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					     Ethiopia



Anthony Pratt, Sarah Erkson, and Annie Kennedy
          General Facts

• Population = 85,237,338
• Life expectancy at birth =
  ~55 years old
• Literacy Rate
 – Male: 50.3%
 – Female: 35.1%
                 History
• Oldest Human Settlement
• Lucy(Australopithecus) was
  discovered 1974 in Awash Valley,
  Ethiopia
   – Estimated to live 3.2 million
     years ago
   – Human evolution
          History (continued)
• Zemene Mesafint
  – 1755 - 1855
  – Complete isolation and emperors
    started to act like figureheads
  – Modernization and recentralizing
    power to the Emperor
  – Ethiopia began to take part in world
    affairs again
• "Age of Princes“
• THEN connected with
  Europe
• Slightly less than twice the size of Texas
• Landlocked (no coastlines)
• Located in the north eastern part of Africa, also called the
  “Horn of Africa”
• Total area: 1,127,127km , 7,444 of that being water bodies.

• A Blend of massive highlands, highly rugged terrain , and
  valleys divided the by Great Rift Valley

•   Bordering Countries: Sudan, Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, and
    Djibouti

•   Climate: Mostly tropical monsoon, moderate temperate,
    with the average temperature rarely exceeding 68 F.
Natural Resources: small reserves of gold,
  platinum, copper, potash, natural gas,
  hydropower

Current Environmental Issues:
 Deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion,
 water shortages, intensive farming and
 poor management.
• A large split in the landscape from two
  tectonic plates separating

• Large complex divergent plate boundary
  on the Eastern side of Africa. Total
  distance of 3,000 km.

• Remarkable region of volcanic lakes,
  with a famous collection of birds.
Blue Nile Falls, Tis Iset
Ethiopia




                            http://www.lonelyplanet.com/map
                            s/africa/ethiopia/map_of_ethiopia.j
                            pg
      Economy
•GDP(official exchange
 rate)- 25.08 billion (2008
 est.)
•GDP per capita- $800
 (2008 est.)
Natural Resources/Industry
• Natural resources- small
  reserves of gold, platinum,
  copper, natural gas,
  hydropower.
• Industries- food processing,
  beverages, textiles, leather,
  chemicals, cement.
         Poverty in Ethiopia
• http://indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?c=et&v=6
  9



• http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/01259/st
  atistics_on_ethiopian_poverty.htm
     Ethiopia’s Trade
•Imports- food and live
 animals, petroleum, chemicals,
 machinery, motor vehicles,
 cereals, textiles.
•Exports- coffee, gold, leather
 products, live animals,
 oilseeds.
           Trade Relations
•   Imports            Exports
•   Saudi Arabia 17%    -Germany 8.2%
•   China 15.9%         -Saudi Arabia 7%
•   India 7.8%          -U.S 6.9%
•   Italy 5.1%          -China 6.5%
                        -Italy 6.5%
• The two major religions are Christianity and
  Islam.

• Most Muslims are Sunnis, the largest sect of
  Islam.

• Christianity is more predominant in the north
  where 62% of the people are Christian.

• Ethiopia is well known for its distinctive
  Christian tradition

• Muslim is more predominant in the South at
  about 34%
• They do not eat meat and dairy products
  on fasting days, Wednesdays and
  Fridays.
• Church is held daily in all Tewahedo
  Churches from early morning to three
  o’clock PM.
• Only one meal can be eaten each day of
  fasting, usually occurring after three
  o’clock
• Christmas falls on December 29,and New
  Years fall on September 11(the first
  month of the year is September and the
  last is Pagumiene which comes after
  August.
         Government
• 1970’s – illegal political groups formed
• Groups hold elections 1970-present
• Federal Parliamentary Republic
   – Prime Minister
   – Executive Power
        Ethnic Groups
• Oromo (Galla) 40%
   –Southern half of nation
• Amhara and Tigrean 32%
   –Political
• Sidamo 9%
   –Southern foothills and savanna
• Shankella 6%
   –Western frontier
         Ethiopian Music
• Modal System
• Pentatonic
• Long intervals
  between notes
• Some well known
  musicians include
  Teddy Afro, Gigi,
  Mahmoud Ahmed, etc.
              Current Events
• June 2, 2008
• UNICEF estimates 1260,000
  children are in need of care
  for sever malnutrition.
• Harvest fails  increased
  amount of malnutrition in
  children
• The World Food Program
  estimates that 147 million
  dollars will be necessary to
  feed the kids in Ethiopia.
        Current Affairs in Ethiopia
• Recently, 35 Ethiopians were arrested for allegedly
  plotting to overthrow the Ethiopian government.
• The government claims that these people were all
  part of an opposition group called Ginbot Seven.
• This opposition group was founded by the exiled
  mayor of Addis Abba, Berhanu Nega.
• After the most recent Ethiopian election (2005),
  Nega was tried for treason and sentenced to life in
  prison before being pardoned and released.
• http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8035430.stm
           CONNECTIONS
• Gender Roles  Kite Runner & A
 Thousand Splendid Suns

• Government Issues  Taliban like
 groups

• Strict Religious Rules  Iraq &
 Middle East
                         Bibliography
•   "Country Profile:Ethiopia." BBC News 04 15 2009 Web.3 Jun 2009.
    <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/1072164.stm>.

•   "Ethiopia." CIA-The World Factbook. Web.3 Jun 2009.
    <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/et.html>.

•   "Ethiopia."The Volume Library. 3rd. 2001. Print.

•   "Ethiopia." Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations. 12th ed. Detroit:
    Thomson Gale, 2007. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington
    Hills, MI: Gale. <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/>.

•   "Ethiopian Treasures." 06 01 2009 Web.3 Jun 2009.
    <http://www.ethiopiantreasures.toucansurf.com/pages/calendar.htm>.

				
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