Docstoc

METHODOLOGY

Document Sample
METHODOLOGY Powered By Docstoc
					             SERVICE QUALITY AT HON SUI SEN MEMORIAL LIBRARY




National University of Singapore


Business School


Service Operations Management


Report By:


Olivia Tsang Zainab


Ryan Christopher Reid


Shibata Kanako


Augustinus Martinus Goorts         NT030786U
1.   INTRODUCTION




     The SERVQUAL method has been used in many settings to assess the quality of service.


By measuring expectations, perceptions, and satisfaction level on the dimensions of


Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy and Responsiveness as well as overall satisfaction,


this paper aims to assess service quality of Hon Sui Sen memorial library, as well as suggest


improvements. To have a better picture of the mechanics of the library’s service delivery


system, we will first provide a graphical service blueprint.
1.1 SERVICE BLUEPRINT


Hon Sui Sen Memorial library’s services can be subdivided into three distinct service


processes: (1) provision of library study, computer and copier facilities, (2) provision of Conference room

facilities and (3) Provision of information plus the optional lending of books. Below, we will present each of


these graphically in a separate diagram.




1.1.1    Provision of library study, computer and copier facilities




  Physical                 Appearance             Physical                                          Exit gate
  Evidence                 of facility            condition of
                                                  facilities
  Customer                 Arrive                                                                   Leave
  Actions

  Optional                                        Find                   Make print
  Customer                                        computer

  Actions
                                                  Find copier            Make copies


                                                  Find study
                                                                         Study
                                                  place


  Onstage                                                                Ensure quiet
  Con. Pers.                                                             atmosphere



  Support                                                                Process cash               Check for

  Processes                                                              card payment               theft
1.1.2   Provision of conference room facilities




  Physical                Appearance                            Exit gate   Appearance              Reservation             clean &        Exit gate
  Evidence                of facility                                       of facility             tag on room             adeq. equip.
                                                                                                                            room

  Customer                Arrive                  Request       Leave       Arrive                  Check into              Hold           Leave
  Actions                                         reservation                                       room                    meeting


  On stage                                        Record                                                         enforce res.

  Con. Pers.                                      reservation                                                    schedule


                                                                                          Place
  Backstage
                                                                                          reservation
  Con. Pers.
                                                                                          tag on room

  Support                                         Room reg.     Check for                                                                  Check for
  Processes                                       record        theft                                                                      theft
1.1.3   Provision of information, optional lending of books



  Physical             Appearance                                           Exit gate   Appearance                  Exit gate
  Evidence             of facility                                                      of facility


  Customer                                   Find book or
                       Arrive                                               Leave
  Actions                                    other info.


  Optional                                                                              Arrive        Return book   Leave
                                             Read book /      Borrow
  Customer
                                             info on site     book
  Actions
  On stage                                                    Record
  Con. Pers.                                                  reservation



  Support                                                     Update        Check for                               Check for

  Processes                                                   lending       theft                                   theft
                                                              database
2.   METHOD



     The questionnaire design partially follows the SERVQUAL (Parasuraman, 1991)


instrument (Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy and Responsiveness) by using a


7-point Likert scale with “1” being “Strongly Disagree” and “7” being “Strongly Agree”. For


each dimension, all questions measured the customer expectations and perceptions of Hon


Sui Sen Memorial Library and staff. In addition, the perceived most preferable library service,


the important criteria and importance of choosing in 5 dimension service quality for library,


overall measures with satisfaction level and demographic information. In total, 106


questionnaires were completed by library users.


     For the analysis, the expectation score is subtracted from the perception score for each


item in the 5 dimensions. The average SERVQUAL scores for the items pertaining to each of


the 5 dimensions are totaled and then divided by the number of items making up the


dimension. The scores obtained for the 5 dimensions are averaged of overall measure of


service quality. The weighted score is the average SERVQUAL score multiplied by the


importance weight for each dimension (total 100 points). The lower the score, the lower is the


perception level for the customers. This study aims to minimize and improve the perception


gap or enhance the expectation level by educating internal or external customer in the


recommendations. In addition, SPSS was used for analysis of the overall satisfaction in each


service quality dimension and the overall satisfaction towards Hon Sui Sen Memorial Library
by regression.




3.   FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION



A total 120 questionnaires were distributed to library users.   106 questionnaires were


returned, but 7 questionnaire were rejected, because the respondents had not gone to Hon Sui


Sen Memorial Library in the past two weeks (before we collected our samples). Another 7


questionnaires were not returned by the stated deadline. The remaining 106 questionnaires


were used for analysis.




3.1 PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS


     The findings indicate that the majority of respondents were Year 3 students   (58.49%)


     and followed by Year 2 students (28.3%) (See Appendix, Figure 1. Most of the


     respondents major in Marketing, and Logistics and Operations Management as 27.08%.


     Major in Finance was 21.88%, followed by Management Science (15.62%).          The least


     respondents were majoring in Accounting (3.13%) (See Appendix, Figure 2). 50% of


     respondents spend 1-2 hours (50%), followed by spend less than 1 hour (27.36%) in Hon


     Sui Sen Memorial Library per visit (See Appendix, Figure 3). Consequently, 41.35%


     of respondents go to Hon Sui Sen Memorial Library once a week, 29% once in 2 weeks


     (29%). (See Appendix, Figure 4).     Furthermore, the majority of respondents use the
    library service photocopy (27.54%), followed by Loan of material e.g. books and


    periodicals (23.48%).   17.39% of respondents do the reference searching and access the


    Internet (13.33%).   A minority of respondents use the services of request for


    publication (4.06%) and others e.g. study room (4.05%). (See Appendix, Figure 5)




3.2 RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SERVICE DIMENSIONS


    To determine the importance of each of the FFC criteria, respondents were requested

to divide 100 points among Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy and Responsiveness.


    These results (See Appendix, Table 1), showed that the Tangibles dimension with a


mean sore of 23.75 was ranked the most important dimension, and has the highest standard


deviation of 16.433, followed by the Responsiveness dimension at 22.97. The least important


dimension was Empathy with a mean score of 14.55.




3.3 BUSINESS STUDENT LIBRARY PREFERENCE


As shown in the results in Appendix, Figure 6, Hon Sui Sen Memorial Library with the


percentage of 68.9% was ranked the most preferable followed by Central Library at 18.4%.


The least preferable was National Library at 13.6%. This rating implies that respondents have


a higher perception of Hon Sui Sen Memorial Library based on either their mindsets or


experience.
3.4 SERVQUAL SCORES


    The findings (See Appendix, Table 2) indicate the Assurance dimension has the greatest


service gap of –0.5575 followed by the Reliability dimension at -0.4225. The smallest service


gap was the Empathy dimension at -0.2733. However, it was inaccurate to draw conclusions


from Table 4 directly since the SERVQUAL scores did not take into consideration the


importance of each service dimension. The weighted SERVQUAL scores are computed. (See


Appendix, Table 3)


    The overall weighted SERVQUAL score is –41.46. This score was calculated by


multiplying the SERVQUAL scores of the service dimensions by the weight given by


respondents in questionnaire and dividing the sum by 22 (22 items in the questionnaire). The


SERVQUAL scores are more negative than the un-weighted SERVQUAL scores. The largest


gap amongst the rankings is Tangibles at –13.01, followed by Reliability at –9.03 and


Responsiveness at –8.97. The smallest gap is Empathy at –3.91.




3.5 TWO-DIMENSIONAL CHART FOR IMPORTANCE CRITERIA FOR SERVQUAL


    The two-dimensional chart was used to identify service shortfalls. The SERVQUAL


score denoting service gaps for the 5 dimensions were plotted against their expected scores.


The resulting chart showing the 5 dimensions presents a macro view of the quality of service


delivery by the Hon Sui Sen Memorial Library.
    As the result shows (See Appendix, Figure 7), Tangibles is the first area needing


improvement due to having the greatest discrepancy between expectations and perceptions


(5.485, 49275) from the respondents, and followed by Reliability (5.7525, 5.33) explained as


perceived higher than Responsiveness. Alternatively, Empathy was the most accepted by the


respondents (5.12, 4.8467) with the smallest gap.




3.6 SAMPLE SIZE AND PRECISION LEVEL


    The sample size was 106, and achieved a 95% confidence level with precision level


              n= (Z)2x (σ)2            (n) = 106 sample size

                      H2               Z = 1.96 (95 % confidence level)


                                       σ= 1.51 from our SPSS output

                                       H = half precision


    The Precision Level was 0.287, which is acceptable.




3.7 RELATIONSHIP           BETWEEN     OVERALL       SATISFACTION         LEVEL    FOR    5


    DIMENSIONS AND OVERALL SATISFACTION TOWARDS HON SUI SEN


    MEMORIAL LIBRARY


    SPSS regression analysis was run to evaluate the weighted importance of overall


satisfaction levels for each of the 5 dimensions (Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy
and Responsiveness) in comparison with perception of the overall satisfaction level.          A


stepwise regression is run to eliminate insignificant variables and to form a model.


     The overall satisfaction levels except those of Tangibles and Assurance have


significance levels higher than 5%, which indicate their insignificant influence on the level of


overall satisfaction.   A new model with an equation of overall satisfaction level towards Hon


Sui Sen Memorial Library = 1.536+0.418(Overall satisfaction level in tangibles)+


0.325*(Overall satisfaction level in assurance) explains 41.6% (adjusted R2) of the


variability in the overall satisfaction level (See Appendix, Table 4).


     The finding shows that improving on the overall satisfaction level in Tangibles and


overall satisfaction level in Assurance leads to improving the overall satisfaction level with


Hon Sui Sen Memorial Library.




3.8 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TANGIBLES VARIABLES AND OVERALL


     SATISFACTION LEVEL IN TANGIBLES


          Similarly, a stepwise regression analysis was run to evaluate the relationship


     between tangible variables including (a) Having physical facilities that are visually


     appealing, (b) Providing sufficient online catalogues and internet terminals with printers,


     (c) Being able to locate specific books on the shelves easily and d) Providing a


     conductive physical environment, and the overall satisfaction level in tangibles.
        Providing the conducive physical environment, being able to locate specific books


   on the shelves easily and having physical facilities that are visually appealing are the


   factors which have a significant influence on the overall satisfaction level in Tangibles


   while the other dimension of “providing sufficient online catalogues and internet


   terminals with printers” is insignificant due to its significance level being higher than


   5%. This is translated into an equation of Overall satisfaction level in Tangibles =


   0.7343+0.262*(Having physical facilities that are visually appealing)+0.263*(Being


   able to locate specific books on the shelves easily)+0.318*(Providing a conductive


   physical environment) This model explains 61.5% of the variability in the overall


   satisfaction level of tangibles. (See Appendix, Table 5)


        Therefore, improvements on providing the conducive physical environment, being


   able to locate specific books on the shelves easily and having physical facilities that are


   visually appealing lead to improving the overall satisfaction level in Tangibles


   simultaneously.




3.9 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ASSURANCE VARIABLES AND OVERALL


   SATISFACTION LEVEL IN ASSURANCE


        A relationship between assurance variables including (a) Having staff that are


   approachable and consistently courteous to you and (b) Having knowledgeable staff to
     answer questions and overall satisfaction level in assurance is evaluated with the SPSS


     output.


           Having knowledgeable staff to answer questions and having staff that are


     approachable and consistently courteous to you has a significant influence on the library


     user’s perceptions towards the overall satisfaction level.        The equation is Overall


     satisfaction level in assurance = 0.794+0.289*(Having staff that are approachable and


     consistently courteous to you) + 0.564*(Having knowledgeable staff to answer questions)


     This model explains 76.0% of the variability of the overall level (See Appendix, Table


     6).


           This finding implies that improving the service level of the knowledgeable,


     approachable and consistently courteous staff will also increase the overall satisfaction


     of Assurance because library users’ perception level will also increase simultaneously.




4. RECOMMENDATIONS




4.1 TANGIBLES


     In order to improve the perceived quality of the tangible elements within Hon Sui Sen


library, a number of steps will need to be implemented. With regards to the layout, the


current setup of the library gives very little indication as to where subjects are to be found.
There is no map of the library near the entrance to allow patrons to locate the materials they


need. The floor layout of the ground floor is also an inefficient use of space. Instead of taking


such a large and central amount of space, the newspaper stand could be placed towards one of


the walls. Besides location maps, the layout itself could also contribute to the ease of finding


books. There should be clearer indications as to what each row of materials contains.


Furthermore, the help desks should be consolidated to the front desk. The current setup of


one help desk at each end of the floor is not only inefficient, yet also troublesome. Labor


usage is increased, and certain materials such as maps are only available at one of the


counters, so students are told they must go to the other counter.


     As for equipment, more computers are needed ground floor, as they are generally at full


utilization, and a long wait is needed to gain access. The photocopiers should also adopt the


same pricing system, to prevent the need for students on third floor to walk all the way down


to the first floor photocopy room, despite having copiers on the third floor, merely to get a


fairer price. It is recommended the third floor is developed entirely into a study area, and


therefore consolidating the third floor books with those on the second floor.
4.2 ASSURANCE


     In order for library patrons to be assured of the competency of library staff, they must


display basic knowledge of the library they represent. Training should be held to a standard


so that any employee could give students guidance for general questions, such as to which


floor of the library subject specific books could be found. They should also keep an open and


approachable counter, instead of commonly lingering further in the back of the office.


Students should have a pleasant encounter every time the services of the staff are required,


and should leave feeling confident they have been attended to sincerely. This will only be


achieved when staff not only have the knowledge required to answer general questions, but


also have the consideration to express it with courtesy.




5. CONCLUSION




Our analyses of the service gaps at Hon Sui Sen memorial library taught us that the


dimensions Tangibles and Assurance deserve most attention when aiming to improve service


quality. The previous recommendation section outlines some ways to improve performance


on these dimensions.
APPENDIX

                                   Figure 1: Study Year


                                        Study Year


         Year 4       2.83%

         Year 3                                                      58.49%

         Year 2                               28.30%

         Year 1               10.38%
            0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00%

                                       Percentage




                                  Figure 2: Major Stream


                                       Major Stream
                          Double Major,                    Management
  Logistic and
                             5.21% Accounting, 3.13%
   Operation                                              Science, 15.63%
  Management,
    27.08%



                                                                Marketing, 27.08%
                 Fiance, 21.88%
     Figure 3: Average Hours Spend in Hon Sui Sen Memorial Library


       Average Hours Spend in Hon Sui Sen Memorial Library



                                       5 - 6 hours, 0.94%                 Less than 1 hour,
3 - 4 hours, 21.70%
                                                                               27.36%




                                1- 2 hours, 50.00%




                   Figure 4: Hon Sui Sen Memorial Library Services


                         Hon Sui Sen Memorial Librayr Service




                      Others               4.06%
Request for publications                   4.06%
                  Reference                                          17.39%
                                                       10.15%
  Services




                     Printout

             Access Internet                                 13.33%
                  Photocopy                                                           27.54%
             Loan of material                                                    23.48%
                          0.00%       5.00%     10.00%      15.00%   20.00%   25.00%      30.00%

                                                       Percentage
 Figure 5: Frequency for Using Hon Sui Sen Memorial Library Service



       Frequency for Using Hon Sui Sen Memorial Library
                            Service
                             Once in 2 month,      > Once a week,
         Once a month,
                                  4.81%               12.50%
            13.46%




Once in 2 week,
                                                                    Once a week, 41.35%
   27.88%




              Table 1. Relative Importance of Service Dimensions


                         N           Std. Deviation         Mean              Rank


    Reliability          106               9.340             21.75              3


    Assurance            106              10.990             18.78              4


     Tangibles           106              16.433             23.75              1


     Empathy             106               8.169             14.55              5


 Responsiveness          106              11.752             22.97              2
                       Figure 6: The Preference Level for Libraries

                                                       The Preference Level for Libraries
                                                                                                          68.9%
                      70%
                                                                                     53.4%
                      60%
                      50%                          33.0%
                      40%
         Percentage
                      30%             18.4%
                                                                         13.6%                                            13.2%
                      20%
                      10%
                       0%
                              Central Library of NUS                  National Library             Hon Sui Sen Memorial
                                                                                                             Library

                                                                               Library

                                       The Most Preferable                               The Least Preferable



                                         Table 2. SERVQUAL scores

  SERVICE             Expectation                            Perception                        SERVQUAL
                                                                                                                                  Rank
DIMENSION                    (E)                                    (P)                      Score (SQ = P-E)

  Reliability               5.7525                                 5.33                           -0.4225                          2

  Assurance                 5.595                                  5.24                             -0.355                         4

  Tangibles                 5.485                                4.9275                           -0.5575                          1

   Empathy                   5.12                                4.8467                           -0.2733                          5

Responsiveness              5.4525                                5.055                           -0.3975                          3

 OVERALL                    27.405                              25.3992                           -2.0058




                             Table 3: Weighted SERVQUAL scores

  SERVICE             SERVQUAL Score IMPORTANCE                                                     WEIGHTED
                                                                                                                                   RANK
 DIMENSION                  (SQ = P-E)                             WEIGHT                      SERVQUAL Score

  Reliability                -0.4225                                  21.37                                   -9.03                    2

  Assurance                   -0.355                                  18.45                                   -6.55                    4

   Tangibles                 -0.5575                                  23.33                                  -13.01                    1
   Empathy                     -0.2733                14.29                     -3.91                     5

Responsiveness                 -0.3975                22.56                     -8.97                     3

 OVERALL                       -2.0058                  100                     -41.46


                     Figure 7. Two-Dimensional Chart for SERVQUAL


                               Two-Dimensional Chart for SERVQUAL

          5.4                                        5.481           Assurance 5.595
          5.3                                                             5.24

       Perception                                       Responsiveness                     Reliability 5.7525
           5.2
                                                         5.4525 5.055                             5.33
          5.1

                     Empathy 5.12                                                                 5.08
             5
                       4.8467                                              Tangibles 5.485
          4.9                                                                  4.9275
          4.8
                 5       5.1         5.2       5.3        5.4        5.5        5.6        5.7      5.8
                                                     Expectation




Table 4: Relationship between Overall Satisfaction Level in 5 service dimensions and

        Overall Satisfaction Level towards Hon Sin Sen Memorial Library

                                             Model Sum m ary

                                                           A djusted       Std. Error of
                     Model         R         R Square      R Square        the Estimate
                     1              .585 a       .342            .335              .883
                     2              .654 b       .427            .416              .828
                       a. Predictors: (Constant), Overall s atis f action level in
                          Tangibles
                       b. Predictors: (Constant), Overall s atis f action level in
                          Tangibles , Overall satisf ac tion level in As suranc e
                                                  ANOVAc

                                 Sum of
     Model                       Squares           df           Mean Square         F           Sig.
     1         Regression          40.884                 1          40.884        52.412         .000 a
               Residual            78.785               101            .780
               Total              119.670               102
     2         Regression          51.143                 2          25.572        37.316         .000 b
               Residual            68.527               100            .685
               Total              119.670               102
         a. Predictors: (Constant), Overall s atis faction level in Tangibles
         b. Predictors: (Constant), Overall s atis faction level in Tangibles , Overall satisf ac tion
            level in As surance
         c. Dependent Variable: Overall satisf ac tion lev el f or quality of serv ic e prov ided by
            HSSM Library


                                                            a
                                                Coe fficients

                                       Unstandardiz ed            Standardized
                                        Coef f icients            Coef f icients
Model                                  B          Std. Error          Beta             t               Sig.
1          (Cons tant)                 2.526            .393                           6.426             .000
           Overall s atis f action
                                         .562            .078              .585        7.240             .000
           level in Tangibles
2          (Cons tant)                  1.536            .449                          3.423             .001
           Overall s atis f action
                                         .418            .082              .435        5.113             .000
           level in Tangibles
           Overall s atis f action
                                         .325            .084              .329        3.869             .000
           level in Ass urance
    a. Dependent Variable: Overall satisf ac tion level f or quality of serv ice provided by HSSM
       Library
                                                                   c
                                                Exclude d V ariables

                                                                                                       Collinearity
                                                                                         Partial        Statistic s
 Model                                     Beta In          t                Sig.      Correlation     Toleranc e
 1         Overall satisf ac tion level                a
                                                .238        2.949              .004             .283           .933
           in Reliability
           Overall satisf ac tion level                a
                                                .329        3.869              .000             .361           .792
           in As suranc e
           Overall satisf ac tion level                a
                                                .229        2.692              .008             .260           .849
           in Empathy
           Overall satisf ac tion level                a
                                                .263        3.217              .002             .306           .890
           in Respons iveness
 2         Overall satisf ac tion level                b
                                                .100        1.062              .291             .106           .645
           in Reliability
           Overall satisf ac tion level                b
                                                .151        1.786              .077             .177           .782
           in Empathy
           Overall satisf ac tion level                b
                                                .134        1.415              .160             .141           .627
           in Respons iveness
     a. Predictors in the Model: (Constant), Overall s atis f action level in Tangibles
     b. Predictors in the Model: (Constant), Overall s atis f action level in Tangibles, Ov erall satisf action level
        in As suranc e
     c. Dependent V ariable: Ov erall satisf action level f or quality of s ervice provided by HSSM Library



Table 5: Relationship between the elements of Tangibles and Overall Satisfaction Level


                                                  in Tangibles

                                                              d
                                                Model Sum m ary

                                                                A djusted       Std. Error of
                       Model          R          R Square       R Square        the Estimate
                       1               .692 a        .480             .474              .817
                       2               .765 b        .585             .577              .733
                       3               .792 c        .627             .615              .699
                          a. Predictors: (Constant), Providing a conducive phys ic al
                             environment
                          b. Predictors: (Constant), Providing a conducive phys ic al
                             environment, Being able to locate s pecif ic books on
                             the s helves eas ily
                          c. Predictors: (Constant), Providing a conducive phys ic al
                             environment, Being able to locate s pecif ic books on
                             the s helves eas ily, Having physical f acilities that are
                             visually appealing
                          d. Dependent V ariable: Ov erall satisf action lev el in
                             Tangibles
                                                    ANOV Ad

                                    Sum of
        Model                       Squares          df         Mean Square         F           Sig.
        1         Regression          62.169                1        62.169        93.049         .000 a
                  Residual            67.481              101          .668
                  Total              129.650              102
        2         Regression          75.879                2          37.940      70.558          .000 b
                  Residual            53.771              100            .538
                  Total              129.650              102
        3         Regression          81.233                3          27.078      55.367          .000 c
                  Residual            48.417               99            .489
                  Total              129.650              102
            a. Predictors: (Constant), Prov iding a conduciv e physical environment
            b. Predictors: (Constant), Prov iding a conduciv e physical environment, Being able to
               locate s pecif ic books on the shelv es easily
            c. Predictors: (Constant), Prov iding a conduciv e physical environment, Being able to
               locate s pecif ic books on the shelv es easily , Having phys ic al f ac ilities that are
               visually appealing
            d. Dependent Variable: Overall satisf ac tion lev el in Tangibles


                                                              a
                                                  Coe fficients

                                               Unstandardiz ed          Standardized
                                                 Coef f icients         Coef f icients
Model                                           B         Std. Error        Beta             t              Sig.
1           (Cons tant)                         1.553           .360                         4.308            .000
            Providing a conducive
                                                 .654           .068             .692        9.646            .000
            phys ical environment
2           (Cons tant)                        1.053            .338                         3.113            .002
            Providing a conducive
                                                 .440           .074             .466        5.940            .000
            phys ical environment
            Being able to locate
            spec if ic books on the              .339           .067             .396        5.050            .000
            shelves eas ily
3           (Cons tant)                          .734           .337                         2.182            .032
            Providing a conducive
                                                 .318           .080             .337        3.989            .000
            phys ical environment
            Being able to locate
            spec if ic books on the              .263           .068             .307        3.862            .000
            shelves eas ily
            Having phys ic al f ac ilities
                                                 .262           .079             .281        3.309            .001
            that are v isually appealing
    a. Dependent V ariable: Overall satisf ac tion lev el in Tangibles
                                                                     d
                                                  Exclude d V ariables

                                                                                                          Collinearity
                                                                                           Partial         Statistic s
  Model                                       Beta In           t            Sig.        Correlation      Toleranc e
  1          Having phys ic al f acilities                a
                                                   .392         4.596          .000              .418              .590
             that are v isually appealing
             Providing suf ficient online                 a
             catalogues and internet               .211         2.685          .008              .259              .784
             terminals w ith printers
             Being able to locate                         a
             spec if ic books on the               .396         5.050          .000              .451              .674
             shelves eas ily
  2          Having phys ic al f acilities                b
                                                   .281         3.309          .001              .316              .522
             that are v isually appealing
             Providing suf ficient online                 b
             catalogues and internet               .092         1.185          .239              .118              .684
             terminals w ith printers
  3          Providing suf ficient online                 c
             catalogues and internet               .049             .647       .519              .065              .662
             terminals w ith printers
      a. Predictors in the Model: (Constant), Prov iding a conduciv e physical environment
      b. Predictors in the Model: (Constant), Prov iding a conduciv e physical environment, Being able to
         locate s pecif ic books on the shelves eas ily
      c. Predictors in the Model: (Constant), Prov iding a conduciv e physical environment, Being able to
         locate s pecif ic books on the shelves eas ily , Hav ing phy sical f acilities that are v is ually appealing
      d. Dependent V ariable: Ov erall satisf action lev el in Tangibles


Table 6: Relationship between the elements of Assurance and Overall Satisfaction Level


                                                   in Assurance


                                                  Model Sum m ary

                                                                Adjusted       Std. Error of
                         Model          R         R Square      R Square       the Estimate
                         1               .843 a       .710           .707              .590
                         2               .874 b       .765           .760              .534
                            a. Predictors: (Constant), Having know ledgeable staf f to
                               answ er questions
                            b. Predictors: (Constant), Having know ledgeable staf f to
                               answ er questions, Having staff that are approac hable
                               and consistently courteous to you
                                                         ANOV Ac

                                   Sum of
        Model                      Squares               df            Mean Square           F          Sig.
        1         Regression         87.714                        1        87.714         252.028        .000 a
                  Residual           35.848                      103          .348
                  Total             123.562                      104
        2         Regression         94.482                        2          47.241       165.700            .000 b
                  Residual           29.080                      102            .285
                  Total             123.562                      104
            a. Predictors: (Constant), Having know ledgeable staf f to answ er questions
            b. Predictors: (Constant), Having know ledgeable staf f to answ er questions , Having
               staf f that are approachable and consistently courteous to you
            c. Dependent Variable: Overall satisf ac tion lev el in As suranc e


                                                                   a
                                                       Coe fficients

                                                  Unstandardiz ed                Standardized
                                                    Coef f icients               Coef f icients
Model                                              B         Std. Error              Beta             t                Sig.
1           (Cons tant)                            1.358           .252                               5.395              .000
            Having know ledgeable
                                                      .749             .047               .843       15.875              .000
            staf f to answ er ques tions
2           (Cons tant)                               .794             .256                           3.105              .002
            Having know ledgeable
                                                      .564             .057               .634        9.852              .000
            staf f to answ er ques tions
            Having s taf f that are
            approachable and
                                                      .289             .059               .314        4.872              .000
            cons istently courteous to
            you
    a. Dependent V ariable: Overall satisf ac tion lev el in A ssuranc e


                                                              b
                                            Exclude d Variables

                                                                                                      Collinearity
                                                                                         Partial       Statistic s
Model                               Beta In                  t            Sig.         Correlation    Toleranc e
1           Having s taf f that
            are approac hable                     a
                                           .314              4.872            .000            .434               .557
            and consistently
            courteous to you
    a. Predictors in the Model: (Constant), Having know ledgeable staf f to answ er questions
    b. Dependent Variable: Ov erall satisf ac tion lev el in Assuranc e

				
DOCUMENT INFO