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					Alameda Naval Air Museum presents…

Things that Fly
>> There are many different kinds of things that can fly!

Let's have a look at some of them to see how they are different and what they all have in common.

                When a bird flaps its wings,                       The bee flaps its tiny wings so fast,
                air is pushed downwards and                        all you can hear is a buzzing sound.
                “lifts” the bird into the air.                                 Bzzzzzzzz!!

        A simple kite is just one big wing and needs               The airplane has wings and an engine
            lots of wind to keep it up in the sky!               that moves it very fast through the air.

>> How are these different?

Insects and Birds fly all by themselves, but Kites and Airplanes need someone to control them.

>> But what do all of these have in common?                           WINGS!

Wings must be a really important part of being able to fly, so let's have a closer look at how these work…
Wings at Work
>> Looking at the wing of an airplane, we can see that it has a special shape.

                                                                  The front edge is thick and round.
                                                                  The back edge is thin.

                                                                  This shape is called an “airfoil”.

      When lots of air is moving over and under the             As the air over the wing speeds up,
       wing, the thicker front edge forces the air    it pushes on the wing less than the air below the wing.
                over the wing to speed up.

                                                             So it’s the "pushier" air below the wing
                                                               that lifts the airplane into the air.

                                   Wing Shape + Air + Speed = Flight !!!

>> What are some of the other parts of an airplane and what do they do?
Airplane Parts
>> There are lots and lots of different parts! Each one has a special job to do…

     Engine         The engine provides the power that moves the airplane through the air.

     Propeller      The propeller is a rotating blade attached to the engine.
                    The engine turns the propeller, which pulls the airplane through the air.

     Fuselage       The fuselage is the middle part of the airplane.
                    The wings, engine, tail, and landing gear are all attached to the fuselage.

     Flaps          The flaps are moving parts attached to the inside rear edge of each wing.
                    They help the airplane to take-off and land by changing the shape of the wing.

     Cockpit        The cockpit is inside the fuselage and is where the Pilot sits.
                    It contains all the instruments and controls that the Pilot uses to control the airplane.

     Landing Gear   The wheels and the parts that attach the wheels to the fuselage make up the landing
                    gear. The landing gear supports the airplane while it’s on the ground and is used to
                    takeoff and land.

>> There are different types of engines, how do they work to power the airplane?
Engine Power
The engine provides the power that moves the airplane through the air.

>> There are two types of engines, each with a different way of providing that power

             Radial Engine and Propeller                                            Jet Engine

This engine turns a propeller which is shaped like a wing.   This engine has a fan inside that takes air in the front,
The wing shape plus the speed that it’s turned by the        which is squeezed in the middle, then mixed with fuel to
engine, pulls the airplane forward.                          burn, and pushed out the back, just like a rocket!

Our airplane is off the ground and flying, but we don’t just want to keep flying in a straight line!

>> So how does the Pilot make the airplane go where we want it to go?
 Airplane Controls
>> Let’s look at the parts used by the Pilot to control the airplane …

      Ailerons       These are moving parts attached to the outside rear edge of each wing.
                     When moved, they make the airplane tilt and roll to the right or left.

      Elevators      This is a moving part attached to the vertical section of the tail.
                     When moved, it makes the airplane turn to the left or to the right.

      Rudder         These are moving parts attached to the horizontal section on each side of the tail.
                     When moved, they make the airplane go up (climb) or go down (descend).
Where do Airplanes take-off and land?
>> Airport

Just like the school bus has stops to pickup and drop off passengers, so does an airplane -- these are called
airports. An airport can be small with only a few private airplanes, or very large such as San Francisco
International Airport which serves thousands of people every day from all over the United States and the World.

Because there are many airplanes flying at the same time, Pilots must follow flying rules in the sky, just like a car
driver follows the rules of the road. People at the airport, called Air Traffic Controllers, tell the Pilot where to go
when their airplane enters or leaves from a busy airport.

                                                                 Air Traffic
What you don’t have an Airport?
>> Aircraft Carrier

The Oceans are a wide open space with no place to put an airport -- so the Aircraft Carrier was invented as a
“floating airport” and holds everything and everyone needed to fly and fix the airplanes. Because the runway is so
much shorter than an airport runway, airplanes need special equipment to help them take-off and land.

On take-off…                                                                                On landing…

A steam powered                                                                             The Pilot slows the
catapult pulls the                                                                          airplane down and
airplane very fast --                                                                       lowers the “tailhook”
and along with the full                                                                     that is used to catch
power of the engine,                                                                        one of the wires
launches the airplane                                                                       stretched across the
into the air.                                                                               deck. If the Pilot does
                                                                                            not catch the wire he
                                                                                            must speed up and
                                                                                            take-off again, or in an
                                                                                            emergency, the
                                                                                            airplane can be trapped
                                                                                            in a very strong net
                                                                                            stretched across the

Did you know that the first take-off and landing on a ship was done right here in San Francisco Bay? A pilot named
Eugene Ely, flying a Curtis Pusher airplane, made a landing and take-off from the U.S.S. Pennsylvania in 1911. This
marked the beginning of carrier aviation.
What you don’t have an Airport or Aircraft Carrier?
>> Seaplane

Another type of airplane can even take-off and land on the water -- these are called Seaplanes or Floatplanes.

                                                  PBY-5A Catalina

Back in the 1930’s, seaplanes called “China Clippers” flew from right here in Alameda all the way to Hawaii and
China. Our Alameda Naval Air Museum building was the airport for these China Clippers and other seaplanes!

                                             Boeing 314 “China Clipper”
>> Help the Pilot find his Airplane!
>> Find these hidden words

              AILERON             AIRPLANE          COCKPIT
              ELEVATOR            ENGINE            FLAPS
              FUSELAGE            JET               PILOT
              PROPELLER           RUDDER            WING

                  N O R E L I           A N U F T E

                  S P        A L F W I       N G U I        N

                  E Q J E T W U A P                S P      A

                  R E        D D U R    O I      E E K L

                  R E        L L E P    O R P      L C P

                  E N I G N E           E S H A O R

                  D A H T O L           I    P   N G C I

                  E L        E V A T    O R R E V A

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