Anaesthetics and Antiseptics

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					Anaesthetics and Antiseptics
              • What, who, when?
              • What was medicine
                like before these
              • What was medicine
                like after these
          What, who, when?
• Anaesthetics – used to knock out the patient
  and prevent them from feeling pain. James
  Simpson used CHLOROFORM
  successfully for the first time in 1847.
• Antiseptics – used to kill germs and stop
  them from infecting wounds after
  operations. Joseph Lister used CARBOLIC
  ACID in 1867 in the form of a spray.
 What was medicine like before?

Anaesthetics                             Antiseptics
  Operations were carried out very         Even if patients survived an
  quickly to reduce the pain               operation they would usually die
                                           from infection – the death rate from
  Patients were held down to reduce        leg amputations was nearly 50%
  the amount of movement they              Germs would enter the would and
  made.                                    cause SEPTICAEMIA or blood
  Surgeons such as Liston could            poisoning
  remove a leg in minutes                  Surgeons reused bandages and did
  Humphrey Davy used LAUGHING              not wash their hands or sterilise
  GAS to reduce pain in 1799               their instruments
                                           Semmelweiss, a Hungarian doctor
  ETHER was also used to knock out
                                           was the first doctor to recommend
  patients but it had serious problems     better hygiene for doctors in the
   What was medicine like after?
Anaesthetics                                Antiseptics
  The first reaction was negative –           To start with many surgeons did not
  doctors were unsure about the long term     like Lister’s methods – the carbolic
  effects of chloroform                       spray was messy and got in the way
  The death of Hannah Greener in 1848         Surgeons were still convinced that they
  from too much chloroform scared             needed to do quick operations and
  surgeons                                    Lister’s methods slowed them down
  Anaesthetics did not make surgery safer     Many surgeons simply did not believe
  – in fact the death rate got HIGHER as      the results and it was too soon for
  a result of the more complex operations     Pasteur’s germ theory to have spread
  that doctors started doing                  However the death rate from operations
  However after Queen Victoria used           dropped dramatically and by the late
  chloroform during the delivery of her       1890s ASEPTIC surgery was being
  child in 1857 it became standard            used to ensure absolute cleanliness
  surgical practice