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Name that Hand Tool and its Safety Features in the USA OSHA 29 CFR 1910, Subpart P What your Brain Tool Box needs to Know • OSHA Regulations • Hazards of Hand and Power Tools • Controlling Hazards/Safety Precautions • General Safety Guidelines for Power Tools • Safety Precautions for Specific Tool Types Before you pick up that TOOL Is this STOP ? Decide Report Act Observe STOP Hazard Recognition • Tools are common in “day-to-day” life • Difficult to spot hazards due to familiarity • Most tools manufactured with safety devices • Users must inspect the tool daily • Often misused 4 Examples of Misuse • Using a screwdriver as a chisel • Using tools with loose handles • Wrenches with sprung jaws 5 Other Safety Factors • General housekeeping • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) • Spark shield and protection around flammables • Don’t use tools near aisleways 6 Types of Power Tools • Electric • Pneumatic (air) • Liquid fuel • Hydraulic • Powder-actuated 7 General Power Tool Precautions • Never carry a tool by the cord or hose • Never yank the cord to unplug it • Keep cords and hoses away from heat, oil, and sharp edges • Disconnect tools when not in use • Make sure observers are at a safe distance • Secure work with a vise or clamp 8 General Precautions (cont.) • Keep tools sharp and lubricated • Do not wear loose clothes, ties, jewelry, etc. • Mark or tag all damaged tools with “Do Not Use” 9 OSHA Regulations Employer Responsibility • Each employer is responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment used by employees. • Compressed air shall not be used for cleaning purposes except where reduced to less than 30psi – and then only with effective chip guarding and PPE. OSHA Regulations Employer Responsibility • Employers shall not issue or permit use of unsafe tools. • Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe, end, and socket wrenches shall not be used when jaws are sprung to the point that slippage occurs. OSHA Regulations Employer Responsibility • Impact tools, such as drift pins, wedges, and chisels shall be kept free of mushroomed heads. • Wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks and shall be kept secured tightly in the tool. OSHA Regulations Employee Responsibility • Wear appropriate protective equipment to protect against hazards while using any tool. • Follow proper tool safety policies. • Report tool deficiencies and malfunctions immediately. • Properly store tools when work is done. Definition Hand tools are non-powered and include anything from axes to wrenches. The greatest hazards posed by hand tools result from misuse and improper maintenance. Hand Tool Misuse Using a screwdriver as a chisel. May cause tip of screwdriver to break and fly, hitting the user or other employee. Using a tool when the wooden handle is loose, splintered, or cracked. May cause tip head of tool to fly off and strike someone. Hand Tool Misuse Using a wrench when its jaws are sprung. May cause the tool to slip and cause an injury. Using impact tools (chisel, wedge, drift pin) when head is mushroomed. Head might shatter on impact, sending sharp fragments flying. Basic Hand Tool Safety Guidelines • Use tools the way in which they were intended for the job in which they were intended. • Inspect tools regularly. • When using tools, direct them away from aisle areas and other employees. Basic Hand Tool Safety Guidelines • Make sure knives and scissors are adequately sharpened. • Wear necessary PPE. • Do not use tools around flammable substances where sparks could be a danger – or use spark-resistant tools. Let’s talk more about sparks… Spark-Resistant Tools Around flammable substances, sparks produced by iron and steel hand tools can be a dangerous ignition source. Where this hazard exists, spark-resistant tools is a safer alternative What are Spark-Resistant Tools? “Non-sparking,” “spark-resistant,” or “spark-proof” tools are names given to tools made of metals such as brass, bronze, Monel metal (copper-nickel alloy), copper-aluminum alloys (aluminum bronze), copper-beryllium alloys (beryllium bronze), and titanium. What are Spark-Resistant Tools? Preferred “non-sparking: metals have less tensile strength than steels usually used to make tools. A lower tensile strength means the metal has less strength or resistance to tearing apart when stretched under test conditions. What are Spark-Resistant Tools? It also means that these tools are softer, wear down more quickly than ordinary steel tools, and have to be dressed more frequently. Some Non-Sparking Tools Today’s Power Tools • Offer more power, adaptability, and dependability than ever! • With enhanced tool performance comes increased responsibility. Power Tool Hazard Mitigation All hazards involved in the use of power tools can be prevented by following five basic safety rules: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Keep all tools in good condition with regular maintenance. Use the right tool for the job. Examine each tool for damage before each use. Operate according to manufacturer’s instructions. Use necessary PPE. There are Quite a Few Safety Guidelines When Working with Power Tools Basic Power Tool Safety Guidelines • Know the power tool. – Read and understand the owner’s manual. – Read all labels on the tool. • Ground all tools. • Avoid dangerous environments – do not use power tools in damp, wet, and/or explosive atmosphere (fumes, combustibles). Bottom Line Basic Power Tool Safety Guidelines • Avoid power lines, electrical circuits, water pipes, and other hazards in the work area. • Do NOT wear loose clothing. • Wear proper PPE – including gloves, eye & hearing protection. Basic Power Tool Safety Guidelines • Do NOT wear jewelry or dangling objects that could get caught. • Pull back long hair. • Attend safety training on the use of tools you have not used before. Basic Power Tool Safety Guidelines • NEVER carry a power tool by the cord. • NEVER yank the cord or hose to disconnect it from the receptacle. • Keep cords and hoses away from heat, oil, and sharp edges. • Disconnect tools when not in use, before servicing, and when changing accessories. Basic Power Tool Safety Guidelines • Keep all observers at a safe distance away from the work area. • Secure work with clamps or vise, so both hands can operate the tool. • Avoid accidental starting. Do NOT hold a finger on a switch button while carrying. Basic Power Tool Safety Guidelines • Maintain tools with care – keep sharp and clean and lubricated. • Keep good footing for balance. • Inspect tools for damage before What is each use – remove damaged our friend doing wrong? tools from service and tag “DO NOT USE.” No PPE Electrocution Warning The most serious hazard of using power tools is the possibility of electrocution. Burns and even slight shocks can lead to injuries or even heart failure. Electrocution Warning In certain conditions, even a small amount of current can result in fibrillation of the heart and eventual death. A shock can also cause a fall off a ladder or other elevated surface. Electrocution Precautions • Electric tools must be grounded with a threewire cord or be powered by a low-voltage isolation transformer. • Double insulation is more convenient. User and the tools are protected by: – normal insulation on the wires inside. – a housing that cannot conduct electricity to the operator in the event of a malfunction. Electrocution Precautions • Do not use electrical tools around moisture or wet areas. • Use tools for the job(s) in which they are intended. •Use protective gloves and footwear when operating electrical tools & equipment. Powered Abrasive Wheel Tools • Powered abrasive grinding, cutting, polishing, and wire buffing wheels create special safety problems because they throw off flying fragments. • Inspect all wheels before mounting for cracks/defects. • Sound- or ring-test all wheels. Powered Abrasive Wheel Tools • To prevent wheel from cracking, be sure it fits freely on the spindle. • Tighten spindle nut enough to hold the wheel in place without distorting the flange. • Follow manufacturer’s instructions carefully. Powered Abrasive Wheel Tools • Do NOT let the spindle wheel exceed the abrasive wheel specifications. • Due to the possibility of a wheel disintegrating (exploding) during start-up, NEVER stand directly in front of the wheel as it accelerates to full speed. Powered Abrasive Wheel Tools • Equip all portable grinding tools with safety guards to protect workers from the wheel and flying debris. • Always wear eye protection and Turn off when not in use. • NEVER clamp a hand-held grinder in vice! Portable Circular Saws • Do not use a circular saw that is too heavy for you to easily control. • Do not wear loose clothing, long hair, or dangling jewelry. • Always wear PPE. Portable Circular Saws • Be sure the switch actuates properly. It should turn the tool on and return to the off position after release. •Use sharp blades. Dull blades cause binding, stalling, and possible kickback. •Use the correct blade for the job (size, speed, arbor hole shape). Portable Circular Saws • Ensure the blade guard is working properly. Check for proper operation before EACH cut. • Check often to ensure guards return to normal position quickly. •If the guard seems slow to return or hangs up, repair or adjust immediately. •NEVER defeat the guard to expose the blade! Machine Guarding • Fixed Guards – A permanent part of the machine – Not dependent on any other part to perform the function – Usually made of sheet metal, screen, bars or other material which will withstand the anticipated impact – Generally considered the preferred type of guard. – Simple and durable Machine Guarding • Interlocked Guard – Usually connected to a mechanism that will cut off the power automatically – Could use electrical, mechanical or hydraulic systems – Should rely on a manual reset system Machine Guarding • Adjustable Guard – Very flexible to accommodate various types of stock. – Manually adjusted Machine Guarding • Self-Adjusting – The opening is determined by the movement of the stock through the guard. – Does not always provide maximum protection. – Common complaint- reduced visibility at the point of operation.... “I can’t see what I’m doing!” Portable Circular Saws • Before starting the saw, be sure power cord and extension cord are out of the blade path and are long enough to freely complete the cut. • Stay aware of the cord location at all times. •Keep the cord out of the walking path of others. •A sudden jerk on the cord can cause loss of control and result in serious injury! Portable Circular Saws • For maximum control, hold the saw firmly with both hands after securing the work piece in a clamp. Check security of clamps frequently. • Avoid cutting small pieces that cannot be properly secured. •Do not cut material on which saw shoe cannot properly rest. Portable Circular Saws • When you start the saw, allow the blade to reach full speed before contacting the work. • When making a partial cut, or if power is interrupted, release the trigger immediately and do not remove the saw until the blade has come to a complete stop. Portable Drills • Portable drills are the most used power tool. • Because of their handiness and application to a wide range of jobs, drills often receive heavy use. • Do not become complacent when using a drill – injuries do happen. Portable Drills • Check for loose power cord connections and frays or damage. Replaced damaged tools/cords immediately. • Ensure chuck is tightly secured to the spindle – especially for reversible type drills. • Tighten bit securely and remove the key. Portable Drills • Check the handle – be sure it is secure. • Always hold or brace the drill securely. Brace against stationary objects for maximum control. • Do not force a drill. Apply enough pressure to keep the drill bit cutting smoothly. Miter Box and Chop Saws • Because of the saw’s downward cutting motion, stay alert to keep hands and fingers away from the blade’s path. •Be sure all guards are in place and working properly. If a guard seems slow to return to its normal position, adjust or repair it immediately! Miter Box and Chop Saws • Use only recommended size and RPM-rated blades. •When installing or changing a blade, be sure the blade and related washers and fasteners are correctly positioned and secured on the saw arbor. Pneumatic Tools • Pneumatic tools are powered by compressed air and include chippers, drills, hammers, and sanders. • There are several dangers encountered in the use of pneumatic tools. • The main is danger of getting hit by one of the attachments or a fastener. Pneumatic Tools • Eye protection is required and face protection is recommended for employees working with pneumatic tools. • Ensure a tool retainer is installed on each piece equipment to prevent ejection of the tool. • Hoses/connections must be designed for the pressure. Pneumatic Tools • Secure pneumatic tools to the hose by a positive means to prevent the tool from becoming accidentally disconnected. • Securely install and maintain all safety clips or retainers on impact ()percussion) tools to prevent attachments from being accidentally expelled. Pneumatic Tools • All pneumatically-driven nailers, staplers, and other similar equipment provided with automatic fastener feed, which operate at more than 100psi at the tool must have a safety device on the muzzle to prevent the tool from ejecting fasteners, unless the muzzle is in contact with work surfaces. Pneumatic Tools • Do not exceed the manufacturer’s safe operating pressure for hoses, pipes, valves, filters, and other fittings. • Do not use hoses for hoisting or lowering tools. • All hoses exceeding ½-inch diameter must have a safety device at the source of supply or branch line to reduce pressure in case of hose failure. Pneumatic Tools • Noise is another hazard of noisy pneumatic tools – be sure to always use proper hearing protection. • Set up screens to protect nearby workers from being struck by flying debris. • Never point a compressed air gun at another person or yourself. Aviation Shears Used for cutting pieces out of thin aluminum less than .040” and steel less than .020”- .025” Carpenter Square Used in the construction industry it has inch markings down the outer edges of the arms, it is useful for working with large pieces but is the least accurate type of square Adjustable Pliers (Channel Lock®) A cross between an adjustable wrench and pliers it has a wide range of sizes available Combination Square A basic tool used to determine right angles and 45 degree angles. The head can be moved along the blade and locked in place with the thumb screw. This is more accurate than the carpenters square and works better on small pieces Countersink • Used as a chamfering or deburring tool – 1/32 to 1/16 is sufficient for most holes. • Used prior to tapping or reaming, protects hole from burrs and nicks. • Used for recessing the head of a wood screw or machine screw (Flat Heads) • 82 degree single flute is the most common countersink used for this purpose. Cutting Fluid Jar • Cutting fluid should be applied to metals when they are being machined on the mill, lathe, or drill press or sawed on the metal saws. • For plastic check out soapy water from the shop. Using these during machining will improve the process and finish on the piece along with making the tools last longer. Deburing Tools Removes the material that is left on corners and edges after the machining process is complete. Dial Calipers A measuring device that has a dial and graduations along the beam. To read, you must read the beam first then add the numbers from the dial, to get the total reading. Measures in .001 of an inch – Metric version available. Die & Die Handle Used to make threads on the outside of a round piece of material. The die is placed in the die holder and held in place with a set screw. Digital Calipers • Similar to a dial caliper but electronic. • The complete measurement displayed in the LCD window. • Measures in .001 of an inch – Metric switch on unit. Drift An ejector tool used to remove a drill chuck or tapered drill bit from the spindle of a drill press. Edge Finder Is used in the milling machine to find the exact position of the part edge so that the piece can be machined accurately. File Card • A brush used to clean out the groves in a file. • It is important to keep the files grooves clean for more efficient cutting of the file. Files Square Flat Round • A hand tool used to cut, smooth, or fit metal parts by applying pressure to the tool and pushing across the piece in one direction. • The tool is made of hardened steel and must be harder than the material being cut. Forstner Drill Bit • Used for drilling holes in wood, will not cause wood to break out and splinter when the drill bit comes thru the bottom side of the board. • Will leave a flat bottom hole in wood. • Must continually clear the chips from deeper holes for the bit to work effectively. Ground Shop Square • Used for squaring blades and cut off saw vises, this is the most accurate way of determining right angles. • This square does not have graduations for measuring. Hack Saw Saw Stroke • Used for cutting smaller pieces of material by hand. • Will only cut on the forward stroke as indicated by the direction of the teeth in the close up. Micrometer Or “Mike” For Short This is an outside micrometer. There are also inside versions available. • A very precise measuring tool that measures in thousands of an inch. (This model - .0001 – 1/10,000”) • Their sizes are broken up into one inch increments so that a 1” micrometer will measure distances from 0” to 1”. Most commons sets are “ 0 – 6”. Larger sizes available. Parallels • Used for keeping the work piece off the bottom of the vise during milling and drilling operations. • This prevents the mill cutter or drill bit from hitting the vise. Pliers - Jointed • Has many all around uses. • Used many times in the shop to pull chips off of the lathe or hold small pieces while they are being worked with on the grinders or sanders. • This prevents your hands/fingers getting into the machinery. Razor Blade Scraper • A tool to remove paint, glue or tape from a smooth surface, such as glass, plastic, or metal. • Not to be used as a box cutter. Reamers • Used when a hole needs to be precise. • The hole is usually drilled 1/64 inches under sized and then the reamer is used to get the exact size desired to within +/.001 inches. Screwdrivers • Tools used to tighten or loosen screws. • Small Jewelers Screwdrivers are available for very small screws. Philips Flat Torx Not To Be Used As Pry Bars Or Chisels!!! Scribers Hand layout tool used to scratch or scribe lines on metal. Scratch Awl- Can also be used as a small marking punch. Scribe - Metal Scribe - Metal Carbide tipped. Speed Square • A tool commonly used in general wood construction. • It can also be used as a guide when making cuts with wood hand power saws. Tap, Tap Handle, Tap Block Tap Handle: holds the tap as you turn it. Tap Block: Allows the tap to stay in a vertical Tap: Puts threads into an position, when tapping a existing hole properly sized. hole. Tin Snips • A hand held tool used to cut thin steel between .030” - .045” and pieces of aluminum slightly thicker than an aviation shear can cut. Utility Knife • Used to cut cardboard, paper, string, rubber and other thin non-metallic materials. Vise Grips • Similar to a pliers, but it locks shut and allows you to increase the force with which the piece is held by adjusting the screw at the end of the handle. Pliers Clamps Various models available. • This can be used to hold small pieces while they are being ground or sanded. Or as clamps on work tables. Summary • OSHA Regulations • Hazards of Hand and Power Tools • Controlling Hazards/Safety Precautions • General Safety Guidelines for Power Tools • Safety Precautions for Specific Tool Types Congratulations! You have learned how to be safe while using hand and power tools! Any final questions?
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