AP Government Court Cases

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					AP Government Court Cases
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Alden v. Maine
• 1999
• sovereign immunity - to shield states in large
  part from being sued under federal law.
Arizona v. Fulimante
• 1991
• Due process case, coerced confession does not
  automatically taint trial.
Baker v. Carr
• 1962
• Constitutional challenges to the unequal
  distribution of voters among legislative districts
  could be resolved by federal courts.
Bethel School District v. Frazier
• 1989
• Schools are zones of restriction for certain right.
  Adults receive more of their rights (Such as 1st
  amendment rights) in other stating. Schools may
  restrict rights such as freedom of speech, etc.
Boy Scouts of America v. Dale
• 2000
• The boy scouts were allowed to dismiss a leader
  after learning that he was gay, holding that
  freedom of association outweighed the New
  Jersey anti-discrimination statute.
Brandenburg v. Ohio

• Extended the scope of political speech - allows
  virtually all political speech, unless it is
  demonstrably linked to immediate lawless
• 1969
Branzburg v. Hayes

• Requiring newsman to appear and testify before
  the state or federal grand juries does not abridge
  the freedom of speech and press guaranteed by
  the First Amendment.
• 1972
Duncan v. Louisiana
• States must guarantee the defendant's 6th
  amendment right to a jury trial in criminal cases.
• 1968
Robinson v. California
• State governments cannot use cruel and unusual
  punishments in violation of the 8th amendment.
• 1962
Washington v. Texas
• Defendants in state courts have the 6th
  Amendment right to subpoena witnesses to
  testify in their favor.
• 1967
Klopfer v. North Carolina

• Defendants in state courts have the 6th
  Amendment right to a speedy trial.
• 1967
Parker v. Gladden

• Defendants in state courts have the 6th
  Amendment right to an impartial jury.
• 1966
Pointer v. Texas

• States must observe the 6th Amendment right of
  defendants to confront witnesses against them
• 1965
In re Oliver
• Requires the states to have public trials. This 6th
  amendment requirement was imposed on the
  states through the 14th amendment.
• 1948
Benton v. Maryland
• State law enforcers cannot subject a person to
  double jeopardy; cannot deprive individuals of
  their 5th amendment right to be tried twice for
  the same crime
• 1969
Malloy v. Hogan

• Defendants in court have the 5th amendment
  right of protection against self-incrimination.
• 1964
Chicago B&Q Railroad v. Chicago

• State and local governments are required to pay
  just compensation when taking private property
  for public use.
• 1897
Wolf v. Colorado

• Incorporated the 4th amendment. The court
  ruled that individuals must be secure in their
  homes and businesses against unreasonable
  invasions of their privacy.
• 1949
Cantwell v. Connecticut

• Incorporated the free exercise of the first
  amendment. The court allows religions to
  peacefully distribute religious information to
  people in their neighborhoods with the aim of
  winning converts.
• 1940
DeJonge v. Oregon
• Incorporated the right to assembly. The
  government cannot make it a crime for a
  member of a radical group to merely to conduct
  and participate in a public meeting.
• 1937
Wong Kim Ark v. Arkansas
• Anybody born in the United States regardless of
  ancestry, has the rights of a U.S. citizen.
• 1898
Wilkins v. Missouri

• The imposition of the death penalty on minors of
  age 16 and 17 is not cruel and unusual
  punishment and therefore does not violate the
  juveniles constitutional rights.
• 1989
West Virginia Board of Education v.
• The court declared that a West Virginia law
  requiring students to salute the American flag
  was unconstitutional.
• 1943
Webster v. Reproductive Health
• All regulations on abortion rights during the
  fourth through sixth months of pregnancy must
  be related to protecting the health of the mother.
  The physician must determine before
  performing the abortion if older than 20 wks if
  the child could survive.
• 1989
Wallace v. Jaffree
• A moment of silence cannot be practiced if it
  holds religious purposes and intentions. The
  case did not address the question of moments of
  silence without specific provision for prayer was
  not addressed.
• 1985
Vernonia School District v. Acton
• Random drug testing of high school athletes
  does not violated the 4th amendment. High
  school students are subject to fewer rights and
  the safety that is in mind of the school officials
  overrides any intrusion of rights.
• 1995
U.S. Term Limits v. Thornton
• The court ruled that neither states nor congress
  could limit terms of members of congress, since
  the constitution reserves to the people the right
  to choose federal lawmakers.
• 1995
United States v. O'Brien

• The court upheld the law prohibiting the
  burning of draft cards, ruling that it was not
  "symbolic speech".
• 1968
United States v. Nixon
• Ruled that neither separation of powers, nor the
  need to preserved the confidentiality of
  presidential communications alone could justify
  an absolute executive privilege of immunity from
  judicial demands for evidence to be used in a
  criminal trial.
• 1974
United States v. Lopez

• Federal government may not regulated the
  possession of guns in school zones. That is a
  decision left to each state.
• 1995
Tinker v. Des Moines School District

• Students may wear armbands as a form of
  protest. It is a form of speech protected under
  the first amendment.
• 1969

• On the HSA
Texas v. Johnson

• Flag burning is protected under the first
  amendment as a form of symbolic speech.
• 1989
Brown v. Board of Education

• Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson. Forced the
  Integration of public schools. Focused on the
  integration of public schools. Used in 1955 to
  speed the process of integration.
• 1954 (1955)

• On the HSA
Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board
of Education
• Upheld the Brown v. Board of Education. Stated
  that busing could be used to correct racial
• 1971
Koretmatsu v. United States

• Case involving Japanese internment camps
  during WWII. The decision said that needs for
  national security during a crisis justified the
  internment camps. The court did not deal with
  the touchy issue of discrimination but rather the
  national crisis of war.
• 1944
Shelley v. Kraemer

• State courts could not violate the sale of real
  property based on race. A racially restrictive
  covenant standing alone violates no rights, but
  once enforced by the states, the 14th amendment
  is violated.
• 1948
Scott v. Sanford

• Nullified the Missouri Compromise, further
  tension between north and south. Slaves were
  not citizens but property, did not have
  constitutional protection, were not free just
  because they traveled to a free state or territory.
• 1857
Schenck v. United States

• Sustained the Espionage Act of 1917 by
  maintaining that freedom of speech and of the
  press could be constrained under "Clear and
  Present Danger".
• 1919
Parker v. Gladden

• Defendants in state courts have the 6th
  Amendment right to an impartial jury.
• 1966
Roe v. Wade

• A "fetus" is not a person with constitutional
  rights therefore protecting a woman's right to
  have an abortion.
• 1973
Richmond Newspapers Inc. v. Virginia

• Courts may not close trials to the public. Closing
  such trials violates the freedom to assemble and
  the freedom of speech (which was expanded to
  listening and taking in ideas)
• 1980
Reno v. ACLU

• It is not a crime to display "indecent" or
  "patently offensive" material on the internet.
• 1997
Printz v. United States
• Congress cannot force chief law enforcement
  officers to perform background checks on those
  purchasing handguns. That right is not part of
  the elastic clause.
• 1997
Plessy v. Ferguson
• Separate but equal facilities for blacks and
• 1896

• On the HSA
New York Times v. United States
• The government may not restrict the press from
  publishing what is labeled as "classified
  information" if the materials will not cause an
  inevitable, direct, and immediate event
  imperiling the safety of American forces.
• 1971
New York Times v. Sullivan

• First amendment protected the press from libel
  suits unless it could be proved that the press
  report was made out of malice.
• 1964
Near v. Minnesota

• Case centered on censorship - government
  cannot censor something (newspapers) because
  that restricts freedom of the press. Main issue
  was government officials were being criticized
  and wanted to censor the criticism.
• 1931
Miranda v. Arizona

• Guarantees due process. Must read one's rights
  while in custody before questioning. Inform that
  they have the right to remain silent, that
  anything they say can and will be used against
  them, and the right to counsel.
• 1966

• On the HSA
Miller v. Johnson

• Racial gerrymandering of congressional districts
  violates the Equal protection clause.
• 1995
Miller v. California

• Freedom of speech is not extended to obscene
  materials. This case defined obscenity.
• 1972
McCulloch v. Maryland

• Elastic Clause of the Constitution - Congress had
  the power to create a national bank. "Necessary
  and Proper“
• 1819

• On the HSA
Reynolds v. Sims

• Forced states to reapportion their congressional
  districts because the populations were not equal.
  This unequal distribution violated the 14th
  amendment because the states were infringing
  on the equal protection because of unequal
• 1964
Marbury v. Madison
• Court established Judicial Review. One of the
  checks on Congress.
• 1803

• On the HSA
Mapp v. Ohio

• Exclusionary Rule - Evidence obtained in
  violation of the 4th amendment or other
  amendments may not be used in court.
• 1961
Lemon v. Kurtzman

• This case attempted to clarify the meaning of
  separation of church and state. The court
  established the Lemon test which has three
• 1971
Katz v. United States

• Expanded the scope of the 4th amendment
  rights to include protection against certain kinds
  of electronic invasions of an individual's privacy.
  Since this case, the 4th amendment has been a
  means to protect individual privacy in places
  open to the public.
• 1967
Gideon v. Wainwright
• Federal defendants must be provided with an
  attorney at the states expense if one the
  defendant cannot afford it.
• 1963

• On the HSA
In re Gault

• Minors still have the right to counsel, to be
  informed of charges, etc. (5th and 6th
  Amendment rights) because the rights are vital
  to a fair trial.
• 1967
Hurley v. Irish American Gays

• Private organizations cannot be forced to
  incorporate gay, lesbian, and bisexual
  individuals into their events because it violates
  the private organizations freedom of speech. The
  private organization has the right to decide what
  message they want to send.
• 1995
Hodgson v. Minnesota

• Parental notification of both parents before
  issuing an abortion to a minor is
  unconstitutional. The court favored notification
  of 1 parent and a 48 hour waiting period. It also
  upheld that the parent notification could be
  waived in certain circumstances
• 1990
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States
• Defined hotels, restaurants, etc, as interstate
  commerce because they serve interstate
  travelers, and are therefore required to follow
  federal law on interstate commerce. The hotel
  was no longer allowed to discriminate on the
  basis of race.
• 1964
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier

• The first amendment rights for students are not
  automatically co-extensive with the rights of
  adults in all settings. Censorship of school
  newspapers is allowed.
• 1988
Griswold v. Connecticut

• The Court ruled that a state unconstitutionally
  interfered with personal privacy in the marriage
  relationship when it prohibited anyone,
  including married couples, from using
• 1965
Gitlow v. New York

• Extended the 14th amendment to the States. The
  states are not allowed to violate the rights
  specified in the 14th amendment and extended
  the Bill of Rights.
• “Incorporation Doctrine”
• 1925
Gibbons v. Ogden

• Allowed congress to have wider power over
  interstate commerce. The opinion of the court
  stated that commerce includes all kinds of
  business and trade between nations and the
• 1824
Furman v. Georgia

• Said that the death penalty was cruel and
  unusual punishment.
• 1972
Escobedo v. Illinois

• If the Miranda right is not ready to a person or
  persons being taken into custody, then due
  process is violated. In this case a man was not
  informed of his right to remain silent before
  being questioned by the police and was denied
  the right to counsel.
• 1964
Engel v. Vitale

• Declared school prayer unconstitutional
• 1962
Dolan v. City of Tigard

• A city cannot require and individual to give up
  part of their property to obtain a permit. In
  order to have it be a requirement, the purpose of
  the taking shall be explained and shall be
• 1994
Dickerson v. United States
• The Miranda governs the admissibility of
  statements made during custodial interrogation
  in both state and federal courts.
• 2000
Dennis v. United States (Dennis et al v.
• Upheld convictions under the Smith Act of 1940
  invoking communist theory that advocated the
  forcible overthrow of government.
• 1951
County of Alleghany v. American Civil
Liberties Union
• An exclusively religious exhibit, (a Jewish
  menorah and a crèche) could not be displayed in
  a government building because that kind of
  exhibit violated the establishment clause
• 1989
Clinton v. Jones

• The president does not have temporary
  immunity from a lawsuit for actions outside the
  realm of official duties.
• 1997
Clinton v. the City of New York

• Struck down the line-item veto. The line-item
  veto unconstitutionally gave the president "the
  unilateral power to change the text of duly
  enacted statutes.“
• 1998
California v. Greenwood

• The police may search through garbage bags and
  other trash containers that people leave outside
  their houses in order to obtain evidence of
  criminal activity. This evidence may
  subsequently be used as the basis for obtaining a
  search warrant.
• 1988
Bush v. Gore
• The manual recounts of votes in November 2000
  could not proceed because inconsistent
  evaluation standards in the counties violated the
  equal protection clause.
• 2000
California Board of Regents v. Bakke

• Race can be used as a complex factor when
  determining admission. The case did strike
  down that refusal because saving spaces for
  minorities violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
• 1978
Buckley v. Valeo

• Restrictions on individual contributions to
  political campaigns and candidates does not
  violate the 1st Amendment. Governmental
  restriction of expenditures from personal
  resources and the overall limitation were
• 1976
Katz v. United States

• Expanded the scope of the 4th amendment
  rights to include protection against certain kinds
  of electronic invasions of an individual's privacy.
  Since this case, the 4th amendment has been a
  means to protect individual privacy in places
  open to the public.
• 1967