NORTHWESTERN OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY Alva - Enid - Woodward BENEFIT PACKAGE OVERVIEW INSURANCE (For more information, go to: http://www.nwosu.edu/Payroll/Insurance.html) Comprehensive Medical Benefits (Blue Cross Blue Shield of Oklahoma – “BCBSOK”) Employee coverage paid by NWOSU. Dependent coverage optional - paid by employee. Vision Insurance (Vision Service Plan – “VSP”) Employee coverage paid by NWOSU. Dependent coverage optional - paid by employee. Group Term Life Insurance (Standard Life Insurance Co.) Employee coverage paid by NWOSU. Voluntary (additional) coverage optional - paid by employee. Dependent coverage optional - paid by employee. Long Term Disability – “LTD” – (Standard Life Insurance Co.) Basic coverage paid by NWOSU after waiting period of 6 full months of full-time employment. Enhanced benefit optional - additional premium paid by employee (“Buy-Down”) Dental Insurance (BCBSOK) Employee and family coverage optional – both paid by employee. Cancer Insurance (Individual policy sold by American Fidelity Assurance – AFA – during Option Period only – each October) Employee and family coverage optional - paid by employee. Short-term Disability Insurance (Individual policy sold by AFA during Option Period only – each October) Employee coverage optional – paid by employee. RETIREMENT (For more information, go to: http://www.nwosu.edu/Payroll/Retire.html) OASDI Social Security 6.2% of first $106,800 in 2010 taxable wages paid by employee, matched by NWOSU. Medicare Tax 1.45% of total 2010 taxable wages paid by employee, matched by the NWOSU. Oklahoma Teachers Retirement Vested after 5 years Oklahoma Service in OTR school(s). Each fiscal year (July – June), Northwestern contributes 7.53% of OTR “contributable salary,” which includes cost of employer-paid benefits, such as medical, vision, life, LTD and OTR remittances. The employee is no longer responsible for contributing to the System, as of 7-1-09. 403b Tax Deferred Annuity Optional salary reduction paid by employee; defers federal and state taxes. OTHER BENEFITS (General information site: http://www.nwosu.edu/Payroll/Regular.html) Generous Leave Package Library Privileges Several Paid Holidays Tuition Assistance for Employee, Family Free Parking Free Employee, Family Membership Wellness Center Free Employee, Family Admission to Sporting/Other Events Rev ( 01-10 ) .......... 15 188.8.131.52 Retrieving I-Bit Components ....................................................................... 16 184.108.40.206 Deleting I-Bits .............................................................................................. 17 220.127.116.11 Changing I-Bits ............................................................................................ 17 3.4.2 Do-Restrictgraph .............................................................................................. 18 3.5 I-Management .......................................................................................................... 22 3.6 I-Reach ..................................................................................................................... 23 4 Usage examples ................................................................................................................ 24 5 Bringing it all together ..................................................................................................... 24 Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 3 1 Background Mobile phones get smarter and more powerful for each product generation. New applications give the owner/user new possibilities to act alone, in connection with other mobile phones, in connection to downloadable resources (music, e-books, photos, videos, text, …..). Furthermore, Internet connection opens up a new wealth of possibilities. The distinction between a mobile phone, a PDA and a laptop is no longer clearly visible. And why should it? Broad user groups – especially young people – are becoming masters of their equipment. The capability to approach and easily get the most of new applications is astonishing. Popular applications spread among the user community at unimaginable speeds. Along comes an increasing user demand for new and more intelligent applications, applications that mostly give a well defined service such as e-mail, SMS, games. Adding camera capabilities opens up new media to the user to manage within the services at hand. Sometimes new applications are technology driven, in other cases operator driven. New applications also spring up form new user behaviour and demands that are almost impossible to predict and plan for. Also, in Japan the mobile phone is to a smaller extent used for talking. Increasingly the focus has changed towards other types of communication and/or use of applications embedded in the private phone. The future is for those open minded. We believe the ever increasing power of the technology in combination with the widespread usage skills in broad user communities open up for more advanced services and applications having the capacity to bring the users new levels of support both for pleasure and at work. The following sections of this report present and argue for a new type of service to be used by a wide spectrum of technologies from the smallest mobile phone to the most advanced server. The type of service opens up a whole new application arena. To some extent it represents a fully new architecture. 2 Information management Today, most applications in a mobile phone deal with unstructured information. E-mail messages, text, photos, voice are examples of the kind. Connecting to Internet opens the door to all information available there. For the most part unstructured information, e.g. Google. Structured information is also available for retrieval. However, this information is delivered to the mobile phone as a chunk with the structure hidden and unable to process. The phone is often also capable of interacting with the servers using WML but only for predefined purposes. An encapsulated phone book, the list of received messages, and the like are examples of structured information to be managed by the use of predefined applications working with predefined data structures. The data structures are for the most part (always?) hidden behind the application interfaces. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 4 Now to the next level. Why not open up structured information for any type of purpose? The number of application areas are almost endless. The symbol in figure 1 is in the following used to indicate any type of structured information. Figure 1 Why not allow users and user groups to define their own sets of information (figure 2)? Figure 2 Or, if there is structured information of common interest, why not allow that information to be shared, either by sending and receiving (figure 3 a) or by pure sharing (figure 3 b). Figure 3 a Figure 3 b Obviously, any type of equipment might participate in this information cyberspace (figure 4). Figure 4 Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 5 Endless possibilities for information management, sharing and exchange! Creativity at the forefront! Millions of skilled users get the same possibility to create new information sets that can be managed privately in the phone or shared with others. The whole idea behind the proposal in this paper is to reach a broad community with something easy, yet powerful to work with. Every success so far for the Internet has been in that realm, i.e. simple, useful, open, challenging, and unlimited. Just think of HTML. Is there a need for this new type of service? No doubt. A separate paper “Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level – Usage Examples” gives examples of some possible user application areas. Isn‟t this service just a sort of database management system, something that has been around for decades? No, the only similarity is in the focus which in both cases is on information management. But that is all. The proposal approaches information management in a unique way that makes it an excellent solution for the intended purposes, something ordinary database approaches cannot do. In fact, the concept “database” is not used at all. For an information management solution to be attractive on a broad scale it has to be extremely simple to understand and use, yet powerful in its capabilities. It has to be adapted to the web and the way the web is being used. The similarity with LEGO and its capacity to build larger creations from smaller pieces is striking, here applied to the information arena. The next chapter gives an overview of the features. But first a couple of more questions. Is a mobile phone the right technology for this type of application? Mobile phone users are normally also users of computers these days aiming at applications that are transparent to the medium currently in use. To allow information work on the phone to look similar to the work on a computer monitor is therefore no obstacle. The opposite. No matter where you act, things look the same and the actions are done the same way. The only difference is the size of the screen. This difference can be almost neutralized by allowing zooming capacities and other mechanisms. Just look at GPS Monitors that usually have small screens but still are capable of managing large marine charts through smart zooming capabilities. Isn‟t this just some whim, something new and unproven? The basic features are based on research and development performed during the last three decades. A number of applications have been developed. Standards organizations like World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) are working in similar directions. The really new is the introduction of these features on new types of equipment for new types of applications. The proposed technology is in fact representing a whole new mindset. Time for the era of “infonetting” and “infoweaving”! Time for information capture, retrieval and management in the hands of a global, broad community! Let‟s see what the service is all about. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 6 3 The platform 3.1 Introduction Let‟s call the platform for „I-Work‟. In the following features in the platform will be named with prefixes as „I-„, and „Do-„. The intention is just to indicate – without much thought - that we deal with information and features intended for a broad user community. A way to package and popularize features to reach out. There are certainly much better ways in the hand of marketing professionals. Anyway, here we go. This report only covers the basic facilities of I-Work to give an overview and initial flavour of its capacities. The complete framework is discussed in a separate report “…..”. I-Work sits embedded on each mobile phone and any other type of equipment intended for information management the way proposed below. I-Work is not at be classified as an application per se but rather as a platform for working with information of any kind. Interfaces have to be adapted to each type of equipment but the main features will act and look the same. Operators may well add features based on and using the I-Work capacities to form certain profiled applications. I-Work is based on an extremely simple but well proven data structuring approach called the binary approach. Binary modelling is by no means something new. It has been around and used for information management for decades for simple as well as very advanced database applications. Extensive experience has been collected during this time. The simplicity of binary modelling is most attractive for the intended users. No prior knowledge is necessary. Furthermore, no technology dependences exist. It is all about forming and expressing messages and statements almost we do in everyday life. The rules and syntax are limited to the least possible and can be learnt within minutes. Still, this simplicity gives surprisingly impressive expressive power that inspires to endless usages. Beginners get a fast start, the more experienced are stimulated to create ever more advanced usages. What is completely new however, is using this binary approach in the way proposed, using mobile phones, for new application areas, aimed at new user communities. 3.2 I-Modelling 3.2.1 An initial example Suppose there is an interest in remembering or sharing some information about something real or imaginary for some purpose. The basic construct for expressing facts or opinions about anything is a statement in which two entities are related by a binary relationship. “Smith lives in Idaho” is an example of a basic statement. For the rest of this paper we call such a statement an I-Bit – just to popularize the idea (cf. Lego). „Smith‟ and „Idaho‟ are the entities (often referred to as the subject entity and object entity). „Lives in‟ is the relationship (often referred to as the predicate). A typical graphical notation is shown in figure 5. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 7 Smith lives in Idaho Figure 5 When we talk about or exchange information about some subject we usually need a number of I-Bits to express all we want. These I-Bits are related in different ways as they are all about the same area of interest. Figure 6 shows an example. Idaho Snowboarding lives in likes 111-22-3333 has ssno likes Sailing Smith works for Builders is member of Association Solid has Construction Inc location in Smalltown Nevada works for 222-33-4444 lives in Opera likes has ssno Jones likes Travel Oregon lives in works for Clark has board member has ssno has board Fast has Middletown 222-33-4444 member Painters Inc location in Figure 6 This is as easy to read and understand as the same thing in ordinary text format. Probably much easier and – not the least – with more precise semantics. And no prior knowledge is needed. 3.2.2 Another way to represent information An alternative way of expressing the same thing is by distinguishing between concepts and terms/symbols. Concepts are represented by an internally generated symbol with no meaning other as a common point of reference. Relationships are given more neutral names just to show another way of expressing I-Bits. See figure 7. Both alternatives are perfectly correct. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 8 Smith Idaho last name state Snowboarding 111-22-3333 interest ssno <id> interest Sailing Solid Construction Inc employer Builders association Association company name <id> location Smalltown Nevada employer Opera 222-33-4444 state interest ssno Travel interest <id> last name Oregon Jones state board <id> employer member last name board location Middletown Clark ssno member <id> company name 222-33-4444 Fast Painters Inc Figure 7 3.2.3 I-Bags In most real cases the number of I-Bits may be thousands or millions. For reasons, that will soon be explained, this set of statements is called an I-Bag rather than a database, indicating that the I-Bits are to be seen and managed as a unit, the unit symbolized as a bag. I-Bags like the one shown in figure 6 are called explicit I-Bags while the I-Bags expressed as in figure 7 are called implicit I-Bags. Which type to use is a matter of preference. Both have their advantages and disadvantages (discussed elsewhere). For I-Bags with limited number of I-Bits as well as most I-Bags for personal use, probably an explicit I-Bag is the common choice while more structure complex, large I-Bags to be interchanged within some community are expressed as implicit I-Bags. In fact, a mix of the two is sometimes preferable and fully acceptable. In the following, figure 8 will be used to symbolize an I-Bag, no matter the type. Cf. figure 1 above. Figure 8 Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 9 3.2.4 Another example: Movie star information Let‟s add another application, perhaps more aimed towards young people: A teenager A wants to manage information about favourite movie stars. The teenager enters and manages the information of interest into an I-Bag in the mobile phone (usually during subway travelling?). An extract of the information is shown in figure 9. Wellington, NZ Australia born in lives in Russell Crowe acts in acts in Gladiator Cinderella man premiere acts in directed by Renée Zellweger 2000 born in premiere lives in Ridley Scott directed by Katy, Texas main website USA 2005 Ron Howard good website www.cinderellamanmovie.com www.murphsplace.com/gladiator/main.html Figure 9 The full I-Bag is obviously much larger. Facilities in I-Work make it easy to find and navigate portions of current interest. I-Work also includes operations by which the user easily can extract selected parts of the original I-Bag information into a new I-Bag for further operations. (See section 3.5 I-Do.). Figure 10 shows one possibility. Renée Zellweger Russell Crowe acts in acts in acts in Gladiator Cinderella man directed by directed by Ridley Scott Ron Howard Figure 10 After a while, A chooses to add some personal comments on some of the movies as well as on some of the actor performances. To get this right and unambiguous, A introduces concepts to represent each performing actor. Without an internally generated symbol for each concept representing a performing actor, this actor would have to be explicitly named with a combination of movie name, actor name, and role name. The internal symbol representing a concept is in this the obvious choice for performing actors while perhaps a movie and an actor still may be represented by name. Figure 11 shows the idea. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 10 What I liked the most …. He made the movie …. …. Russell Crowe my opinion performed by my opinion Jim Braddock performed by as as Maximus in in She really performed first class …. my opinion Cinderella man Gladiator in as directed by directed by Mae Braddock my review my review performed by Ron Howard Ridley Scott Renée Zellweger Moving and …. Powerful, brutal …. Figure 11 The I-Bag in figure 11 only includes text material. In reality probably also other media entities such as photos, sound, video, movie clips, and graphics will be included. There is a wealth of entities of that kind for A to download from the Internet. Now buddy B starts to get interested in doing the same as A. As most of their interests overlap, B asks A for an initial load of A‟s information, excluding A‟s personal opinions of the movie stars performancing in different movies. This is because A and B often have differ in these opinions. B just wants to add her/his own. An I-Bag without comments is retrieved by an I-Do operation (see section 3.5) and sent from A to B. C, D, E, …. enter the arena. They also get an initial I-Bag from A to play around with. Each person is doing updates on the private phone when a new movie comes along. Sometimes the buddies share some of this updated information with some of the others in a rather unordered way by sending extracted I-Bags back and forth. After a while they all have their own and hardly overlapping content. D then suggests that instead of each having a perhaps incomplete copy of the information, a smarter solution would be to create a common shared I-Bag on a server that each buddy is allowed to contact via Internet. D promises to act as the administrator of the I-Bag. Each person should be allowed to do some of the updates but leaving downloading from other sources to D as some translations of the content may be needed. In order for this to work properly they all have to agree on what types of information to include in the common I-Bag. Section 3.3.2 below explains how to solve this problem. 3.3 I-Restricts 3.3.1 Working with I-Restricts So far the content of an I-Bag could be anything – any I-Bits - about something of interest, without any restrictions. This is fine and preferable in some situations. In others, probably in many cases where information is to be exchanged, especially on a professional basis, there is a need to restrict this freedom to a limited set of allowed types of I-Bits. This is done by specifying a restricting scheme or model called I-Restrict. An I-Restrict is in that respect an Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 11 abstraction of a specific view of something real or imagined of interest. Anyone can define such an I-Restrict. It may be used privately or among some community to govern and to restrict what should be allowed to express. A simplified I-Restrict for the I-Bag in figure 6 is shown in figure 12. <state name> lives in has ssno <person <ssno> likes <text> name> has board works for member <company has location in name> is member of <city> <text> Figure 12 A simplified I-Restrict for the I-Bag in figure 7 is shown in figure 13 a. An alternative graphical notation including more detailed restrictions is shown in figure 13 b. Here the information or properties local to some entity type, in this case Person and Company, are included in the box describing this entity type. Relationships among entity types are indicated by arrows. The added restrictions are indicated in red. The asterisk is indicating that „ssno‟ can be used as a unique reference to a Person. (In the general case a combination of properties and/or relationships is needed to form such a reference.) This I-Restrict requires a Company to have at least 3 and at most 30 board members while a Person may act as a board member in 0 or more (M) Companies. And so forth. Person <state name> <name> * ssno: <ssno> 1:1 state last name state: <state name> 1:1 last name: <name> 1:1 <ssno> ssno Person interest <text> interest: <text> 0:M board board member 3:30 (0:M) employer member employer 1:M (1:M) Company location association <city> Company <text> company name * company name: <text> 1:1 association: <text> 0:1 <text> location: <city> 1:1 Figure 13 a Figure 13 b Interestingly enough, I-Restrict is structured and expressed exactly the same way other types of information are, i.e. using I-Bits forming an I-Bag. Consequently all the operations applicable to “ordinary” information are also applicable to I-Restrict information. This is very important as it brings a lot of power to I-Work for free. The advantage for the user is obvious. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 12 3.3.2 The movie star application continues Back to the buddies. The group decides that an I-Restrict would help manage, use and explain the information in the common I-Bag. Risk for inconsistencies are thereby avoided. Opinions are excluded from the common I-Bag as they are considered more of a private nature. This information stays as private on each phone. Also, other information of specific interest only to one person is up to that person to work with on the private phone. As D had promised to take on the major burden of keeping the I-Bag up to date the others took the opportunity to suggest the inclusion of awards received from Academy Awards (Oscar), Golden Globes and others into the I-Bag. D accepts the proposal – this time – just reflecting that the job as administrator for the foreseeable future probably will mean dealing with an endless stream of suggestions for extensions and modifications from the other buddies. Anyway, figure 14 shows the current I-Restrict including award information. <text> organization <text> award type <state/country> Celebration at Award born in <country> when for Role lives in <year> performed by my opinion <Actor name> as in <text> <text> <Movie name> directed by my review <text> <city> title official website premiere <text> good website <year> <web address> <web address> Figure 14 An extract of just one documented award is shown in figure 15 a. Figure 15 b is the same information but including explanation for each concept for those who ask for it service. at <Celebration> at <Award> when award type for award type organization when for 2001 Best actor organization Best actor 2001 <Role> Academy Award® Academy Award® as as performed by in movie performed by in movie Maximus Maximus Russell Crowe Gladiator Russell Crowe Gladiator Figure 15 a Figure 15 b Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 13 Figure 16 shows the alternative more compact representation of the I-Restrict. Award * award type: <text> 1:1 for 1:1 (0:M) * at 1:1 (1:M) Role * name: <text> 1:1 as: <text> 1:1 my opinion: <text> 0:1 Celebration * organization: <text> 1:1 performed by 1:1 (1:M) when: <year> 0:1 * in 1:1 (1:M) <Actor name> <Movie name> born in: <state/country> 0:1 lives in: <country> 0:1 premiere: <year> 0:1 directed by: <text> 1:1 official website <web address> 0:1 good website <web address> 0:M my review <text> 0:M Figure 16 As it turns out, once a month the private opinions from each phone are loaded into a monthly I-Bag to give each buddy a possibility to check those opinions others have expressed about the same thing. They later on agree on a formal scale for entering opinions to allow for more subtle comparisons. Sometimes a person would like to act on and retrieve information from the union of the private and shared information. No problem. The shared I-Bag on the server is just downloaded to the private phone and automatically integrated in the I-Bag at that phone for the operations of interest. The shared I-Bag already contains a lot of different types of information to navigate. The semantics is clearly defined, interpretation no problem. However, this is certainly just the beginning. The users will be demanding more and more, as the usefulness of the application is be further appreciated. Perhaps at some point the I-Bag is split into two or more separate, more specialized I-Bags? And so forth. The possibilities are endless. Over to the operations available. 3.4 I-Do In I-Work an I-Bag may be operated on via I-Do, consisting of several interface languages that take advantage of the capabilities I-Modelling has to offer. In a mobile phone the I-Graph and I-Modelgraph interfaces are supposed to be the common choices. The other interfaces will play more important roles in more advanced applications. See chapter 5 (Bringing it all together) below. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 14 I-Do Do-Graph Do-Restrictgraph Do-Query Do-Programming Figure 17 3.4.1 Do-Graph This interface allows the user to enter new I-Bits graphically, to update existing I-Bits, and to retrieve a set of I-Bits based on some search criteria. Intelligent support for both text and graphic work are necessary features. A few examples are given below. 18.104.22.168 Entering I-Bits. Entering one I-Bit is in its basic form made like in figure 1 above. Several I-Bits of the same kind, e.g. all the interests of the same person, may be done according to figure 18. Snowboarding Smith likes Sailing Figure 18 Similarly to enter the fact that Jones and Anderson both live in Nevada might be done as in figure 19. Jones lives in Nevada Anderson Figure 19 Text is just one available format. Depending on user preference figure 8 could alternately be expressed according to figure 20. likes Figure 20 Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 15 Why not even some graphical symbol for „likes‟? Entering I-Bits might be performed from “scratch” like the given examples. It can also be performed from an already existing I-Graph retrieved in some earlier step. In this case dragging and dropping might come into use. 22.214.171.124 Retrieving I-Bits Retrievals are performed by I-Patterns similar to the simple I-Bit graph in figure 5 above but exchanging some of the explicit entries with „?‟ and/or „*‟. The I-Pattern in figure 21 a will as a result get figure 21 b. Jones lives in ? Jones lives in Nevada Figure 21 a Figure 21 b Figure 22 will get figure 18 above or perhaps figure 20 if photos were entered. Smith likes ? Figure 22 Figure 23 will get figure 19 above. ? lives in Nevada Figure 23 If everything about „Jones‟ is of interest figure 23 should be used resulting in figure 24. Jones ? ? Figure 24 Solid Construction Inc Nevada works for lives in Opera likes 222-33-4444 has ssno Jones likes Travel works for Fast Painters Inc Figure 25 Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 16 126.96.36.199 Retrieving I-Bit Components Now, suppose a friend has sent you an I-Bag without telling you about the content. No problem! Putting question marks at all three places will get you everything. However, this might not be what you want. Furthermore, the resulting graph will probably be useless being much larger than the display. Another approach would be to start by retrieving the types of relationships in the I-Bag. Instead of a number of I-Bits we want a list of the relationship types being used. Now the asterisk comes into action. An asterisk means a component of no interest that may take „any value‟. Figure 26 a applied to figure 6 above gives the list of interest, figure 26 b. has board member has location in has ssno * is member of * likes lives in * ? * works for Figure 26 a Figure 26 b Maybe ‟has ssno‟ can be interpretated as an indication that the first component represent names of persons. We would perhaps want to check out which those persons are without any interest so far in their social security numbers. Drag „has ssno‟ to the I-Pattern as shown in figure 27 a and the result in figure 27 b will come up. Smith Jones has ssno * ? has ssno * Clark Figure 27 a Figure 27 b Similarly, we might be interested in what „lives in‟ stands for. Is the reference to a country, a city, a state, a type of residence, ….? Let‟s check it out by figure 28 a. Figure 28 b is the answer. Nevada * lives in Idaho * lives in ? Oregon Figure 28 a Figure 28 b The I-Patterns given above are just some examples of those available. More sophisticated conditions could for instance be used. For instance, we might be interested in all persons living in any state except Nevada. The I-Pattern is given in figure 29. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 17 ? lives in - Nevada Figure 29 188.8.131.52 Deleting I-Bits Two choices exist. One alternative is to use I-Patterns possibly including asterisks. Start by indicating the deletion mode. Then fill in the I-Pattern to be deleted. A few examples are given below. Suppose Smith is no longer interested in Sailing. Figure 30 takes care of this. Smith likes Sailing Figure 30 Now, suppose Smith is of no interest whatsoever. Figure 31 is then to be used. Smith likes * Figure 31 Finally delete all „lives in‟ I-Bits except for those living in Nevada. * lives in - Nevada Figure 32 The other alternative is to delete from an already exposed I-Graph, retrieved by some I- Pattern. Just click on those I-Bits that are to be deleted. 184.108.40.206 Changing I-Bits Change operations also come in two alternatives similar to those of deletion. Start by activating the change mode. The most common way is probably to make the changes on an already exposed I-Graph, retrieved by some I-Pattern. Just change the components of interest. If the component is some text that should be corrected, usual word processing is performed. If a component should be replaced by some other, e.g. a picture replaced by some other picture, bring the new picture from wherever it might exist into the active <working desk> and drag it over the picture to be replaced. The other possibility is to formulate the changes to be made by an I-Pattern and the changes to be made. The I-Pattern is used to point out those I-Bits to be changed. Changes can then be expressed for the explicit components. Suppose that „Nevada‟ should be changed to “The Silver State” wherever it exist in I-Bits where the relationship is „lives in‟. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 18 * lives in Nevada >> The Silver State Figure 33 If a map of Nevada is preferred instead of „The Silver State‟, just bring in the map and put it there instead. Other more advanced changes to text can also be expressed by specific text syntax. 3.4.2 Do-Restrictgraph The I-Graph alternative is mainly to be used with I-Bags having no I-Restrict attached. The Do-Restrictgraph interface on the other hand is based on the existence of an I-Restrict connected to the I-Bag. By giving a full overview of the types of content in the I-Bag the I- Restrict opens up more powerful options for retrievals. They can be expressed directly via the I-Restrict graph. Furthermore, this overview allows for more complex queries to be expressed. As indicated in figure 17 above, I-Do includes a complete powerful query language I-Query. The I-Query syntax is text based allowing for complex queries to be expressed. Outputs are either in the form of a stream of I-Bits, an I-Bag or a table of retrieved values. Do- Restrictgraph is in many ways a graphical version of I-Query. However, some expressions are hard to represent graphically. Among those are conditions whose interpretation is dependent on the ordering in the text. Graphics based expressions have more limited ways to represent ordering. More work is needed in this area of I-Do to make Do-Restrictgraph as transparent as possible to I-Query within the practical limits graphs have to offer. I-Query is formally defined in a separate paper. The following examples are just included to give a flavour of the capacities of Do-Restrictgraph. The first example uses the I-Restrict from figure 12 above. <state name> lives in <ssno> has ssno Smith likes <text> has board works for member ? has location in is member of <city> <text> Figure 34 The query can be read as “For the person named Smith, retrieve the sso, state and interest as well as the name and location of the company where he is employed”. The red oval indicates the start of the navigation through the graph. The grey properties and relationships indicate what is of interest. When it comes to relationships it has to be indicated if the entity pointed at Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 19 is of interest or not, given explicit entity values. In this case the company name was of interest. Changing the question mark to an asterisk means only the location of the employer is of interest. The output comes in the form defined by the user. If no preference is given the output will come as a graph like figure 35. Idaho Snowboarding lives in likes 111-22-3333 Sailing has ssno Smith works for Solid has Construction Inc location in Smalltown Figure 35 The preconditions are slightly different when it comes to I-Restricts like the ones in figure 13 above. Entities are always implicit by which the just given choice for „?‟ or „*‟ has no relevance. On the other hand, the start is always with property values (or a combination of property values) for the entities of interest. The exact same query would be stated as in figure 36. <state name> Smith state last name <ssno> ssno Person interest <text> board employer member Company location association <city> <text> company name <text> Figure 36 Navigation backwards over a relationship or property is indicated by black. The output would look like figure 37. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 20 Smith Idaho last name state Snowboarding interest 111-22-3333 ssno Sailing employer location Smalltown company name Solid Construction Inc Figure 37 The compact I-Restrict format is well suited when implicit entity identification is being used. The query would look like figure 38 a and the answer like figure 38 b. Person Person ssno: ? ssno: 111-22-3333 state: ? state: Idaho last name: Smith last name: Smith interest: ? interest: Snowboarding Sailing board member employer employer Company Company company name: ? association: company name: Solid Construction Inc location: ? location: Smalltown Figure 38 a Figure 38 b An entity type might in the general case have a long list of properties. A question mark instead of the entity type name indicates that everything about that entity type is of interest, thereby avoiding question mark on each property. If some property of interest is missing, this is indicated by „< >‟. A last query: “For each company, get its name and for all its employees the ssno, name and state for each of them”. The same query using Do-Restrictgraph would look like in figure 39. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 21 <state name> <name> state last name <ssno> ssno Person interest <text> board employer member * location association <city> <text> company name <text> Figure 39 The red oval with an asterisk means “For all companies …..”. „Employer‟ is black to indicate backward navigation. The answer is shown in figure 40. Idaho Smith state last name 111-22-3333 ssno Solid Construction Inc employer company name Nevada state employer 222-33-4444 ssno last name Jones employer Fast Painters Inc company name Figure 40 Once again, the same query and answer using the compact format are shown in figures 41 a and 41 b. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 22 Person ssno: ? state: ? last name: ? interest: Person Person ssno: 111-22-3333 ssno: 222-33-4444 board member state: Idaho state: Nevada last name: Smith last name: Jones employer employer employer employer * company name: ? Company Company association: company name: Solid Construction Inc company name: Fast Painters Inc location: Figure 41 a Figure 41 b Why differentiate between grey and black? Try to express this: “For each Nevada resident get her or his name and ssno as well as the name and list of board members of each of employer.” Now try to express this: “For each Nevada resident get her or his name and ssno as well as the name of the companies where she of he is a board member together with the employees of each of those companies.” They will be exactly the same unless the different colours are included. Note that the given examples only show a few of the capabilities of the graphical language. 3.5 I-Management I-Bags may be temporary or permanent. Temporary I-Bags come from retrievals. They may be active during a session by putting them in temporary session storage. If this storage is not used the next retrieval will replace the former retrieval. Permanent I-Bags are stored in folders the same way files are stored. I-Bags, may be combined to form larger I-Bags. This may involve temporary as well as permanent I-Bags. This new I-Bag may be used as a temporary I-Bag for some interesting retrievals or stored as a new permanent I-Bag. Combining several I-Bags should be performed in such a way that semantic inconsistencies are avoided. From a technical standpoint combining several I-Bags is an easy task. Just bring the total number of I-Bits together. Different rules can be expressed for the integration process so that the resulting I-Bag gets the desired content. One such rule could be to only accept I-Bits about entities from I-Bag B if those entities don‟t already exist in I-Bag A. I-Bags might have open relationships allowing the content in other I-Bags to be attached seamlessly when they are brought together. See chapter 4 in “Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level – Usage Examples” for a possible use case. Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 23 Splitting up I-Bags is performed by some I-Do interface retrieving a temporary I-Bag. Added to this retrieval is a directive that the retrieved I-Bits should also be deleted from the I-Bag acted upon. If only parts of the retrieved I-Bits should be deleted the operation has to be split up in two steps, one for the retrieval and one for the deletion. I-Management comprises a broad set of services either for the end user to use or intended for those managing of the application. 3.6 I-Reach Temporary as well as permanent I-Bags may be used privately or shared with others. Sharing is performed easily by using the facilities in I-Reach. The I-Bits to be shared is either sent as an I-Bag in its own right or sent as a sequential stream of I-Bits, all depending on the requester‟s intended use of the information. Suppose A has documented information about a number of books including different kinds of reviews and want to share that information with B, both acting according to I-Work. I-Reach comes into work. Two choices exist. The easiest way is to send the information as a separate I-Bag. Nothing extra at all needs to be performed by B upon retrieval other than possibly putting the incoming I-Bag in the right place. B can directly start working on it by using one of the available I-Dos. If B wants to integrate this delivery with an own I-Bag this can be done by a management operation (see section 3.5 above). Figure 42 If on the other hand B wants to work on the I-Bits on retrieval, perhaps to pick just some of them for update in B‟s own similar book information storage rather than working directly on A‟s information, the sequential stream is probably the most convenient. This is also the natural choice if A and B are structuring their information fully or partly different. The updates can be performed using one of the I-Dos. If B has special requirements for the updates to take place probably some programming might be necessary using some programming language in combination with the Programming Interface Do-Programming. Figure 43 Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level - Overview 24 More about this latter type of I-Bag exchange is found in a separate report “Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level – Exchange Format”. The report also explains why this approach is superior to XML and others. If the information delivered is not expected to be known by the receiver the I-Restrict should be included in the delivery as well. This is simple matter as the I-Restrict is also expressed as an I-Bag of I-Bits. Exchange can be performed over Internet using any Internet capable equipment having I- Work installed. It is also anticipated that direct communication similar to sending SMS messages will become an option. 4 Usage examples See the separate paper “Bringing mobile phone applications to a new level – Usage Examples”. 5 Bringing it all together So far the normal user has been some person working with private information or exchanging information with other persons using a mobile phone, a laptop or something similar at hand. The same approach can be used for exchanging information on a more professional scale. In fact the information management part of a SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) environment comes for free. The main difference to the current Web Services Architecture (WSA) in this respect lays in the way information is structured and exchanged and in the capacities to link all types of equipment together using the easiest possible standards. WSA is depending on XML while our solution is based on a Binary Model. The latter gives flexibility, modelling power and ease of use XML is unable to match. Furthermore, the Binary Model naturally allows users to read, work with, and exchange the information exactly the same way it is interpreted and managed by I-Work. All without almost any syntax or learning curve involved. XML is certainly not readable even if it was the initial intention. Also, in I-Work information and model information are expressed exactly the same way opening up for advanced information exposure and interchange applications. The report “A Conceptual Model Driven Semantic Web - an Integrated Binary Approach” (can be downloaded from www.skriver.nu/esociety) gives an introduction to how the proposal presented in this paper easily can be applied to more professional environments. (The paper uses a somewhat different vocabulary but this should hopefully not cause the reader any problem.) Bringing it all together and we have a completely integrated information management environment from the smallest mobile phone to the largest computer, from the simplest personal usage to the most sophisticated integrated application involving large corporations in cooperation.
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