By: Prof. Jocelyn G. Acop
Leadership Definitions 8. Tolerance of frustration
▪ Process by which an agent induces a subordinate to 9. Ability to influence the behavior of others.
behave in a desired manner (Bennis, 1959) 10. Ability to structure situations of social
▪ Process of influencing the activities of an organized interaction.
group in its efforts toward goal-setting and goal- ▪ Kirkpatrick and Locke leadership traits (1991)
achievement (Stogdill, 1959) 1. High level of personal drive
▪ Process whereby an individual exerts influence over 2. Desire to lead
others in a group (Arndt, 1975) 3. Personal integrity
▪ Process of influencing and supporting others to work 4. Self-confidence
enthusiastically toward achieving objectives (Keys 5. Analytical ability and judgment
and Case, 1990) 6. Knowledge of the company/ industry/
▪ Process whereby people are influenced effectively technology.
and motivated to accomplish a goal (Douglass, 1996) ▪ Marriner-Tomey’s summary of common
characteristics of leaders (1996)
Leadership definition: 1. Leaders need to be more
▪ Leadership is a process. intelligent than the group they lead.
▪ There is a certain degree of influence exerted by the 2. Leaders must posses initiative.
leader upon those that are led. 3. Creativity is an asset.
▪ This process of influence leads to a consequence - 4. Leaders must posses
the accomplishment or not of a desired objective. emotional maturity along with integrity.
5. Leaders must have good
Nursing Leadership Definition communication skills.
▪ Nursing leadership is defined by Douglass (1996) as 6. Persuasion is often used by
a process whereby a nurse influences one or more leaders to gain the consent of followers.
persons to achieve specific goals in the provision of 7. Leaders need to be perceptive
nursing care for one or more clients. enough.
▪ Nature of Leadership 8. Leaders can socialize with all
▪ Leadership is the important part of management. kinds of people and adapt to various groups.
▪ Traits were mostly the basis of leadership researches ▪ Limitations of the Trait Theories:
in the 1940s. 1. Leadership traits do not necessarily
▪ Successful leadership depends more on appropriate guarantee successful leadership.
behavior, skills (technical, human, conceptual), and 2. The trait theories do not elaborate
actions, and less on personal traits. which traits are needed for acquiring
▪ Successful leadership requires behavior that unites leadership skills and which ones are needed
and stimulates followers toward defined objectives in for maintenance.
specific situations. 3. Leadership traits and successful
▪ Leaders in organizations are also followers. leadership are unilaterally exclusive.
SAQ1 B. Behavioral Theories
▪ Who are the nursing leaders at present? ▪ Focus on “what leaders do”
▪ Describe in general terms the roles of these leaders. ▪ Four major sub-theories:
▪ Cite situations where nursing leadership is still needed. 1. Leadership Styles
2. System 4 Management Model
Theories of Leadership 3. Managerial Grid
1. Trait Theories 4. Continuum of Leadership Behavior
2. Behavioral Theories ▪ Leadership Styles
3. Contingency Theories 1. Authoritarian
4. Contemporary Theories a. Authoritarian leadership (autocratic) –
a leadership style that assumes
A. Trait Theories individuals to be motivated by external
▪ Focused on defining “what leaders are” forces. The leader makes all the decisions
▪ Leader-centered and directs the followers’ behavior.
▪ Bass (1990) identified intelligence, personality, and b. Leader characteristics:
abilities as traits to be considered in a leader’s - Concerned with task
profile. accomplishment rather than
▪ Stogdill’s leadership profile (1974) relationships.
1. Drive for task completion and responsibility. - Uses directive behavior.
2. Vigor and persistence - Makes decisions alone.
3. Creativity in problem-solving - Expects respect and obedience of
4. Social initiative staff.
5. Self-confidence - Lacks group support generated by
6. Acceptance of consequences of actions participation.
7. Stress resistance - Exercises power with coercion.
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- Proves useful in crisis situation. for production which they depicted on a 9 x 9
2. Democratic square.
a. Democratic leadership – a leadership 2. Five basic styles of leadership are
style that assumes individuals are located on each corner and in the middle.
motivated by internal forces. The leader 3. Theories of Leadership
uses participation and majority rule to ▪ Continuum of Leadership behavior
get work done. 1. Leadership behavior is portrayed as
b. Leader characteristics: occurring along a continuum.
- Primarily concerned with human 2. This model zeroes in specifically on the
relations and teamwork. various decision-making styles of managers.
- Fosters communication that is open 3. The left most part of the continuum
and usually two-way. depicts a manager-centered style while right
- Creates a spirit of collaboration and most part reflects employee-centered
joint effort that results in staff management style.
3. Permissive (Laissez-faire) C. Contingency Theories
a. Laissez-faire leadership – a leadership ▪ Suggests that managers adapt their
style that assumes individuals are respective leadership style depending on the specific
motivated by internal forces and should situations they are in.
be left alone to complete work. The ▪ The adapted leadership style is therefore
leader provides no direction or situational.
facilitation. ▪ There are four contingency theories:
b. Leadership characteristics: Fiedler’s Contingency Theory, Situational Leadership
- Tends to have a few established Theory, Vroom-Yetton Expectancy Model, and Path
policies; abstains from leading. Goal Theory.
- Is not generally useful in highly ▪ Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
structured organizations (eg. health 1. Fred Fiedler proposed that a leader is
care institutions) most effective when he or she matches
4. Bureaucratic leadership style (relationship-oriented or task-
a. Bureaucratic leadership – a leadership oriented) to situational factors.
style that assumes individuals are 2. Three situational factors of leadership:
motivated by external forces. The leader - Manager-follower relations (good to poor)
trusts neither himself nor his followers to - Task structure (high to low)
make decisions and therefore relies on - Manager power (high to low)
organizational policies, rules, and 3. Manager-follower relations reflect the
regulations. degree to which the leader enjoys the loyalty
b. Leader characteristics: and support of subordinates.
- Lacks a sense of security and 4. Task structure is the degree to which
depends on established policies and the task or result is clearly described and/ or
rules. standard operating procedures guarantee
- Exercises power by applying fixed, successful completion and evaluation of the
relatively inflexible rules. quality of the task.
- Tends to relate impersonally to staff. 5. Position power is the degree to which
- Avoids decision making without the leaders are able to administer rewards
standards or norms for guidance. and punishment by virtue of their positions.
▪ System 4 Management Model ▪ Situational Leadership Theory
1. Developed by Rensis Likert is based on 1. Fiedler’s contingency
the premise that involving employees in model was expanded by Hershey and
decisions about work is central to effective Blanchard.
leadership. 2. The model considered the
2. The model is composed of 4 readiness and willingness of followers to
dimensions: autocratic, benevolent, perform assigned tasks.
consultative, and participative. 3. Four distinct leadership
3. Advantages of this model according to styles are prescribed according to the
Miller and Monge (1986): readiness and ability of followers: Telling
- More likely to be committed to the style, Selling style, Participative style, and
organization and its objectives. Delegating style.
- Less resistant to change. 4. The most effective
- More likely to learn new process skills. leadership style depends on the maturity of
- More likely to generate a variety of the group.
relevant strategies to solve problems. 5. Telling Style (S1- high task,
- More likely to support organizational low relationship)
flexibility. 6. Selling Style (S2 – high
▪ Managerial Grid task, high relationship)
1. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1930) 7. Participative Style (S3 –
maintain that the two critical dimensions of low task, high relationship)
leadership are concern for people and concern
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8. Delegating Style (S4 – low improvements in job performance,
task, low relationship) emphasizes excellence, and shows
▪ Vroom-Yetton Expectancy Model confidence that subordinates are capable
1. A prescriptive model of attaining high levels of performance.
designed in order to determine the amount of
participation that leaders should seek from D. Contemporary Theories
their subordinates before coming up with a 1. Charismatic leadership – is based on
decision. valued personal characteristics and beliefs
2. Helps managers decide. (charm, persuasiveness, personal power, self-
3. Five leadership approaches confidence, extraordinary ideas, and strong
or styles identified by Vroom-Yetton connections) espoused by a leader which
Expectancy Model: arouse great affection and emotional
a. Tell – leader assesses the problem, commitment initially to the leader and later to
independently decides, then informs the beliefs and causes the leader represents.
followers. 2. Transactional leadership – based on
b. Sell – leader obtains information about the principles of social exchange. The basic
the problem from subordinates, premise is that individuals engage in social
independently decides, then convinces interaction expecting mutual social, political,
subordinates to implement it. psychological, and economic benefits or
c. Consult – leader seeks advice from rewards.
subordinates individually, independently 3. Transformational leadership – is
decides, then informs subordinates. focused on effecting revolutionary change in
d. Join – leader seeks suggestions, organizations through commitment to the
independently decides, then informs organization in all its facets.
subordinates. 4. Connective leadership – values
e. Delegate – leader works with collaboration and teamwork. The leader uses
subordinates in developing solutions to interpersonal skills to promote a collegial
the problems and facilitates consensus spirit in achieving organizational goals.
building toward a group solution, which is 5. Shared leadership (shared
generally accepted and implemented as governance) – sharing of responsibility in
the group wishes. order to achieve the organization’s goals.
▪ Path-Goal Theory 6. Servant leadership – based on the
1. Basically applies a combined theory of premise that leadership originates from a
task performance and human motivation to desire to serve whereby a non-mandated
leadership effectiveness. leader emerges out of a situation which calls
2. Proposes that a leader’s job is to for one or when others’ needs take priority.
remove obstacles to goal attainment, provide
support including rewards, and basically guide SAQ 2
followers along the “path to goal attainment” ▪ Given the following situations below, identify the type of
leadership that will most likely work. Justify your answer.
3. Two major roles of the leader therefore
▪ Being a batch head of your class.
are the ff: create a goal orientation, and to ▪ Being a group leader
improve the path towards this goal. ▪ Being a head nurse of a small hospital unit (eg. Emergency
4. Four leadership behaviors identified by room)
the Path-Goal Theory: ▪ Being a Board of Nursing (BON)member
a. Directive leadership – is one where the
leader informs his/her subordinates about
what is expected, gives specific
guidance, ensures compliance to
established rules and procedures, and
coordinates work efforts. This is ideal for
marginally prepared employees.
b. Supportive leadership – is focused on
the needs of subordinates, exhibits
concern for their morale and well-being,
encourages a friendly atmosphere in the
work environment. It is ideal for
c. Participative leadership – leader
consults his/ her followers and ask for
suggestions and opinions which is taken
into consideration when making
decisions. It is ideal for employees doing
ambiguous work where their participation
is the consultation process clarifies
d. Achievement-oriented leadership –
leader sets challenges, seeks
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