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Respirators

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					In the U.S.A.

Filters
What type of respirator are each of these individuals wearing?

Why Should You Care?
• Three million (3,000,000) American workers wear respirators daily
• 66,500 severe exposures occur annually, leading to:
– Permanent respiratory damage – Skin irritation – Loss of vision – Heart disease – Cancer

First Line of Defense
• As with every other hazard, the first line of defense Engineering Controls is:________________________ • Examples include: enclosures, confinement of operation, ventilation, substitution of less toxic material • When engineering controls are not feasible or are being implemented, respirators should be used

Second & Third Line of Defense
• The second line of Administrative Controls defense is:_________________________ • Examples include: job rotation, dampening dust prior to cleanup, work scheduling
• The third and last Personal Protective Equipment resort is:___________________________

Employer Responsibilities
• Employer shall provide respirators, when necessary, which are applicable and suitable for the purpose intended
• Employer shall be responsible for establishment and maintenance of a respirator program, which includes the requirements of paragraph (c), Respiratory Protection Program

Employees Responsibilities
• Attend training • Follow OSHA standards guidelines regarding Respiratory Protection • Follow your division’s operating procedures • Regularly inspect your PPE • Properly maintain and store your PPE • Review MSDSs

Employee Exposure
Exposure to a concentration of an airborne contaminant that would occur if the employee were NOT using respiratory protection.

Respiratory Inlet Covering
• The portion of a respirator that forms the protective barrier between your respiratory tract and an airpurifying device or breathing air source

• May be a face piece, helmet, hood. Suit, or mouthpiece respirator with nose clamp

Respiratory Inlet Covering
Tight-Fitting Coverings

Quarter Mask

Half Mask

Full Face piece

Mouthpiece/Nose Clamp
(no fit test required)

Respiratory Inlet Covering
Loose-Fitting Coverings

Hood

Helmet

Loose-Fitting Face piece

Full Body Suit

Filters
A component used in respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols from the inspired air. Also called air purifying element.

Respiratory Inlet Covering
Canister or Cartridge
A container with a filter, or catalyst, or combination of these items, which removes specific contaminants from the air passed through the container

Respirators
Negative Pressure Respirator
A respirator in which the air pressure inside the face piece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.
One way to remember this is that air from the outside is being filtered into the mask for you to breathe.

Respirators
Negative Pressure Respirator: Filtering Face Piece (Dust Mask)

A negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the face piece or with the entire face piece composed of the filtering medium.

Dust masks provide minimal protection against airborne hazards.

Respirators
Negative Pressure Respirator: Air-Purifying Respirator (APR)

A negative pressure respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the airpurifying element.

Respirators
Positive Pressure Respirator
A respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator. One way to remember this is that air is usually blown into your mask for you to breathe (rather than having to “suck” it in through the filters).

Respirators
Positive Pressure Respirator: Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR)

An air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the outside air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.

Respirators
Positive Pressure Respirator: Atmosphere-Supplying Respirator

Respirator that supplies the user with breathing air from a source independent of the external atmosphere. Includes supplied-air respirator (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.

Respirators
Positive Pressure Respirator:
Classes of Atmosphere-Supplying Respirators

Continuous Flow: Provides a continuous flow of breathing air to the respiratory inlet covering. Demand: Admits breathing air to the face piece only when a negative pressure is created inside the face piece by inhalation. Pressure Demand: Admits breathing air to the face piece when the positive pressure inside the face piece is reduced by inhalation.

Respirators
Positive Pressure Respirator: Supplied Air Respirator (SAR)

An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user. Also called airline respirator.

Respirators
Positive Pressure Respirator:
Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)

An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air IS designed to be carried by the user.

Respirators
Escape-Only Respirator
A respirator intended to be used ONLY for emergency exit. There is not enough air to sustain a long-lasting activity – there is only enough air to allow you to escape a dangerous situation. Also called an escape hood.

Breathing Air Quality
Compressed breathing air must meet at least the requirements for Type 1 – Grade D breathing air described in ANSI/CGA G-7-1989:
Oxygen content (v/v) of 19.5 – 23.5% Hydrocarbon content of 5 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) of air or less CO content of 10 parts per million (ppm) or less CO2 content of 1,000 ppm or less

Lack of noticeable odor

Breathing Air Quality
Compressors supplying breathing air to respirators must be equipped with suitable in-line air-purifying sorbent beds and filters that are maintained and replaced or refurbished per manufacturer’s instructions. For compressors not oil-lubricated. CO levels in the breathing air must no exceed 10 ppm For oil-lubricated compressors, a high-temperature or CO alarm, or both, must be used to monitor CO levels
(if only high-temperature alarms are used, the air supply must be monitored at sufficient intervals to prevent CO levels from exceeding 10ppm)

Program Requirements
Employer must develop a written program with worksite-specific procedures when respirators are necessary or required by the employer. Respiratory program must be updated to reflect any changes in workplace conditions that affect respirator use. Employer must provide respirators, training, and medical evaluations at no cost to the employee.

Program Requirements
Employer may provide respirators at employee’s request or permit employee to use their own respirators, if employer determines that such use in itself will not create a hazard or risk the employee’s safety or health. If voluntary use is permissible, employer must provide users with the information contained in Appendix D of OSHA 20 CFR 1910 standard. Must establish and implement those elements of a written program necessary to ensure that employee is medically able to use the respirator and that it is cleaned, stored, and maintained

Program Requirements
Employees who are required to use respirators must be trained so that they can demonstrate knowledge of at least:
Why respirator is necessary and how improper fit, use, or maintenance can compromise its protective effect Limitations and capabilities of the respirator Effective use in emergency situations

How to inspect, don, doff, use and check seals
Maintenance and storage Recognition of medical signs that may limit effective use

General requirements of Respiratory standard

Program Requirements
Training must be provided PRIOR to use, unless acceptable training has been provided by another employer within the past 12 months

Program Requirements
Retraining is required annually, and when: Changes in workplace or respirator type render previous training obsolete There are inadequacies in employee knowledge or use Any other situation arises where retraining is necessary

Program Elements
Respiratory program must consist of:

Selection
Medical evaluation Fit testing

Use
Maintenance and care Breathing air quality Training Program evaluation

Selection of Respirators
Employer must select and provide an appropriate respirator based on the respiratory hazards to which the worker is exposed and workplace and user factors that affect respirator performance and reliability.

Selection of Respirators
Select NIOSH-certified respirator that shall be used in accordance with conditions of certification Identify and evaluate respiratory hazards in the workplace, including a estimate of exposures and identification of contaminant’s chemical state and physical form When exposure cannot be identified, treat the atmosphere as Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH)

Select respirators from a sufficient number of models and sizes to correctly fit the user

Selection of Respirators
What is Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH)?? An atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere. Oxygen deficient atmosphere is an atmosphere with an oxygen content below 19.5% by volume and is always considered IDLH.

Selection of Respirators
Respirators for IDLH Atmospheres

Full Face piece Pressure Demand SCBA certified by NIOSH for a minimum service life of 30 minutes

Combination Full Face piece Pressure Demand SAR with Auxiliary Self-Contained Air Supply

Selection of Respirators
Respirators for IDLH Atmospheres Respirators provided only for escape from IDLH atmospheres shall be NIOSH-certified for escape from the atmosphere in which they will be used. Exception: Employers may use any atmosphere-supplying respirator, provided they can demonstrate, under all foreseeable conditions, that oxygen levels in the work area can be maintained within the ranges specified in Table II of the OSHA standard (e.g., 19.5%)

Selection of Respirators
Respirators for IDLH Atmospheres Atmosphere-supplying respirator, OR

Air-purifying respirator, provided that:
Respirator is equipped with an end-of-service life indicator (ESLI) certified by NIOSH for contaminant;

OR
If there is no ESLI appropriate for conditions, employer implements a change schedule for canisters and cartridges based accurate data (must be able to describe details of data as the basis for the schedule).

Selection of Respirators
Classes of Non-Powered Air-Purifying Filters
Indicates resistance to filter degradation due to the presence of oil aerosols R
R95
95% efficient for 0.3 micron size particles (8 hrs)

N
N95

P
P95

95% efficient for 0.3 micron size particles

95% efficient for 0.3 micron size particles

N99
99% efficient for 0.3 micron size particles

R99
99% efficient for 0.3 micron size particles (8 hrs)

P99
99% efficient for 0.3 micron size particles

N100
99.97% efficient for 0.3 micron size particles

R100
99.97% efficient for 0.3 micron size particles (8 hrs)

P100*
99.97% efficient for 0.3 micron size particles

N = NON-oil based particulates  R = RESISTANT to oil  P = oil PROOF

* Note: P100 is equivalent to a HEPA filter

Selection of Respirators
Classes of Non-Powered AirPurifying Filters If no oil particles are present, use any series (N, R, or P) If oil particles are present, use ONLY R or P Follow the respirator filter manufacturer’s service-timelimit recommendations

Selection of Respirators
Respirator Use (of Written Safety Program)
Respirator Type
Filtering facepiece (protection factor = 5) Filtering facepiece (protection factor = 10) With particulate filter of P95

Department/Process
Voluntary use around the maintenance or cleaning operations where dust may be present Workers involved in maintenance & cleanup operations when water is not available to control dust/particulates while operating equipment Workers involved with solvents, vapors or other maintenance cleaning supplies, minor chemical spills or laboratory functions First responders to WMD or with solvents, vapors. Or other maintenance cleaning supplies, minor chemical spills or lab functions

Half-face air-purifying respirator (protection factor = 10-50)
Full-face air-purifying respirator Quantitative fit test factor of 500

Selection of Respirators
Respirator Use for Written Safety Program)
Respirator Type
Atmospheric supplied-air respirators (protection factor = 1000-2000) with a NIOSH approved 5-minute Escape Air pack (protection factor = 10,000) Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) – MSA & Scott Units (protection factor = 10,000)

Department/Process
Workers involved with maintenance operations, chemical spills and emergency response operations

Workers involved in maintenance & cleanup operations when water is not available to control dust/particulates while operating equipment

Selection of Respirators
Identification of Filters, Cartridges, & Canisters All filters, cartridges, and canisters must be labeled and color-coded with the NIOSH approval label

Marked with “NIOSH,” manufacturer’s name and part number, and an abbreviation to indicate cartridge/filter type (e.g., N95, P100, etc.)
Label must not be removed and must remain legible Matrix approval label - usually as insert in box

Selection of Respirators
High Efficiency Filters

Filter that is at least 99.97% efficient in removing particles of uniform size that are 0.3 micrometers in diameter (HEPA filter per NIOSH 30 CFR 11) Equivalent NIOSH 42 CFR 84 particulate filters are the N100, R100, and P100 filters

Selection of Respirators
Respirators for non-IDLH Atmospheres Atmosphere-supplying respirator; OR

Air-purifying respirator equipped with HEPA filters certified by NIOSH for contaminants consisting primarily of particulates of at least 2 micrometers

Medical Evaluation
Physician or Other Licensed Health Care Professional (PLHCP) An individual who is legally permitted to provide, or be delegated the responsibility to provide, some or all of the healthcare services required by paragraph (e), Medical evaluation.

Medical Evaluation
Medical Evaluation Procedures

Medical evaluation to determine employee’s ability to use a respirator must be provided BEFORE fit testing and use. PLHCP must perform medical evaluations via a medical questionnaire or medical examination.
Follow-up medical examination is required who provides a positive response to any question among questions 1 through 8 in Section 2, Part A of App. C or whose initial examination demonstrates a need for follow-up

Medical Evaluation
Where Can You Find a Copy of the Medical Questionnaire? OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134, Appendix C

Medical Evaluation
Additional Medical Evaluations

Annual review of medical status is not required
At a minimum, employer must provide additional medical evaluations if:
Employee reports medical signs/symptoms related to the ability to use a respirator PLHCP, supervisor, or program administrator inform the employer an employee needs to be reevaluated Information from the respirator program (including observations during fit testing) indicate a need Change occurs in workplace conditions that may substantially increase physical burden on employee

Fit Testing

Before an employee uses any respirator with a negative or positive pressure tight-fitting face piece (basically, anything more than a dust/nuisance mask), the employee must be fit tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used.

Qualitative Fit Test (QLFT)
A pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on the individual’s response to the test agent.

Quantitative Fit Test (QNFT)
An assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator.

Fit Testing
Employees using tight-fitting face piece respirators must pass a qualitative or quantitative fit test: Prior to initial use
Whenever a different respirator is used At least annually thereafter

Fit Testing
Must conduct an additional fit test whenever:

Employee reports change in physical condition (facial scarring, dental changes, weight, cosmetic surgery, etc.) Employer observes change in physical condition
Fit test must be administered using an OSHA-accepted QLFT or QNFT protocol contained in Appendix A of the standard

Fit Factor
A quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and typically estimates the ratio:

Fit Factor
QLFT may only be used to test negative pressure APRs that must achieve a fit factor of 100 or less QNFT has been passed with a respirator IF fit factor is determined to be:
Equal to, or greater than, 100 for tight-fitting half face pieces, OR Equal to, or greater than, 500 for tight-fitting full face pieces

Face Piece Seal Protection

Respirators with tight-fitting face pieces must not be worn by employees who have facial hair or any condition that interferes with the face-to-facepiece seal or valve function

Face Piece Seal Protection
Corrective glasses or goggles or other PPE must be worn in a manner that does not interfere with the face-to-facepiece seal

Face Piece Seal Protection
Employees wearing tightfitting respirators must perform a user seal check each time they put on the respirator using the procedures in Appendix B-1 or equally effective manufacturer’s procedures
Positive Pressure Check Negative Pressure Check

Donning a Half Mask

Donning a Full Mask

Respirator Effectiveness
Maintain appropriate surveillance of work area conditions and degree of exposure or stress Reevaluate respirator’s effectiveness when it may be affected by changes

Respirator Effectiveness
Employees MUST leave the respirator use area:

To wash their faces and respirator face pieces
If they detect vapor/gas breakthrough or leakage If they detect changes in breathing resistance To replace the respirator or filter, cartridge, or canister

Procedures for IDLH Atmospheres
One employee (or more when needed) MUST be located outside the IDLH atmosphere Visual, voice, or signal communication MUST be maintained between employees inside and outside Employees located outside must be trained and equipped to provide effective emergency rescue Employer or authorized designee must be notified before employee enters to provide emergency rescue Employer or designee, once notified, must provide necessary assistance appropriate

Procedures for IDLH Atmospheres
Employees located outside the IDLH atmosphere must be equipped with a pressure demand or other positive pressure SCBA or SAR with auxiliary SCBA; and either:
Appropriate retrieval equipment to remove employees who enter, where retrieval equipment would contribute to the rescue of employees and would not increase the overall risk resulting from entry; OR Equivalent means for rescue where retrieval equipment is not required

Procedures for IDLH Atmospheres

When in doubt… DO NOT ENTER!!
We already have one person in trouble, we do not want you to risk your health or life too!

Maintenance & Care
Provide each user with a respirator that is clean, sanitary and in good working order Use proper procedures
(manufacturer recommendations)

Clean and disinfect at the following intervals:
As often as necessary when issued for exclusive use
Before wearing by different individuals After each use for emergency respirators & fit testers

Maintenance & Care

NEVER use respirators that are dirty, torn, or in bad overall condition

Maintenance & Care
Cleaning and maintaining your respirator is an important part of ensuring its effectiveness
Dish soap is a nice gentle cleaner that can also effectively clean the oils from your skin

Be sure to clean the cartridge area too

Maintenance & Care
Rinse thoroughly

Maintenance & Care
Use wipes to clean rubber seals

Maintenance & Care
Dry with clean cloth

Store in a clean, dry place

Program Evaluation
• • • Must conduct evaluations of the workplace to ensure effective implementation of the program Must regularly consult employees required to use respirators to asses their views on program effectiveness and to correct any problems Factors to be assessed include, but not limited to:
– – – – Respirator fit Appropriate selection Proper use Proper care and maintenance

Recordkeeping
•
• • •

Records of medical evaluations must be retained and made available per 29 CFR 1910.1020 A record of fit tests must be established and retained until the next fit test is administered A written copy of the current program must be retained Written materials required to be retained must be made available upon request to affected employees and OSHA

Questions


				
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