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					Conjunctivitis
 (Red Eye)
An eye, red due to acute conjunctivitis.
Conjunctivitis or “Red eye” is a common eye infection which is contagious
and may present as a seasonal epidemic. Simple measures such as
regular hand washing, avoiding crowded areas and appropriate eye
medication can help prevent the spread of conjunctivitis.
Viral and bacterial conjunctivitis may affect one or both eyes. Both are very

contagious and cause epidemics. It can affect both adults and children.
Conjunctivitis (Red eye) is an inflammation or infection of the transparent
membrane (conjunctiva) that lines the eyeball that causes the eye to be
swollen and makes small blood vessels in the eye become more prominent
resulting in “red eye”.
The cause of red eye could be due to an infection (bacterial/viral), allergy or
an eye injury.
As red eye caused by infection is contagious and occurs often as an
epidemic, early diagnosis, treatment and hand washing can help limit its

spread.
                 Symptoms

The most common symptoms of conjunctivitis
include:
• Redness and itchiness in one or both eyes
• A gritty feeling or sandy sensation in one or both
  eyes
• Itchiness in one or both eyes
• A whitish/yellowish discharge in one or both
  eyes that forms a crust during the night
• Watering from one or both eyes
                      Causes

Causes of red eye include:
•   Viruses
•   Bacteria
•   Allergies
•   Chemical or foreign object in the eye
•   A foreign object in the eye
•   In newborns, a blocked tear duct
Viral and bacterial conjunctivitis
Viral conjunctivitis usually produces a watery or mucous eye
discharge and bacterial conjunctivitis often produces a thicker,
yellow-green eye discharge that may be associated with a
respiratory infection or with a sore throat.

Allergic conjunctivitis
Allergic conjunctivitis affects both eyes and is a response to an
allergy-causing substance such as pollen. In response to
allergens, the body releases histamine which can cause
symptoms such as itching, tearing and red or pink eyes.

Conjunctivitis resulting injury
Irritation from a chemicals or foreign object in the eye can cause
conjunctivitis.
                      Risk factors
Risk factors for red eye include:
• Exposure to an allergen for allergic conjunctivitis
• Exposure to someone infected with the viral or bacterial form
  of conjunctivitis
• Accidental injury or chemical exposure
• People who wear contact lenses especially long wear lenses
  are more prone to conjunctivitis.

Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria normally present in
the mother's birth canal called Chlamydia which sometimes can
cause a serious form of conjunctivitis in the newborn known as
Ophthalmia Neonatorum which needs immediate treatment to
preserve sight.
                       Treatment
• For bacterial conjunctivitis, antibiotic eye drops are used
  to treat the eye infection and the infection should clear within
  several days. Sometimes an antibiotic eye ointment may be
  prescribed for treating bacterial red eye in children.

• Viral conjunctivitis does not respond to treatment with
  antibiotic eye drops or ointment. It is self limiting and may
  take up to two to three weeks for the infection to clear.

• Allergic conjunctivitis is treated with eye drops containing
  antihistamines, decongestants, mast cell stabilizers, steroids
  or anti-inflammatory drops. It is best to avoid rubbing the
  eyes.
                      Prevention
The best way to control the spread of red eye caused by infection
is by practising good hygiene . If you have a red eye, the
following measures will help:
• Wash your hands thoroughly with soap frequently and do not
  touch your eyes with your hands.
• Change your towel, pillowcase and bed sheets often and do
  not share them with others.
• Discard eye cosmetics particularly mascara which you have
  used.
• Do not use someone else’ eye cosmetics or personal eye-care
  items.
• Follow instructions for proper contact lens care.
• If a child is infected, avoid close contact with other children.
The Initial Stages of Pink Eye, soreness,
          redness and swelling
Pink Eye is very contagious, and can be
     transferred by close contact.
Common symptom of Pink Eye is swelling
  of the eyelid, either upper or lower.
Redness of the eye developing into full
           blown Pink Eye.
Another Symptom of Pink Eye is Excess Tears
The Itchy, Burning Associated with Pink Eye
  Sensation of a foreign object in the Eye,
rubbing and trying to remove from the eye.
Inflammation is seen as reddish change in the
 periphery of the eye often accompanied by a
  pus-like discharge. Yellow discharge, often
causing eyelids to stick together after sleeping.
Administering eye drops to treat Pink Eye.
  These will commonly be anti-biotic
Examination after Treatment. notice the
             clear eyes!!

				
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