Stairs Stair Safety •One of the leading causes of injuries today is the result of falling down stairs. With the increase in the development of stairways, there has to be an increase in stairway safety. Through the next few slides I will explain some major safety regulations, safety tips, and injury statistics regarding stairs. Injury Statistics •Falls account for nearly 44% of all hospitalizations. •Falls are the leading cause of hospitalizations among children and the elderly. •70% of hospitalizations among the elderly are caused by falling down stairs. •85% of child injuries are a result of falling down stairs. •Each year, about 500 people in Canada die after falling on stairs. •An estimated 1,307 people died from falling down stairs in 2000. General Requirements •Stairs shall be placed at all personnel points of access where there is a break in elevation of 19 inches or more. •Employees shall not use any spiral stairways on which construction work is being performed. •At least one point of access between levels shall be kept clear at all times. •Employer shall provide and install all fall protection systems required. Stairways •Stairs shall be installed between 30 deg. and 50 deg. from horizontal. •Riser height and tread depth shall be uniform with no more than a ¼ inch variation. •A platform shall be provided for any doors or gates located on stairway. •All parts of stairways shall be free of hazardous projections and shall be eliminated before use. Temporary Services •Pan stairs with treads or landings that are to be filled in with concrete at a later date must be temporarily fitted with wood or other solid material. •Skeleton metal stairs where permanent treads or landings are to be installed at a later date must be fitted with secured temporary treads or landings. Stair rails and Handrails •Stairways having 4 or more risers or rising more than 30 inches shall have at least 1 handrail and 1 stair rail system along each unprotected side. •Stair rails shall not be installed less than 36 inches from surface of stair rail system to surface of tread. •Handrails shall not be installed less than 30 inches or more than 37 inches from surface of handrail to surface of tread. Safety Check List • Bottom Landing Geometry • Newel Post Ramp • Handrails, Safety-rails, Lighting Guardrails Stringer/Carriage • Balustrade Top Landing • Treads Stair Condition • Nosing Platforms • Material Top 10 Hazards in Stair Instillation 1. Balusters: when improperly spaced, a 7. Platform or Landing: surface not slip child can slip through or can get their head resistant and has a sharp object, blunt wall caught. or window in the possible fall direction. 2. Circular or Helical Stair: tread at 8. Nosing: missing, broken, worn, patched, fulcrum too narrow, stair not loose, slippery, abrupt raised upper ergonomically designed for safety. surface, sharp corners, not installed 3. Flight too long: too many steps causes properly. fear of falling or fear of height. 9. Ramp: steep, no handrail, slippery, too 4. Ergonomics: Conditions of stair not long. ergonomically designed or built. 10. Riser: not equal height on all steps in the 5. Angle: stair or ramp too steep. flight; missing; shifted out of stringer; open type with too much over-hang from 6. Handrail / Safety-Rail: improper finger the step above, too little over-hang. clearance, railing is missing, loose, broken, not strong enough, too large, too wide, too thin, not continuous from landing to landing, not smooth, too hot, too cold, splintery, not maintained, not sanitary looking, not of a contrasting color with background. Stairway Safety Tips Use the handrail. In homes with young children, Install bright lights and on/off use safety gates at the tops and switches at the top and bottom bottoms of stairways. of each stairwell and over If you have steps outside your porches and entryways. home, keep them free of ice and Keep stairways and steps clear of snow. all objects. To prevent a tripping hazard, Check stairs for worn or loose periodically check steps and carpeting or protruding carpet walkways for broken or lose tacks. bricks, cement or stone. If your steps have a smooth surface, consider installing anti- slip tread to provide safer traction.