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Stairs ergonomics

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					Stairs
                 Stair Safety

•One of the leading causes of injuries today is the
result of falling down stairs. With the increase in
the development of stairways, there has to be an
increase in stairway safety. Through the next few
slides I will explain some major safety regulations,
safety tips, and injury statistics regarding stairs.
                 Injury Statistics
•Falls account for nearly 44% of all                hospitalizations.
•Falls are the leading cause of hospitalizations among children and
the elderly.
•70% of hospitalizations among the elderly are caused by falling
down stairs.
•85% of child injuries are a result of falling down stairs.
•Each year, about 500 people in Canada die after falling on stairs.
•An estimated 1,307 people died from falling down stairs in 2000.
      General Requirements
•Stairs shall be placed at all personnel points of
access where there is a break in elevation of 19
inches or more.
•Employees shall not use any spiral stairways on
which construction work is being performed.
•At least one point of access between levels shall
be kept clear at all times.
•Employer shall provide and install all fall
protection systems required.
                        Stairways

•Stairs shall be installed between 30 deg. and 50 deg. from
horizontal.
•Riser height and tread depth shall be uniform with no more than a
¼ inch variation.
•A platform shall be provided for any doors or gates located on
stairway.
•All parts of stairways shall be free of hazardous projections and
shall be eliminated before use.
          Temporary Services

•Pan stairs with treads or landings that are to be filled in
with concrete at a later date must be temporarily fitted
with wood or other solid material.
•Skeleton metal stairs where permanent treads or
landings are to be installed at a later date must be fitted
with secured temporary treads or landings.
      Stair rails and Handrails

•Stairways having 4 or more risers or rising more than 30
inches shall have at least 1 handrail and 1 stair rail system
along each unprotected side.
•Stair rails shall not be installed less than 36 inches from
surface of stair rail system to surface of tread.
•Handrails shall not be installed less than 30 inches or more
than 37 inches from surface of handrail to surface of tread.
          Safety Check List

• Bottom Landing              Geometry
• Newel Post                  Ramp
• Handrails, Safety-rails,    Lighting
    Guardrails                Stringer/Carriage
•   Balustrade                Top Landing
•   Treads                    Stair Condition
•   Nosing                    Platforms
•   Material
Top 10 Hazards in Stair Instillation
 1.   Balusters: when improperly spaced, a            7.    Platform or Landing: surface not slip
      child can slip through or can get their head          resistant and has a sharp object, blunt wall
      caught.                                               or window in the possible fall direction.
 2.   Circular or Helical Stair: tread at             8.    Nosing: missing, broken, worn, patched,
      fulcrum too narrow, stair not                         loose, slippery, abrupt raised upper
      ergonomically designed for safety.                    surface, sharp corners, not installed
 3.   Flight too long: too many steps causes                properly.
      fear of falling or fear of height.              9.    Ramp: steep, no handrail, slippery, too
 4.   Ergonomics: Conditions of stair not                   long.
      ergonomically designed or built.                10.   Riser: not equal height on all steps in the
 5.   Angle: stair or ramp too steep.                       flight; missing; shifted out of stringer;
                                                            open type with too much over-hang from
 6.   Handrail / Safety-Rail: improper finger               the step above, too little over-hang.
      clearance, railing is missing, loose, broken,
      not strong enough, too large, too wide,
      too thin, not continuous from landing to
      landing, not smooth, too hot, too cold,
      splintery, not maintained, not sanitary
      looking, not of a contrasting color with
      background.
              Stairway Safety Tips
 Use the handrail.                     In homes with young children,
 Install bright lights and on/off       use safety gates at the tops and
  switches at the top and bottom         bottoms of stairways.
  of each stairwell and over            If you have steps outside your
  porches and entryways.                 home, keep them free of ice and
 Keep stairways and steps clear of      snow.
  all objects.                          To prevent a tripping hazard,
 Check stairs for worn or loose         periodically check steps and
  carpeting or protruding carpet         walkways for broken or lose
  tacks.                                 bricks, cement or stone.
 If your steps have a smooth
  surface, consider installing anti-
  slip tread to provide safer
  traction.

				
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