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					    Catch the ExpressLane™ Seminar Series:
Essentials for Building a PCI Express* System




                                  March 2005
       Who is PLX?
 Leading supplier of standard interconnect silicon to the
  communications, server, storage, embedded-control, & consumer
  industries
     Public Company (founded in 1986) based in Sunnyvale, CA
     Sales offices throughout the world
     Over 1000 worldwide customers
 Whole product offering for fast time-to-market
     Silicon, reference design kits, software kits, & world-class
      technical support
 Comprehensive family of PCI-based bridging devices
     The highest performance family of PCI to local bus bridges
     The most complete family of PCI to PCI & PCI-X to PCI-X
      bridges
 Highest performance & lowest power family of innovative USB
  bridges
 Leader in PCI Express™ market and technology development
     Broad portfolio of bridges and switches
     Part of first wave of PCI Express products
     Leading key initiatives in PCI SIG, ASI-SIG, & PICMG
         PLX Leadership in PCI Express

 Made decision to adopt PCI Express early
    Key developer of 3GIO in Sept 2001
 Active membership of PCI SIG
    Founding member of PCI Express cable working group
    Member on ServerIO working group
    Major contributor to PCI-X to PCI Express bridge spec
 Active membership of PICMG
    Chaired PICMG 3.4 specification
    Editor for PICMG® Express specification
 Aggressive marketing campaign to evangelize standard
    Contributed 2 chapters to Mindshare PCI Express book
    TechOnLine Webcasts on PCI Express
    Regular contributor to CompactPCI magazine, RTC magazine,
       Communication Systems Design
    Represent PCI Express at Blade Server Summit
Products with PCI Express Interconnect Silicon


                 Base Station        Wireless
     DSLAM        Controller       LAN Gateway


                                                            SAN & NAS
  VoIP
 Gateway                         Router/Switch
             Remote Access                               Enterprise Storage
              Concentrator


             Communications

             Medical                                                 Stand-alone
                                                 Blade       Rack-
   Imaging                                                   mount
                    Industrial

    Embedded Control                             Server
            Product Roadmap

                          64-bit                  Bridge
                         133MHz
                                                            Bridge
          64-bit
                        HyperTransport
          66MHz


                                                           Bridge
 32-bit
 33MHz                                        Bridge


                                          480
                                         Mb/sec


 Target
Devices
                          Bridging and Switching Silicon
                12
               Mb/sec      for PCI, PCI-X, & PCI Express
     Local Bus & P2P Bridge Products
                            33 MHz                  66 MHz                133 MHz

          PCI-X to                                      Non-Transparent
          PCI-X                                         Devices
                                                                      6540      6520


                                                             6254
PCI-PCI    64 bit
Bridges    PCI-PCI                                           6154      Asynchronous

          32 bit                     6140                    6150
          PCI-PCI
                                            6152

          Hyper-T
          to PCI-X                                                             7520

          Local to               Bus Master               9656
          64-bit PCI             I/O Accelerators
 PCI to
 Local    Local to
          32-bit PCI    9030         9054    9056
Bridges

           ISA to       9052
           PCI                               Note: All PCI to Local bridges are
                       Target                fully async
                       Devices

                                                      In Production
                          USB Products


              Full Speed USB         Hi-Speed USB       PCI to USB

   USB
  Device       NET2890         NET2270        NET2272   NET2280
Controllers
            PCI Express Products

                    32 Lanes     16 Lanes   8 Lanes   4 Lanes   1 Lane


          PCI-
          Express
          Switch
                      8532         8516
  PCI-
Express
                      Non-Transparent                  8114
 Base     PCI-X
                      Devices


          PCI                                                    8111
                 PCI Express Roadmap
32 Lanes                                             Mixed
 8532                               Larger       PCI Express
Switch                             Switches           &
                                              Advanced Switching
      8516
     Switch
                                                  Products
                        Smaller
    16 Lanes
                        Switches           Multifunction
                                         Switches & Bridges
                   Other PCI
                    Bridges
   8114                            I/O Accelerator
  Bridge                               Bridges
                8111
               Bridge
                 Support Tool Components




                        =                     +                     +
                                                        HDK
                                                       CD-ROM                SDK
       RDK                                        Hardware Development      Software
Rapid Development Kit       Reference Board            Kit CD-ROM        Development Kit
  PLX Provides The Complete Solution
                         High Performance

                  High
                Availability


                Value                     Scalability

Reference           Compatibility
 Designs
                               Time-to-Market



       Design                               Support
                   Development
        Tools        Software

                                                        Partners
                                      RTOS
    Introduction to PCI Express
   PCI Express History
   PCI Express Technical Overview
   Migrating from PCI/PCI-X
   PCI Express Industry Momentum
   PCI Express Standards and Form Factors
            PCI Express History
 Started as Third Generation I/O (3GIO)
 Original specification promoted by Intel, IBM, Dell, Microsoft, &
  HP
 Adopted by PCI-SIG, name changed to PCI Express (may now be
  abbreviated to PCIe)
 Base Specification 1.0a (v1.1 to be released later this year)
 Bridge spec now available (v1.0)
 Packetized/Serialized PCI
    Designed to be used on wide variety of platforms
    Software compatible with existing PCI infrastructure
           The Migration to PCI Express
 State-of-the-art
Serial interconnect
   Technology



PCI/PCI-X
Software
Compatibility:
•Boot OS
•Configuration                                 PCI-X
•Drivers
                                           64-bit/133MHz
                              CompactPCI
                        PCI
                   64-bit/66MHz
         PCI
    32-bit/33MHz
                           Inside the Box                 Outside the Box

                                                          Ethernet
Generic     C/J Modes
                                                            1394
                  MPX / 970 / RapidIO
                                                           FC
PowerPC           60x

                            PCI/PCI-X                       USB

XScale
Pentium     PCI Express / Advanced Switching

                                                           iSCSI
 AMD
 MIPs           HyperTransport                        InfiniBand

                                  Local I/O                Box to    WAN/
    Interface           Chipset     Bus       Backplane
                                                            Box      LAN
                   PCI Express Performance


                   Link Width             X1      X2        X4       X8   X12   X16   x32

                   Bandwidth in Gbits/s
                   (Tx and Rx)            5       10        20       40   60    80    160
                   Throughput in GB/s
                                          .5       1        2        4     6     8    16
                   (Tx and Rx)
                   Throughput in GB/s
                                          .25      .5       1        2     3     4     8
                   (per direction)



                                              = PCI 32/66

                                              = PCI or PCI-X 64/66
Raw: Assuming 100% efficiency with no
payload overhead.                             = PCI-X 64/133
Introduction to PCI Express
   PCI Express History
   PCI Express Technical Overview
   Migrating from PCI/PCI-X
   PCI Express Industry Momentum
   PCI Express Standards and Form Factors
                  PCI Express
              High Level Overview
   Chip/chip and fabric interconnect technology
   High speed serial, packet based
   Fully open and standardized
   Complete compatibility with PCI & PCI-X software
   Cost driver: PCs/Graphics (economies of scale)
   Advanced features:
     QoS, Flow Control, data error detection
 Applicable to wide variety of applications
     Servers, Storage, Communications, embedded
 Extensive industry support
                PCI Express Basics
                      Serial, point-to-point LVDS
                      2.5 Gbps per lane (full duplex)
PCI Express           Scaleable
   PHY
 Device 1                x1, x2, x4, x8, x16, x32
                      Embedded clock, no sideband signals
                      Packet based, layered architecture
              Lane    Quality of Service
                         Virtual Channels
                         Traffic Classes
PCI Express           Reliability, Availability and Serviceability
 Device 2                End-to-End CRC
                         Poison Packet
                         Hot Plug
                      Flow Control
                      Advance error reporting
                  PCI Express Features/Benefits
    PCI Express Features                               Benefits
• PCI software compatibility   • Smooth migration, SW re-use, simple validation
• TC/VC mechanism              • QoS & isochrony
• High bandwidth               • Peak traffic loads, support high throughput apps.

• Flow control                 • Buffer size flexibility, cost flexibility
• Reliable link layer          • No dropped packets, simplified SW, high availability
• Robust link layer            • Maintain communication for HA or diagnosis
• E-CRC                        • End-to-end data integrity

• Error reporting, fault       • System management, serviceability, availability
  isolation
• Hot-plug                     • Optimize density, support cold spares
• Power management             • Reduced power consumption and emissions

• High Speed Serial            • Reduced cost, pin count, PCB layers & area




    PCI Express can be used in many market segments
         PCI Express System
                                      CPU      CPU



                            MEM       Root Complex        Port
        J2
        J1 J2
           J1 J2
              J1



                   PCI Express        PCI Express         Link
                     Bridge             Switch
   J2
J2 J1
J1
                        PCI Express         PCI Express
                          Switch             End Point
                   PCI Express System Elements
               Root Complex
                     Connects host CPU/memory
                     complex to PCI Express hierarchy                     CPU         CPU
                     Not limited to a single device
                     One or more downstream ports

Switch
      Assembly of logical PCI-to-PCI bridges                   MEM
      One upstream port directed towards root                           Root Complex
      complex
      One or more downstream ports
      Switches can be stacked                                                              Links
      Peer to peer traffic allowed
Bridge
      One upstream port
                                        PCI Express                       PCI Express
      directed towards root               Bridge                            Switch
      complex
      One downstream to other
      devices
                                                 PCI/   PCI-X                               This Switch
                                      J2
             Example: PCI or         J1 J2
                                                                                            has 4 ports
             PCI-X bus                   J1 J2
                                            J1          PCI Express                PCI Express
                                                          Switch                    End Point
                                             Endpoints
                                                  Native PCI Express Endpoints
                                                  Examples:
                                                          USB, InfiniBand, E’net
                                                          FibreChannel, etc.
                 PCI Express Packet
       Packet
STP   Sequence   Header          Data      ECRC/LCRC   Frame
       Number



                    Transaction Layer
                      Data Link Layer
                          Physical Layer


             Packets are transmitted serially
         Low Overhead: 20-28B plus Payload Data
           Layered Architecture
     Device                     Device
       A                          B


Transaction Layer          Transaction Layer


 Data Link Layer            Data Link Layer


 Physical Layer             Physical Layer



                    Link
        Transaction Layer
  Upper layer of PCI Express protocol
  Responsible for;
     Storing negotiated and programmed configuration
      information
     Enforcing ordering and Quality of Service
     Power management control/status
     Transaction Layer Packet processing
     Assembly, disassembly, high-level error checking




Start Seq Header     Payload            ECRC LCRC End
                    Transaction Layer

                     Data Link Layer

                     Physical Layer
           Data Link Layer Packets
 Data Link Layer Functions
    Integrity of Transaction layer packet (TLPs)
        • Link-level error detection and re-transmission of bad TLP’s
    Tracking state of link and passing link status to upper layers
    Conveying power management state info.
    Initialization and updates of credit based flow control
 Classes of DLLPs
    Transaction Layer Packet acknowledgements (Ack/Nak)
    Power management
    Flow Control (Flow Control packets)
    Vendor specific DLLP
 Create and terminate DLLPs for Link layer info


   Start Seq Header           Payload             ECRC LCRC End
                              Transaction Layer

                               Data Link Layer

                               Physical Layer
                Physical Layer Function
 Provides the physical connection between
  devices                                        PHY                     PHY
 Logical Functions                            Tx          Rx          Tx          Rx
    Link training and status
    Packet framing, Data striping/Data         Logical                 Logical
     assembly
    Data scramble, 8B/10B encode/decode
    Symbol lock
                                               Tx       Rx             Tx       Rx
 Electrical Functions
                                                Electrical              Electrical
    Receiver detect
    Receive clock recovery                         Port                    Port
    Bit lock, Serialization/Deserialization                    Link

    LVDS signaling
               Standardized RAS Support
 Reliability, Availability, Serviceability
 Excellent error reporting and diagnostic capability
    Advanced Error Reporting Capability (standardized)
    Logs/counts correctable and uncorrectable error types
    Uncorrectable events may be programmed to non-fatal or fatal
    Physical, data link, and transaction layer errors are individually
     logged
    Hooks to identify agents involved in failures
 Data Poisoning
    Tags bad packet, alerting other system components
 Native PCI Express Hot Plug support
    Both slot and module form factor support
             PCI Express Hot Plug
 Root ports and downstream ports of switches are the hot
  pluggable ports in a PCI Express hierarchy
 Hot plug registers are integral part of the PCI Express registers
    Do not require a separate set of memory mapped registers like
     PCI SHPC
 Native hot plug solution is specific to PCI Express
    SHPC continues to be the mechanism for parallel bus PCI
     implementations
 PCI Express supports a unified hot plug usage model to enable
  broad support
    Comprehends hot plug support for Card, ExpressCard**,
     Server IO Module, Cable Form Factors
                   Link CRC

Device                             Device
  A                                  B

                   Link CRC




Start Seq Header    Payload   ECRC LCRC End
           End-to-End CRC

Device                              Device
  A                                   B




              End-to-End CRC




Start Seq Header   Payload     ECRC LCRC End
                End-to-End Data Integrity - ECRC
                                               Component internal errors are critical
                                                  Header errors  TLP misrouting
                 Root                             Data corruption  application and
                Complex                            system failure

End Point                                      End-to-end data integrity using ECRC
                                                  Protecting from system-wide errors
                 Switch                           Enabling upper layers error recovery
                    X       Packet
                            corrupted          ECRC basics:
                            within a Switch
                                                  Optional Capability – additional 32bit field
                                                   (part of TLP)
                                                  Generated by the source component –
    End Point   End Point    End Point             applies to all invariant TLP fields
                                                  Switches must pass ECRC unchanged
                                                  Checked in the destination component –
                                                   resulting behavior is device specific
        PCI Express from the BIOS/OS
      perspective – Bus, Device, Function
                   numbers
             Host                             Host
                                                                              Bus 0
                     Bus 0
                                                                        P2P
             P2P                                                              Bus 1

                     Bus 1
                                                                  P2P         P2P

                                                                   Bus 3              Bus 2
End Point           End Point    End Point           End Point
B1, D1, F0          B1, D0, F0   B3, D0, F0          B2, D0, F0


      PCI System                 Equivalent PCI-Express           A switch looks like a
                                         System                    collection of P2P
Where: B=bus,                                                     bridges. Bus 1 is a
 D=device,                                                           virtual PCI bus
 F=function
                Packet Routing
 PCI Compatible Routing Methods
    Address Routing
       • Memory and I/O read/write
       • Optional for messaging
    ID Routing
       • Configuration read write
       • Completions
       • Optional for messaging
 PCI Express specific routing methods
    Implicit Routing – Messaging
           • Packets are routed based on a sub-field in the packet header.
           • Eliminates most of the sideband signals for interrupts, error
             handling, and power management.
                   Address Routing Examples
                                                                           Root Complex
                                                                Host/PCI
                   CPU
                                                                 Bridge

                                                            Bus0


                                     P2P        Base=0      Base=7M          P2P
                                                                                                            6) 5.5M is within
                                   Device0     Limit=7M     Limit=8M       Device1
   3) 9M is not                                                                                             Port 6 base limit
within 0 to 7M so                                                                                               so route
     forward                                         Bus1                                                     downstream
    upstream                        Upstream
                                                Base=0
                                       P2P
                                               Limit=7M
                                      Port0
   2) 9M is not
within 0 to 1M so                                                                                                      5) 5.5M is not
                                                    Bus2
     forward                                                                                                           within 6 to 7M
    upstream                                                                                                            so forward
                                                                                                                         upstream
                    Base=0       Base=1M       Base=2M         Base=3M          Base=4M      Base=5M      Base=6M
                   Limit=1M      Limit=2M      Limit=3M        Limit=4M         Limit=5M     Limit=6M     Limit=7M


                         Down         Down          Down               Down          Down         Down         Down
                          P2P          P2P           P2P                P2P           P2P          P2P          P2P
1) This device           Port1        Port2         Port3              Port4         Port5        Port6        Port7

writes data with                                                                                                       4) This device
 address =9M
                         Bus3         Bus4          bus5               Bus6          Bus7         Bus8        Bus9     writes data with
                                                                                                                       address =5.5M
                    Base=0       Base=1M       Base=2M         Base=3M          Base=4M      Base=5M      Base=6M
                    Size=1M      Size=1M       Size=1M         Size=1M          Size=1M      Size=1M      Size=1M
                                              ID Routing Completions use the
                                                       1)
    Type 1                                                                        Bus, Dev, Fun of the
                                                                      Root Complex
 configuration    CPU
                                                      Bus=0     Host/PCI        requester device to route
                                                      Sub=9      Bridge
 accesses are                                                                completion data. Secondary
                                                            Bus0
 converted to                                                                     and subordinate bus
    Type 0                         P2P
                                              Pri=0
                                              Sec=1
                                                             Pri=0
                                                            Sec=10       P2P     numbers make routing
                                  Device0                               Device1
  accesses at                                 Sub=9         Sub=11                        easy.
the destination
  bus. E.g. a                                      Bus1                                                          2) Device 8,0,0
Type 1 access                      Upstream   Pri=1                                                           requests read data
                                     P2P      Sec=2
  to a device                        Port0    Sub=9                                                            from device 9,0,0
    with bus
                                                  Bus2
  number 1 is
converted to a                                                                                                  3) Device 9,0,0
Type 0 access                                                                                                     sends data
                   Pri=2        Pri=2         Pri=2           Pri=2        Pri=2       Pri=2        Pri=2
      here         Sec=3
                   Sub=3
                                Sec=4
                                Sub=4
                                              Sec=5
                                              Sub=5
                                                              Sec=6
                                                              Sub=6
                                                                           Sec=7
                                                                           Sub=7
                                                                                       Sec=8
                                                                                       Sub=8
                                                                                                    Sec=9
                                                                                                    Sub=9       with Requester
 Configuration          Down        Down          Down            Down        Down         Down         Down       ID of 8,0,0
                         P2P         P2P                           P2P         P2P          P2P
      and               Port1       Port2
                                                   P2P
                                                  Port3           Port4       Port5        Port6
                                                                                                         P2P
                                                                                                        Port7
  completion
                        Bus3        Bus4          Bus5            Bus6        Bus7         Bus8        Bus9
 accesses use
                  Endpoint                                                            Endpoint     Endpoint
 Bus, Device,     Bus 3
                                Endpoint      Endpoint        Endpoint    Endpoint
                                                                                      Bus 8        Bus 9
                  Dev. 0                                                              Dev 0        Dev 0
   Function       Fun. 0                                                              Fun 0        Fun 0

   numbers.
            Reverse and Forward Bridging
                      Processor


                                          SDRAM
        GFX           North Bridge

                               PCI


HDD    South Bridge         Ethernet   SCSI
                                                  PCI/PCI-Express
                                                  Reverse Bridge
                                                                        PCI-Express
      USB       I/O                                                      Endpoint
                                                                          PCI-Express
                                                                           Endpoint

                                                                    Forward
                                                                                    PCI
                                                                     Bridge
                                                                                  End-point

                      PCI Express Switch
         Non-Transparent Bridge

 Provides isolation of host memory domains
 Presents the whole Sub-system as a Type0 Endpoint to
  Host
 Enables Inter-domain communication through address
  translation and Requester ID translation
 Provides Door-Bell and Scratch PAD register
  mechanism for host communication
          Non-Transparent Bridging
                                      HOST

                                          PCI Express
                                          Link


                                     Upstream
                                     Port0 (T)


                                          Internal PCI Bus


                     Virtual
                     Interface
                NTB Port2             Down
 Down                                                         Down
 Port 1      Type0    Type1           Port 3                  Port 7
                       Idle
             Type0

                       Link
                       Interface
     PCI Express       PCI Express        PCI Express             PCI Express
     Link              Link               Link                    Link
                   HOST/
Device                               Device                  Device
                   Fabric
             Quality of Service
 Traffic Classes (TC)
     Software-controlled method to add traffic priority
     Part of HEADER field in a TLP
 Virtual Channels (VC)                  Header     Payload
    Hardware method to provide separate data paths
    Part of queue structure in switches and bridges
    Hardware may have fewer than 8 VCs


              TC0                  VC0
Software      TC1                  VC1        Hardware
               .
              TC7
                      Arbitration
 TC’s are routed through switches with different priorities
  based on arbitration policy
    • Switches use Port arbitration and VC arbitration
    • TC mapping, Port and VC arbitration schemes can be
      configured on a per port basis – stored in PCI Express
      Extended Capability set.
    • Arbitration schemes include;
        •   Hardware Fixed
        •   Weighted Round Robin (32)
        •   Weighted Round Robin (64)
        •   Weighted Round Robin (128)
        •   Weighted Round Robin (256)
        •   Timed weighted (128)
    • Arbitration schemes are set up in VC Arbitration Tables and
      Port Arbitration Tables
                        Port & VC Arbitration
                               Port Arbitration                  VC Arbitration
                          within a VC in Egress port            of an Egress port
               TC/VC
              Mapping
          0    of the                       ARB             VC 0
              Egress                                                       ARB      2
                Port                                       VC 1
Ingress                                     ARB                                         Egress
               TC/VC
  Ports       Mapping
                                                                                        Ports
               of the
          1   Egress                                   These structures are
                                                                                    3
                Port                             replicated for each egress port



   Port Arbitration:
       Traffic targeting same VC/Egress Port
       Fixed Round-Robin (RR), programmable Weighted RR,
         programmable Time-based WRR
   VC Arbitration:
       Traffic from different VC competing for the Link
       Fixed priority, RR, programmable WRR
    Introduction to PCI Express
   PCI Express History
   PCI Express Technical Overview
   Migrating from PCI/PCI-X
   PCI Express Industry Momentum
   PCI Express Standards and Form Factors
0-In Design Automation         Bull S.A.                                                    Intersil Corporation             NetDevices, Inc.                Silicon Laboratories
3B-Elektron                    BVM Ltd                      Exanet Technologies             Inventec Corporation             NewTek                          Silicon Logic Engineering, Inc.
3Com Corporation               C-DAC                        Finisar Corp.                   iwave systems technologies       Nexio Systems, Inc.             Silicon Spectrum Inc.
3Dlabs                         Cadence Design Systems       Fintek                          Iwill Corporation                NextIO                          SMSC
Abit Computer Corporation      Canon Inc.                   First International Computer    Jmicron Technology Corp.         NitAL Consulting Services, Inc. Snowbush Microelectronics

             PCI Express Ecosystem: PCI-SIG Members
Absolute Analysis
ACARD TECHNOLOGY CORP
Accolade Technology Inc
Acer, Inc.
                               Canon Information Systems
                               Cascade Semiconductor
                               CAST, Inc.
                               Catalyst Enterprises,
                                                            Fishcamp Engineering
                                                            Flextronics
                                                            Force Computers, Inc.
                                                            Fortinet, Inc
                                                                                            JNI
                                                                                            JustEzy Technology Inc.
                                                                                            K.K.ROCKY
                                                                                            Kawasaki LSI
                                                                                                                             nReady Netware Ltd
                                                                                                                             nSys, Inc.
                                                                                                                             NurLogic Design, Inc.
                                                                                                                             Nuvation
                                                                                                                                                             Socle Tech. Corp.
                                                                                                                                                             Soft Mixed Signal Corporation
                                                                                                                                                             Solid Silicon Technology
                                                                                                                                                             Sony Computer Entertainment
Actel                          Cavium Networks              Foundertech Information Syst.   Kawasaki Microelectronics        NVIDIA Corporation              Spectra-Strip Cable Products
Actiontec                      Celestix Networks Pte        Foxconn Electronics, Inc.       Kendin Communications            Oleante                         Spike Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Acunia                         Central Syaytem Research     Framatome Connectors Intl       Kontron America                  Omicron Ceti AB                 SRC Corporation.
Adaptec, Inc.                  Chenbro Micom Company,       Fremont Systems Inc             KPIT Cummins infosystem          Optellios                       Standard Microsystems Corp
ADLINK Technology
AdMOS GmbH
                               Chipidea
                               Chrontel Inc.
                                                            FTD PL India
                                                            Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.
                                                                                            L3 Communications
                                                                                                              Test
                                                                                            Lamprey Networks, Inc.
                                                                                                                             Optima Computer Technology StarGen, Inc.
                                                                                                                             OSA Technologies                StarLink Electronics Corp.
ADMtek                         Cisco Systems, Inc.     Chipsets
                                                            Fujitsu                         Langchao Group                   PalmCom                         STMicroelectronics
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Advantage Century Telecomm.
                               Colorbus Aust
                               COMMLOGIK
                                                            Fujitsu Siemens Computers
                                                            Fulcrum Microsystems                           Equipment
                                                                                            LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED
                                                                                            Lattice Semiconductor Corpo
                                                                                                                             Paradigm Works
                                                                                                                             Park Controls and Communications
                                                                                                                                                             Storage Computer Corporation
                                                                                                                                                             Stratos Product Development
Advantech Co., Ltd.            Composite Tooling            Gateway, Inc.                   LeCroy Corporation               ParthusCeva                     Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Aeluros                        Comptex Pty Ltd              Gauß Computer Systeme GmbH      Leda Systems, Inc.               Patni Computer Systems Ltd. SuperMicro, Inc.
Ageia                          CATC                         GDA Technologies, Inc.          Legend Group, Ltd.               Perfectus Technology            symetrics industries,
Agere Systems                  Conexant                     General Dynamics Canada         LG Electronics Inc.              Performance Technologies        Synopsys, Inc.
Agilent Technologies           Consensys Corp.              Genesys Logic America, Inc.     liteonit                         Pericom Semi Corp               Synplicity
AKM Semiconductor              CONTek                       Gigabyte Technology Co., Ltd.   LSI Logic Corporation            PetaLynx Corp.                  Taiwan Mycomp Co
ALD Technology Ltd             Graphics
                               ControlNet (India) Pvt.      globespanvirata Company         LTX Corporation                  Petaswitch Solutions            Tarari, Inc.
ALi Corporation
Alienware Corporation
                               Cosmosent Technologies,
                               CourtSmart Digital Systems
                                                            Goyatek Technology, Inc.
                                                            Hangzhou C-Sky Microsystems
                                                                                            LyCOM Technology, Inc.
                                                                                            LynuxWorks
                                                                                                                                       FPGA
                                                                                                                             Philips Semiconductors NA
                                                                                                                             PLDApplications
                                                                                                                                                             Tateno Dennou,Inc.
                                                                                                                                                             TDK Corporation
Alpha Data Parallel Systems    Courtyard Electronics Lmtd   HCL Technologies, Ltd.          Magma                            Pletronics, Inc.                Tektronix, Inc.
Altera Corporation             CPLab                        Hercules                        MAI Logic Inc.                   Plexon, Inc.                    TeraChip
Ambitech, Hunter Technology    CPO Technologies Corp        Hewlett Packard                 Marconi                          Plexus                          TeraRecon, Inc.
American Predator Corp         Cray Inc.                    Hewlett-Packard Co.             Marvell Technology Group         PLX Technology, Inc.            Texas Instruments, Inc.
Amphenol                       Creative Labs                Hifn, Inc.                      MathStar                         PMC-Sierra, Inc.                The LogicWorks
Ample Communications Inc       Credence Systems Corp        Highwater Designs, Ltd.         Matrox Graphics, Inc.            Promise Technology              Thyamad Consultoria ltda
Analog Devices
Analog IP Inc.
                               Crossroads Systems, Inc.     HiNT Corp.                      MAXDATA Systeme GmbH
                                                                                            MaXXan Systems                                       IP
                                                                                                                             Proteam Computer Corp.
                                                                                                                             Providenza & Boekelheide
                                                                                                                                                             Tokyo Electoron Device LTD
                                                                                                                                                             Top Yang Technoloby Ente.
Apple Computer             Bridges
                               CSS Laboratories, Inc.
                               Cypress Semiconductor Corp
                                                            Hitachi, Ltd.
                                                            HK Meßsysteme GmbH              MBDA (UK) Ltd                    PTS Software bv                 Topspin Communications
Arima Computer Corporation
Asanté Technologies, Inc.
                               Daisy Technologies, Inc.
                               Data Transit
                                                            Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.
                                                            Hynix Semiconductor Inc.
                                                                                            Mellanox Technologies
                                                                                            Memec Design
                                                                                                                             QLogic
                                                                                                                             Qualis, Inc.
                                                                                                                                            Verification     Toshiba
                                                                                                                                                             TransEDA PLC
ASIC ARCHITECT                 Data Translation             Hyundai AUTONET Co., Ltd.       Mentor Graphics Corporation      Quanta Computer, Inc.           TriCN
ASIX                           DCM Technologies Ltd.        IBM                             Merging Technologies             QuestTech Consulting, Inc.      Trident Microsystems, Inc.
AST Ltd.                       Dell Computer                ICTV Inc.                       Micro Memory Inc.                QuickLogic                      TSMC
Astute Networks, Inc.          Denali Software              Indigo Systems Corporation      Micronas Semiconductors Inc.     Raster Technolodgy Co. Ltd      Tundra Semiconductor Corp
ASUSTek Computer, Inc.         Design Gateway Co., Ltd.     Infineon Technologies AG        MicronasNIT                      Raza Foundries                  Tyan Computer Corporation
Atheros Communications         Devon Energy Corporation     InfiniCon Systems               Microtronix Datacom Ltd.         Realtek                         Tyco Electronics
ATI Technologies, Inc.         Digeo                        Infortrend Technology, Inc.     MindShare. Inc.                  Redswitch, Inc.                 Unisys
Attansic Corp.
ATTO Technology, Inc.
                                Switches
                               DY4 Systems
                               Egenera
                                                            Innologic Systems
                                                            Innovative Design Solutions
                                                                                            Mission Research Corporation
                                                                                            Mitac International Corp.
                                                                                                                             Research Tech Inc
                                                                                                                                  IP Cores
                                                                                                                             Rhapsody Networks, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                             Uniwill Computer Corp
                                                                                                                                                             Verisity Design, Inc.
Aurora VLSI, Inc.              eInfochips                   Innovative Semiconductor        Mitsubishi Electric Company      Ricoh Company, Ltd.             VIA Technologies, Inc.
Avery Design Systems           Electronics for Imaging      Inova Computers GmbH            Modelware, Inc.                  S3 Graphics, Inc.               Vista Controls Corp
Banderacom, Inc.               Elta Systems                 Inphi Corp                      Molex Incorporated               Samsung Electronics Co          VMETRO asa
BARCO                          Eltan B.V.                   inSilicon                       Moschip Semiconductor Technology Sanmina-SCI                     VMIC
Bio-Imaging Research           EMC Corporation              Integnology Corporation         Motorola                         Sasken Communication Tech. Vocord
BitBlitz Communications        EmSyS - Larsen & Toubro      Integrated Device Technology    MPS                              SBS Technologies                Wavecrest Corporation
Bitwise Systems
BizLink Technology, Inc.
                               Emulex Corporation
                               Envara                       ASICs
                                                            Intel Corporation
                                                            Intellimetrix
                                                                                                     Foundries
                                                                                            MSI Computer Corporation
                                                                                            Myricom, Inc.
                                                                                                                             Scientific-Atlanta, Inc
                                                                                                                             ServerWorks
                                                                                                                                                             Wistron Corporation
                                                                                                                                                             Xeikon International
Boeing Company                 Epson Corporation            Interagon AS                    Nallatech                        Siemens, AG                     Xener Systems
Brainboxes Limited             Équipe Communications Corp   Interface Masters, Inc.         National Instruments Corporation Sigma Designs, Inc.             Xilinx, Inc.
Brand Innovators BV            ETAS                         International Rectifier         National Semiconductor           Silicon Bridge, Inc.            XIOtech Corporation
Broadcom Corporation           ETRI                         Internet Machines               NEC Computertechno,Ltd.          Silicon Forest Research, Inc.   Xyratex
                               Eureka Technology Inc.       Interphase Corporation          NEC Electronics, Inc.            Silicon Graphics Inc.           ZettaCom
                               Evans & Sutherland                                           NetChip Technology, Inc.         Silicon Image                   ZUKEN Inc.
                                                                                                                             Silicon Integrated Systems Corp Zytera Systems
                      Ecosystem Development
                Industry Deliverables
                                                    Compliance:        Plugfests on-going
                                                    ASIC/ASSP:         Now, more in late 2004
                     Motherboards                   Systems:           Off the shelf now
                (Slots, Connectors, Layout, etc)
                                                                       AdvancedTCA (PICMG
 Compliance
                                                                       3.4)
Testing/Tools        Adapter Cards
                  (Hardware and S/W Drivers)        Connectors:        Available
 Debug Tools                                        Dev/Test Tools:    Equipment and Software
 Analog/Digital                                                        available
                       Integrated
                         Silicon                                                 Post-Silicon
                                                                                 Pre-Silicon
                    Silicon Building
                         Blocks
                    (IP houses, Foundries,     FPGA Vendors:      Major vendor support
                     FPGA/ASIC vendors,
                    Bridge vendors, Tools)     IP Houses:         Several Cores available
                                               Foundries:         High Speed Circuits in CMOS
                                               ASIC/ASSP:         Bridge/Switch announced
                        PCI Express
                  2003 – A Watershed Year
                  Artisan, Cadence, Cascade, e-InfoChips, Genesys Logic, GDA, HCL, LEDA, Mentor Graphics, NEC,
IP/PHY                                    RAMBUS, Synopsys, Trans EDA, Verisity, Xilinx

                                      0-In, Avery, Cadence, Denali, eInfochips, Jasper Design Automation, Mentor
IP Verification                                       t
                                                              Graphics, nSys, Synopsys


Foundries & ASIC                                   IBM, LSI, NEC, TSMC, Texas Instruments, UMC

                                                           Agilent, CATC, Catalyst, Data Transit
Test Equipment                                              LeCroy, NitAl, Tektronix, Wavecrest


FPGA                                                             Altera, Lattice, Xilinx


                                                   Ample Communications, Intel, Broadcom, Marvell
Ethernet
                               PLX, Genesys Logic, Intel, Internet Machines, National Semiconductor, NEC, Texas
Bridges                                                            Instruments

                                    PLX, Agere, Internet Machines, National Semiconductor, NEC, SMSC, Texas
Switches                                                           Instruments


Storage                                                Emulex, Intel, LSI Logic, QLogic, Adaptec



       PCI Express architecture has strong momentum
PCI Express Form Factor Ecosystem
  Desktop & Server Cards
  MiniCard
     Internal notebook customization
  ExpressCard
     PC Card replacement
  Server I/O Module
     Modular expansion for rack-based systems
  Cabling
  PIGMG-based form factors
  I/O Mezzanine form factors
     AMC & XMC
  Blade Servers (using non-Transparency)
Desktop & Server Form Factor
                   Motherboard usage
                   Supports I/O & graphics
                   First available form factor
                   Systems shipping in 2H04




                                           16X
                                8X
                       4X
           1X
         MiniCard Form Factor
                         Replacement for Mini-PCI
                         Allows configuration to
                          order of notebooks
                         Wired & wireless comm
                         Portable video




Current Mini-PCI Card   New Mini PCI Express Cards
           ExpressCard Form Factor
                    Replacement for CardBus
                    Modular expansion
                    Host will support PCI Express
                     & USB 2.0
                    For notebooks and desktops




Legacy CardBus         New ExpressCard Types
Server I/O Module Form Factor

                Address enterprise-level
                 server expansion
                Blade servers
                Cartridge approach
                Provide high density
                Improved power & cooling
                Currently under definition
       PCI Express Cable Form Factor




 Cost-effective, standard cable and connector
  assemblies
 Wide range of bandwidths
 Currently under definition
 Applications
    Expansion IO
    Split-system desktop
    New docking for mobile platforms
    External graphic controller
                        Expansion I/O

• Provide additional or different slot types beyond what is
available in the base system. For example:
   •Provide additional I/O add-in card capacity.
   •Provide support for new add-in card interface technology
   •Provide “legacy” I/O slots for customers who reuse PCI/PCIX add-in cards




                      PCI-Express Cable


                                                   IO Expansion Box
   Server
                  Split System

 Move the user-accessible components (e.g. optical
  drive bay and USB ports) closer to the user
 Move the “static” and “noisy” components (e.g. CPU,
  hard drive) further away from the user
PICMG®-Based Form Factors
     for PCI Express
                    AdvancedTCA (ATCA)
                    Advanced Mezzanine
                     Card(AMC)
                    CompactPCI Express
                    Switched Mezzanine Card
                     (XMC)
                    MicroTCA

           -
         PCI
           X   -
               P
Advanced Telecommunications
   Computing Architecture
      (AdvancedTCA)
                8U, robust power and cooling,
                 advanced fabric
                PICMG 3.X specifications
                   3.0 – base mechanical,
                     thermal and electrical
                   3.1 – Gigabit Ethernet
                   3.2 – Fiber Channel
                   3.4 – PCI Express
                   3.5 – SerialRIO
                3.4 release 2003
                Quarterly Interoperability
                 Workshops (9 have occurred
                 since 2003)
                Products available today
Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC)

                Front access, hot swappable
                 daughter cards for
                 AdvancedTCA
                AMC.X specifications
                   AMC.0 – base mechanical,
                    thermal and electrical
                   AMC.1 – PCI Express
                   AMC.2 – Gigabit Ethernet
                   AMC.3 – SATA, SAS or
                    Fiber Channel
                AMC.0 and AMC.1 final release
                 4Q04
                   Products available now
                   Interoperability forum
                    established 3Q04
AdvancedTCA Carrier with AMC
                                                      CompactPCI Express
                                    32-lane Switch                             16-lane Switch

x8 PCIe                                  PCIe              x4 PCIe                 PCIe          x4 PCIe
             16-lane Switch             Switch                                    Switch


   x8 PCIe

          x4 PCIe
                 PCIe
                Switch

                          x4 PCIe
                                                     x4 PCIe
                                                                     x4 PCIe
                                                                                      x4 PCIe       ...
                                                                                                            3U and 6U compatible PCI
                                                                                                             Express backplane
                                                                                                            New system and peripheral
              Type 2
             Per. Slots
                                                                                                ...          boards
                                                                                                            Supports legacy
                              x1 PCIe




                    PCI Bus Seg.
                                                                                                             CompactPCI cards
                                                                                                            PICMG EXP.0 specification
                                                                                  Hybrid
                                                                                 Per. Slots
                                      PCIe to
                                     PCI Bridge


                                                                                                            Draft specification now
                                                                                                               PLX draft editor
Switched Mezzanine Card (XMC)

                PCI Mezzanine form factor
                Backward compatible with
                 legacy PCI PMC modules
PCIX
  -     -
       P-


                VITA 42.0 specifications
                   XMC.0 – high-speed
                    differential I/O including
                    PCI Express
                Standard 3U and 6U carrier
                 boards
                Final specification 4Q04
              Timeline for PCI Express Deployment
    2002          2003               2004                         2005



                 PCI Express         First PCI
PCI Express        Silicon            Express
   Spec           Appears
                                     Systems
 Released                           available off
                                     the shelf      Other PCI Express Standards
                                                    • PICMG Express
                                                    • Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC)
                                                    • Switched Mezzanine Card (XMC)
                                                    • PCI Express Cable Working Group
                                                    • Server I/O Module
                                                    • Advanced Switching

    PCI Express architecture is here!
       Momentum from industry is apparent
Architectures and Applications
 Servers
    Stand alone
    Multiprocessor designs
    With blades
 Storage & Storage Area Networks
 Embedded Control
 Switched Backplane
    Single and Dual (for redundancy)
    Combined or separate data & control planes
 Switch Fabric – Meshed, Star and Dual-Star
 Graphics and Display Systems
                            Servers

                                 CPU


                                                Memory
I/O
                             Northbridge
I/O   Bridge
                                                                  USB
                                                         South    GbE
                                                         bridge   HDD
               Bridge                                             PCI

                                       Bridge
               Bridge
                                       Bridge

               Bridge


               PCI Express Switches
               provide high Fan-out
                Storage and Communications
   Ethernet
Fibre Channel
     SCSI                                                     CPU
  Infiniband                        I/O
                                                              CPU
                                                              Bus
                       Local Bus
                FGPA                Bridge
                                                             Bridge



                 I/O


                 I/O




                 I/O               Bridge     Straightforward replacement
                                             of PCI/PCI-X with PCI Express
Embedded Control with PCI Express

              Control
   CPU

             FPGA/ASIC                      CPU
 FPGA/ASIC                DSP     Sensor
                                           CPU
Local Bus                   Local Bus      Bus

                         Bridge            Bridge
   Bridge      Bridge
                                  PCI Express in ATCA (3.4)

                                                                          CPU CPU
       Host A      Host B
                                                                        CPU CPU
                                                             To Fabric 2
                                                                                    RC     MEM
                                                                                                     Host B
                      Fabric Card 2
                                                          To Fabric 2
                                                                               RC        MEM       (Redundant)
         Fabric Card 1PCI Express
                                                                 To Fabric 1
          PCI Express                                                                              Host A
                                                             To Fabric 1


LC 1                    LC 3
                                                                                             CPU
            LC 2                                                                           CPU
                                                                                    EP
                                                                                         CPU
                                                                                       PCIX MCH
                                                                               EP                 MEM
                                                                                     PCIX MCH   MEM
                                                          To Host B                    1GE
                                                                           PEx           RC
                                                                                       1GE    MEM
                                PEx                                                  1GE
                                        To Fabric B
                             PEx
                               Switch                     To Host A                  1GE
                            Switch


  AdvancedTCA                   PEx
                                                                                 Line Card/Server Blades
                                        To Fabric A
                             PEx
                               Switch                   Fabric Card 1
     Backplane              Switch

                                                      Fabric Card 2
I/O Mezzanine Form Factors



                            X
                          PCI
                            -   P-

    PCI-X     -
             P-
    Device




    PCI-X     -
             P-
    Device




    PCI-X     -
             P-
    Device




                          PICMG Express
     AdvancedTCA
                        XMC Mezzanine Card
   AMC Mezzanine Card
                          I/O Mezzanine Cards

                                 Arbitrary mix of      Follows I/O device
Mezzanine                        I/O Mezzanines         migration to PCI
                                                        Express
 I/O   I/O   I/O    I/O        I/O   I/O   I/O         Supports multiple I/O
                              Mezz. Mezz. Mezz.         mezzanines
                                                       Host CPU (root
        Fanout                                          complex) could be on
         Switch                                         the baseboard or on a
       (optional)                                       mezzanine card or
                                                        across backplane
         Port
        Port(s)
                              Switch
                                             Root      Processor mezzanine
                                            Complex     interconnect is
                                                        electrically similar to
          To                                            a mini backplane
       Baseboard                            Other
                                         components
                          Baseboard
                  Multi-Host Designs
 Many systems have multiple processor based designs
    Intelligent adapter cards
    Dual-Host failover designs
 Multiprocessors Architectures will have memory mapping conflicts
    Enumeration done by each system uP
    Processors conflict in system operation
 Solution is to use nontransparent bridging (NTB).
    PLX originated applying NTB to PCI Express
    Non proprietary technology
    Extensively used in PCI/PCI-X designs today
    Added hardware registers in silicon
    Allows unlimited number of system uP’s with full address forwarding
     across processor domains
    Fully compatible with PCI Express
Why Use Non-Transparent Bridging
     for Multi-Host Designs?

 Low Risk Due to Familiarity
    Leverages off of PCI Express’ strengths – PCI
     compatibility
    Reduces design risk
    No need to re-invent the wheel
 Benefits:
    Proven methodology
    Can provide software reuse as they migrate from PCI
     to PCI Express.
    Can be uniformly adopted, industry-wide.
      Multi-Host Designs

            Secondary
              Host
                        CPU       CPU
                        Blade     Blade
I/O


I/O


I/O


I/O
                            Non-Transparent
                                 Port
I/O
                  Intelligent Adapters
                  Using PCI Express Base
Applicability:
   Desktop                                         CPU
                           I/O
   Servers
   Storage                                      Northbridge
   Embedded Control       I/O

   Communication
                           I/O



                  CPU


                  I/O
   Intelligent
     Adapter


                 Non-Transparent Port   Switch
                                        Fabric
                       Dual Host
              Using PCI Express Base

              Host 1                     Host 2
        I/O             CPU     CPU               I/O


        I/O            Bridge   Bridge            I/O


        I/O                                       I/O


CPU                                                     CPU

I/O                                                      I/O



Intelligent                                         Intelligent
  Adapter                                             Adapter
         Dual Star Using PCI Express Base
                        Using PCI Express Base
          CPU
                                Switch 1
Host 1
                                                                   I/O 1

                                                             I/O




Host 2
          CPU
                                                            CPU    I/O 2


                                                            I/O



                                Switch 2
                Primary Path               Secondary Path
PCI Express™ Based Blade Server

  I/O           I/O             CPU      CPU       CPU


 Bridge     Bridge              RC        RC           RC




                               Storage   Storage   Storage



          I/O         Fabric         Compute/Storage
         Blade Server Form Factor
           Using Non-T Bridging

Node      Node     Node             Node     Node    Node
Logic     Logic    Logic            Logic    Logic   Logic

                    NT                        NT



                                      NT
                                    Bridge


            NT
          Bridge

  NT                                                   NT
Bridge                                               Bridge


Node      Node     Node    Fabric   Node     Node    Node
          Separate Control & Data Planes
   Data                       NPU
   Plane
                                       NPU
                             Bridge

                                                I/O
                                      Bridge
                                                        CPU
                                               Bridge

                                                        RC



Control
 Plane
           Fabric   Fabric     I/O      I/O    Host     Host
    Dual Switched Backplane Topology
                             Emb
                             CPU

                                       I/O
                             Bridge
Combined
 Control
                                      Bridge   CPU
    &
  Data                                                CPU
  Plane                                        RC

                                                      RC




           Fabric   Fabric     I/O      I/O    Host   Host
PCI Express Switches and Bridges

  PEX 8532 and 8516 PCI Express Switches
  PEX 8114 PCI Express-to-PCI-X Bridge
  PEX 8111 PCI Express-to-PCI Bridge
            PEX 8532 & PEX 8516

 Multi-port PCI Express Switches
    PEX 8532
        • 32-lanes, 8-ports, 35x35mm HSBGA
                                                PEX 8532
        • Flexible x1, x2, x4, x8, x16 ports     Switch
        • Power: 6.5 W



     PEX 8516
       • 16-lanes, 4-ports, 27x27mm HSBGA
       • Flexible x1, x2, x4, x8 ports
       • Power 3.5 W                           PEX 8516
                                                Switch
      PEX 8532 Usage Example

                                                        PCI Express
       GRAPHICS            10 GbE                          Slot
                                    PCIe
       PEx   x16         PEx   x8
                                     x2
                   PEx
        ROOT
CPU                      PEX 8532                           PCI-X
       COMPLEX
                   x8     Switch                             Slots
                                    PCIe
                                           PEX 8114
                                            Bridge
                                     x4
       SDRAM
                                                                      PCI
                                                                      Slots
                                    PCIe
                                           PEX 8114
                                            Bridge
                                     x4               PCI 64/66
    PEX 8532 & PEX 8516
 Key Features
    Flexible Port Configuration
    Link & End-to-end CRC supported
    Hot plug support
    Non-transparent port capability
    Peer-to-peer transfer
    2 Virtual Channels
    Fully non-blocking Switch Fabric
    Advanced Error Reporting capability
    Integrated on-chip SerDes
    Symmetric/asymmetric port combinations
    256 Byte maximum packet size
    Optional EEPROM for configuration
    JTAG support
                      Feature/Benefits
           Feature                              Benefit
Flexible ports (4 or 8)      Use in multiple applications such as fan-out,
                             fan-in, peer-to-peer or mix
Non-Transparent bridging     Use in multi-host, load-sharing and high-
                             availability systems
Two Virtual Channels         Support for Quality of Service, priority
                             handling, bandwidth management
Peer-to-peer transfer        Allows I/Os to transfer data without host’s
                             involvement
Non-blocking switch fabric   High throughput, full line-rate, QoS
ECRC and poison bit          End-to-end reliability of user data and
                             bandwidth efficiency
Advance error reporting      Better management of system resources
                             and ease of debug/technology adoption
Hot-plug                     Serviceability and upgradeability
Optional EEPROM              Ease in debug and PCIe adoption
    Upstream/Downstream Ports

 Upstream Port
    One port designated as upstream
    Configurations via the upstream port
    Upstream port messages
       • MSI (Message Signaled Interrupts) sent upstream
       • Power Management control
       • Error Handling
 Downstream Ports
    Number of downstream ports from 1 to 7 (1-3 for 8516)
    Downstream ports forward Interrupts, Power Management,
     and Error messages to upstream port
   Features – Port Configurations

 Any port can be configured as Up-stream
 Port Widths
    Many port configurations allowed
    Ports may be combined to make wider ports
    Auto negotiation of port width supported
 Ports configured through strapping pins, optional EEPROM
  or host configuration writes
 Lane and polarity reversal supported on all the ports
        Features – Non-Transparent Port

 One of the ports is selected to
                                     Intelligent I/O Adapter
  be an NT port
 Can be used on multi-host, host       I/O          CPU                    CPU         CPU
                                                                            Blade       Blade
  fail-over or intelligent I/O                                  Secondary
                                                    PEX
  modules                              I/O
                                                    8516
                                                                  Host


 Communication between                                    NT


  processors is accomplished                  I/O


  through scratchpad and door-
  bell registers                              I/O

                                                                            NT
 Same implementation as PCI                  I/O                    PEX 8532
  non-transparent bridging                                                         Transparent Port
                                                                                 Non-

 Non-proprietary solution open to            I/O


  the industry
    Features – Virtual Channels

 QoS (Quality of Service support):
    2 full-featured Virtual Channels (VCs)
      • Traffic can be distributed across VCs
      • Traffic on one VC not blocked by traffic on the other
    Traffic Class (TC) mapping
      • Allows devices with different mapping to co-exist
        across the switch
      • Divide eight TCs across two VCs
                 Features – RAS

 Reliability, Availability, Serviceability (RAS) features
    Hot Plug
       • Hot insertion and removal
       • Hot Plug Controller for each port
 Optional Poison bit & end to end CRC
 Lane Status pins
 Error Handler
       • PCI Express Advanced error reporting
       • Error checking, error signaling, and error logging
Features – Power Management
 Power management:
   Link power management states:
     • L0, L0s, L1, L2/L3 Ready, L3
   Device power management states:
     • D0, D3 (hot)
   SerDes power control
     • Turn off of unused SerDes blocks
     • Four-level SerDes output
        • Off, low, typical and high
            PEX 8532 & PEX 8516
          Electrical and Mechanical

 Voltages – 3 sources
    1.0 V Core
    1.5 V SerDes I/O                              PEX 8532
    3.3 V I/O                                      Switch
 Packages
     PEX 8532 – 35 x 35mm HSBGA, 1.0 mm pitch
     PEX 8516 – 27 x 27 mm HSBGA, 1.0 mm pitch
 Power
     PEX 8532
       • Power: 6.5 W
     PEX 8516
       • Power 3.5 W
 Thermal                                         PEX 8516
    Commercial and Industrial Temp                Switch
          PEX 8532 Reference Design Kit

   Plugs into standard PCI Express
    motherboard slot                  Lane Status
                                                                                                                               Power Connector
                                         LEDs
                                                                        x8




   3 “expansion” slots provided;                                        x4

    top slot is straddle-mount


                                                                                x4

    Can be powered separately and                       Hot Plug


    serve as “active backplane”
                                                          Ckt.
                                                                                                  Midbus Site




                                                       JTAG                                                     DIP switch



                                                      Header                                                      for cfg.
    Midbus probe site provided
                                                                              PEX 8532
                                                                               Switch
   Available with x1, x4, x8 and                                                                                     EEPROM

                                                    RefClk

    x16 PCI Express connectors                                                                  Midbus Site

                                                                                     x16

                                                               PERST#
                                                                                     (Upstream Port)
PEX8532RDK in Motherboard
         Software Development Kit

   GUI-based Utility for Programming, Debug and Setup
   Sample API function calls
   Sample drivers
   Windows and Linux support
   Non-Transparent fail-over solution
   Available with RDK
              Product Rollout

 Availability
      Engineering Samples          Q4-04
      Early Silicon Sampling       Q4-04
      General Sampling             Q4-04
      Production                   Q1-05
      Reference Design Kit (RDK)   Q4-04
      Data Book                    Now
      Server I/O Expansion
              Other Host
             Board/system




CPU       Root
         Complex

                   NTB
                         x4                   I/O Blades
             PEX8532          Bridge
  Memory
                                       PCI-X 1.0
                         x4
                              Bridge
              x4                             I/O Blades



      Native PCIe I/Os
             Storage Systems

           North
CPU
           Bridge
CPU
                        x8    I/O Blades
             PEX8532
  Memory




           North
CPU
           Bridge
CPU
                       NTB
                             I/O Blades
             PEX8532
  Memory
                       x8
                        Storage Router

                       10/100 E’net        Serial



                 RAM
                              Integrated
                 ROM          Processor


10 Gig FC   10 GFC                    PCIe x8
                                                                            4GFC
                                                PCIe x4
                                                          Bridge
                               PEX8532
                                                PCIe x4
                                                          Bridge

10 Gig FC   10 GFC                                                          4GFC


                       Main Board                            Drive Interface Board
PCI Express Switches and Bridges

  PEX 8532 and 8516 PCI Express Switches
  PEX 8114 PCI Express-to-PCI-X Bridge
  PEX 8111 PCI Express-to-PCI Bridge
PCI Express to PCI-X Bridge – PEX 8114
 PCI Express to PCI-X Bridge
    4 lane PCI Express port (x1, x2, or x4 config.)
    Forward bridge – transparent or non-transparent
    Reverse bridge – transparent
 17 x 17 mm PBGA package
    No heat sink, no air flow required
 Low power (2 watts max)                              PEX 8114
 PCI-X                                                 Bridge
    64-/32-bit, 133/100/66MHz PCI-X
    64-/32-bit, 66/50/33/25 MHz PCI
    Arbiter supports up to 4 masters
 PCI Express
    Maximum payload size 256B
    RAS features
    Lane Reversal
    Hot Plug
      PEX 8114 Usage Example

                                                         PCI Express
       GRAPHICS            10 GbE                           Slot
                                     PCIe
       PEx   x16         PEx    x8
                                      x2
                   PEx
        ROOT              PEX 8532
CPU                                                          PCI-X
       COMPLEX             Switch
                   x8                                         Slots
                                     PCIe
                                            PEX 8114
                                             Bridge
                                      x4
       SDRAM
                                                                       PCI
                                                                       Slots
                                     PCIe PEX 8114
                                             Bridge
                                      x4               PCI 64/66
                 PEX 8114
 Key Features
    Flexible Forward, Reverse and Non-Transparent
     Operation
    Small Package Design
    Low Power Design
    Configurable PCI Express Port
    PCI and PCI-X Performance
    Link & End-to-end CRC supported
    Hot plug support
    Advanced Error Reporting capability
    Integrated on-chip SerDes
    Optional EEPROM for configuration
    JTAG support
   PEX 8114 – Features and Benefits

Feature                            Benefit
2 Watts max. power consumption     Low power
17mmx17mm Plastic BGA package      Minimal board real estate
Reverse Bridging                   Preserve legacy CPU investments
Non-Transparency                   Enables intelligent adapter and
                                   multi-host designs
Configurable x4 PCI Express port   Scalable link performance
PCI-X bus (64-bit/133MHz)          Maximum PCI/PCI-X bus
                                   performance
Forward and Reverse Bridging in
         PCI Express
                        Primary Bus
            Primary


                          PEX 8114
      PEX 8114
                           Bridge
       Bridge



   Secondary Bus

                         Secondary



    (Forward Bridge)   (Reverse Bridge)
                 PCI Express Features
 Maximum payload size 256B
 Support for lane reversal and polarity reversal
 EEPROM support
 Interrupts transferred between ports
    Message signal interrupt propagates to PCI-X
      interrupt
    PCI-X interrupt propagates to message signal
      interrupt
                                                    PEX 8114
 Power management:                                  Bridge
    Link power management states:
      L0, L0s, L1, L2/L3 Ready, L2, L3
    Device power management states:
      D0, D3 (hot)
 RAS features
    Hot Plug master & slave
    TLP Digest support:
        • Poison bit and End to end CRC
     1 Virtual Channel
                 PCI-X Bus Features

 PCI-X r1.0b and PCI r 2.3 compliant
      PCI-X operation up to 133 MHz
      64-bit/32-bit PCI operation up to 66 MHz
      64-bit addressing as master and slave
      Memory and I/O data transfers              PEX 8114
      Up to 8 outstanding split PCI-X             Bridge

       transactions
 PCI Power Management r1.1 compliant
    Supports D0, D3HOT
 Arbiter supports 4 external masters
    Arbiter can be disabled to allow external
     arbiter
              Additional Features


 Configuration through strapping pins,
  optional EEPROM or host configuration
  writes
 JTAG 1149.1 and 1149.6                  PEX 8114
                                           Bridge
 Use PCI Express reference clock or
  external PCI/PCI-X clock
PEX 8114 Electrical and Mechanical
 Voltage – 3 sources
    1.0 V Core
    1.5 V SerDes I/O
    3.3V PCI/PCI-X IO
 Package
    17 x 17 mm                       PEX 8114
    Standard 256 ball Plastic BGA     Bridge
    1.0 mm ball pitch
 Power
    2 W maximum
    No heat sink
    No airflow req’d
 Thermal
    Commercial and Industrial Temp
  Forward Bridge on an Add-in Card



         PCI-X Bus
PCI-X                                       PCI-X Bus
                                   PCI-X
Device
                                   Device
                        PEX                             PEX
         CPU
                        8114                            8114


                     PCI Express                    PCI Express
Reverse Bridge on an Add-in Card




                    PCI Express
          PCIe
         Endpoint
                            PEX
                            8114


                            PCI-X Bus
 PEX 8114 on a Motherboard


                 PCI-X Slots
        PEX
        8114




Host    Root          PEX      PCI-X
       Complex
CPU                   8114     Device
Reverse Bridge On a Motherboard

                       PCI-X Slots




           PCI-X Bus
  PCI-X
 Chipset


                                       PCI Express
                                       Add-On Slot
                       PEX
  Host                 8114
  CPU
                PCI-X-to-PCI Express
                       Bridge
     PEX 8114 Enables PCI Extension

        I/O Adapter                               Host Adapter
                               PCI Express
                                  Cable
          PCI Express                          PCI Express
                                                                  P-
                                                                Bridge
       PEX                                               PEX
       8114                                              8114


              Forward Bridge
                                        Reverse Bridge


     PCI or PCI-X                             PCI or PCI-X
I/O Expansion Chassis                         Host System
           AdvancedTCA with AMC


                              8U-high Form Factor
                              2.4 times board real estate
                               as 6U
PCI-XX
 PCI--
Device
                   PEX
                     P-
                              Up to eight (8) mezzanine
 Device            8114
                   Bridge

                               slots
 PCI-X
  PCI- X
 Device
  Device
                      P-
                    PEX
                    Bridge
                    8114      Robust power budget exists
           uProc
           CPU
                               on ATCA board
 PCI
  PCI              PEX
                    P-
Device             8114
 Device            Bridge
                     CompactPCI Express XMC
                               160mm




                                                                3U or 6U Form Factor
                           P-
 PCIX
                                                                High-speed connector
 PCI -




                                                RTM
  Device
Device                 PEX
                         Bridge

                       8114                                      considerations for backplane
            uProc
           CPU

                                                      233.35
                                                                High-speed connector
                                                       mm        considerations for
                                                                 mezzanine slot
                     Native            Switch                   Overall board power budget
                      Native
                    Endpoint                                     considerations
                 Forward Bridge RDK


 Plugs into standard PCI
  Express slot
 Standard PCI Express Edge
  Connector                                 EEPROM




 Multiple PCI or PCI-X slots
 Probe mode header                   PEX 8114
                                       Bridge
 Oscillator for optional PCI-X
  clock generation
 Connector for x1 slot                   JTAG
                                          Header



  available
                   Reverse Bridge RDK
 Plugs into standard PCI/PCI-X
  slot
 Standard PCI/PCI-X edge
  connector
 PCI Express slot
 Probe mode header
 Oscillator for PCI/PCI-X clock
  generation                            PEX 8114   EEPROM


 Enables development of                 Bridge

  PCI/PCI-X adapters using native                   JTAG

  PCI Express silicon                               Header
         Software Development Kit

   GUI-based Utility for Programming, Debug and Setup
   Sample API function calls
   Sample drivers
   Windows and Linux support
   Non-Transparent fail-over solution
   Available with RDK
PEX 8114 Bridge Product Rollout

 Availability
      General silicon sampling     Q4-04
      Production                   Q2-05
      Reference Design Kit (RDK)   Q1-05
      Data Book                    Now
PCI Express Switches and Bridges

  PEX 8532 and 8516 PCI Express Switches
  PEX 8114 PCI Express-to-PCI-X Bridge
  PEX 8111 PCI Express-to-PCI Bridge
                 PEX 8111 Overview

 PCI Express to PCI Transparent                          PCI Bus (32 Bit, 33 MHz)
  Reversible Bridge
 PCI Express – 1 lane, 1 virtual channel,
  with integrated 2.5 GHz SerDes                  PCI Master and Target Interface Logic

 PCI Bus – 66 Mhz, 32 Bits, CardBus
  Compatible                                     Configuration
                                                  Registers
                                                                    FIFOs
                                                                               8K Shared
                                                                                 RAM

 8K of shared memory accessible from                 PCI Express Transaction Layer
  both sides                                           (Packet Construction Logic)
                                                       PCI Express Data Link Layer
 Four GPIO pins                                         PCI Express PHY Layer

 13mm x 13mm 144 ball BGA package                                    j

 Alternate fine-pitch BGA package also
  available (10mm x 10mm)
                                             PCI Express Link (1 lane, 1 Virtual Channel, 2.5 GHz)
             PCI Express Features
 Compliant to rev 1.0a
 Maximum payload size 128 Bytes
 Interrupts transferred between ports
    Message signal interrupts (MSI) propagates
      to PCI
    PCI interrupt propagates to MSI
 Power management                                  PEX 8111
                                                     Bridge
    Supports in-band power management
    Link power states: L0, L0s, L1, L2/3, L2, L3
    Device power management states: D0, D3
      (hot)                                         PCI 32/33
 RAS features
    Hot plug master and slave, Poison bit
 No support for:
    ECRC
                        PCI Features
 PCI r3.0 compliant
    32-bit PCI operation to 66 MHz
    64-bit addressing as master and slave
    Memory and I/O data transfers                       PEX 8111
 PCI power management support                            Bridge

    Supports D0, D3 (hot)
 Arbiter supports 4 external masters
                                                         PCI 32/33
    Arbiter can be disabled to allow external arbiter
       Additional I/O Space Support

 VGA Mode support
    VGA register accesses forwarded downstream
    10 and 16 bit I/O address decoding
    3 modes of Palette snooping allowed in reverse mode
        Ignore VGA palette accesses
        Positive decode and forward VGA palette writes for
         downstream graphics devices that need to snoop writes
        Positive decode and forward VGA palette reads and writes for
         downstream graphics devices that need to snoop or respond to
         VGA palette access reads or writes
 ISA Bus support
    I/O forwarding in systems with ISA Bus
            PEX 8111 Features/Benefits
             Feature                             Benefit
300 mW max power consumption       Low power applications fit

144-ball Plastic BGA package       Easy assembly

Tiny 161-ball Fine-pitch BGA       Low cost and board space
package
Reverse Bridging                   Preserves legacy CPU investments

Four GPIO pins                     Design Flexibility

Built in arbiter-4 Master/Slaves   Simplifies PCI device management

Extended I/O Space support         Includes VGA and ISA bus
             Adapter Card Applications
   Use existing PCI silicon in new PCI Express Systems
    – like network cards or peripheral controllers
   Only add PEX8111
   Transparent operation means no new drivers or software is needed
   Forward bridging configuration
   Multiple PCI chips can reside behind a single PCI Express endpoint (no
    PCI Express switch needed)
   There is a large base of PCI chips that may never switch to PCI Express
    because the extra bandwidth and error handling features are not needed



              PCI Bus                                     PCI Express
     PCI                                        PCIe
    Device                                     Endpoint
                         PEX                                      PEX
                         8111                                     8111


                        PCI Express
                                                                   PCI Bus
        Application in PCI Based Systems
 Used in legacy PCI Systems
                                                                                        PCI Slots
   − Printers, test equipment
                                                                                  PCI Bus
 Reverse Bridging mode                                                    PCI
                                                                           Host
   − PEX8111 chip resides on                                               CPU
                                                                                         PEX       PCIe
     legacy PCI based platforms                                                          8111      ASIC
                                                                                   PCI-to-PCI Express
                                                                                         Bridge
                                     PCI Based Embedded System
                                                                                  Embedded Host System




                                                 PCI Express
                                 PCIe
                                Endpoint
                                                                 PEX
                                                                 8111

                                PCI Add-in Card
      PC with PCI slots
                                                                 PCI Bus
               Application in ExpressCard
                       Conversion




                                 ExpressCard™
              PCI Bus
   CardBus              PEX
    Silicon             8111




 Single chip conversion of




                                                PCI Express
  existing Cardbus designs                                    PEX8111

 Use forward bridging mode
                                                                        Existing Cardbus Based
 Supports multiple form                                                    Rotating Media
  factors
 Economical low cost solution
PEX 8111 Enables PCI Extension



    ~
    ~               PCI Express
                                      P-
      PCI Express                   Bridge
         Cable               PEX
                             8111


                             PCI Bus
         Carrier Card with Mezzanine


                           Carrier could be
 PCI        PEX     RTM     CompactPCI Express 3U/6U
Device
            8111            or AdvancedTCA
                           Mezzanine could be XMC or
                            AMC


           PEx
         Endpoint
          Native
           Product Rollout
 Availability:
      Engineering samples   Q4-04
      General sampling      Q4-04
      RDK                   Q4-04
      Production            Q1-05
      Data book             Now
      Product Brief         Now
   PEX 8111 Electrical/Mechanical
 Voltages required
    1.5 operating
    3.3 PCI I/O
 Package
    Standard 13mm x 13mm 144-ball BGA with1.0 mm ball
     pitch
    Optional 10mm x 10mm 161-ball fine-pitch BGA with
     0.65mm ball pitch
 Power
    300 mW maximum
    No heat sink
    No airflow required
       PEX 8111 Reference Design Kits
     PEX 8111 Forward Bridging Design Kit
        PCI Express Adapter Form Factor plugs directly into a PCI
         Express slot for PC based development
        PCI slot allows for easy forward bridging
     PEX 8111 Reverse Bridging Design Kit
        PCI Adapter Form Factor plugs directly into a PCI slot for PC
         based development
        PCI Express slot allows for easy reverse bridging
     Develop your software even before your hardware is ready

                                                                PCI Express Slot
        PCI Slot                                       EEPROM

                    JTA                        JTAG
       PEX 8111      G                                                PEX 8111
        Bridge                                                         Bridge
                   EEPROM

PCI Express Edge                                 PCI Edge Connector
   Connector

  PEX 8111 Forward Bridge                             PEX 8111 Reverse Bridge
     Evaluation Board                                    Evaluation Board
         Software Development Kit

   GUI-based Utility for Programming, Debug and Setup
   Sample API function calls
   Sample drivers
   Windows and Linux support
   Available with RDK
                     Summary
 PLX is the leading supplier of standard interconnect
  silicon to the communications, server, storage &
  embedded-control industries
 Leading family of PCI Express switch and bridge
  products – part of first wave of silicon suppliers
 PLX PCIe products are the most versatile and flexible
  products in the market
 PLX provides the broadest selection of PCIe products
 Most complete hardware and software support tools
 PLX provides the fastest time-to-market with the
  lowest risk for PCI Express!
   Hi-Speed Link Interface Design
          Considerations
 Challenges of PCI Express hardware design:
    line rate of 2.5 Gb/s, 400ps bit timing, rise/fall time of
     around 100ps
    Losses due to material characteristics and skin effect
    High frequency component attenuation due to loss
    Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)
    Drive Current, Common voltage and output voltage
     swings
    Even and Odd Impedance Traces
    Trace Routing
            Material Characteristics

 Losses due the material
    Loss tangent, skin effect
    Dielectric material
    Differential impedance
    Trace length, trace width, geometries, and board substrate,
 Use devices that support programmable De-emphasis
  (equalization)
    Low frequency component of the signal should be de-
     emphasized to reduce losses on high frequency components
    Programmable de-emphasis devices will allow simulation of
     losses and selecting optimum use de-emphasis levels
    De-emphasis will also allow reduction of ISI
    De-emphasis Bit stream

1     0   0   1   1   1   0   0
                                   3.35
                                    dB




                                  3.35
                                   dB
    SerDes Drive Current/Voltage

 Programmable Drive Current
 Programmable Voltage swing
    Reduce power for short length trace
    Increase power for long length traces
    SerDes termination voltage to control voltage swings
 PEX 8000 family SerDes design allows control of
  drive current and output voltage swing
             Impedance Control

 Consider Even and Odd impedance
   Simulate design with board manufacturer’s differential
    impedance constant (Er)
   Er will normally increase by 7-10% as frequency
    increases to 1-3 GHz
   Typical Er values are 4.4 to 4.7
   Target 100 ohm differential impedance
   Use edge-coupling for wider traces
   Use Broadside-coupling for dense designs
Edge Couple Trace


    Prepeg1




    Edge Coupled   GND
      Stripline    Plane

   Prepeg2
Broadside Couple Trace


             Prepeg

                       GND
                       Plane
Broadside
             Core
 Stripline




              Prepeg
         Routing Considerations

 Comply with PCIe Card Electrometrical (CEM1.0a)
  Specification
 Skew within a pair should be <5-mil for add-in cards
 Skew within a pair should be <10-mil for system
  board
 The RefClk should be matched within 5-mil
 Lane to lane skew should be 1.25ns between pairs
  for system boards and 0.35ns for add-in cards
 User should simulate the route length for their
  designs
           Symmetrical Routing

      S1                S2                S3




                  VIA

      S4                S5                 S6

Traces should have same number of vias and same length
Common Mode Return Current

                        Signal   Return current

                                            Stitching via

Signal Layer

Ground Plane

Signal Layer


Power Plane

Ground Plane

Signal Layer

Ground Plane


Signal Layer



               Signal via
            Misc. Considerations

 Avoid 90 degree bends
 Use AC coupling caps for transmitter interfaces as
  needed

                         33                  0.01uF
             CML
          Generator or   33                              PEX8532
            Buffer                           0.01uF      RefClk pin
                          49.9   49.9




                                             0.01uF
           LVPECL
          Generator or                                   PEX8532
            Buffer                           0.01uF      RefClk pin
                          100    100




                                               0.01uF
            LVDS
          Generator or                  2k               PEX8532
            Buffer                              0.01uF   RefClk pin
                       PEX 8532 Silicon Demo

                          PCI Express Graphics Card
Video through
PEX 8532RDK
                                        PORT 8 - X8
          Hot Plug                                     Port 8 Status
           Ckt.                                          LEDs
                                                                   HD Power
                                                                   Connector
                                      PORT 10 - X4        Port 10 Status
                                                            LEDs
        Manual
        Reset
                                        PORT 9 - X4
                                                   Port 9 Status
                                                     LEDs


                                               Midbus Site

                      JTAG                            DIP switch
                      Header                           for cfg.

                                     PEX8532
                                   (socketable)
                                                          EEPROM
                     RefClk
                                              Midbus Site      Port 0 Status
                                                                 LEDs

                          PERST#
                                       x16
                                        (Upstream Port)
                                                                               CPU


                                                  PCIe Motherboard

                                       DVD Player
PLX FastLane Bridges
The Most Complete PCI-to-PCI Bridge Product Line
                Agenda

•PCI 6000 Roadmap
•FastLane Bridges Advantages
•FastLane Unique Features
•Cross Reference to Industry-Standard Bridges
•System Issues Solved by FastLane Bridges
•Support Tools for FastLane Bridges
PLX Provides the Broadest
 Range of PCI and PCI-X                                               133MHz
        Bridges
                                                                                 Non-Trans
                                        66MHz
                                                                                   PCI
                                                                         Trans
                                                             64-bit               6540
                                                             66 MHz
                                                   64-bit   Non-Trans     PCI
                                                   66 MHz                6520
                                                    Trans
                                          32-bit              PCI
                               32-bit
                                         66 MHz              6254
     33MHz                    66 MHz
                                          BGA       PCI
                               PQFP                6154
                     32-bit               PCI
          32-bit
                  33/66 MHz              6150
          33MHz
                   TinyBGA     PCI
         For DVR
                              6350
 32-bit 10 Masters
 33MHz                PCI
 PQFP               6152
           PCI
          6156
  PCI
 6140
PLX FastLane Bridges:                                                  32-bit
  The 32-bit Family                              •32-bit/66MHz
                                                                      66 MHz
                                                                       BGA
                                                 •Asynchronous
                                                 •Small Footprint
                                                                        PCI
                                                 (17x17mm)
                                                                       6150
                                                 •EEPROM Support

              •32-bit/33MHz                          PCI            •32-bit/66MHz
33MHz         •10 Master Support                    6350            •Asynchronous
              •Low Power (300mW)                                    •Large FIFO (1kB)
                                       PCI                          •CompactPCI Hot Swap
                                      6152                          •EEPROM Support
                   PCI
                  6156
                                  •32-bit/33MHz version
      PCI                         •32-bit/66MHz version
     6140                         •Low Power (300mW)
                                  •Smallest Footprint
   •32-bit/33MHz                  (15x15mm)
   •Low Power (200mW)             •EEPROM Support                    66MHz
   •Lowest Cost
   •Small Footprint (23 x 17mm)
   •Low Latency (1 clock)
PLX FastLane Bridges:
The 64-Bit Family
                                        •133MHz PCI-X
                                                                 PCI
                                        •Asynchronous
                                                                6540
                                        •Large FIFO (10kB)
66MHz                                   •EEPROM Support
                                                             •133MHz PCI-X
                                                             •Non-Transparent Mode
                                              PCI            •Universal Mode
                                             6520            •Asynchronous
                                                             •CompactPCI Hot Swap
                       PCI
                                                             •Large FIFO (10kB)
 •64-bit/66MHz        6254
                                                             •EEPROM Support
 •Asynchronous
 •Large FIFO (1kB)   •64-bit/66MHz
 •EEPROM Support     •Non-Transparent Mode
                     •Universal Mode                         133MHz
       PCI           •CompactPCI HotSwap
      6154           •Asynchronous
                     •Large FIFO (1kB)
                     •EEPROM Support
PLX FastLaneTM Bridges Advantages
 Better Performance than Common P-to-P Bridges
      Large Buffer Sizes
      Larger Prefetch Sizes
      Smart Prefetch
      Performance-Optimized Retry Architecture
      Programmable Flow-Through
 Enhanced Compatibility
      Asynchronous Clocking
      Smaller Packages, Smaller Footprint BGA Versions
      Lower Power Consumption
      5V Tolerant I/O
 Broad tools and customer service support
FastLane Bridges Unique Features
 Non-Transparency
  • Benefit: Allows dual processor designs
  • Better performance, better data availability
 Universal Mode for CompactPCI
  • Allows a card to be system and peripheral card
  • Lowers inventory costs
 CompactPCI Hot-Swap Friendly
  • Simplifies hot swap designs
 EEPROM Support
  • Allows bridge configuration without driver
    support
 Smallest Packages
 Lowest Power Consumption
PLX FastLane Bridges Pin-Compatible
 Replacements for Industry-Standard
 Standard    Bridge Type            Fast Lane Bridge   PKG-PINS   Fast Track Bridge® Advantages
 Bridge                             Part Number
 21150-BC    32-bit / 66 MHz        PCI 6150-BB66PC    PQFP-208    Asynchronous operation
             transparent                                           Performance-optimized retry
                                                                   EEPROM Support
 GD21150-    32-bit / 66 MHz        PCI 6150-BB66BC    PBGA-256    Asynchronous operation
 AC          transparent                                           Performance-optimized retry
                                                                   EEPROM Support
 21152-BB    32-bit / 33 MHz        PCI 6152-CC33PC    PQFP-160    66 MHz version available from PLX
             transparent                                           15x15mm Tiny BGA version available
                                                                            from PLX
                                                                   Lower power dissipation;
                                                                   Performance-optimized retry
                                                                   EEPROM Support
 21154-BE    64-bit / 66 MHz        PCI 6154-BB66BC    PBGA-304    Asynchronous operation
             transparent                                           Performance-optimized retry
                                                                   EEPROM Support
                                                                   5V Tolerant I/O
 21554-AA*   64-bit / 66 MHz        PCI 6254-BB66BC    PBGA-365    Discontinued by original vendor;
             transparent                                                supported by PLX*
 21555-BA*   64-bit / 66 MHz non-   PCI 6254-BB66BC    PBGA-365    PCI Rev. 2.3 Compliant
             transparent




 * Functional replacement only
      System Issues Solved by FastLane Bridges
                                                                •Bus Load Limitations
             Host Bus                                           •Bus “Fall Back”
                                                                •Logic/Voltage Conversion
CPU                        Memory



                                                                      •3.3V to 5V
                                                                •Frequency Conversion
                   Host
                  Bridge                                        •Bus width Conversion
                                                                      •32 to 64 bit
                               PCI Device          PCI Device


      PCI Bus 0
                                                                •Multi-host processing
                      P

                                                                           PCI Add-In Cards
                   PCI                 PCI Bus 2
                  6150                  S


                      S              PCI               PCI        PCI           PCI
                                    6150              Device     Device        Device

      PCI Bus 1
                                        P




                                     PCI Add-In Slots
       Motherboard Slot or Device Load
                 Expansion
                                       PCI Slots or Devices

              CPU




Memory and
  Cache                          PCI
                                6150

                                       PCI Slots or Devices
              Core
              Logic




                      PCI Bus    PCI
                                6150




       SCSI              LAN
              Bus Load Expansion

 Some systems need more       PCI Bus      Max slots per
  add-in cards                               PCI Spec
 FastLane Bridges enable     PCI 33MHz          4
  the addition of more PCI
                              PCI 66MHz          2
  slots
                             PCI-X 66MHz         4

                             PCI-X 100MHz        2

                             PCI-X 133Mhz        1
  PCI-X Bridge Extends System’s Load
               Capacity
                                                             PCI
          CPU                                               6520
         Bridge

                                    133MHz PCI-X

                  PCI Bus         PCI                 PCI    PCI
                                 6520                6520   6520


                                                                   8 PCI-X
                                                                     slots
                                                      PCI    PCI
                                                     6520   6520



•6520 tested in lab to support 2 loads @ 133MHz
•Subject to design & ability of PCI devices behind
 the bridge to drive multiple loads                          PCI
                                                            6520
 PCI-X Bridge provides a new system board compatibility
   with legacy add-in cards as well as newer cards
                     System Board          CPU


                                PCI-X
                                Bridge   Host bridge
                  5v Tolerant              (PCI-X)      Memory
                   PCI Slots



                                           3.3v PCI-X
                                              Slots


Legacy PCI Add-In Card                                     PCI-X Add-In Card
 Adding a FastLane Bridge to an add-in card provides
   backward compatibility with legacy system boards

                                    Legacy    CPU
                                    System
•logic level translation            Board
from 5V to 3.3V
•bus rate conversion                         Host Bridge
from 33MHz to                                                 Memory
133MHz
•protocol conversion
from PCI to PCI-X
                                                     5V 33MHz
•bus width conversion
                                                      PCI Slots
from 32 bit to 64 bit



     PCI Add-In Card                                       PCI Add-In Card



       FastLane            3.3V                             FastLane         PCI-X
       Bridge              PCI                              Bridge           Device
                           Device
        U320 SCSI RAID Controller Card
   16              16                           SDRAM



Dual        Dual
U320        U320
                                         Memory Controller
SCSI        SCSI




                                64-bit, 66MHz
                                Secondary Bus
                                                                      •66MHz Secondary
                                                                      •133MHz Primary
RAID                      PCI                                 CPU     •Asynchronous
XOR                                                          Bridge
                         6540                                         •5V Tolerant I/O
                                                                      •5 Bus Masters on
                                   Primary Bus                        Secondary Bus
                                  64-bit, 133MHz                      •1GB/s Transfers
                                                                      •Non-transparency
                        PCI-X Edge                           RISC
                        Connector
          FastLane PCI-X Bridge Advantages


      PLX PCI 6540 Advantages                     Competitors                  Significance
1.   Non-transparent mode                     •Transparent-mode only     •Non-T simplifies multi-host
2.   25% Smaller footprint (27x27mm)          •31x31 mm footprint        •Better packing density
3.   Support for 8 Masters on secondary       •Only supports 6 masters   •Better connectivity
4.   Hot swap support for cPCI                •no Hot Swap               •Enhanced system up time
5.   Programmable Flow Thru                   •No Flow Thru              •Better system performance
6.   16 GPIOs                                 •No GPIOs                  •Enhanced design flexibility
7.   EEPROM support                           •No EEPROM support         •Eliminates custom software
8.   Universal mode for cPCI                  •No Universal mode         •Simplifies CPCI designs
9.   True Industrial Temp (-40 to +85deg C)   •0 to +85 degC only        •Wider range of applications
  Bridging to Embedded Processors

Bridging               Comment

Non-transparent mode   Non-transparent mode allows the bridge to appear as a
                       memory-mapped device and the host does not look thru it. The
                       secondary bus also appears like a memory mapped device to the
                       secondary host


Transparent-mode       Private Device allows a handful of devices on the on the
                       secondary side to be masked from the Primary bus. Secondary bus
with Private Device    private devices must be enumerated by the host on the secondary
                       bus using type 0 transactions with the appropriate IDSEL lines
                       asserted.

Transparent-mode       Opaque Memory provides undecoded memory address region.
                       Transactions within this range are not recognized on either bus.
with Opaque Memory

Transparent-mode       Private Memory provides a memory address range on the
                       secondary which is unavailable to the primary port. Secondary side
Private Memory         of the bridge will not pass transactions within this memory range to
                       the Primary bus.
Key Customer Benefits for FastLane Bridges
   Feature               Benefit             FastLane
                                             Device(s)
   Non Transparency      Dual Processor      6254
                                             6540
   Universal Bridging    cPCI Simplified     6254
                                             6540
   Asynchronous          Legacy Bridging     All except 6140,
   Operation                                 6152 and 6156
   Small Footprint BGA   Ultra Small –       6152, 6150,
   Packages              Saves Board         6350, 6520,
                         Space               6540
   EEPROM Support        Simplifies software All
                         design
                FastLane Support Tools

 Data Books
    Available on the PLX
     website
    www.plxtech.com
 RDKs
    Available from your local
     PLX sales rep and Yahoo
     store
        • Includes Bridge on PCI
          Card
        • SW Kit (SDK)
 Reference Schematics
    On website
 SDKs
    Configuration assistant
    Troubleshooter
    Performance Optimizer
PLX Provides the Broadest
 Range of PCI and PCI-X                                               133MHz
        Bridges
                                                                                 Non-Trans
                                        66MHz
                                                                                   PCI
                                                                         Trans
                                                             64-bit               6540
                                                             66 MHz
                                                   64-bit   Non-Trans     PCI
                                                   66 MHz                6520
                                                    Trans
                                          32-bit              PCI
                               32-bit
                                         66 MHz              6254
     33MHz                    66 MHz
                                          BGA       PCI
                               PQFP                6154
                     32-bit               PCI
          32-bit
                  33/66 MHz              6150
          33MHz
                   TinyBGA     PCI
         For DVR
                              6350
 32-bit 10 Masters
 33MHz                PCI
 PQFP               6152
           PCI
          6156
  PCI
 6140
         Thank you for attending the
  Catch the ExpressLane™ Seminar Series:
Essentials for Building a PCI Express* System




             www.plxtech.com

				
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