossil Fuels, Continued
Impact of Nanostructured Materials
• Revolution of Available Materials
• New Paradigms
  - Designed and tailorable materials with combination of characteristics:
 •Information Processing                       •Data Transmission                       •Sensing      •Mechanical
  Data Storage                                  Bio-Compatibility                        Responsive    Durability

 Current                    options       requirements         Future


                                                                    Cost, Performance
        Cost, Performance




                                                                        Property,
            Property,




                                               options



                            Property, Cost, Performance                   Property, Cost, Performance
                            Figure 6.29: Optimize contradicting material performance requirements.
                                                                                                                    40
            Fossil Fuels, Continued

Nanowires in Electrical Sensing
• Why is small good?
- Decrease thermal noise since
electrode is smaller.
 - Binding depletes charge carriers at
surface, which is all device.
- Smaller sensors enable sensor array
developments.


                         Figure 6.30: A Nanowire that
                         generates power by harvesting   Source
                         energy from the environment.    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
                         .
                                                                                                      41
         Fossil Fuels, Continued

Seals, Elastomers with nano fillers.




                                            Figure 6.31a: Annular blowout preventers.


                                Figure 6.31b: A is a schematic drawing of an unstressed
                                polymer. The dots represent cross-links. B is the same
                                polymer under stress. When the stress is removed, it will
                                return to the A configuration.


                                                                                            42
         Fossil Fuels, Continued

NanoComposites, Inc.
 • NanoComposites, Inc. develops nanotechnology-
 enhanced materials for use in seals and gaskets for
 the energy market.
 • NanoComposites’ proprietary technology is enabling
 practical applications of these carbon nanotubes in
 elastomers - with the potential for many more
 applications.




                                                        43
           Fossil Fuels, Continued
Nanotechnology for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production (E&P) – Part 2
 • SWNTs (Single Wall Nanotubes) – metallic conductors.
    – Power at the bit, rotation, plasma, laser.
    – (Embedded) signal wiring.
    – Energy from the bottom of the well.
         • Thermoelectric.
         • Direct conversion of oil to electrons (catalysts).
         • Hydrogen (catalysts).
 • Microwave (and optical) Sensors.
 • Thermal Control/Transport.
 • (Trailing) Cables for moles.
 • Percolation Conductivity (0.02%).
 • Fracturing Fillers, Particles.
 • Vibration damping SWNT composites.
 • Elastomer Composites (NanoComposites, Inc.).

                                                                      44
                             Fossil Fuels, Continued
    Nano Approach to Buoyant Proppants
                                                                    aqueous solution alumoxne,
                                                                          fire to 220 °C


                                                                                                   amorphous alumina
                                                            polystyrene bead
                                                                                         toluene
    polystyrene bead                                                                      wash
                                                                -Al2O3                             hollow core
A-alumoxane sintered
         to 1000 °C                                                            1000 °C

     Porous -alumina
infiltrated by alumina

   hollow -alumina
            spheres
                                                                          Figure 6.32: Buoyant proppants.
          corrundum

                         0     500     1000       1500   2000
                               Hardness (H , Kgf.mm-2)
                                          v

                                                                                                                  45
           Fossil Fuels, Continued
Nanotechnology for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production (E&P) – Part 3
• Smart Dust/Matter – ubiquitous computing.
    – Communication/interaction through media.
• Raw Computing/Visualization Power.
    – Approaching power of human brain.
• Data Storage – Petabyte CDs.
    – All corporate data on one disk in your shirt pocket.
• Grind Cuttings to nano-size – blow out!
    – Solve Mole cuttings problem?
• Nanoenergetics – shaped, smaller explosives (100X).
• Smaller Motors – stronger nanocomposite magnets, lighter wire.
• Lighter, Stronger Batteries (10x over Li already demonstrated –
   nanostructured electrodes).
• Coatings–hard, corrosion-resistant, durable, multifunctional, chameleon.
• Nanotextured Membranes and Filters.
• Self-protecting, self-diagnosing, self-healing (Space) Systems.
                                                                        46
           Fossil Fuels, Continued
Limiting Friction and Wear
• Material limitations/opportunities for nanomaterials.
  - Challenge – mechanism.
   Performance and life are limited by
   lubricant supply; having effective
   lubricant replenishment/film repair
   could extend life indefinitely.
 - Possible roles for nanotechnology.
   • Self-repairing lubricant films.
   • Nano-structured thin films with
     optimized adhesion, friction,
     hardness, life, CTE.
   • Smart liquid lubricants that adapt
     to conditions.
   • Wear resistant nanostructured                   Figure 6.33: Nano diamond.
     materials.
                                                                                  47
           Fossil Fuels, Continued

Molecular Electronics Corp. (MEC)
• Present market for nanomolecular paints.
• Super C for electro coatings.




                                             Figure 6.34: Paint.

                                                                   48
            Fossil Fuels, Continued
Adaptable “Chameleon” Coatings
• Transfer film formation.

              adaptive transfer film (“tribo-                              Lubricant Reservoirs




                                                                                                        3-10 nm
              skin”) on contact surfaces




                                                    with solid lubricant
                                                    amorphous matrix
                          wear debris
                          “chameleon” coating




                                                                                                        1-3 nm
                          with lubricant
                          reservoirs
                           gradient interface
                                                       solid lubricant               hard crystalline
Substrate
                                                       nanoparticle                  nanoparticle



               Figure 6.35: Jeffrey Zabinski, Air Force Research Laboratory.




                                                                                                                  49
           Fossil Fuels, Continued

Nanoscale Revolutions to Mega Scale Challenges in Upstream E&P
• Introduce nanotechnologies to E&P.
• Clarify science versus sci-fi.
• Draw analogies to other industries.
• Demonstrate nanotech capabilities/relevance to E&P.
• Stimulate thinking and encourage investment.
• Plan for an international nanotech roadmap.




                                                                 50
                          Hydrogen
Hydrogen – Not a Primary Fuel




                  Figure 6.36: Elements of a hydrogen economy.


                                                                 51
               Hydrogen, Continued
Nanotechnology and Hydrogen Storage
• Researchers at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory are taking a new approach to "filling up" a fuel cell car with a
nanoscale solid, hydrogen storage material.
• Their discovery could hasten a day when vehicles will run on hydrogen-
powered, environmentally friendly fuel cells instead of gasoline engines.
• The challenge, of course, is how to store and carry hydrogen. Whatever
the method, it needs to be no heavier and take up no more space than a
traditional gas tank, but provide enough hydrogen to power the vehicle
for 300 miles before refueling.




            Figure 6.37: Hydrogen powered vehicle.

                                                                              52
           Hydrogen, Continued
DOE Hydrogen Storage Target




           Figure 6.38: Comparison of storage solutions available on the market .

                                                                                    53
                                        Hydrogen, Continued
       Chahine’s Rule for Carbon vs. Kittrell’s Rule for 3D Nanoengineered Carbon
                        2.5

                         2
                                                       Kittrell’s Rule
                                                       3.7 wt%/1000 m2/g
                                                       @ 2 atm, 77 K                            Chahine’s slope
Hydrogen Uptake (77K)




                        1.5                                                                      Kittrell’s slope


                         1



                                                                                      Figure 6.39: Nanoengineered carbon.
                                                            Chahine’s Rule
                        0.5
                                                            2.0 wt%/1000 m2/g
                                                            @ 40 atm, 77 K

                         0
                              0   100    200         300        400    500      600


                                               Surface Area (m2/g)                          .

                                                                                                                     54
                     Nuclear Power
• The pebble bed modular reactor, or PBMR, is a particular design of
pebble bed reactor under development by South African company
PBMR, Ltd. in partnership with Eskom and other companies.
• PBMR is fueled and moderated by fuel spheres each containing
TRISO coated oxide fuel grains and a surrounding hollow sphere of
graphite moderator. These are stacked in a close packed lattice and
cooled by helium, which is used to drive a turbine directly, or may be
used to provide process heat for the production of hydrogen fuel.
• PBMR is modular in that only small to mid-sized units will be designed;
larger power stations will be built by combining many of these modules.
• Core is annular with a centre column as a neutron reflector. Operating
fuel temperature is to be kept below 1130°C to minimize fission product
release from fuel during operation.
• First commercial units could start construction in 2016.

                                                                            55
       Nuclear Power, Continued
Fission Reactors
• About 500 operating in the world now.
• To produce 10 TW, need 5000 new 2 GW reactors – one every
  other day for 28 years.
• Proven Uranium reserves at 10 TW last only 6-30 years.
• Uranium from the ocean to produce 10 TW requires 5 times the flow
  rate of all rivers on Earth.
• Still have issues with public fear, waste, proliferation, and terrorism.
• FY08 DOE Fission R&D totals $560 million.
• Nanotech needs include strong, corrosion, and radiation-resistant
  materials.


                                                                             56
Nuclear Power, Continued




     Source: The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

                Figure 6.40: Fusion.
                                                              57
        Nuclear Power, Continued
Fusion Attractive Domestic Energy Source
• Abundant fuel, available to all nations.
    – Deuterium and lithium easily available for thousands of years.
• Environmental advantages.
    – No carbon emissions, short-lived radioactivity.
• Can’t blow up, resistant to terrorist attack.
    – Less than 5 minutes of fuel in the chamber.
• Low risk of nuclear materials proliferation.
    – No fissile or fertile materials required.
• Compact relative to solar, wind, and biomass.
    – Modest land usage.
• Not subject to daily, seasonal, or regional weather variation.
    – No large-scale energy storage, nor long-distance transmission.
• Cost of power estimated similar to coal, fission.
• Can produce electricity and hydrogen.
    – Complements other nearer-term energy sources.
                                                                       58
        Nuclear Power, Continued
ITER Provides Cooperative Opportunity to Make Sun on Earth
• Science Benefits
-Extends fusion science to
larger size, burning (self-heated)
plasmas.
• Technology Benefits
- Fusion-relevant technologies;
high duty-factor operation.
• Goal
- To demonstrate the
scientific and technological
feasibility of fusion energy,
by producing industrial
levels of fusion power.                       Figure 6.41: ITER.

                                                                   59
                         Fusion Energy
• Fusion is an attractive energy option for the future.
• Progress towards fusion energy has been very rapid, but is
  severely limited by budget constraints.
   – Japan and Europe are each investing much more in fusion
      than the U.S.
   – DOE proposed FY08 funding of $428 million for Fusion
      Energy with $160 million tagged for ITER, a joint
      international research and development project.*
• A plan for the development of fusion requires:
   – Fundamental Understanding.
   – Configuration Optimization.
   – Materials and Technology.
• Nanotechnology is needed for improved HT and radiation-
  resistant materials…and could have revolutionary impacts
  through improved magnet systems.
*Update: Funding ITER was not approved in FY08 budget.

                                                               60

								
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