Leadership Theories - PDF

					                                                  LEADERSHIP THEORIES
                                                    By: Prof. Jocelyn G. Acop

Leadership Definitions                                                 8. Tolerance of frustration
▪ Process by which an agent induces a subordinate to                   9. Ability to influence the behavior of others.
  behave in a desired manner (Bennis, 1959)                            10. Ability to structure situations of social
▪ Process of influencing the activities of an organized                    interaction.
  group in its efforts toward goal-setting and goal-              ▪ Kirkpatrick and Locke leadership traits (1991)
  achievement (Stogdill, 1959)                                              1.       High level of personal drive
▪ Process whereby an individual exerts influence over                       2.       Desire to lead
  others in a group (Arndt, 1975)                                           3.       Personal integrity
▪ Process of influencing and supporting others to work                      4.       Self-confidence
  enthusiastically toward achieving objectives (Keys                        5.       Analytical ability and judgment
  and Case, 1990)                                                           6.       Knowledge of the company/ industry/
▪ Process whereby people are influenced effectively                         technology.
  and motivated to accomplish a goal (Douglass, 1996)             ▪ Marriner-Tomey’s summary of common
                                                                    characteristics of leaders (1996)
Leadership definition:                                                      1.               Leaders need to be more
▪ Leadership is a process.                                                  intelligent than the group they lead.
▪ There is a certain degree of influence exerted by the                     2.               Leaders must posses initiative.
  leader upon those that are led.                                           3.               Creativity is an asset.
▪ This process of influence leads to a consequence -                        4.               Leaders must posses
  the accomplishment or not of a desired objective.                         emotional maturity along with integrity.
                                                                            5.               Leaders must have good
Nursing Leadership Definition                                               communication skills.
▪ Nursing leadership is defined by Douglass (1996) as                       6.               Persuasion is often used by
  a process whereby a nurse influences one or more                          leaders to gain the consent of followers.
  persons to achieve specific goals in the provision of                     7.               Leaders need to be perceptive
  nursing care for one or more clients.                                     enough.
▪ Nature of Leadership                                                      8.               Leaders can socialize with all
▪ Leadership is the important part of management.                           kinds of people and adapt to various groups.
▪ Traits were mostly the basis of leadership researches           ▪ Limitations of the Trait Theories:
  in the 1940s.                                                             1.       Leadership traits do not necessarily
▪ Successful leadership depends more on appropriate                         guarantee successful leadership.
  behavior, skills (technical, human, conceptual), and                      2.       The trait theories do not elaborate
  actions, and less on personal traits.                                     which traits are needed for acquiring
▪ Successful leadership requires behavior that unites                       leadership skills and which ones are needed
  and stimulates followers toward defined objectives in                     for maintenance.
  specific situations.                                                      3.       Leadership traits and successful
▪ Leaders in organizations are also followers.                              leadership are unilaterally exclusive.

SAQ1                                                              B. Behavioral Theories
▪ Who are the nursing leaders at present?                         ▪ Focus on “what leaders do”
▪ Describe in general terms the roles of these leaders.           ▪ Four major sub-theories:
▪ Cite situations where nursing leadership is still needed.            1.         Leadership Styles
                                                                       2.         System 4 Management Model
Theories of Leadership                                                 3.         Managerial Grid
1. Trait Theories                                                      4.         Continuum of Leadership Behavior
2. Behavioral Theories                                            ▪ Leadership Styles
3. Contingency Theories                                                   1.      Authoritarian
4. Contemporary Theories                                                       a. Authoritarian leadership (autocratic) –
                                                                               a leadership style that assumes
A. Trait Theories                                                              individuals to be motivated by external
▪ Focused on defining “what leaders are”                                       forces. The leader makes all the decisions
▪ Leader-centered                                                              and directs the followers’ behavior.
▪ Bass (1990) identified intelligence, personality, and                        b. Leader characteristics:
  abilities as traits to be considered in a leader’s                              - Concerned with task
  profile.                                                                          accomplishment rather than
▪ Stogdill’s leadership profile (1974)                                              relationships.
    1. Drive for task completion and responsibility.                              - Uses directive behavior.
    2. Vigor and persistence                                                      - Makes decisions alone.
    3. Creativity in problem-solving                                              - Expects respect and obedience of
    4. Social initiative                                                            staff.
    5. Self-confidence                                                            - Lacks group support generated by
    6. Acceptance of consequences of actions                                        participation.
    7. Stress resistance                                                          - Exercises power with coercion.

=== h@rYw@rY ===                                      LEADERSHIP THEORIES                                     Prof. Acop   1
                 - Proves useful in crisis situation.               for production which they depicted on a 9 x 9
        2.       Democratic                                         square.
              a. Democratic leadership – a leadership               2.      Five basic styles of leadership are
              style that assumes individuals are                    located on each corner and in the middle.
              motivated by internal forces. The leader              3.      Theories of Leadership
              uses participation and majority rule to       ▪ Continuum of Leadership behavior
              get work done.                                        1.      Leadership behavior is portrayed as
              b. Leader characteristics:                            occurring along a continuum.
                 - Primarily concerned with human                   2.      This model zeroes in specifically on the
                    relations and teamwork.                         various decision-making styles of managers.
                 - Fosters communication that is open               3.      The left most part of the continuum
                    and usually two-way.                            depicts a manager-centered style while right
                 - Creates a spirit of collaboration and            most part reflects employee-centered
                    joint effort that results in staff              management style.
        3.       Permissive (Laissez-faire)                 C. Contingency Theories
              a. Laissez-faire leadership – a leadership     ▪           Suggests that managers adapt their
              style that assumes individuals are             respective leadership style depending on the specific
              motivated by internal forces and should        situations they are in.
              be left alone to complete work. The            ▪           The adapted leadership style is therefore
              leader provides no direction or                situational.
              facilitation.                                  ▪           There are four contingency theories:
              b. Leadership characteristics:                 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory, Situational Leadership
                 - Tends to have a few established           Theory, Vroom-Yetton Expectancy Model, and Path
                    policies; abstains from leading.         Goal Theory.
                 - Is not generally useful in highly         ▪           Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
                    structured organizations (eg. health             1.      Fred Fiedler proposed that a leader is
                    care institutions)                               most effective when he or she matches
        4.       Bureaucratic                                        leadership style (relationship-oriented or task-
              a. Bureaucratic leadership – a leadership              oriented) to situational factors.
              style that assumes individuals are                     2.      Three situational factors of leadership:
              motivated by external forces. The leader                 - Manager-follower relations (good to poor)
              trusts neither himself nor his followers to              - Task structure (high to low)
              make decisions and therefore relies on                   - Manager power (high to low)
              organizational policies, rules, and                    3.      Manager-follower relations reflect the
              regulations.                                           degree to which the leader enjoys the loyalty
              b. Leader characteristics:                             and support of subordinates.
                 - Lacks a sense of security and                     4.      Task structure is the degree to which
                    depends on established policies and              the task or result is clearly described and/ or
                    rules.                                           standard operating procedures guarantee
                 - Exercises power by applying fixed,                successful completion and evaluation of the
                    relatively inflexible rules.                     quality of the task.
                 - Tends to relate impersonally to staff.            5.      Position power is the degree to which
                 - Avoids decision making without                    the leaders are able to administer rewards
                    standards or norms for guidance.                 and punishment by virtue of their positions.
▪ System 4 Management Model                                  ▪           Situational Leadership Theory
        1.       Developed by Rensis Likert is based on              1.                    Fiedler’s contingency
        the premise that involving employees in                      model was expanded by Hershey and
        decisions about work is central to effective                 Blanchard.
        leadership.                                                  2.                    The model considered the
        2.       The model is composed of 4                          readiness and willingness of followers to
        dimensions: autocratic, benevolent,                          perform assigned tasks.
        consultative, and participative.                             3.                    Four distinct leadership
        3.       Advantages of this model according to               styles are prescribed according to the
        Miller and Monge (1986):                                     readiness and ability of followers: Telling
         - More likely to be committed to the                        style, Selling style, Participative style, and
            organization and its objectives.                         Delegating style.
         - Less resistant to change.                                 4.                    The most effective
         - More likely to learn new process skills.                  leadership style depends on the maturity of
         - More likely to generate a variety of                      the group.
            relevant strategies to solve problems.                   5.                    Telling Style (S1- high task,
         - More likely to support organizational                     low relationship)
            flexibility.                                             6.                    Selling Style (S2 – high
▪ Managerial Grid                                                    task, high relationship)
        1.       Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1930)                 7.                    Participative Style (S3 –
        maintain that the two critical dimensions of                 low task, high relationship)
        leadership are concern for people and concern
=== h@rYw@rY ===                                LEADERSHIP THEORIES                                       Prof. Acop   2
          8.                    Delegating Style (S4 – low                  improvements in job performance,
          task, low relationship)                                           emphasizes excellence, and shows
    ▪         Vroom-Yetton Expectancy Model                                 confidence that subordinates are capable
          1.                    A prescriptive model                        of attaining high levels of performance.
          designed in order to determine the amount of
          participation that leaders should seek from        D. Contemporary Theories
          their subordinates before coming up with a                1.       Charismatic leadership – is based on
          decision.                                                 valued personal characteristics and beliefs
          2.                    Helps managers decide.              (charm, persuasiveness, personal power, self-
          3.                    Five leadership approaches          confidence, extraordinary ideas, and strong
          or styles identified by Vroom-Yetton                      connections) espoused by a leader which
          Expectancy Model:                                         arouse great affection and emotional
               a. Tell – leader assesses the problem,               commitment initially to the leader and later to
               independently decides, then informs                  the beliefs and causes the leader represents.
               followers.                                           2.       Transactional leadership – based on
               b. Sell – leader obtains information about           the principles of social exchange. The basic
               the problem from subordinates,                       premise is that individuals engage in social
               independently decides, then convinces                interaction expecting mutual social, political,
               subordinates to implement it.                        psychological, and economic benefits or
               c. Consult – leader seeks advice from                rewards.
               subordinates individually, independently             3.       Transformational leadership – is
               decides, then informs subordinates.                  focused on effecting revolutionary change in
               d. Join – leader seeks suggestions,                  organizations through commitment to the
               independently decides, then informs                  organization in all its facets.
               subordinates.                                        4.       Connective leadership – values
               e. Delegate – leader works with                      collaboration and teamwork. The leader uses
               subordinates in developing solutions to              interpersonal skills to promote a collegial
               the problems and facilitates consensus               spirit in achieving organizational goals.
               building toward a group solution, which is           5.       Shared leadership (shared
               generally accepted and implemented as                governance) – sharing of responsibility in
               the group wishes.                                    order to achieve the organization’s goals.
▪   Path-Goal Theory                                                6.       Servant leadership – based on the
          1.      Basically applies a combined theory of            premise that leadership originates from a
          task performance and human motivation to                  desire to serve whereby a non-mandated
          leadership effectiveness.                                 leader emerges out of a situation which calls
          2.      Proposes that a leader’s job is to                for one or when others’ needs take priority.
          remove obstacles to goal attainment, provide
          support including rewards, and basically guide     SAQ 2
          followers along the “path to goal attainment”      ▪ Given the following situations below, identify the type of
                                                               leadership that will most likely work. Justify your answer.
          3.      Two major roles of the leader therefore
                                                             ▪ Being a batch head of your class.
          are the ff: create a goal orientation, and to      ▪ Being a group leader
          improve the path towards this goal.                ▪ Being a head nurse of a small hospital unit (eg. Emergency
          4.      Four leadership behaviors identified by      room)
          the Path-Goal Theory:                              ▪ Being a Board of Nursing (BON)member
               a. Directive leadership – is one where the
               leader informs his/her subordinates about
               what is expected, gives specific
               guidance, ensures compliance to
               established rules and procedures, and
               coordinates work efforts. This is ideal for
               marginally prepared employees.
               b. Supportive leadership – is focused on
               the needs of subordinates, exhibits
               concern for their morale and well-being,
               encourages a friendly atmosphere in the
               work environment. It is ideal for
               experienced employees.
               c. Participative leadership – leader
               consults his/ her followers and ask for
               suggestions and opinions which is taken
               into consideration when making
               decisions. It is ideal for employees doing
               ambiguous work where their participation
               is the consultation process clarifies
               d. Achievement-oriented leadership –
               leader sets challenges, seeks
=== h@rYw@rY ===                                 LEADERSHIP THEORIES                                        Prof. Acop       3
=== h@rYw@rY ===   LEADERSHIP THEORIES   Prof. Acop   4