1. (Points: 0) The connection between structure and __________ is a basic concept of biology. a. sex b. adaptation c. species d. strength e. function Save Answer 2. (Points: 0) Which one of the following is an example of a tissue? a. a red blood cell b. heart muscle c. a heart d. the circulatory system e. the liver Save Answer 3. (Points: 0) Which of the following is not a type of connective tissue? a. bone b. adipose c. cartilage d. blood e. plasma Save Answer 4. (Points: 0) What kind of connective tissue has a liquid matrix? a. blood b. nerve tissue c. loose connective tissue d. adipose tissue e. cartilage Save Answer 5. (Points: 0) Which is the most abundant kind of tissue in an animal such as a gorilla? a. connective b. epithelial c. blood d. nerve e. muscle Save Answer 6. (Points: 0) The structural and functional unit of nervous tissue is the a. nerve. b. axon. c. neuron. d. cell body. e. dendrite. Save Answer 7. (Points: 0) Fingernails are a component of the __________ system. a. integumentary b. skeletal c. excretory d. respiratory e. muscular Save Answer 8. (Points: 0) Which of the following imaging techniques is best suited for visualizing fine anatomic detail in the brain? a. X-ray tomography b. computerized tomography c. X-ray imaging d. magnetic resonance imaging e. positron-emission tomography Save Answer 9. (Points: 0) What fills the spaces between the cells in your tissues? a. interstitial fluid b. cytoplasm c. nothing but matrix fibers d. water e. neurons Save Answer 10. (Points: 0) A mouse's cells are much more active metabolically than a frog's. Which of the following organs or systems would you expect to have a larger surface area in a mouse than in a same-sized frog? a. intestine b. circulatory system c. lung d. All of the choices are correct. e. None of the choices are correct. Save Answer 11. (Points: 0) Imagine an invertebrate that lives in an estuary where salinity varies cyclically with the tides. If this animal practices homeostasis with respect to the salt concentration of its body fluids, its salt concentration will show a. regular variations that range from large to small. b. a cyclic variation similar to that of the surrounding water. c. slight fluctuation that are kept within a narrow range. d. a cyclic variation depending upon when the animal drinks. e. no variations. Save Answer 12. (Points: 0) The vertebrate kidney helps to keep the acidity of the body fluids constant by varying the amount of hydrogen ions (H+) it secretes into the urine. You can confidently predict that this aspect of kidney function will be controlled by a. a positive feedback mechanism. b. nerve impulses from the brain. c. a negative feedback mechanism. d. a hormone produced in the kidney itself. e. a hormone ultimately controlled by the brain. Save Answer 13. (Points: 0) Most animals are a. suspension feeders. b. bulk feeders. c. substrate feeders. d. fluid feeders. e. None of the choices are correct. Save Answer 14. (Points: 0) Which one of the following is the stage of food processing that removes undigested material from the body? a. ingestion b. absorption c. elimination d. gestation e. digestion Save Answer 15. (Points: 0) What happens to nutrient macromolecules in an animal's digestive tract? a. Nucleic acids and triglycerides (which diffuse across the plasma membrane) are not digested to monomers; other macromolecules are. b. Proteins and nucleic acids are digested to monomers before absorption; energy-storage macromolecules (starch and fat) are absorbed whole. c. Nutrient macromolecules are digested to monomers before absorption. d. They are absorbed whole and are broken down to monomers in the cells that ultimately use them. e. The digestive breakdown of macromolecules is keyed to the body's need for monomers; only the monomers that are immediately needed are produced. Save Answer 16. (Points: 0) In the grasshopper, the main function of the intestine is to a. store food. b. absorb vitamins and pulverize the food. c. absorb water and compact wastes. d. absorb nutrients. e. digest food. Save Answer 17. (Points: 0) Digestion begins in the a. esophagus. b. tongue. c. stomach. d. pharynx. e. oral cavity. Save Answer 18. (Points: 0) The Heimlich maneuver is performed to forcibly a. straighten the back. b. squeeze the ribs. c. compress the intestines. d. depress the diaphragm. e. elevate the diaphragm. Save Answer 19. (Points: 0) The stomach mixes the food with the secretions of the stomach wall to form a. acid chyme. b. acid gastrin. c. gastric juice. d. gastrin. e. a parietal bolus. Save Answer 20. (Points: 0) Most nutrient absorption occurs in which part of the d igestive system? a. stomach b. liver c. small intestine d. pancreas e. large intestine Save Answer 21. (Points: 0) Which of the following nutrients does not begin undergoing digestion until it reaches the small intestine? a. complex carbohydrate b. starch c. polypeptide d. fat e. protein Save Answer 22. (Points: 0) Organisms suffering from malnourishment have a diet deficient in a. calories. b. bile and acids needed for basic digestion. c. water. d. one or more of the essential nutrients. e. protein. Save Answer 23. (Points: 0) Which of the following vitamins is fat soluble? a. biotin b. niacin c. K d. pyridoxine e. pantothenic acid Save Answer 24. (Points: 0) A person on a fad diet experiences muscle cramps and weakness. After talking with the person about the unusual diet, a physician suspects that the person is most likely suffering from a deficiency of a. table salt. b. zinc. c. calcium. d. iodine. e. iron. Save Answer 25. (Points: 0) A food label indicates that the contents contain 12 grams of carbohydrate per serving, 7 grams of sugar per serving, and 2 grams of fiber per serving. How many grams of digestible complex carbohydrate are there per serving of this food item? a. 3 b. 12 c. 2 d. 9 e. 5 Save Answer 26. (Points: 0) Which one of the following is not widely regarded as a healthy approach to dieting? a. obtain adequate amounts of essential nutrients b. regularly engage in aerobic exercise c. reduce caloric intake d. consume a balanced diet e. trim daily carbohydrates back to less than 20 grams per day Save Answer 27. (Points: 0) The main waste product of aerobic respiration is a. hydrogen peroxide. b. glucose. c. water. d. carbon dioxide. e. electrons. Save Answer 28. (Points: 0) Animals that use their body surface for gas exchange must a. have a high ratio of body surface area to volume. b. be aquatic and ne arly spherical. c. have a special kind of hemoglobin. d. have a low ratio of body surface area to volume. e. be terrestrial. Save Answer 29. (Points: 0) Which of the following is not a characteristic of fish gills? a. They have a thin epithelium. b. They have a huge surface area. c. They represent extensions of the body surface. d. They have a poor blood supply. e. They exhibit a countercurrent flow of blood and water. Save Answer 30. (Points: 0) The tracheal system of an insect is most like which of the following? a. the electrical wiring in a home b. the exhaust system of an automobile c. leaves on a tree d. the air duct system in a building e. a river system draining a large region Save Answer 31. (Points: 0) Which of the following is not a function of the nasal cavities in humans? a. warming of inhaled air b. filtering of inhaled air c. sampling of inhaled air for odors d. secretion of excess carbon dioxide into exhaled air e. humidification of inhaled air Save Answer 32. (Points: 0) Why do cigarette smokers cough more than nonsmokers? a. The tar in cigarette smoke tends to make alveoli stick closed. Coughing opens them. b. Cigarette smoking partially paralyzes the muscles in the lungs, resulting in an increased residual volume. Coughing exchanges this "dead air." c. Cigarette smoke harms the cilia that normally move debris out of the lungs. Coughing is the remaining way to clean the lungs. d. By raising the pressure in the lungs, coughing forces more oxygen into the blood. e. Coughing stimulates blood flow to the lungs. Save Answer 33. (Points: 0) Compared to the vital capacity, how much air can lungs actually hold? a. always the same amount b. always more c. sometimes less d. sometimes more e. always less Save Answer 34. (Points: 0) Which of the following statements about inhalation in birds is false? a. Both the anterior and posterior sacs expand. b. The lungs fill with air from the posterior sacs. c. Both the anterior and posterior sacs fill with air. d. The anterior sacs fill with stale air from the lungs. e. The anterior sac fills with air as the posterior sacs empty. Save Answer 35. (Points: 0) When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again? a. rising carbon dioxide concentration b. rising carbon dioxide concentration and falling oxygen concentration c. falling oxygen concentration d. falling carbon dioxide concentration e. rising oxygen concentration Save Answer 36. (Points: 0) In a mammal, blood leaving the lungs next goes to a. the liver. b. the brain. c. the kidneys. d. the body in general. e. the heart. Save Answer 37. (Points: 0) Oxygen is mostly transported through the body a. bound to dissolved iron. b. dissolved in the blood. c. dissolved in red blood cells. d. bound to carbon. e. bound to hemoglobin. Save Answer 38. (Points: 0) Which of the following does not contribute to gas exchange in the human fetus? a. Oxygen is carried through the umbilical cord to the fetus. b. Maternal hemoglobin releases oxygen more easily than does fetal hemoglobin. c. The placenta keeps the oxygen levels of amniotic fluid very high. d. Fetal hemoglobin binds oxygen more readily than does maternal hemoglobin. e. Maternal blood and fetal blood flow next to each other in the placenta. Save Answer 39. (Points: 0) Which one of the following statements is false? a. Valves in veins and muscle contractions pressing against veins slow down the return of blood to the heart. b. Gravity tends to pull blood downward into the lower parts of the body of a terrestrial vertebrate. c. When a corn snake climbs up a tree, it contracts muscles in its tail. d. A standing giraffe requires a great deal more pressure to pump blood to its head than an animal with a shorter neck such as a dog. e. Gravity does not greatly affect aquatic animals. Save Answer 40. (Points: 0) In an open circulatory system, a. there is no heart. b. there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid. c. there is no blood. d. blood flows out of the body. e. there are no blood vessels. Save Answer 41. (Points: 0) Which one of the following animals has a single circulation? a. snake b. salmon c. swan d. squirrel e. salamander Save Answer 42. (Points: 0) During ventricular systole, the __________ valves __________. a. AV and semilunar . . . close b. AV . . . close c. AV . . . open d. semilunar . . . close e. semilunar . . . open Save Answer 43. (Points: 0) The main function of the AV node is to a. initiate the heartbeat. b. relay the signal to contract from the right heart to the left heart. c. set the rhythm of the heartbeat. d. relay the signal to contract from the right ventricle to the right atrium. e. relay the signal to contract to the ventricles. Save Answer 44. (Points: 0) Heart attacks a. are the result of angina pectoris. b. result from the death of cardiac muscle cells. c. are caused by excessive blood pressure in the heart. d. actually cause no permanent damage to the heart. e. are unrelated to cigarette smoking. Save Answer 45. (Points: 0) What type of blood vessel is solely responsible for exchange between the blood and the interstitial fluid? a. arteriole b. artery c. vein d. capillary e. venule Save Answer 46. (Points: 0) Cells make up about what percentage of total blood volume? a. 65% b. 10% c. 45% d. 25% e. 80% Save Answer 47. (Points: 0) Blood proteins are involved in all of the following activities except a. blood clotting. b. acting as buffers. c. maintaining salinity. d. fighting infection. e. maintaining osmotic balance. Save Answer 48. (Points: 0) What is the most common cause of anemia? a. inefficient hemoglobin production b. iron deficiency c. bone marrow cancer d. low blood pressure e. vitamin deficiency Save Answer 49. (Points: 0) Which of the following statements about blood clotting is false? a. Chemicals released by platelets stimulate cell division in smooth muscle and connective tissues. b. More than a dozen different clotting factors are involved in the formation of a scab. c. The first response to an injury is dilation of the damaged blood vessels. d. Threads of fibrin trap blood cells and platelets during clot formation. e. During the clotting response, platelets rapidly adhere to exposed connective tissue in the walls of damaged blood vessels. Save Answer 50. (Points: 0) Cancer of white blood cells is called a. erythropoiesis.