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                      FOOD, FUR, FARMING

     At times animals have been used in ways that have resulted
in the worst forms of killing, abuse, torment, torture, mass
slaughter, humiliation, frivolous entertainment, and fun killing
(killing for the heck of it). All’s not bad, however. There are
good uses for animals and there are many people who love
     In this book I have used ‘English Canada’ spelling. My
computer is naturally set up in this manner. So, there will be
slight differences in spelling to those of ‘English America’
spelling. I apologize for any inconvenience.
     This is not an animal rights book. This book is tilted
towards the animal welfare and animal use perspective. Humans
can use animals to their own benefit but without the excessive
humiliation, frivolity, torture, or brutality that is all so
apparent. This is not speceism this is realism!
     I have used the word ‘Animalogy’ in my title to describe
what my book is about. There are now literally thousands of
animal related    websites; pertaining to animal rights, animal
welfare, animal use, animal abuse, entertainment, social work,
social studies, human services, consumption, war, history,
criminal justice, criminology, breeding, trafficking, work,
clothing, killing, trapping, trading, medicine (medication,
anatomy,   physiology,    vivisection),    pharmacology,   health,
psychology (behaviour, vivisection), academics, display, food
(pet food, animals as food), etc.
     Although estimates vary considerably, there are likely over
80 million cats and over 70 million dogs living in American
households. Countless strays are on our streets; with five to
seven million of them being euthanized annually.
     Animal activism is now prevalent throughout much of the
world. Animal specializations in the fields of sociology,
criminology, criminal justice, and social work are greatly
     College and university students should have an option to
specialize major in criminal justice, sociology, or social work
with a specialization or emphasis in animals. Animal abuse is a
prevalent phenomenon in our society, and in our criminal justice
     Maslow’s   hierarchy  of   needs   should   be  ‘academically
extended’ to companion animals. What does your dog or cat need
to become self-actualized?
     Incorporating the field of Animalogy will help to create
countless jobs. In addition, many students would love to have
more animal course options. All of us cannot be first class
biologists or zoologists.
     Companion animals that are treated Animals that are treated
with love, kindness, and compassion, by their owners should be
ever thankful. Companion animals, like babies, cannot speak.
Unless the abuse or neglect of the companion animal is manifest
or blatant, it is often difficult to detect, let alone prove.
     Animals have been used to satisfy humanity for eons.
Animals have been our companion animals, guards, slaves,
entertainers (cinema, fighting, display), objects of vivisection
(animal experimentation), non-paid soldiers, traction (pulling),
worship, toys, objects of displaced aggression, hoarding,
consumption, aphrodisiacs, and other by-product use.
     Humans have literally conquered the ‘animal world’. Even
many of the deep sea creatures cannot evade human pollution of
the waters. In addition, droves of animas in unprotected
forested areas are on borrowed time.     Wildlife can neither run
nor hide from us humans.     Our weapons can take down anything
that is alive in this world. If animals could speak to us,
that's what they'd say.
      It is estimated that ten billion animals area slaughtered
annually for food in the U.S. This does not include what is
taken from the water.
      Over 90 percent of the animals are from the poultry sector.
It is estimated that over fifty billion animals are slaughtered
annually for food on this planet. I’ve come across a 1.5 billion
sea creature annual estimate, but it doesn’t seem accurate. The
number is most likely higher. Not to mention by-catch, or throw
away creatures.
      For instance ‘tuna nets’ are responsible for the killing of
countless dolphins every year. Thankfully, new and improved
dolphin safe nets are on the market.
      The shrimp industry is responsible for many by-catch
      The beginning of large-scale meat eating and production was
in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Salted pork was placed in
barrels for storage and sale.
      The Massachusetts Bay Colony enacted the first animal
cruelty statute in 1641.       Article 92, called the ‘Body of
Liberties’. This law forbade any ‘man’ from exercising cruelty
or tyranny unto an animal that is used by ‘man’.
      This law, incredible for its time, was enacted only two
decades after the Mayflower landed on Plymouth Rock.
      Later, there were the incredible trail drives, giant
slaughtering facilities. The most famous being the Chicago Union
      Factory farms carry the highest numbers of food animals.
It is possible to someday see multi-level factory farms. Larger
tracks of land cost more than smaller ones.
      ‘AGRIBIGNESS’ is in the business to make money. Factory
farms hold units, or ‘singular-stocks’ not living creatures.
      In addition to meat, humans use the skins, eggs, milk, fat,
enzymes, hair, fur, teeth, even eyes, testicles, bones, bone
marrow, tongues, entrails, brains, heart, blood, fecal matter,
urine, semen, etc., of animals.
      My personal philosophy is to enact and enforce better
humane    legislation   for  the   animals,   workers,  and   the
environment. The sheer quantity of output makes it quite
difficult to go slow and easy with each and every slaughtering.
      Many people still believe that factory farm animals live
normal lives.    People need to know the truth! In the end it’s
the consumer who will decide.
      Factory farmed animals end up nicely packaged into ‘pretty’
pink-red, red, or white slabs that can be cooked into edible
      Most of us prefer to see the ‘packaged version’ of the
      The Chicago Union Stockyards (CUSY) was established in 1865
in order to feed the demand of millions of Americans. America
was a powerful nation even back then. The population was also
growing rapidly.
      The CUSY behemoth encompassed almost 1 square mile. At the
CUSY labourers unloaded animals directly into the facility for
slaughtering, canning and then packing.
         Over twenty thousand five thousand people were employed
in Chicago's meatpacking industry.      Later, the number reached
forty five thousand.
      The CUSY was responsible for ‘meat-feeding’ eighty percent
of America. Americans loved meet, and they got it from the CUSY!
      Rapid technological advances in the 1870's helped to bring
forth refrigerated transport. We can thank a genius named Gustav
Swift for developing the first refrigerated railroad car.
Processed meat could be shipped long distances. Prior to this
remarkable invention, animals were transported live. Meat
producers now had a choice.
      Refrigerated freight cars could be ‘parked’ at loading
docks to be filled with meats. Once filled, they could be
transported vast distances.
      Although the CUSY improved the assembly line system of
processing, it was in Cincinnati that this process was first
used.    The famed Henry Ford discovered the use of the assembly
line in production from the slaughterhouse operations.
      In the CUSY many thousands of carcasses (regardless of
shape, weight, or size) could be processed quickly.       Overhead
rails were used to move large carcasses from station to station.
This method is still being used in many slaughterhouses.
      Not surprisingly, work in this environment is potentially
harmful to labourers and the animals sent to slaughter.       CUSY
labourers had to work ‘too fast’. As a result, brutality to
animals was commonplace.
      Knockers used sledge hammers to smash the heads of large
animals.    Sometimes, several blows were needed to knock out or
kill an animal. The knocker had to hit a homerun on the first
      At the CUSY, Women comprised twenty percent of the labour
force.    They performed jobs that required dexterity (canning,
packaging, cleaning the entrails of carcasses). These women had
to work ‘too fast’.
      Accidents during canning, cutting, and cleaning were
commonplace. The repetitive motions on their hands and fingers
caused hand painful and sometimes lifelong hand problems.
      In order to induce the women workers to work harder and
faster, bonuses were given for extra canning. Full credit must
also be given for the hardworking woman at the CUSY.
     The CUSY’s men and women were hard-working individuals who
fed millions of people. Many of the workers had no alternative
job offers. They were forced to work in this kind of
     Eventually, ethnic tensions at the CUSY and nearby
neighbourhoods in Chicago reached a boiling point.
     Ethnic groups at the CUSY were stereotyped. Members of a
‘specific’ ethnic group would work at an assigned department.
This is 'ethnic compartmentalization’.
     Today,   many   Latino   migrants    (Mexicans    and   Central
Americans) are moving to small town America. They are desperate
for work. Many Latino migrants end up in slaughterhouses,
factory farms, or as farm labourers. Conditions for these hard
workers are not good. No medical care, systemic racism and
discrimination, no recourse, no benefits.
     We must give them credit. They are hard-working people
doing jobs that many of would never do.
     Seniority meant nothing and re-instatement after a layoff
was never assured. Foremen held incredible leverage over their
workers. Foremen could, and often did, abuse their workers. The
atmosphere lacked mercy and compassion.
     CUSY labourers constantly worked in and around blood,
sweat, stench, maggots, rats, animal droppings, shrieks, and
brutality (upon the animals, from the supervisors).
     The ‘slaughterhouse stench’ could’ve killed a lion. It
extended into the neighbourhood.
     Cold Chicago winters, hot and humid summers, increased the
difficulty of working in the CUSY.
     Employees worked up to twelve hours a day, without benefits
or medical care.
     Today, legal and illegal factory farm workers, many of whom
are Hispanics and Asians, have filled the post of factory farm
     Slaughterhouse   workers   at   the   CUSY   were   immigrants,
including:   Germans,    Slavs,    visible    minorities    (blacks,
     Because there was a continuous supply of new immigrants to
the Chicago area, CUSY slaughterhouse workers were disposable.
This caused ferocious struggles between the workers and
management, ethnic groups, and strike breakers.
     Conditions for the CUSY labourers improved with the passing
of the National Labour Relations Act of 1935 (NLRA), which
enabled labourers to form and join unions without being unjustly
persecuted, intimidated, or otherwise harmed by the management.
The National Labour Relations Board (1935) was formed by
Congress to direct the NLRA.     Although this was a step towards
the protection of labourers and their right to form unions,
there were subsequent attempts by management to weaken it. The
final outcome saw CUSY labourers better off with the NLRA. Not
well off, only better off.
     Corporate giants often use vertical integration to ensure
bigger profits and expanded control over the process. In
vertical integration large corporations provide their own feed,
land space, cleanup, and distribution (delivery). In horizontal
integration there are ‘other players’ in the system. This is the
essence of the old time family farm.
     The corporate food giants can move into an area then
‘eliminate’ or ‘reduce’ small family farmers. The system can be
somewhat cold and impersonal.
       Working in a hectic-paced meat packing plant is very
difficult, even in today's world.    Get the job done, over and
over again.
     Illegal or ethnic slaughterhouse workers often have to hold
it back, or they must relieve themselves while working at their
station. Line workers may be ‘sprinkled’ in blood, poop, and
     Other problems include cuts, abrasions, over-exhaustion,
racism, discrimination, little or no legal recrimination, little
or   no    worker’s   compensation,   frustration,   ambivalence,
confusion, apathy, anger, fear of deportation (illegal aliens)
generalized fear, language barrier, cultural barrier, and a
portion of the general public that couldn’t care less.
     The southern American States are presently the most popular
destination for Latino factory farm workers.
     Chicken catchers must be fast, hard-working, alert at all
times, and may be speckled or smeared with dirt, feathers, dust,
chemicals, squashed maggots and insects, fecal matter (bird and
rodent), larvae, feed, blood, and other gooey stuff.
     At work, a cutting instrument must be the correct sharpness
and the handle must be firmly in place.
     Unfortunately this is not always the case. Cutting
instruments are sometimes too sharp or too dull. Finger and hand
accidents result in serious lacerations or horrible amputations.
Furthermore, the fast-paced repetitive motions of the cutting,
hoisting, pulling, twisting, chopping, and yanking can cause
wrist and wrist and hand problems. Most North Americans would
never do this kind of work.
     Upton Sinclair a well-known novelist visited CUSY. He felt,
saw, smelled, and noted the horrors in the CUSY.
     Later, Sinclair wrote a ‘fictionalized version’ of the CUSY
and general slaughterhouse conditions. His book, The Jungle’ was
a smashing success. The American public reacted with shock and
outrage at how 'gruesome' meat could be processed, then packaged
and sold to them.
     Much of the meat sold at the time was infested and
contaminated. Rat droppings, fecal matter, and other disgusting
matter was in their meat supply. Naturally, the American public
demanded change.
     The U.S. Government was 'pressured’ into passing the Pure
Food and Drug Act (PFDA), and the Beef Inspection Act (BIA).
Without the public outcry, there would have been no government
action; at least not then and there.
     The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 led to the creation of
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA was responsible
with testing foods and drugs.
     Prescriptions were required for the purchase of what was
later to be called 'prescription medication’ or ‘prescription
     The physician prescribing the medication had to be
licensed. In addition addictive drugs had to be labelled.
     The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (MIA), set required
standards for animals before slaughter.     Any animal that was
slaughtered could be inspected by government workers post
mortem.   Slaughterhouses and processing plants were required to
maintain an acceptable level of cleanliness.        It was ‘the
government’ that decided what was an acceptable standard.
     Contemporary slaughterhouses are killing more animals at
higher speeds. In effect, less humane measures and occasional-
abbreviated inspections are commonplace.
     The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), under
the Reagan Administration, granted factory farm owners and
administrators ‘increased self-inspection’ rights.     They were
given more ‘freedom’ to violate slaughterhouse animals' rights
and process polluted meat.
     Today’s food giants include names like Tyson Foods, Maple
Leaf Foods, Pilgrim’s Pride, Smithfield Foods, Iowa Beef
Products, and Wayne Farms LLC.
     Organizations that espouse either a ‘no animal use’ or a
‘humane animal use’ philosophy include animal rights and animal
welfare organizations.
     Animal rights activists (ARAs) and organizations may
espouse a vegan, vegetarians, lacto vegetarians (dairy and
vegetables), or lacto-ovo-vegetarians (dairy, fish, vegetables)
by choice. However, the dominant theme in hard-line animal
rights is a no animal use philosophy. The Vegetarian Society
based in the UK is the oldest recorded vegetarian organization
in the world.
     Animal welfare organizations, in general, espouse a more
humane use of animals, including legislation and enforcement.
     Individuals and organizations may use morality, ethics,
health, empathy, personal philosophy, and/or religion as a grid
in determining where they stand regarding animal use.
     On the far left of the Animal rights sector total animal
liberation is espoused. The Animal Liberation Front is a good
example of this movement.
      Richard Ryder, a notable psychologist, coined the term
'speciesism   to   describe   our   ‘superiority   feelings’   and
‘attitudes’ towards the animal kingdom.
     The   distinguished   Australian   philosopher   and   animal
protectionist, Peter Singer, helped to spread the word and idea
of ‘speceism’. Singer’s book Animal Liberation was a big hit. It
helped to re-invigorate that animal rights movement.
     The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), a department
within the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is
assigned with ensuring that America’s meat, poultry, and egg
products are safe and wholesome enough for the public to
consume. Wholesomeness inspection is mandatory while quality
grading is voluntary.
     The FSIS employs nearly 9,400 full-time career employees.
Whatever it costs to sustain this department is well-worth it in
tax dollars. Assuring a safe meat and poultry supply is
mandatory for any nation.
     It is the entry-level inspectors who are responsible for
inspecting the animals before and after slaughter. There are too
many slaughterhouses and too many violations. In defense of the
USDA and FSIS America’s meat and egg supply has been relatively
safe. If you take into consideration the magnanimous levels of
meat and egg consumption you will agree with my statement. This
however, does not describe the everyday activities in the
     Plant operations work at a hectic pace. Inspectors are
sometimes reluctant to stop the operation if they see a
violation. It takes time to analyze the violation and file the
official report.
     Depending on the plant, workers and supervisors may not
take too kindly to inspectors who hold-up the operations. There
have been cases of inspectors being intimidated. Inspectors need
to be given more authority. Plant operators must respect FSIS
inspectors so they can do their job without any obstacles.
     On January 28, 2008, Ed Schafer was officially sworn in as
the new Secretary of the USDA.
     On May 15, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln established a
Department of Agriculture.
     In creating the USDA President Lincoln had good intentions
at heart. America was rapidly expanding in population and size.
     The pilgrims had a strong appetite for meat, milk, and
eggs. They were no different than much of the world.
     Back then, there was no assembly-line-style of animal
slaughter or meatpacking.        Animals were generally slaughtered
one at a time.        It all came down to the sharpness of the
instrument, the talent of the butcher, and the luck of the
     The    Canadian    Food   Inspection    Agency   (CFIA)    is   the
counterpart of the USDA. With over 6,000 employees stationed in
field offices, laboratories, and processing facilities. The CFIA
is assigned the duty of safeguarding food, animals, and plants
that improve the health and well-being of Canadians.
     On   a    positive    note,   the   USDA   and   the   CFIA    have
comprehensive websites. As a general rule, inquiries are
answered. The British counterpart is the U.K. Department for
Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.
     Worst case scenarios for food animals in factory farms or
slaughterhouses      includes kicking, beating, tossing, throwing
(poultry industry), de-horning, skinning (sometimes while the
animal   is    still   conscious),     amputation   (blunt   or    sharp
instrument, sometimes while the animal is still alive), ear or
tail twisting, scalding, or castration (without anaesthesia), or
lack of movement.
     ‘Chicken eating’ in America got a big boost with Herbert
Hoover’s 1928 campaign promise of having a chicken in every pot.
     Today, processed chicken has engulfed North America. Foods
such as chicken nuggets, chicken fingers, breasts, paddies,
wings, thighs, steak, filets, broth, strips, soup, stir-fry, hot
dogs, gravy, chicken pot pie, salami, bologna, salad, and
     During the Second World War, The War Food Administration
did not ration chicken. Their ‘brethren’ the pigeons, immensely
aided the Allied War effort, especially for the British who sent
messages across the English Channel.
     Fast food chicken products are usually loaded with fat and
salt. Never mind the fries, mayo, sauce, and other garnish.
Still, most fast food chicken products are very tasty.
Manufacturers understand the consumers’ palate.
     Chickens set for transfer to a slaughtering facility are
yanked from their cages.         Often, the chicken 'inadvertently'
leaves part of its body behind, like a toe or more. Afterwards,
they're manhandled then tossed into a box or cage in the
transport vehicle.
     Larger animals, like steer, may be enticed to move along by
being kicked and/or prodded.        They're too big and heavy to be
snatched, hoisted, or thrown by a human.
     Bovine Spongiform Encaphalopy (BSE) or Mad Cow Disease is a
communicable brain disease (in cattle) that causes degeneration
and is fatal. BSE has an incubation period of up to 5 years in
cattle, more for humans.       An infected animal could pass BSE to
others.    Potential for a wide-scale catastrophe is there. So
far, we’ve been lucky.
     BSE made its ‘debut’ in the United Kingdom, in 1986.
Infected feed (containing brain, spinal cord) was the method of
transmission.    Feed should never contain rendered meat or any
other product animals shouldn't eat. People who eat BSE
contaminated meat are at risk of acquiring Creutzfeldt-Jakob
     Over 100,000 chickens are housed in windowless sheds. The
chickens get no rest breaks, natural sunshine, freedom to move
about, forage, or dust-bathe. Chickens truly go nuts in these
hell holes. Contrast this with the turn of the 20th century; most
farm chickens in the U.S. were free-roaming.
     Chickens were first domesticated 9,000 years ago in China
and India.
     Intensive farming of chickens saw a major upswing in the
late 1950's.    This was the beginning of a new era of massive
chicken farming. Large chicken farms began to spring-up in the
U.S. Although factory farming of chickens began two decades
earlier, the 1950’s took off like a rocket.
      Chickens could no longer be personalized. The pace of
operations accelerated considerably.    Chickens in factory farms
were now farms brutally snatched from their cages, tossed,
thrown, kicked, and chocked.     In addition, transport distance
was long, without food, water, veterinary care, or temperature
     The broiler chicken industry first took hold in the Delamar
Region (Delaware, Virginia, Maryland), in the 1950's.     Broilers
are housed for up to 7 weeks, before slaughter.
     Broilers’ cages or enclosures are tiny; leaving each
chicken trapped, unable to stretch its wings.
     Because broilers are raised for ‘extreme size’, they're too
big to move around. Chickens need to move around, spread their
wings, dust bathe, and eat whenever and wherever they need to.
     Broilers are raised for meat, not for eggs. Housed in
window-less sheds, surrounded by filth, chemicals, death,
disease, and ammonia from dried up urine.
     The horrible conditions ‘impose’ immense pain, agony, and
torment on every single live broiler. Many go mad.
     The system is fast-paced, cruel, and automated. Everything
is   regulated;   food,   water,  temperature,   waste   disposal,
chemicals, lighting, life, antibiotics, and ventilation.
     Broilers literally become 'super-obese’. Their legs are too
weak to sustain their bodies.      Imagine trying to walk around
with the legs of a stork. In addition, imagine being forced to
stand up, continuously.
     The unnatural lives of broilers results in deformities,
especially in the legs.
     Broilers who can't sustain their own weight simply
collapse.    Unnatural weight and other problems result in
numerous broiler chicken heart attacks.
     Dead chickens are ‘callously’ taken away by farm workers.
The dead broilers may be tossed away, used as low grade food;
maybe soup, or rendered (recycled as chicken feed).
     In order to prevent chicken-to-chicken aggression roosters
have their soft, tender beaks sliced off with a hot blade. This
ensures that they don’t peck at each other.
     If the blade is not hot enough or the slice isn't perfect,
the broiler is assured of increased fain. Because of the hectic
pace, pain killers may not be used. Bulbous swellings and
infections are common. Antibiotics are used to help prevent
     The hectic pace of the poultry industry doesn't allow slow
and calculated movements by the line workers. One ailing chicken
will never stop the process.
     Chickens may have their claws or part of their toes sliced
off, to inhibit aggression.    If part of the toes of a chicken
'encrusts' itself on the wiring, it poses another problem.
When these chickens are yanked out of their cages, the encrusted
flesh stays put.
     Chickens in the wild live by a pecking order.    In cramped
cages, social behaviour becomes twisted, and extremely brutal.
'Recessive chickens' can't run or hide.        This category of
chickens ends up being brutalized by cage mates. Also, they tend
to occupy the worst part of the cage, smothered, or unable to
eat and drink enough to stay alive. Stronger and larger chickens
don’t have mercy on their cage mates. In this kind of
environment the strong live, while the weak die.
     Chickens are cheaper than the cages they’re put in.
Therefore, the system can sacrifice many lives, because many
more will survive. The surviving ones will bring in most of the
money. As stated earlier, even the dead ones can also bring in
     Breeding roosters live their lives in hunger! They peck
excessively, at anything they can, to try to get something into
their empty stomachs.
     A device called a NOZBONZ is used by some poultry farms.
This device is shoved into roosters' noses (without anaesthesia)
from one side to the other then left there. The purpose of the
NOZBONZ is to stop roosters from sticking their heads into the
cages or feeding troughs of chickens. In essence, they’re being
prevented and punished for behaving like roosters.
     Poultry farms housing egg producing chickens have no need
for the male chicks.    Male chicks’ flesh is of lower quality.
Upon birth, the male chicks are tossed into a bag, where they
are suffocated.     Or they can be thrown into a chicken grinder.
Either way, they’re treated as second class poultry chickens.
      Chickens in overcrowded sheds endure extreme thirst.
Owners want to save on water bills and cleaning times.          Also,
more water means more watery stools.
      Lights in chicken sheds are turned on 23 hours a day. When
the lights are on the chickens are in ‘production mode’. The one
hour or so of no lighting is not for the chickens’ benefit. It
is a safety precaution in case there is a sudden blackout.
Chickens that have never been in the dark will go berserk in a
sudden blackout.
      Countless chickens that are taken to the slaughterhouse
suffer from broken bones or severe bruises.        They're routinely
manhandled, tossed into tiny, filthy, boxes for transport.
      Right   before    slaughter    chickens   are    sent   through
electrically charged water. Because of the hectic pace their
throats may not be properly cut at the time of slaughter.
      Forced molting is the process of starving chickens in order
to alter (enhance, increase) the egg-laying cycle.          The word
‘molting’ originally meant the natural replacement of old
feathers with new ones. A normal replacement of feathers occurs
during the course of a year.       Forced molting can last up to 2
weeks.    Up to 7 million chickens are ‘molted’ each year in the
      Molted chickens are given unnatural doses of antibiotics.
The doses cause side effects that can be dangerous to chickens'
natural immunity, especially when the drugs are withdrawn.
Molted    chickens    suffer   from   immense   pain,    agony,   and
frustration.     Again, overcrowding, over-flowing excrement, lack
of freedom, stimulus overload, unnatural lighting, callous
workers, and not being able to breathe clean air, take their
toll.    Ammonia   from   urine,   fecal   matter,   dust,   chemical
pollution, blood, discharges, and death stink up the chicken
      The build-up of excrement, rotting flesh, and disease cause
toxic fumes to 'engulf' the interior of the chicken sheds. As a
result many chickens develop heart and lung problems. The ever-
presence of mice, rats, flies, and parasites, and the fecal
matter of the former three, aggravate matters.
      These creatures must eat. Caged chickens in infested sheds
have nowhere to run or hide.
      Other problems are salmonella, swollen head syndrome, and
fatty liver syndrome.
      School hatching programs began in the 1950's, probably to
glamorize the factory farming of chickens. Pre-teens and their
teachers place fertilized eggs in classroom incubators. Twenty
five days later the eggs hatch.       Children make a connection
between the incubator and the hatchings.
      Pigs in the wild can choose to play and roll in mud for
pleasure, to cool off, and to protect themselves from nasty
insects. Pigs are thought to be intelligent, social animals.
      The do, however, have a pecking order and can be extremely
nasty to each other at time, even cannibalistic. We should
always keep that in mind when we are criticizing the factory
farming of hogs or any other animals. Being out in the open
field is not always an animal paradise. In addition, in
electronic sow feeding between a few dozen and several hundred
sows are housed together and individually fed in high-tech
computer food stations.
      What is proposed in this book is an improvement in housing,
feeding, and slaughter of food animals. Animal welfare standards
should be across the board for all species. This cannot be an
overnight-completed operation. The use of animals is an
essential part of human existence. It will never end, regardless
of what some individuals and organizations think.
      Over 100 million hogs are slaughtered every year in the
U.S., producing twenty billion pounds of pork, almost all of it
for food. Roughly 80 percent of America’s pig farms produce more
than 5000 hogs per year.
      Canada and Denmark are large exporters of pork. Current
trends indicate that the numbers of slaughtered hogs will
increase.     It's a multi-billion dollar industry employing
(directly or indirectly) hundreds of thousands of persons.
      In high concentration hog farms, most individuals spend
much of their lives inside sheds or other enclosures.
      Small town family farms are disappearing from the North
American landscape. Also, factory farm style establishments have
already begun their encroachment into the Third World.
      There are an estimated 500 million farmed pigs in China.
If you eat you must defecate.
      The Government of China has a notorious reputation for
dumping waste with little or no consideration for the potential
      Pigs in factory farms are unable to breathe clean air,
exercise, or wallow in mud. Wallowing in mud is important to
pigs because they don't sweat. The ammonia in the air can cause
lung and heart problems. Many pigs that reach the slaughterhouse
suffer from pneumonia.
      Pigs used for breeding are called breeding sows.     They’re
locked into gestation crates.
      Gestation crates are often so tiny the breeding sow can
only stand and lie down. In worse cases, the sow can't properly
lie down.
     The reasoning behind this is to protect the piglets from
being inadvertently crushed by the mother.     Also, the piglets
can be nursed at will. Breeding sows that move less gain weight
faster. Some pig producers are beginning to breed for less fat
and more muscle; a healthier pig for the consumer.
     Over two thirds of the 6 million breeding sows in the
United States spend seventy percent of their adult lives locked
inside tiny gestation crate.
     Large doses of antibiotics must be given to the breeding
sows to prevent medical problems.
     Muscle atrophy, lameness, digestive system problems, and
mastitis are common problems.
     The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) supports
the use of gestation crates.    Gestation crates are an anathema
to animals' overall physical and mental health. Gestation crates
are an example of ‘immobility incarceration’.
     Piglets who survive the first three weeks of life are taken
away from their mothers to a feeding pen.         There they are
castrated, have their tales sliced off, ears notched, and teeth
ground down, without anaesthesia.
     Tail docking and teeth grinding are done to prevent
aggression amongst pigs, like tail biting. Sometimes, the tail
biting spreads to biting other body parts. The pigs are
responding to the circumstances of their environment.
     Many pigs don’t see the light of day until transport to the
slaughterhouse, which is usually far away.
     Transport is cramped, filthy, tiny, and little or no
protection is provided from the elements.
     Winter transport results in the death of some of the pigs
being transferred. After collapsing, their bodies may begin to
freeze onto the side railing or the floor. Transport laws
regarding maximum number of hours on the road and rest periods
are quite difficult to adequately enforce. It depends on the
owners of the pigs and their compassion.
     All transport is not horrific. Some livestock owners are
more   humane  than   others.  However,   in  large-scale,    fast
operations, humanity is the exception not the prevalent rule.
     Line workers in slaughterhouse plants use metallic hooks or
electric prods to ‘encourage’ hogs onto transport trailers.
When used, the device is plunged into flesh, resulting in the
hog’s encouragement to load onto the transport trailer's ramp.
Because the hogs have lived rough lives, they may be resistant
to boarding the trailer ramp.
     Once inside the transport vehicle, the hogs are sandwiched
into a tiny area. They can suffer from breathing, internal, or
rectal problems.    Sandwiching ensures maximum transport with
minimum expenses.
      There have been cases of hogs being squashed so badly,
their guts actually pop out.
      Hog trailers are recognizable from their powerful stench,
and the protruding snouts that are searching for clean air and
      Slaughter of pigs is preceded by being stunned with a
captive bolt gun. Aim and accuracy are never guaranteed.
      In Islam and Judaism the animal must be fully conscious
during slaughter. The animal must not appear sickly during
      While pigs are on the conveyer hooks, they scream, shriek,
struggle, and kick. Afterwards, the pigs are sent to a scalding
tank. The scalding is supposed to make skinning easier. Under
optimal conditions it doesn't pose a problem.      Unfortunately,
some pigs are still alive during the scalding phase.
      Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), a French chemist, invented the
process of pasteurization (heating food in order to destroy
harmful organisms). Although this lead to many improvements in
food safety and longevity, it was really Franz non Soxhlet
(1848-1926), a Belgian chemist, who first applied pasteurization
in milk. As a result milk could be stored for longer periods of
time. Unfortunately, Soxhlet has been all but forgotten in the
western world.
      Under normal circumstances, cows can live for up to twenty
five years. Dairy cows in large operations are used for 3 or 4
years then are sent to the slaughterhouse. Dairy cows normally
produce 10 pounds of milk per day. In order to increase milk
output Bovine Growth Hormone (BGH) is injected into the dairy
cows.    BGH is a synthetic hormone that alters the normal milk
production patterns and quantities of dairy cows. Cows can
produce up to 100 pounds of milk per day. BGH can cause birth
defects in calves.
      Cows have a gestation period of 9 months.       Increase in
yields calls for a cow to give birth once a year. The repeated
birth cycles can cause milk fever; dairy cows can't produce
enough calcium to compensate for the rapid birth cycle.
      Milk is mainly consumed as a liquid, sliced into cheeses,
ice cream, butter, yogurt, coffee cream, and as part of a cereal
snack or meal.
      Veal production using the standard method cannot be humane.
The mothers of veal calves are ‘dairy producers’.      Their male
calves are taken away from them soon after birth. As a result,
there's no time to form a true and loving bond between mother
and son. ‘Bob veal’ is a veal calf that is taken away for
slaughter shortly after birth.
      Veal calves are sent to special open pens, where they’ll
spend the next 16 weeks inside a tiny pen. In inhumane farms
they're incarcerated, usually chained, given a milk substitute
lacking in iron, forced to live in darkness, and are deprived of
sufficient water.
     Consumers expect their veal meat to be tender, and pale
pink or white in color.     Not being able to move around causes
the veal calves to lose muscle mass and tone, thereby
tenderizing their flesh. A state of sub-clinical anaemia
develops, causing the flesh to appear pale. The deprivation of
water causes veal calves to drink more of the milk substitute.
Since the milk substitute is not water, the veal calves live
their lives thirsty.     Like other factory farmed animals, veal
calves are given high doses of antibiotics.
     The darkness causes veal calves to control their movements.
In the past, veal calves only weighed a fraction of what they do
     In Holland a new technique was discovered that caused the
fattening of veal calves. This resulted in pain, boredom (no
playing, grass, sunshine, or just running around), for 16 weeks.
Today, veal calves can weigh up to 400 lbs.
     The craving for iron causes veal calves to lick their own
urine and rust off the metallic bars in their stalls. Wooden
boards are used in their stalls to prevent veal calves from
licking the iron off the rust.
     Thankfully, more veal producers are using less cruel
methods of rearing their calves. Calves may be placed near their
mothers longer and water is given. It is up to the consumer to
find out where the purchased meat comes from and the
circumstances of rearing, transport, and slaughter. Contact an
animal protection organization in your area, or a nationally
known one. Thankfully, animal protection organizations in
general are more than happy to answer your questions. If you
need a guide or a helping hand, check the telephone booth
chapter in this book. The first section of the chapter deals
with   websites   (Dogs,   Cats   then  general  information  in
alphabetical order). I started out with almost no knowledge in
this subject. With prayers and persistent dedication, I have
learned much. You can too!
     Steers are bulls that have been castrated. Castration is
usually done quickly and without anaesthesia. De-horning and
branding are also common. Be aware, branding an animal’s face
can cause severe eye or facial damage.
     Today OPTIBRAND absolute traceability collects retinal
images for purposes of identifying and tracing livestock.
Although the animal must be restrained for the procedure, it is
painless. The animal resists because of fear not pain.
     Steers are often fed low quality feed in order to cut
expenses. Even paper, manure, and rendered meat have been used.
      Hormones are administered to steers or the enhancement of
growth; anything to make a buck.
      Branding is the act of heating a ‘marker’ on the hide of a
livestock animal.     Branding helps protect steer owners from
theft. Thankfully, branding is being phased out through the use
of tagging and modern techniques of identification.
      If used, branding symbols include capital letters, symbols,
numbers, or combinations thereof. Ear tagging and radio
frequency identification tagging are making headway.
      'Beef animals' have been an important part of American
history. The American trail drives changed the face of the
continental United States.     Cattle herds, sometimes exceeding
2,000 head each were taken to richer grazing sites and/or
      Railheads were the end of rails, or places where military
supplies were dropped off. Long trail drives from Texas to
Kansas, or from Texas to lands further north, took a few months
to complete.
      Stampedes (often at night-time), severe weather, cattle
rustlers, problems with settlers, crossing Indian country, river
crossings, and exhaustion of the cattle hands and cattle, were
problems to be dealt with.
      Every worker in the trail drive had to be tough and
dedicated. The ‘man’ in charge was the trail boss.
      The cook drove the chuck wagon (containing food and
necessary supplies), performed rudimentary medical care, and
helped make the cattle hands feel at ease.         The cook told
interesting stories, relaxing the hands.
       Trail drives had four main ‘checkpoints’. The point man
rode in front of the herd, while the flank riders rode on the
left and right sides, and the dragsiders rode in the back of the
herd.    Dragsiders had the most difficult job because dust from
the trailing of cattle would be ‘jettisoned’ in their faces.
      During the night, one or more hands were chosen to slowly
ride around the herd in order to keep it in check. This activity
helped to prevent many, but not all stampedes.
      As soon as a stampede began the cattle hands shot onto
their horses and got to work trying to control the herd.     When
the dust cleared, it was expected that a few head of cattle
would’ve been lost.
      Trail taggers, tagged along trail drives. They waited on
the peripheral of the herd for a chance to snatch a stray
animal/s.    Trail taggers came in two forms; human or animal.
The former was more formidable and quite dangerous at times.
These fellows were nothing but low-down thieves bent on getting
free cattle. Potential for the use of deadly force was in the
air. Trail drivers were ready for 'gun battles' if need be.
     The Chisholm Trail, Pecos Trail, and Santa Fe Trail are
embedded in American History.
     The Chisholm Trail was likely named after Jesse Chisholm.
Chisholm was a mix of European and Cherokee blood.
     In 1866, Chisholm took his ‘heavy wagon’ through Indian
Territory (now Oklahoma) to Wichita, Kansas. The wheels of his
wagon dug deep grooves into the ground, thereby leaving a
visible trail. Cattle drivers, traders, and travellers used this
trail for nearly 20 years. Many historians of the era agree that
the Chisholm Trail was the most famous of them all.
     The trail drives brought about incredible sales. These
sales were an important source of income for the broke and
dilapidated south, after the civil war.
     Most Americans aren't aware of this fact. The northerners
received their beef, while the southerners received their
monies; a truly symbiotic relationship had begun.
     The appetite for beef has continued unabated with billions
upon billions of burgers having been sold in North America
     As a general rule, fast food and mall food stand burgers
are affordable. Unlike the burger, foie gras is an 'uppity
     Foie gras is a French word meaning fatty liver. Foie gras
is a specialty item in high class restaurants. Customers pay big
bucks to eat this so-called delicacy.
     Sadly, this food item is produced in an inhumane manner.
Unlike some other meat items, foie gras cannot be produced
     The force feeding of ducks was first practiced by the
ancient Egyptians 4,000 years ago. Today, we're supposed to be a
bit more civilized.
     Ducks in foie gras farms are forced to 'accept' enormous
quantities of foods (corn is the principal ingredient), through
a steel tube that is shoved down their throats twice a day.
Food is literally pumped down their throats.      The ducks can't
struggle because their necks are 'firmly held' by a worker.
     The idea is to make the ducks ‘super obese’.       The ducks
take the shape of giant pears, without the stump. Foie gras
ducks are unable to properly support themselves with their legs.
Throat, digestive, and in particular, liver problems develop.
Incredibly, their livers may swell up to ten times the normal
size. No anaesthesia is used throughout the process. This
horrible delicacy should be banned altogether.
     People in the foie gras business have found ways to
circumvent the law.
     If production of foie gras is made illegal in a particular
country or jurisdiction, the ban on the importation of foie gras
demands another law, or an addendum to the original law.
Thereafter, enforcement must be stringent.
     For example, it's illegal to force feed ducks in Poland,
but foie gras is imported from France in large quantities.
Other European countries have danced to this tune also; fooling
their citizens, but not the ducks.
     In 2005, foie gras production became illegal in Israel.
Prior to the Supreme Court decision, Israel was a big supplier
of foie gras.
     Foie gras is illegal in Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Finland, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Turkey;
California (Goes into effect in 2012; sale and production of
foie gras become illegal).
Like their ‘chicken brethren’, factory farm turkeys are placed
together by the thousands in long, dimly-lit sheds.
     North Americans eat turkeys by the millions; thanksgiving
and to a lesser extent Christmas is a favourite time of year to
eat turkey.
     Poults (turkey chicks) spend six weeks in special brood
homes. Alone, they must fend for themselves and reach for food
and water without the aid of their mothers.
     Countless poults die from disease, starvation, and extreme
     In order to curb cannibalism, feather plucking, and
pecking, turkey chicks are de-beaked, without anaesthesia.
     Turkeys for consumption have been bred to have large breast
size. Turkey breast meat is the consumers’ favourite. For this,
turkeys grow so fast they can’t support their own weight.
     Turkey hens used for breeding are artificially inseminated.
This process is painful and terrifying for the turkey hens.
Because of their incredible size and sometimes deformed bodies,
male turkeys in factory farms can't properly mount a turkey hen.
The male’s chest cavity is too large, thereby adversely
affecting the natural mounting capabilities of the male turkey.
     As soon as turkeys have attained ‘selling weight’ they're
promptly   packed   together   in  crates   then   sent   to  the
     At the slaughterhouse they're hung upside down by their
legs, readied for slaughter.       After being slashed, they're
tossed into a scalding tank. The scalding water is supposed to
remove the feathers.    Every turkey is not dead at the time of
     Lobsters are sold as delicacies. They're placed inside tiny
aquariums. The lobster must be cooked alive for up to two
minutes. Waste matter from lobsters in aquariums is negligible
compared to what is emanated from factory farms.
     Massive quantity of waste matter is ‘piled up’ from factory
farms. Waste matter from factory farmed animals is high in
nitrogen. When nitrogen seeps into the air it becomes ammonia.
Too much ammonia in the air is harmful to those who breathe it.
Not only are the animals and factory workers at risk, but also
the surrounding neighbourhoods.
     A large factory farm can accumulate more waste matter than
a human city.    Waste matter is stored, dumped, or spread by
rain. Either way, it is potentially dangerous. As a result, many
rivers and lakes have been polluted; some of them irreparably.
The Bush Administration signed an agreement that gave factory
farms more flexibility in violating clear air standards. In
addition, these same factory farms were forgiven (no fines to be
paid) for previous violations. The factory farms were requested
to monitor their pollution levels and furnish the results to the
Federal Government.
     America’s population is over 4 percent of the world’s
population however, America produces 25 percent of the world’s
greenhouse gas emissions.
     AGRIBIGNESS has powerful allies in government. Otherwise,
many owners of factory would be paying heavy fines and seeing
     Homes that are located near a factory farm are usually
difficult to sell. A strong stench, pollution, and lower
property values are three big reasons for this.
     Sometimes ‘shocking food pollution’ causes the government
to respond. The USDA banned downers on December 30, 2003. Mad
cow disease terrified people and the government.
     The news is not all good, however. With so many
slaughterhouses it is difficult for USDA workers to identify and
analyze every single downed animal.
     Each animal is a large block of money. It is often up to
the line workers and their supervisors to abide by the no downer
     Ritual slaughter is permitted in Canada and the United
States. The two most notable are Hallal and Kosher slaughter.
     Hallal is an Arabic word that means permitted, pure, and
clean. The criteria for hallal slaughter are based on the Holy
Quran and the Sunnah (sayings and teachings of the Prophet
Muhammad, peace be upon him).
     In order for food to be certified as Hallal it must meet
the following requirements:
     1.   The slaughterhouse must be under the supervision of a
certified Hallal inspector. The inspector should be deemed a
pious Muslim by the Muslim community and observant of the
slaughter. A mentally unstable or feebleminded person cannot be
a certified Hallal inspector.
     2.    Each day before the slaughtering begins, the area,
instruments, and machines to be used must be cleaned, and if
applicable, sharpened.
     3.    Each animal must be checked before slaughter. Only
animals that are healthy and fully conscious can be slaughtered.
An animal that has been killed by strangulation, a fall off a
cliff, trampled upon, beaten to death, tortured in any way,
shape, or form, or if the slaughterer pronounced a name other
than GOD it is not Hallal. All pork products are categorized as
Haram (forbidden). Foie gras and typical veal are not raised and
slaughtered in a humane manner.
     4. The blade should be cleansed after each slaughter.
     5.   At the time of the slaughter the slaughterer must say
‘In The Name Of ALLAH (GOD)’ and ‘ALLAH (GOD) Is the Greatest’.
     6.    The jugular vein, oesophagus, and respiratory tract
must be severed quickly and completely.
     7. No work on the animal can be done until it is dead.
     8.   No animal should see the slaughter of another animal;
as it may cause extreme panic and fear.
     9. The Slaughterer must use his right hand to perform the
     Kosher laws pertaining to food are derived from the Bible
(The Pentateuch). Kosher laws have been practiced and accepted
by practicing Jews for thousands of years.
     “Animal such as pork, rabbit, and horse meat, fowl, such as
owl and stork, fish, such as cat fish, eels, shell fish, shrimp,
and octopus and insects are non kosher foods according to
Biblical definitions.
     In addition, kosher meat and fowl must be slaughtered by a
specially trained expert in a painless ritual fashion in order
to be acceptable.
     Dairy and meat products which comingle are not kosher.
There are also special laws relating to cheese, grape juice, and
wine production.” (Rabbi Yaakov Luban, Orthodox Union).
     Bruises, cuts, and abrasions should not be found on the
animal prior to slaughter.    Furthermore, only hindquarters are
used for kosher certification. The veins, arteries, and
unacceptable fats are carefully removed after the slaughtering
     The rules pertaining to the practice of ritual slaughter
are not always exercised in the proper manner. The pressure to
produce more flesh is sometimes overwhelming. Purchase meat from
a well-respected and well-known producer.
     Be aware that this is not a religion book. So if you eat
ritual slaughter foods do not use the aforementioned information
as a religious ruling of any kind. Go to a well-respected,
authorized source for a religious ruling. I have only given you
some basic information pertaining to ritual slaughter. If I have
made any errors in this section or any part of this book I
sincerely apologize.
     A lacto-ovo vegetarian is a person who is a vegetarian, but
also includes dairy and egg products into his/her diet.
     Hard-core vegans try to abstain from consuming dairy, meat,
bird, eggs, or fish.     Vegans also try to abstain from using
animal by-products for non-food use. Because animal by-products
are used in so many products, the scope of non-use depends on
the individual’s resolve.
     The term vegetarian was first used by the British
Vegetarian Society in the mid 19th century. For early humans,
plant-based foods were very important for survival.
     For many people consumption of animal flesh is a regular
occurrence.   Humans need vegetable matter and meat for optimum
health. Not too much of either, however.
Famous vegetarians include Pythagoras (Greek Mathematician),
Leonardo da Vinci, and George Bernard Shaw.
     Contrary to popular belief, Adolph Hitler was not a
vegetarian. Hitler enjoyed eating Bavarian sausages, pigeon, and
poured liberal doses of cream into his coffee. With a personal
chef, bodyguards, and close associates, it was impossible for
Hitler to keep his non-vegetarian lifestyle a secret.
     In China and Korea, there's a demand for dog meat, and to a
lesser extent cat meat.        To a lesser extent, dog meat
consumption can also be found in Thailand, the Philippines, and
     In Korea, it is estimated that 2 million dogs and hundreds
of thousands of cats are sold for food in restaurants, grocery
stores, and on the streets. Indeed, this is an organized
     The dog and cat meat trade for food is horrible. In these
markets you can witness an organized trade, especially in
Guangzhu, located in Ching Ping. The odor emanating from public
cat and dog meat markets is gagging.
     Cats ‘awaiting’ slaughter are crammed together in tiny,
filthy cages. Killings are done by torching, strangulation, or
beating while the ‘animal’ is in a bag (for cat soup).       After
being beaten the cats are placed into pressure cookers.
Countless cats are still alive when they are placed inside the
pressure cooker. This is similar to live pig scalding.
     Dog farms are increasing in China.     These farms hold many
dogs in horrible conditions.      Saint Barnards are the most
popular breed of dogs for slaughter because they grow fast, big,
and are generally tame around humans.
     Saint Barnards are imported from Switzerland. These gentle
giants   were  bred   to  rescue  humans    in  life   threatening
situations. This is how they're paid back!
     The   market   demand,   compounded  with  improved   living
conditions for many, dog meat has become a ‘reachable’ delicacy
for the average Chinese household. Furthermore, the dog breeding
industry is expanding, including in Beijing. Other big favourite
dog breeds are Great Danes and Tibetan Mastiffs. The Beijing
Hong Ding Breeding & Development Company is actively involved in
this endeavour.
     A breeding facility established in 1999, in Kangxi
grassland can ‘produced’ 100,000 fleshy dogs annually.
     Many people are duped into believing that raised adrenaline
levels at the time of death will enhance the virility of the
consumer. Therefore, brutal methods of slaughtering dogs are
used. This claim is illogical and proven false by scientists.
There's absolutely no scientific data supporting this belief.
     In 1991, the Korean Government passed a law forbidding the
consumption of dogs and cats by humans. As a general rule, this
law isn't enforced.
     The Government of Korea has been under incredible pressure
from abroad to help end the eating of dogs and cats by many of
its citizens.
     Even creatures living in water can't flee intensive animal
farming. There's simply nowhere to go.
     Fish farms are ‘walled in’ pens in the ocean containing
fish that are used for food.
     In British Columbia, Atlantic salmon (non-native species)
is a very popular choice for fish farming.
     Fish farm waste matter may equal the amount of a small
human town. This waste matter includes excreta (fecal matter)
and sea lice that may flow into surrounding waters. This in turn
threatens other sea creatures with high levels of pollution.
     If not properly enclosed, penned fishes will attract
During the 1990's British Columbia fish farmers killed many
seals that were trying to eat penned salmon. ‘Obstructive sonar’
is one method to keep predators away from penned fish.
     Salmon in fish farms are crowded into unusually small
swimming areas. Unnatural behaviour, diseases, and heavily dosed
anti-biotic treatment pose a big problem. High doses of
antibiotics are given to fish in order to help prevent diseases.
     Farmed fish may be fed pellets that contain fishmeal and
oils, antibiotics, pesticides, or fish waste.
     ‘Fresh salmon’ doesn't necessarily a fish that was caught
by a fisherman.
     The   fish   farming   industry  is  also  referred   to  as
aquaculture. Corporate behemoths want to make enormous profits,
without worrying about the future consequences. Believe me, if
things don’t change for the better, we will almost certainly
suffer some kinds of consequences.
     Wild salmon has less fat content than farmed salmon.
Farmed salmon are unable to burn calories swimming. They're
‘canned’ together very tightly.
     Animals for destined for are also transported by water.
Australian live animal export across the sea is long and
gruelling for the animals in the vessels.
     Australia exports more live animals (sheep, cattle, goats)
than any other country; the majority by sea. Millions make it to
their final destination, while thousands die of dehydration,
starvation, illness, or exhaustion.
     Problems begin before arrival to the vessel. The animals
are sent from farms and holding yards to ports.           Because
Australia is a vast country, the journey may take up to two
days. In order to cut down on expenses, food and water may be
     Upon arrival at the port, the animals are sent to giant
vessels   that   contain  multi-decked    (multi-tiered)  layers;
primarily for sheep and cattle.
     In linear troughs the sheep are pressed together in pens,
many of them don't have a chance to reach food.
     Sheep on overcrowded vessels may be packed up to three per
square meter. Cattle may be allotted one or two square meters.
     Veterinary care and a routine cleanup of the decks is not
something that can be easily done. Concentration is laid upon
getting the animals to the slaughter destination.
     Most of the sheep are sent to the Middle East. The MV Cormo
Express catastrophe carrying more than 100,000 sheep is not
surprising. The vessel along with others like it, are ‘sailing
factory farms’.
     Humane slaughter in Australia then refrigerated transport
will solve much of the problem. Ritual slaughter can be
performed in Australia by a certified person. This, however,
will not remove the entire problem. Some ritual slaughter must
be performed on the spot; the meat is then divided and eaten
according to religious edict, as in the Hajj slaughter.
     In Australia merino must be ‘mulsed’. In mulesing skin is
sliced away from the anal area of the sheep, without
administering anaesthesia. In Australia mulesing is forbidden on
companion animals.
     Merino sheep are specially bred to have loose skin folds.
Their unnatural folds accumulate sweat, thereby attracting
blowflies. The Australian sheep blowfly (Lucilia Cuprina) is a
pest in Australia. The vast majority of fly strikes are
initiated by this pest.
     The Lucilia Cuprina breeds in sheep. It’s a catch 22 kind
of a situation.
     Mulesing, although extremely painful, is a procedure that
should be performed on merino sheep in order to prevent the
nasty blowfly infestation. The breeding of sheep that are less
susceptible to blowfly infection will be a good first step in
the right direction.
     Australian sheep farmers are only responding to consumer
demand when they breed merino sheep.     From their perspective,
they have an inherent right to earn a living, and in many cases
continue a family enterprise.
     What we need in this case is a more humane alternative;
maybe the breeding of sheep without the excessive folds of skin.
     Fish have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
Catches were considerably smaller than they are today. The
bodies of water were full of food and life.
     Large vessels employ a smaller number of fishermen. Large
vessels are increasing in number although catches are shrinking.
Fishermen have to fish more in order to obtain less. The alarm
bells have already begun to ring. The reduced fish catches has
increased competition amongst large vessel operators at the
expense of small-scale fishermen.
     Many small-scale fishermen are from poor countries that
already have a food shortage.
     Bottom trawling (benthic trawling) harms sea creatures'
habitats and coral reefs.
     Large vessels work around the clock removing too many sea
creatures even from the final sea frontiers.
     Governments around the world support these operations by
giving them subsidies. Like cocaine, the pleasure is short term.
The pain and agony will come later.
     By-catch is considered non-target sea creatures. These are
throw away items. Throw away items can reach up to ninety
percent of the catch. Shrimp trawling is the most wasteful of
all fishing activities.
     Commercial long-line fishing involves large vessels using
nets up to 60 miles, with up to 1000 hooks. Sea turtles, birds,
and marine mammals die in large numbers as by-catch. These mega-
nets are also referred to as ‘walls of death’.
     Overfishing disturbs the natural relationship between
predator and prey. Drastic declines in numbers of predators may
cause significant increases in prey numbers.
     A new species may fill in the gap of apex predator. This
causes major changes. Creatures that are affected are turtles,
seabirds, whales, sharks, dolphins, etc.
     Ridley turtles have been found in the Pacific Ocean hooked
onto long-lines. In addition, the Pacific leatherback turtle is
now threatened with extinction. In the past 25 years, the
Pacific Leatherback turtle population has dropped from over
ninety thousand to less than five thousand. This is a ninety
four percent decrease.
      Loss of habitat is always a serious threat to land and sea
      Our world’s food supply may soon be adversely affected not
only by ‘illogical practices’ but also by pollution and global
warming. We cannot imagine what a ‘starving human world’ will be
like. How will we humans behave?
      Humans sometimes resort to unnatural behaviours to stave
off their starvation, or to just stay alive. Anthropophagi
(cannibalism) can sometimes occur.
      An example of widespread cannibalism in extraordinary times
occurred in the Ukraine (1932-1933). Joseph Stalin and his and
the Bolsheviks induced a horrific famine on the Ukrainian
people.      Grain supplies were forcefully and mercilessly
confiscated. Ukrainian peasants who could once easily feed their
nation were now starving, along with their co-nationals.
      Russian troops were sent to ‘sniff out’ any hidden supplies
of grain or food. Any person who was 'caught' with state grain,
or who did not appear to be starving could receive up to ten
years in a Russian gulag (labour camp). It was a terrible act of
human-on-human cruelty.
      Ukrainians became so desperate they resorted to widespread
      The   intended   consequences   were  to   break   Ukrainian
nationalism and the ‘individuality’ of the average peasant. Up
to seven million people may have starved to death starved to
death during the Ukrainian Holocaust.
      The Ukrainian Holocaust was hidden for decades. Thankfully,
it has now been identified and accepted as a historical fact.
      Andrei Chikatilo, Russia's worst serial rapist, killer, and
cannibal, survived the Ukrainian Holocaust as a child. He
claimed to have seen his brother taken off (alive) by several of
his relatives to be eaten.
      Chikatilo like many others around him witnessed terrifying
      For the most part, Chikatilo was an ‘impotent’ husband,
often mocked by his wife. He was finally captured, sentenced
then executed by the Russian authorities.
      Albert Fish, a notorious cannibal of early 20th century
North America, had an unusual life. Fish had his first taste of
blood in an orphanage.     He was being beaten mercilessly in the
orphanage then blood dripped down to his lips. After getting a
few lick, he felt good.        This was the beginning of Fish’s
‘freaky fantasies’. Later, his fantasies would be acted out.
      Fish claimed to have harmed four hundred children, and
feasted on at least several.     In one case involving a 12 year-
old girl, he made stew made of her flesh, mixed with carrots,
and other vegetables. The stew lasted several days.
     Fish was finally captured, arrested then executed.     After
the execution an autopsy on his body revealed twenty nine
needles inserted into his scrotum (testicular sac).
     An example of state induced anthropophagi (cannibalism)
happened in China. Historically, China has been riddled with
nasty famines.
     In   Mao  Zedong's   so-called  ‘Giant   Leap  Forward’,   a
catastrophic agricultural policy and a severe drought (1959-
1961), caused the deaths of perhaps 30 million people in
Northern China.   The horrible famines lead to numerous acts of
cannibalism. Sometimes ‘the meal’ to be was taken alive
     The Red Guards (Mao Zedong's henchmen), terrorized the
citizenry into reform.     Anything appearing to represent the
west, democracy, or bourgeois life, was deemed ‘illegal’. In
other words, every aspect of Chinese society had to conform to
Mao Zedong's philosophy.
     The Red Guards harmed and killed countless people.
Unfortunately, it did not end there.    The Red Guards sometimes
cannibalised their victims.    On at least one occasion the Red
Guards displayed dead bodies on hooks in front of terrified
students. Afterwards, the students were ordered to eat the
flesh. Although humans have done much good on this planet,
they've also done the worst of the worst. Of the creatures that
we can see with our naked eyes, humans have surpassed others in
their cruel sadism.
                     OTHER USES OF ANIMALS

     Dogs and cats are killed for their fur in China, the
Philippines, and Thailand. China is taking the lead, with an
estimated two million dogs and cats that are bred, slaughtered
then skinned to sustain the fur industry. Many of the furs end
up in Europe as toys or stuffed animals. Short-haired cats and
German   shepherd   dogs are   favourites.  Dog   fur is   often
mislabelled as ‘coyote’, ‘raccoon’, ‘wolf’, or any other name
that can successfully be used to fool the consumers and customs
     In brief the Dog and Cat Protection Act of 2000 forbids
bringing   in,   sending  (shipping,  transferring),  producing,
selling, marketing, or to deal out any dog or cat fur product.
However, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) reserves the right
to exempt certain dog and cat fur products because their
‘minute’ size and ‘quantity’.
     Dog and cat fur farms are overcrowded, filthy, disease-
infested, and without empathy. These facilities lack proper
food, water, veterinary medical care, and climate control. Dogs
and cats are often kept outside so their fur can grow thicker
and longer.
      Even their killings are brutal. Dogs are generally killed
by strangulation. The instrument of choice is a metallic chord.
Afterwards, the dogs may be stabbed in the groin repeatedly.
Then, they're skinned, sometime while still alive.
      Cats are hanged or hanged by having water forcefully poured
into their mouths. Like the foie gras birds, cats and dogs in
the    fur  industry  are   unable  to   defend  themselves.  The
executioner is very intent on finishing the job.
      Some warehouses containing cat and dog fur can be as large
as football fields; they’re full to the rim (the roof).
      Humans have literally conquered the animal world.   Animals
can neither run nor hide from us. We can ‘use them' for whatever
purposes needed. Eating, wearing, using by-products, observing,
abusing, loving, studying, vivisecting, playing, admiring,
worshipping, hating, killing, incarcerating, cooking, vilifying,
chasing, hunting, riding, roping, training (for acting or
performing unnatural acts), studying, or sporting.
      Our brains, thumbs, feet, and bipedal-style walking has
enabled us to dominate the animal world.
      Because habitat loss is immense and continuous, at this
rate most wildlife will be housed in enclosed areas; zoos,
reserves, sanctuaries, national parks, or circuses (GOD forbid).
      The animal world is shrinking every single second of every
single day. All deforestation destroys creatures’ habitats
      The Brazilian rainforest, like other forests especially in
Asia and Africa are being erased by large and quite impersonal
corporations. Cameroon has lost nearly 90 percent of its
original forest.
      In the not so distant past, overhunting was the primary
culprit for reducing wildlife populations.
      Gross habitat destruction causes deaths by starvation,
removes home ranges, destroys individual homes, and causes
wildlife to venture out for food. Often this results in wildlife
raiding crops owned by farmers. This is happening in Africa and
      The bear bile farm industry uses Asiatic black bears to
literally squeeze every last bear bile drop out of these
beautiful creatures.
      In essence, Asiatic black bears in bear bile farms are
‘bear bile machines’.
      A catheter is inserted into bear’s abdomen (without
anaesthesia), to drain the much sought after bile.
      There are over seven thousand ‘moon bears’ in Chinese bear
bile farms.    There has been a 25 percent decrease in bear bile
farming.    Although the Chinese government stopped issuing new
licenses, this industry is still operating. Even if most of the
bears are eventually freed, there will still be others suffering
immensely, every second of the day.
      The moon bears are locked into place inside a tiny, filthy
cage. The moon bear inside the cage cannot turn around, stand
upright, or correctly lay down. This results in deformed bones
infections, constant pain, and extreme mental stress and agony.
      Depending on the farm a moon bear may be placed inside
another cage when it’s not being drained of bile. Don't be
fooled. The other cage is barely any larger than the procedure
cage. Some bears spend up to fifteen years caged in a bear bile
      Moon bears are drained twice daily. Veterinary care is
considered an expensive luxury. As long as the moon bear's bile
is extracted, owners are content.
      Bear gall bladders can sell for up to twenty times the
price of gold. This kind of enterprise breeds a criminal
      Aside from cats and dogs, other animals are also farmed for
their fur and leather.
      Over thirty million animals are killed in fur farms (fur
ranches) around the world every year. On many fur farms the
animals spend their lives in cages unable move about or satisfy
their basic needs. Stress for the animals and the possibility of
contagious diseases are two potential problems for fur farms.
      Tiny cages are used in order to decrease expenditures,
while making the highest profits. Animals that are naturally
free-roaming or water-bound must stay put.
      Genuine fur is biodegradable and more eco friendly than
faux fur.
      Farmed animals that have spent their lives in fur farms may
not be able to handle being set free into the wild. They end up
dying in large numbers or returning. That’s not to say that
their cages are nice places. The fur animals have been de-
      It was in 1534 while Jacques Cartier was in the Gulf of St.
Lawrence that he took notice of aboriginals holding up beaver
      By the end of the 16th century the French were trading in
supplies of new and used beaver robes. The incredible demand in
Europe helped to sustain the beaver trade. Beaver hats were a
demanded specialty item. This incredible demand helped to
sustain the fur trade in the land to become Canada. Later, the
beaver hats trade spread to Spain and Portugal. The Dutch were
also active in the fur trade.
     For Canada to have existed there must have been a prominent
fur trade, First Nations expert guides and advisers, English and
French settlement, and later Allophone settlement.
     Big names involved in fur trading include Medard Chouart
des Groseillier, Radisson, Simon Fraser, Pierre-Esprit Radisson,
John Jacob Astor, Simon McTavish, and Alexander Mackenzie.
     Fur animals, especially the beaver helped mould a viable
Canada. Within the animal kingdom no animal in Canada has been
as important as the beaver. The beaver has been our most
important ‘unwilling contributor’.
     New ports and routes were established as a result of the
fur trade, including the St. Maurice River, Ottawa River,
Saguenay River, and the Ottawa-Gatineau system; to name a few.
     The Algonquin, Iroquois, Huron and Cree Nations were
actively involved in the fur trade.
     The Europeans traded knives, kitchen supplies, alcohol, and
needles for fur owned by First Nations peoples. Alcohol was a
valuable trade item for all.
     The fur trade and exploration of new travel routes went
hand in hand. A short cut to China was desperately searched for.
     The Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) is the oldest corporation in
North America. The HBC was incorporated in 1670 by royal charter
through Prince Rupert.
     The HBC acquired enormous land mass only to lose it through
Rupert’s Land Act of 1868. In effect, the HBC lost its land
     The HBC had its beginnings in the lucrative and expanding
fur trade. In 1821 the HBC merged with its number one rival, The
Northwest Company.
     Ivan the Terrible once sent henchmen through Siberia to
‘confiscate’ countless animal furs. This confiscation eventually
led to the conquest of Siberia.
     Another lucrative enterprise in the America’s was sugar
cane in the West Indies. For the French it equalled or perhaps
excelled in importance to the fur trade.

     Throughout history horses have been used by human beings
for companionship, farming, wars, transport, traction, sports,
showmanship, as companion animals, and food. The idea of eating
horse flesh never ‘took off’ in the United States. Although
horses are slaughtered in the United States for food, the
numbers don't compare with other slaughtered animals. If ever
passed, the ‘upgraded version’ of the American Horse Slaughter
Prevention Act will make it illegal for any institution to
slaughter horses for human consumption or to ship horses abroad
for the purpose of slaughter.
     Horses were first domesticated five thousand years ago.
Today, there are over two hundred recognized breeds of horses.
     Horse slaughter plants in the United States send most of
the meat to Europe and Japan. Some of the slaughtered horses
were once carriage, racing (retired), or wild horses. The use of
horses for food dates back at least to the Ancient Egyptians.
     It's difficult to estimate how many of the horses were
stolen. Since the turn of the 20th century, more than two million
horses have been slaughtered in USDA-approved horse slaughter
     Horses are sent to slaughterhouses in cramped trailers or
carts.   The crowding is so bad horses can't stand up properly.
If a horse falls it may be trampled.      During transport horses
may spend up to 28 hours without food, water, exercise, or
proper veterinary care. To aggravate matters the sealing inside
the trailers or carts is often lower than the level of horses'
heads. Horses in these transport facilities are forced to lower
their heads for extended periods of time. This is unnatural and
painful for a horse.
     U.S. Federal Law requires that horses are rendered
unconscious before slaughter.    A device called a captive bolt
gun is shot into the heads of the horses to render them
     Because of the hectic pace of plant work, the captive bolt
gun is sometimes incorrectly used.    Horses in this predicament
are hoisted up and sent to have their throats cut while kicking
and screaming.
     For humane slaughter of horses, the entire process, from
beginning to end must be smooth and well-coordinated.
     Horses' urine is also a valuable commodity on the market.
Premarin is ‘pregnant mare urine’.       Premarin horses endure
boredom, inactivity, pain, and discomfort in their stalls.
     The hormone premarin is used to treat women with menopausal
     Up to eighty thousand mares are used for premarin.
Premarin is extracted from their urine through the use of
collecting devices strapped to their bodies.
     Premarin mares are placed in tiny stalls, chained, and are
partially water-deprived. It is believed that increased amounts
of water consumption will dilute the potency of premarin.
     Foals (a horse younger than a year-old) of premarin mares
are normally sent to the slaughterhouse shortly after birth. The
mare is unable to form a bond with her foal. The foal is of no
use to premarin manufacturers.
     When the mare can no longer produce any more premarin, she
is promptly sent to the slaughterhouse.
     Since   March   of  1999,  Cenestin   (conjugated  synthetic
estrogens), an FDA approved synthetic estrogens product that can
be used to treat women with menopausal symptoms.
     As with all medications, the patient should contact her
physician before stopping or beginning any use of medication.
     Like dogs, horses have been bred by humans for special
     Healthy horses have long-snappy strides, with incredible
lung capacity. With strenuous physical exertion, horse’s blood
oxygen can increase thirty five-fold.
     Horses also have good memories regarding routines and
routes (returning home, delivery jobs). In addition, they are
faster and have more stamina than oxen. This is one of the
reasons that many more horses were used in North America than
oxen or strenuous work.
     Mules, horses, and oxen have historically been used to
pull. Draft horses are very strong and massively built. They’re
not as fast as thoroughbreds, but can pull more weight.
     The word mule is derived from the Spanish word meaning
half-breed; the commonly known word mulatto. A mule is a cross
between a donkey stallion (male) and a horse mare (female).
     Camels were briefly used by the U.S. Military in the mid-
nineteenth century. The United States Camel Corps was an
experiment in the use of camels in addition to horses. Camels
have a nasty temperament and ‘terrify’ horses. Their use was
ended quickly.
     Draft horses (Clydesdales, Shires, Percherons, Punches, and
Suffolks), are used for pulling heavy loads. Shires are the
largest and most powerful of the draft horses.
     With so many horses used in cities, horse manure dotted
streets, thereby creating an engulfing stench.
     The horse contributed to the opening up of the American
west. Later, the ‘iron horse’ (railroad) became the fastest long
distance way of travel on land.
     The 20th century saw an increase in horse breeding. Breeding
is for the benefit of humans, not for the horses involved.
The use of horses has helped to improve this world. In the not
so distant past horse speed and power was the engine of its day.
Without horses, travel on land would’ve been much slower.
     Nathan Bedford Forest (founder of the KKK) was a cavalryman
and a talented rider of horses.
     Famous men and fictional characters had special horses.
Robert E. Lee (Traveller and Lucy Long), Ulysses S. Grant
(Cincinnati),   The  Lone   Ranger  (Silver,   Hollywood   Horse),
Alexander the Great (Bucephalus), and in Islam the Prophet
Muhammad was taken to Paradise on a super speedy white horse
named Buraq. The list of famous and important horses can never
be complete.
     Horses helped to build the Erie Canal. Horse ferries
transported many people and merchandise over long distances.
Sadly, the horses used for these ferries were often worked
mercilessly. There weren’t too many Henry Bergh characters
     The American Civil War saw the use of many thousands of
horses. Transport, feed, and general care of the horses took
much work. Horses were used by both the North and the South,
carrying supplies, equipment, and soldiers.
      By war’s end many thousands of horses had died. The South
found it difficult to feed horses throughout a brutal war. No
feed, no functioning horses. For optimum performance horses need
hay, grain, and corn. Corn is less nutritious than hay or grain.
To ease the feeding problem, mixtures were also used. Don’t
forget, horses need horseshoes. This was another supply demand
for both sides.
      The Union purchased many of their horseshoes from The
Burden Horseshoe Company. In 1835, Henry Burden received the
first patent for a horseshoe manufacturing machine.
      For the Union Army transportation of soldiers, equipment,
horses, and any other essential items fell on the shoulders of
the Quartermaster’s Department.
      Many horses used in the Civil War had to endure exhaustion,
fear, apprehension, injury (from shrapnel and/or from the
strenuous work).
      Many horses were taken as booty by both side, then later
      Historically many jobs and uses evolved around horses. They
included ambulance workers, law enforcement, delivery workers,
knackers, show horse industry, delivery man (food, milk, beer,
etc.), race industry, jockey, streetcar operator, farm worker,
furrier, showmanship, horse breaker, rodeo, manufacturers of
horse equipment, horse food workers, stable worker, stagecoach
driver (Concord stagecoach was the standard type), nutritionist,
hunting, circus, fire truck operator, Knacker (a person who
purchases over-the-hill livestock then butchers them for sale),
masseuse, veterinarians, vivisection (nowhere near as common as
monkeys), corral worker, waste removal, entertainment industry,
war, fire departments, groomer, horse show judge (prestigious),
breeder, butcher, horse fighting promoter (dishonourable job),
Pony Express rider (short-lived but well-respected), wagon and
carriage manufacturers, carriage driver and riding instructor.
      The Kentucky Derby is the most famous racehorse in the
world. Exceptional horses that are ridden by tenacious jockeys
win the Triple Crown.
      The ‘mint julep’ is ‘the drink’ of the Kentucky Derby. The
winner of the Kentucky Derby is literally draped with a garland
of roses (564 rosebushes).     The trophy is presented with the
horseshoe turned up.
      Unfortunately, all is not good in the horse industry.
Because only a select few horses can make the grade the ‘large
surplus’ must be ‘removed’.
      Because of the incredible training and racing regimen
injuries, including serious ones, are common. Sometimes, a horse
must be euthanized.
     When careers end the horses must be removed from the
‘glamour’ of the racing industry. Unless a person or an
organization decides to care for the horse, slaughter or
euthanasia is the general outcomes.
     Financial gain and the thrill of winning are powerful
motivating factors in the horseracing industry. Pain killers
alleviate the ‘pain’ only, not the underlying cause. In effect a
racehorse may run on an injury.
     Horses are only two or three years-old when they race.
Their bones may not be fully developed.
     Horses can also be put to other uses. The Persians formed
the first cavalry. There are guide horses for the blind, and for
the physically and mentally challenged.
                      Hunting & Trapping

     Early humans lived primarily as hunters and gatherers.
Their food (fruits, roots, fish, mammals, birds) were obtained
from the surrounding areas. In the case of birds, the eggs were
easier to acquire.
     Residence was temporary, with small populations of humans
clustered together. Whenever resources in a particular area ran
out, our ancestors moved to another area. Everyone helped in the
sustenance of the community. Men hunted, while the women
gathered.   As a general rule what was hunted was needed. There
was hardly any excessive waste.
     Sport hunting targets an estimated 200 million animals in
the United States every year. As expected varying estimates can
be   acquired  pertaining   to  the  number   depending   on  the
institution you get your information from. I have used a common
estimate. There’s no way to get an exact number of animal kills.
     A successfully targeted animal may die quickly, die slowly,
survive a lifelong wound, live maimed, and/or be orphaned.
Depending on the weapon of choice, number and location of
wound/s, age and health of the animal, species, the elements,
the animal’s resolve, where it ranks in the predator hierarchy,
gender, and the availability of food, water, and shelter. This
is not an exhaustive list.
     An abbreviated list of hunted, fished, or trapped animals
species include passenger pigeons (exterminated), elephants,
apes, monkeys, bison (American bison nearly exterminated),
rhinos, hippos, giraffes, koalas, pandas (the cutest bears),
beavers,    wolves,   prairie   dogs,   ferrets,   coyotes,   fishes,
Zanzibar leopard (may have been exterminated), sharks, dolphins,
whales, jackals, bears, deer, foxes, tigers, turtles, bobcats,
lynxes, lions, tigers, frog, cougars, snakes, cheetahs, grizzly
bears, black bears, moon bears, polar bears, American bald
headed    eagles    (now   protected),    California   condors   (now
protected, peregrine falcons, ibex, musk oxen, dodo birds,
almost fell into extinction), Florida panthers, leopards,
jaguars, rabbits, squirrels, moose, squirrels, wildebeest,
zebras,     lynx,    bobcats,    pigeons,    kangaroos,    antelopes,
wolverines, muskrats, whales, dolphins, fishes, apes, monkeys,
crocodiles, walruses, penguins, seals, fishes, water borne
mammals, alligators, snakes, boars, deer, moose, raccoons,
swans, and African cape buffalos.
     In times of war or territorial skirmishes, humans may also
been hunted-down; the Taino were almost exterminated, the
Beothuk were exterminated. The last member died in 1829 in St.
John’s, Newfoundland.
     In 1760, near Pomfret, Pennsylvania, there occurred a
‘Circle of Death’; a truly smorgasbord hunt. The intended result
was to kill magnanimous numbers of wildlife (predators and prey;
land and airborne). The settlers did not appreciate the presence
of so many ‘pests’ nearby.
     The hunters formed a 30 mile diameter ring. In addition,
the hunters made loud noises.
       Finally, the hunters slowly moved in for the kill.
Wildlife had nowhere to run but to the center of the ring. In
the end, a massacre ensued.
     Primitive hunters used crude gadgets like sticks, atlatl,
rocks, or any other object they could throw, beat, or ram into
an animal. Primitive hunters had to use their imaginations and
brawn. Like wolves, they worked together to outsmart the prey
target. Gradually, as weapons became more sophisticated hunting
game could be done at a greater distance and with less brawn.
Animals could even be killed without having taken notice of the
hunter. Sport hunting became possible; afterwards, canned
hunting. Today, we even have remote controlled hunting from vast
     When the 'subsequent waves' of humans arrived in the
Americas it was the beginning of the end for many of our forests
areas and countless wildlife species. There's no telling how
populated America was with animals.    However, it is known that
there were large tracks of forests containing incredible numbers
of wildlife species.
     Today millions of acres of forests are destroyed annually.
Not to mention the indigenous populations, wildlife, and other
treasures therein.
     Early colonists were sometimes annoyed at night-time sounds
emanating from forests.
     Unless we humans suffer through an incredible worldwide
catastrophe, animal habitats will most likely continue to be
     Reasons for mass hunting of species include demonization of
particular species, threat to livestock, contagious diseases,
human habitat expansion, protecting humans, and sport.
     If a mother animal is killed, or severely wounded, her
offspring usually die.
     Bow hunting requires more concentration and steady hands
than crossbow or rifle hunting. Because of this fact, a targeted
animal is more likely to be struck in a non-lethal part of
his/her body. This may cause a long-term lingering injury.
Naturally, the targeted animal will try to get away if possible.
     Crossbow hunting is popular in Ohio. The use of bows and
arrows in hunting and warfare were a gigantic leap in
technology. The bow and arrow along with the crossbow are
smaller and require less brute strength than a primitive spear.
     Cross bow hunting uses a propulsion system that is similar
to a firearm. It’s very effective and deadly.
     Barring some kind of worldwide catastrophe, some form of
hunting will be around for ages to come.
     Conservation and hunting must not be at odds. Habitats must
be protected. Hunting seasons and maximum kills must be
calculated to ensure that wildlife species’ numbers do not fall
below a sustainable level. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) must
be rejuvenated. Bush era weakening of the ESA or special
interests groups must be reversed and more.
     Government agencies and hunters’ organizations should work
together to ensure accuracy in this endeavour; if that is
     In addition, where applicable and necessary there must be
‘protected zones’ free of hunting or human encroachment.
Wildlife and forest lands are more difficult to satisfactorily
protect in Parks and reserves that are located in poor, high-
density population areas.
     Professional, legal hunters understand that roads give
easier access to hunting sites, but remove the privacy and
     Africa and Asia have been hit hard by illegal and
government sanctioned non-sustainable logging, poaching, and
illegal wildlife trafficking.
     In all fairness poor people involved in deforestation, non-
sustainable hunting, hyper-extraction of valuable resources, and
the bush meat trade look at people in the western world as
somewhat hypocritical. They need their money. Sometimes they’re
very hungry and have no other way to earn a living. Westerners
made fortunes by doing the same thing that they are telling the
Third World nations not to do.
     It is the First World corporations who are doing most of
the damage in Third World countries, and they are reaping the
bulk of the profits.
     Anti-poaching laws must be stringent and enforced. In North
America illegal hunting must result in stiff fines. Smorgasbord-
style hunting (limitless hunting; American bison, passenger
pigeon), habitat destruction, pollution, and destruction of
keystone species are big problems that must be dealt with head-
on. We’re not struggling Third World people.
     When large tracts of forests are destroyed, humans and
animals therein are adversely affected. Soil erosion, habitat
loss, and possibly mud slides can occur. Trees help to keep the
ground soil in place. Tree dwelling creatures can't go anywhere
if the trees in their habitat are destroyed.
     When roads are carved into forested areas, pollution levels
rise, and humans become more detached from nature. Previously
large woodlands or forests become non-contiguous. Road kill
becomes an additional problem. What does a wild animal know
about roads and road kill?
     The bush meat crisis is a result of overhunting of wildlife
species in the equatorial forests of west and central Africa.
The Great apes are being obliterated in order to be eaten as a
‘meat delicacy’ in fancy African restaurants.
     A plate of chimpanzee or gorilla meat can cost sixty
American   dollars.  Because   this  is   a   lucrative business
(estimated at two billion dollars annually), poachers number in
the thousands, often from other countries or regions in Africa.
These poachers are nasty, well-armed, and will fire on rangers
if necessary. Great apes are no match for the poachers' super
     The logging industry is helping to sustain the bush meat
crisis. Logging companies (often foreign) build roads that cut
into forests. Workers enter deep into the forest to kill, eat,
and sell bush meat.
     Baby apes taken for the entertainment industry require the
killing of several other members of the troupe, by shooting or
machete. This holds so especially in gorilla troupes. Male
silverbacks may fight to the death to protect themselves, those
under them, and ‘their honour’ as leader. Chimpanzee and gorilla
mothers have been known to fight to the death to protect their
own. Mouse lemurs are the smallest primates.
     Wildlife including Great Apes, monkeys, elephants, swine,
water borne mammals, rodents, and pangolins are affected by the
bush meat trade. Many great apes and monkeys have lost a hand or
a foot in horrible snares. In fact, any animal that steps on a
snare is subject to being ensnared, regardless of what the
target species was.
     The term bush meat generally concerns Africa, but can mean
any place on this planet where this problem occurs.
     Africa and Asia are not the only places where wildlife
habitats can be obliterated. The Amazon Rainforest is taking a
beating twenty hour hours a day.
     Many dams have flooded indigenous peoples’ lands and have
destroyed wildlife habitats.
     Animal habitats are under the complete control of humans.
Animal species can't run, hide, or migrate to far-off regions to
escape us. Specialist animals have a difficult time re-adjusting
to new surroundings. Many of them end up dying.
     Advanced weaponry, helicopters, airplanes, water vessels
(with ice breaking instruments), sonar, tracking devices,
computer monitoring, advanced communication devices, satellite
technology, automobiles, and snowmobiles, have given humans the
ability to kill, terrorize, control, trans-locate, and/or
annihilate any mammalian species on the face of this planet.
     Humans have charted every known land mass. Wildlife on
miniscule non-charted islands cannot escape our pollution.
     Even polar bears are hunted. The lucky ones are ‘gunned-
down’ and die quickly. The unlucky ones are chased, wounded, and
then continue to be chased by hunters, sometimes with specially
trained dogs or mechanized vehicles.
     If an injured polar bear were to miraculously escape from
its human pursuers, he/she will be forced to live a life of a
'wounded animal’ (blood loss, anaemia, illness, infection, the
elements, loss of hunting capacity, etc.).
     Polar bears tread vast distances on ice in the far Northern
regions of this planet. Anthropogenic (human caused problems)
include oil barrel leakages, excessive hunting, PCB's and other
chemical poisons.
     Nations and territories with polar bear populations include
Canada, United States, Norway, the former Soviet Union, and
Greenland (a territory of Denmark).
     Early spring ice melting has been occurring in vast
stretches of the North, where polar bears live. Early spring ice
melting causes a shorter hunting season for the polar bears.
Polar bears need a platform (ice) in order to hunt their
favourite food (seals). Polar bears wait silently and patiently
next to a breathing hole then make their move as soon as the
seal comes up to take a breath. Seals are a polar bear’s
favourite food. In fact, a polar bear can scent a seal from up
to twenty miles.
     Polar bears also eat seabirds, fishes, berries, plants, and
     Polar bears are very powerful animals. They attack and kill
seals with their teeth and claws. Polar bears are more dangerous
to humans than grizzlies. Perhaps it's because Polar bears have
not     come    into    contact    as    often    as    grizzlies.
     Polar bears and grizzly bears have been seen evading traps.
Some individuals even know how to remove an article of food
without    triggering the    trap.  Indeed,   they're  intelligent
     Polar bear populations can easily fall into the dangers
zone. They breed at a slow rate; small litters, maturation
occurs between the age of four and six, and hunting.
     Native hunting of polar bears is regulated by international
law and the laws of the nation the natives reside in. Poaching
and corruption is more prevalent in the former Soviet Union.
     In sport hunting, polar bears are ‘gold medals’ of the
Arctic.’ They're the largest, toughest, and most courageous of
all the large bear species.     Excluding humans, polar bears are
the highest ranking predator in their habitat.
     Professional polar bear hunters must have high levels
tenacity, endurance, stamina, and strength. Hunting is often
done in extreme temperatures, with the use of sled dogs. This is
the hunter’s choice. As stated earlier, high-tech hunting aids
can be used, if chosen.
     Inuit peoples depend on polar bear hunting for survival.
The hide, meat, and teeth, are used efficiently. Inuit peoples
believed that polar bears were the second most powerful spirit.
     Bear claws were used as talismans by the Cree. The purpose
was to ensure protection.
     Some aboriginal peoples of the far north use technology to
hunt-down native species. In essence, it has become much easier
to hunt animals, for everyone.
     The early American colonists killed off many of the bears
in their region. Sadly, this process would continue throughout
the much of the continental United States. Grizzly bears now
reside in less than two percent of their former range, and their
population is between one and two percent of its former number.
There are now slightly over one thousand grizzly bears in the
continental United States. There have been numerous cases of
grizzly bears prying open car doors and ransacking homes. DO NOT
 Black bears have been more successful in their survival and
evading of humans. There are presently eight recognized bear
species. However, that doesn’t mean that they were never
demonized or overhunted. Minnesota had a bounty on black bears
from 1945 to 1965.
     Bears have been shot, poisoned, trapped, box trapped, and
assaulted with an espontoon (French word). An espontoon is a
spear known in English as a halbert.
     The espontoon resembled a spear, was five or six feet long,
and had two blades. The attacker could thrust his weapon
repeatedly at a grizzly bear.
     Problems between humans and bears have a very long history.
In fact, it was primitive humans who first had problems with
bears in caves.
     There are many nicknames for bears. A partial list of names
includes nanook, big hairy one, black beast, brownie, yogi,
bruin, happy hooligan, big feet, bear cat, beast, goliath,
grandmother, shining cat, honey bear, four eyes, ape man,
monster, etc. This partial list includes names from all of the
bear species. The Stutz Bearcat was an early automobile.
Professional, amateur, and youth sports teams use bear names;
most notably football, baseball, and basketball.
     Many bears were killed in the First and Second World War.
The Indian Army killed many sloth bears during the 1800’s.
Perhaps for target practice, or some other trivial reason/s.
     On the up side, grizzly bears are flexible in what they
eat; salmon, berries, honey, fruit, moose, elk, human food, etc.
Grizzly bears may double their weight, eating up to twenty
thousand calories per day, for a long hibernation. When eating
plants, incredible quantities must be eaten because their
digestive system cannot properly absorb the nutrients therein.
Scientists study bear scats to identify what was eaten and
digested by individuals.
     The term ‘black bear’ is a generic description of bears
that are coloured black, cinnamon, brown, semi-red, or in
     Historically, bears have been hunted, trapped, used for
entertainment, eaten, caged, bear baiting (horrible sport),
demonized, driven off of their habitats, and have had body parts
such as skin, teeth, bones, and claws used to satisfy human
     Texas ranchers killed bears to protect their livestock.
Grizzly bears are large, powerful, and fast animals. If
desperate enough they’ll take on and kill a full-grown moose.
     Father Armand David was the first European to see a panda.
The Chicago zoo was the first to house a giant panda.
     There are nearly 1600 pandas in the wild. The World
Wildlife Fund (WWF) has used the panda as its logo since 1961.
     Although giant pandas are cute and cuddly looking, never
approach one straight on in the wild. The giant panda is still a
wild animal. Giant pandas eat twenty different kinds of bamboo.
     Giant pandas live in thick-forested areas in China where it
is cool and damp. Their primary food source is bamboo. The
hunting of giant pandas has been illegal in China since 1962.
However, illegal hunting of these animals is for their fur.
     Being a giant panda in the wild is tough. Many giant pandas
do not attain adulthood. Leopards and other predators are a
lurking danger.
     The Government of China has established forty giant panda
preserves in order to help protect this beautiful animal.
Corridors have been carved out to enable pandas to migrate to
bamboo sites. Pandas generally don’t breed too well in
captivity. Zoo professionals must work hard to fix this problem.
     Whether in cold or hot climates, no animal species is safe
from humanity's ‘claws and daggers’.
     The Arabian Oryx (140-175 lbs.) is a medium-sized antelope.
It was almost blasted out of existence. This desert wonder was
once very numerous in the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabian Oryx
can survive without drinking water for up to a year. Plants
supply it with much needed moisture.
     From the 1950's rampant, unfettered hunting of the Arabian
Oryx by helicopters, radio communications, and modern weaponry
almost resulted in extinction.
     The Government of Saudi Arabia, Fauna Preservation Society
(now Fauna and Flora International) and the World Wildlife Fund,
have helped pull the Arabian Oryx back from the brink of
     Today, there are conservation efforts by governments in the
region and international organizations, helping to maintain a
healthy Arabian Oryx population.
     Seven percent of the American population are hunters;
they’re dedicated to their cause.
Canned hunting does not require much talent, often no chase, and
a guaranteed kill. Many professional hunters look down upon the
canned hunting industry, and rightfully so.
     Canned hunting preserves are springing up in the United
States.    There are hundreds of preserves in Texas alone.     The
hunting is done on private lands containing exotic animals,
often from Africa or Asia. Because most owners ‘guarantee’ that
the hunter will get a kill, any John, Dick, or 'Harriet’, can
get a kill. Just have your credit card in your hand.
     Thankfully, nine states have already outlawed canned hunts.
In 2005 the Texas Legislature passed a law prohibiting remote
hunting (hunting by internet); including bow hunting, cross bow
hunting, or firearm hunting of animals in Texas.
     Trophy hunting is available in North America, Europe,
Africa, and Asia. In Europe, millions of Euros are made annually
by the trophy hunting industry.     Trophy hunting organizations
based in Europe offer package deals (including tours, lodging,
and hunting) to Africa, Asia, North America, and Europe.
Endangered species are sometimes hunted.
     Some zoos and circuses sell animals to the canned hunting
industry. Some of these animals have been in captivity, on
display and have been fed by humans for much of or all of their
lives. A few have been abused.
     The Association of Zoos & Aquariums is respected and known
throughout the world.
     In essence, many canned hunting targets have been de-
animalized. Their flight instinct has been blunted.
     Most preserves are fenced-in, or have some kind of
enclosure structure. In effect, the animals are "sitting ducks!"
Even if the animal did run away, it would always be within the
confines of the preserves. In some cases, food is used to entice
the animal to approach a pre-designated area. The food may be
placed in the same location for days or weeks beforehand to
better assure an easy kill.
     Some canned hunting organizations give the hunter even
more. The target animal is actually securely fastened to a
stationary object. It has nowhere to go!
     Wolves once prevailed over much of the North American
continent.   With over 20 gray wolf sub-species it’s no wonder.
In their heyday wolves were super-predators who generally hunted
in well-organized packs, thereby increasing their strength,
persistence and efficiency.
     Wolves have incredible endurance, able to trot for many
miles a day. Packs of wolves will kill a bear if it gets too
close for comfort. In a one-on-one confrontation, a wolf
wouldn't stand a chance against a full-grown bear or a cougar.
     The early European settlers, demonized, then began wide-
scale slaughtering campaigns against wolves. Because wolves
killed livestock and were large predators, settlers, especially
ranchers, viewed them as competitors and dangerous creatures.
     Unwarranted and inflated stories of wolves attacking people
were widely distributed. In fact, wolves in the wild almost
never attack people.
     A wolf attack may occur when a person inadvertently walks
into a dispute, near wolf pups or encounters a sickly
individual. Hybrid (wolf-dog) should not be companion animals;
they are unpredictable. They don’t belong in the pet category.
      Ranchers have an inherent right to defend their livestock
and companion animals. Problem animals should be dealt with by
translocation or deadly force, if necessary.         Translocation
takes time and money.
      Ranchers provide bread and butter to the citizens at large.
Fencing, securing the livestock, guard dog/s, and motion
detectors (expensive), and other non-lethal methods may help.
      The extermination campaign of wolves was encouraged and
supported by the United States Government through the use of
bounties. The bounty system was also used in the Northwest
Territories, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario,
Quebec, and Saskatchewan. Calls for the 'extinction' of wolves
were prevalent.
      What they really meant was 'extermination.' The only way to
have    caused   wolves   to    become    ‘extinct’  was   through
      Extinction sounds natural, like it was caused by nature.
Under this context, extermination is the deliberate, cold-
blooded, and calculated series of actions designed to completely
annihilate wolves. Trapping, hunting (with or without a bounty),
habitat destruction, poisoning, ‘situational translocation’ were
the main methods used.
      Bounties were given for wolf carcasses. By the early
1970's, there were only a few hundred wolves left in the
Continental United States, most of them in the upper Midwest.
Although wolves in Alaska fared better today they're under
threat, from aerial hunting.
      The Endangered Species Act (1973) was a step forward in the
protection of endangered species, including wolves. Although the
process was slow it eventually lead to the re-introduction of
additional wolves into the upper Midwest. Other areas may follow
      An incredible wolf named ‘Old Lefty’ evaded being killed
for 13 years.
      In Alaska, wolves are being killed by aerial shooting or
land and shoot kills. The former exhaust the wolves in order to
gun them down easier. The gunners are sharpshooters. In land and
shoot kills, the plane lands, the gunners get out then the
wolves are gunned-down at close range or point blank range.
      The Airborne Hunting Act 1972 specifies the conditions
pertaining to the aerial hunting of wildlife. Aerial hunting in
Alaska    has  been  placed   under   the   category  of  wildlife
management, thereby neutralizing the Airborne Hunting Act of
     In packs wolves are very formidable predators; able to take
down a full-grown, antlered, healthy moose.
     Wolves can trail a target animal for many miles, if
     Wolf packs first spot a herd, stalk the herd, get closer to
the herd, close-in on an individual, harass and make contact
with the individual, separate the individual then move in for
the kill.
     In the kill, several or all of the wolf members may
participate. All’s not good however. Many of their attempts at
finding and killing prey are unsuccessful. Prey animals have
evolved alerted senses and in the case of adult moose, an
incredibly deadly kick from any of its legs and in adult males
incredible antlers.
     Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement
between government bodies.
     CITES members safeguard the safety and security of wildlife
and plants in the international trade.
     CITES member states adhere to CITES rulings voluntarily.
The trade in wildlife and plants crosses countless international
borders.   As such, cooperation between member nations necessary
to implement CITES rulings. The black market trade is a big
problem to be tackled. Currently, there are 175 members of the
CITES Convention.    Animals are categorized animals into three
     1.    Appendix one: Includes species populations that are
threatened with extinction. Trade in these species is permitted
under ‘special’ circumstances (non-commercial import).
     2. Appendix Two:     Includes species populations that are
controlled in order to prevent trade that is harmful or
hazardous to their existence.
     3. Appendix three: Includes species that are controlled in
one or more countries. The ‘controlling nations’ have requested
other nations to help in their control.
     Although CITES does not have the power or authority it
needs, the organization is respected by the governing world body
and citizens across the globe.
     Nations that illegally trade in animals and plants are
often not fully equipped to stop poaching, don't care, or are
actively involved in the illegal trade.
     In effect, some governments are a big part of the black
market. Rampant corruption, dictatorship, and no tough controls
keep them going.
     CITES member nations should work hard and diligently to
help protect endangered species.
     In Britain people who want to hunt game birds can do so at
special estates or farms. Here, game birds are reared to
eventually be targets for game bird hunters.
     Game bird hunters referred to as ‘punters’ by the British,
pay hefty prices to shoot game birds out of the sky. The
surrounding areas may be cleared (poisoning, trapping, shooting,
bludgeoning, snaring, etc.) of wildlife prior to the big hunting
     Fur-bearing animals can be trapped by the use of snares.
Snares are wires that strangle the part of the body that is
caught. For instance, if a fox's leg is caught in a snare, the
snare becomes a tourniquet. Since many snares don't have a
'stop' the more the fox struggles the more he/she suffers.        If
on the other hand, the fox's neck is caught in the snare, then
the result may be death by strangulation.
     If a snare becomes rusty or splintery, it only adds to the
pain of the ensnared animal. It is up the trapper to ensure
effective snares.
     Snares can be implanted ‘into’ a log or block. The ensnared
animal is forced to drag the log or block around until
exhaustion, or death by exhaustion occurs.
     Non-target animals may be inadvertently trapped. Depending
on where the trapping is done; it could be your dog or cat that
is trapped.
     Sometimes    wildlife    population    control   measures   are
necessary. This can be done by translocation, sterilization, the
introduction of predatory animals, trapping, or hunting. Prior
to introducing any wildlife species in to an area, a
comprehensive   scientific    study   must    be  done   beforehand.
Artificially introducing, or re-introducing any wildlife species
can adversely alter the habitat.
     In 1996, conibear traps were outlawed in the Commonwealth
of Massachusetts by the Question One referendum.         What ensued
afterwards was a lesson to us all.
     Beaver populations skyrocketed from an estimated 20,000 in
1996    to  over    50,000   in   1999,    and   continued   rising.
Massachusetts Wildlife received hundreds of complaints from
homeowners hit with beaver related problems. When beavers build
dams, the water can back-up, causing flooding in yards and
     In addition, cranberry growers were adversely affected by
muskrat overpopulation. Although the plight and welfare of
animals is always important, humans, their companion animals,
and their properties have priority! This is not speceism, this
is realism!
     We, who live outside of the ‘overpopulation areas’ must be
sensitive to the rights and feelings of Massachusetts residents
who    were   adversely    affected    by    beaver    and   muskrat
     Today, residents of Massachusetts who own property can
receive special permits to use conibear traps, as a result of
amendments to the 1996 law, adopted in 2000.
     Aside from ‘mammalian traps’, some traps are used for
indoor, birds, or small animals.
     Glue traps are a common method of trapping rodents and
small birds. The traps are effective but wreak havoc on the
trapped animal.
     A rodent caught in a glue trap struggles with all his/her
might just to get loose.    Rodents sometimes end up pulling out
their own hair, blotches of skin, or breaking or biting off an
appendage. Sometimes a rodent is stuck head first in glue;
resulting in suffocation until death.

     A bird can easily break a leg while struggling to ‘escape’
a glue trap. Extinct calls for a bird to fly away.
     Box traps (metallic or plastic) are more humane than glue
traps. It's up to the trapper to check the box traps on a
regular basis.
     From the opposing viewpoint too many birds and rodents
leave droppings, can spread diseases, or destroy food supplies.
Therefore, it's imperative that all humane methods of trapping
and repulsion be tried first. If all fail, then lethal methods
must be used.
     For homes and buildings, all holes, cracks, and openings
should be sealed. This included windows, plumbing, and doors.
Prevention usually works if it’s done early and correctly
     Although hunting with dogs is now illegal in the England
and Wales, a basic description of this kind of hunting should be
     On November 18, 2004 the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949
were invoked. The ban on hunting with dogs officially went into
effect on February 18, 2005. Countless hunted animals and many
overworked foxhounds had been used in this sport.
     In fox hunting the target animal (fox), if caught, is shot
or torn into pieces by trained Foxhounds. The only way to evade
this catastrophe is to escape. Foxholes in the intended hunting
areas are sealed a day in advance, by 'earth stoppers’.
     Earth stoppers are not paid workers. They are volunteers
who do their work late in the night or shortly after dawn. They
seal up every single fox hole that they come across.
     Fox hounds are bred to have incredible stamina and
endurance. During a hunt their duty is to wear down and find the
hunted fox.
     Fox hounds are put to use for five to seven years. When a
fox hound outlives its usefulness, it’s up to the owner to with
it as he/she pleases. The end result is not always good.
     During the hunt, the horse rider positions himself behind
the Foxhounds. As soon as the scent is picked up, hunters ride
into the path of the fox. The object of the sport is to capture
and kill the fox.
     Officially, sport hunting is illegal in Hong Kong. That
doesn’t stop sport hunters from going to remote areas of the
country to hunt.
     Nearby, in China, sport hunting is more pervasive. China is
a large country both in population and geographical area.
Furthermore, there are no animal protection laws.
     In sport fishing countless sea fishes die unnecessarily;
many are tossed back into the water as a result of being killed
in a mega-fishing expedition.
     Thousands of dolphins around the world die as ‘by-catch’.
By-catch, are non-target fishes, sea mammals and birds.
Dolphins and porpoises suffocate to death in fishing nets. By-
catch, are usually tossed overboard. An injured fish, sea
mammal, or bird is literally dead meat.
     Cyanide and explosives are also used to kill fish. This
kind of fishing is hazardous to coral reefs and countless non-
target sea creatures.
     Dolphins are also killed for their meat, or may be sent to
seaquariums   (concrete   prisons)  to   spend  countless  years
performing unnatural acts to cheering humans.
     In Taiji, a small village in Japan, fishermen slaughter
thousands of dolphins and small whales in an enclosed cove.
Target sea mammals are driven into a shallow water cove.
Fishermen then close off the entrance to the cove by dropping
large fishing nets there.
     Afterwards, the bloodbath begins. The dolphins and small
whales are then laconically beaten to death. The water in the
cove becomes blood red; because it is engulfed in blood.
     Cetaceans include whales, dolphins, and porpoises. People
have been fascinated by whales for thousands of years. There are
nearly 80 species of cetaceans.
     Cetology is the branch of zoology dealing with the study of
whales. People first learned about whale physiology from their
encounters with beached whales.
     There are toothed whales (orcas, sperm whales) and non-
toothed (baleen) (fin, blue, humpback whales). The blue whale
can reach 110 feet in length. The humpback whales are
‘astonishing singers’.
     Although Aristotle identified whales as mammals, in wasn't
until the 18th century that the mainstream scientific community
began to earnestly accept his classification.
     As civilizations continued to advance in knowledge, whale
skeletons were reconstructed and then placed in natural museums.
This enabled scientist to identify a link between whales and
land mammals; they had a common ancestor.
     The Basques were the first large-scale whalers. New England
colonists hunted humpback whales.
     Improvements in hunting equipment and most notably the
steamship enabled whale hunters to drastically increase their
     The Antarctic waters became hunting grounds for whales in
the early 20th century. In effect, whales cannot hide from
     Non-hunting   (whale  watching)   has  become  a  lucrative
business and a popular activity.
     Whales were hunted for their meat, bones, and oil. Whale
meat provides indigenous peoples with much nutrition. Blue
whales may reach a weight of one hundred and sixty tons. No
wonder, they were once referred to as ‘sea monsters’. This has
not saved them from being critically endangered.
     Primitive peoples didn't have the technology to devastate
whale populations. This 'devastation' began with commercial
whaling. The 19th and 20th century involved a sustained series
of ' whale killing fests’.
     The invention of the explosive harpoon gun in the 1860's,
by Svend Foyn, a Norwegian, enabled whalers to kill whales
faster. The harpoon gun was convenient. Whales could be killed
in minutes, rather than hours.
     The use of sonar by the Japanese to track whales' locations
helped whalers to find their targets easier. Indeed, whales
could neither run nor hide. Large commercial whale hunting
establishments generally think of the here-and-now, rather than
sustained hunting.
       If the whale killing fest had continued unabated more
whale species would’ve become extinct.
     The two most famous whales are Moby Dick, the fictional
character, and the whale that swallowed the prophet Jonah. The
latter that was significantly more important to our history was
not given a name.
     The International Whaling Commission (IWC) was set up under
the International Convention for the Regulating of Whales signed
on December 2, 1946.
     The IWC is assigned to provide complete protection to
certain whale species, designate whale sanctuaries, set limits
regarding to maximum numbers and sizes of whales to be hunted,
stipulates hunting and non-hunting seasons, prohibits the
capture and/or hunting of suckling calves and female whales
escorting the calves. Specified record-keeping pertaining to
numbers of hunts and species of whales hunted.
     The IWC also performs much scientific research and
publishes the results.
     Currently there are eighty eight IWC member nations and
     Although the IWC does not have direct enforcing powers,
many nations respect its rulings. Japan, Norway, and Iceland
have been violators of IWC rulings and quotas.
     Iceland resumed commercial whaling in 2003, after years of
abiding by the moratorium. Iceland was reinstated in the IWC,
having been allowed to vote in support of its reinstatement.
Japan has hunted thousands of whales under the guise of
‘scientific research’.
     At the 2004 IWC meeting Japan issued a proposal to increase
its scientific whale hunting.
     Norway has set its own quotas, and has tried to pass its
whale hunting as scientific research.
     The scientific research loophole in the IWC moratorium is
an indication that the IWC is a de-clawed and defanged
organization when comes to belligerent nations.
     Whale hunting in Japan, Norway, Greenland, Iceland, and
amongst northern indigenous populations is more important ‘for
them’ than it is for most of us.
     Being a city boy I don’t rely on whale meat or any by-
product thereof. When we complain about whale hunting we should
always find out how important it is for the specific nation or
indigenous group involved.
     Smorgasbord whale hunting and unsustainable whale hunting
cannot be tolerated. Sustained whale hunting is an easier and
more fruitful target.
     Nations that are obviously threatening whale populations
with their overhunting should be sanctioned. Unfortunately,
whale hunting on the high seas is difficult to monitor.
     The Southern Ocean Sanctuary, established in 1994, is a
whale sanctuary. This is a good idea.
     Whales face other serious dangers such as by-catch,
pollution, and sound energy.
     Anthropogenic (human-induced) sound energy has been rising
steadily for decades, resulting in an increase in mass whale
stranding (beaching).
     Except for a brief respite during the Second World War,
whales have been hunted-down by one nation or another.
     Seal hunting is bloody and brutal. To date, there has been
no mass humane slaughter of seals performed. Seal pups may be a
couple of weeks of age when they are clubbed or shot to death.
The attackers are perceived as ‘giant bi-pedals’. Hundreds of
thousands of seals are clubbed or shot to death every year.
     Baby seal pups are born in late February to mid-March.
They're born into a harsh environment therefore, rapid weight
gain is essential. Mother seals produce milk rich in fat. The
seal pups must drink large quantities every single day. The
large accumulation of blubber helps them stay warm.
     The trapping of animals is done in order to control vermin,
protect peoples and properties, and for the production of fur.
Millions of animals are caught in traps every year around the
     Animal protectionists, especially animal rightists protest
cruel capture, farming, and killing methods by the fur trapping
     Many people choose to purchase fur, while others choose
faux fur (fake fur).
     Regardless of the reasons for setting animal traps, serious
attempts should be made to use humane traps.
     The fur trapping industry consists of many workers. They’re
trying to earn a living. In addition, trapping of animals is an
old tradition. It brings in needed income to individuals,
families, and organizations.
     Snares are cable restraints that tighten around the
animal's neck or appendage. It is possible for an animal to be
ensnared in another body part.
     Death may take hours or a few days. Fur trappers should
check traps on a regular basis.     Snares strangle the affected
body part, somewhat like a giant wired-python. Because an
animal's natural tendency is to try to free itself,      struggling
may tighten the snare. In addition, snares can be dirty or have
metallic splinters.
     Blood   loss,   the   natural   elements    (extreme   weather
conditions or exposure), dehydration, starvation, strangulation,
and/or predation are possible outcomes.       These are the worst
case scenarios. Fur trappers understand that the trapped animal
is income; bread and butter. Laws ordering trappers to check
their traps regularly, for example, once every 24 hours can't be
     Conibear traps snap shut on the trapped animal's spinal
column at the base of the skull. Imagine a giant mouse trap; the
old kind.
     If a mistake occurs the trap may crush the animal's bones
or internal organs.   An animal may spend hours or days in this
predicament until death.
     Often times, non-target animals such as dogs, cats, birds,
or endangered species are caught in conibear traps. Non-target
animals are referred to as ‘trash’ or ‘throwaways’.
     Steel jaw leg hold traps contain two powerful metallic jaws
and springs. When an animal triggers the springs the jaws slam
shut with extreme force; bone-crushing force.
     Steel jaw leg hold traps are condemned by the American
Veterinary   Medical   Association,  American   Animal    Hospital
Association, and National Animal Damage Control Association.
The pain and shock of this snapping action has been compared to
a person having a door slam on her/his fingers. Actually its
much worse, because you or I would automatically withdraw our
hands, then we would seek medical aid. The trapped animal's body
part is locked into place. Therefore, the pain is sustained and
unrelenting. Naturally, the trapped animal tries anything to get
free. No wonder, some animals end up chewing off their limbs,
losing many of their teeth (trying to bite through the metallic
jaws), or twisting off their affected limbs. Most of the animals
that cannot escape die before the trapper returns. The few that
can twist or chew off their limbs must live with blood loss,
infection, and a severe handicap (major tooth loss or a loss of
a limb). Many Americans oppose the use of steel jaw leg hold
     Whenever an adult animal is killed there’s a possibility
that a youngster is relying on that animal.
     Padded leg hold traps are the humane version of the steel
jaw leg hold trap. The snap is still there, but padded.
     Underwater leg hold traps target mink, beavers, and
muskrats. The trapped animal drowns to death. Death can take up
to twenty minutes.
     An animal still alive when the fur trapper returns may be
beaten to death or stomped to death; in the latter case, the fur
trapper jumps up and down on the animal. Nearly ninety countries
have outlawed steel jaw leg hold traps.
     Even the awesome super-predators of the seas can’t escape
the long arms of humanity.
     For millions of years sharks and orcas were masters of the
waters that they swam in. Humanity has reached their domain.
     In shark finning sharks are captured by fishermen who slice
off the fins then throw the body overboard. The fins represent
between 1-5 percent of body weight. Because sharks without fins
cannot swim, they end up sinking to the bottom of the ocean.
Bleeding profusely, unable to swim or defend themselves, they
die a slow and agonizing death.
     Shark fin soup is an expensive delicacy in China. People
should be aware that some species of sharks have been decimated
by up to ninety percent. Some nations have begun to take action
against shark finning. The Shark Finning Prohibition Act
(December 21, 2000) was signed by President Bill Clinton.
     Overhunting in most of the Cape Colony led to the
decimation of elephants, hippos, ostrich, and rhinoceros in the
early 19th century.
     The quagga were exterminated in Africa, the last individual
died in Amsterdam. ‘White hunters’ who ventured into the
interior of Africa had incredible firearms on their person.
Their hunting rifles could kill any animal, including the
largest elephants.
     Lions and springbok were once omnipresent in much of
Africa. When the springbok migrated southward (trekbokken), they
‘blanketed’ large areas. Anyone in the path of a migration had
to move out of the way or else be stamped to death.
     Smorgasbord hunting (rampant, uncontrolled) has resulted in
countless atrocities upon wildlife.
     When humans overhunt, there are severe consequences for the
targeted wildlife species.
     In my opinion, the saddest example in North America is the
case of the ‘exterminated’ Passenger pigeon.
     The passenger pigeon was the most numerous of bird species
in North America. Estimates pertaining to their numbers reach
five billion!
     When passenger pigeons ‘flocked’ the air the sky would
darkened; some accounts claim hours of darkness.
     Sometimes when passenger pigeons perched on trees in such
large numbers one or more branches would collapse from the sheer
weight. Because the Passenger pigeons were light, only slightly
larger than mourning doves, their numbers would’ve had to have
been astronomical to result in a branch collapsing.
     Prior to the destruction of their habitats passenger
pigeons had an incredible supply of food choices within the
North America forests.
     Passenger pigeons could fly as up to seventy miles per
hour. Even this enormous speed wasn’t enough to save the
passenger pigeon.
     Deforestation, human expansion, and smorgasbord hunting
were a death knell for the Passenger pigeon.
     Firearms, netting, long sticks (to knock them off trees),
and noxious fumes (used to make them dizzy and fall), and
snatching of birds’ eggs were the major methods used in the
extermination campaign. In addition, squabs (young pigeons) that
often filled the forest floor were killed and eaten by wolves,
foxes, birds, snakes, and other predators.
     The people involved in this horror campaign were, as a
whole, selfish, greedy, and did not have ‘conservation’ on their
minds. They wanted to eat and/or sell what they could as fast as
they could.
     The 19th century was catastrophic for the Passenger
pigeons. These birds naturally lived in large flocks. Later on,
attempts were made at conservation, but to no avail.
     Laws against hunting Passenger pigeons were too little and
too late. People simply ignored the laws. The end result was
extinction. In 1914, the last Passenger pigeon died at the age
of twenty nine at the Cincinnati Zoological Garden.      Her name
was Martha. When she died there was a crowd of people watching.
     Likewise the dodo bird, once located in Mauritius, was
exterminated by humans.
      Sailors first took notice of the dodo bird in 1600.
Roughly 80 years later, the bird was ‘erased’ from the face of
the earth.
     Although the distant ancestors of the dodo birds were able
to fly, the dodo bird of 1600 was flightless. Having landed on
the island of Mauritius, with plentiful food, and no predators
around, flying became a frivolous act. Flying for birds burns
incredible quantities of energy. Therefore, the dodo bird
naturally stopped flying.
     Sailors picked the dodo birds off quite easily. The dodo
bird couldn’t fly and had no escape instinct; having lost it
because of the lack of predators on the island. In addition,
imported animals including cats, rats and pigs ate the dodo
birds with delight. Compound this with the sailor’s big
appetite, the dodo bird was doomed.
     Smorgasbord hunting obliterated the Quaggas of Africa.
There final days were in 1870. Steller’s sea cows and cormorants
were also exterminated.
     Quaggas are related to horses and zebras. The last Quagga
died in Amsterdam, many miles away from its native habitat in
     The American bison (technically, the word buffalo refers to
the African water buffalo, bison is the correct term to use)
once roamed throughout large tracts of lands as far as Canada to
the North and Mexico to the south.
     Bison herds were so large they blanketed the area like
giant ants.
     Bison were an important part of the plains Indians’
culture. The three species of bison include Plains Bison, Wood
Bison, and the European Wisent.
     In North America the bison numbered between forty and sixty
five million bison. The highest estimate I came across was an
astounding seventy million, the lowest thirty five million.
Since there is no method to calculate precise numbers, I used
the most prevalent range.
     The bison is the largest land mammal in North America.
Their stampedes were commonly referred to as ‘thunder of the
     Plains Indians used the meat, bones, tongue, entrails, and
other by-products of the bison. The natives stripped the bison
bare, leaving nothing. The bison was their bloodline.
      With the advance of European settlers and smorgasbord
hunting the bison eradication began. Bison hunters used powerful
‘repeating rifles’, big fifty rifles, and horses to gun-down
buffalo. Some hunters even shot and killed bison from trains.
The Transcontinental Railroad unofficially referred to as the
iron horse (1869), fencing, settlers, smorgasbord hunting, bison
tongue demand in the Eastern United States, cattle ranching and
a perceived U.S. Government policy to exterminate the livelihood
(bison) of the natives served as a death knell for the bison.
The railroad split the bison into north and south. The south
bison lost out first.
      Within twenty years the area Colonel Dodge described as
full of bison for miles {vertically and horizontally} would be
empty of buffalo, bone, and scrap.
      A European traveller stated that she saw buffalo carcasses
mile after mile, strewn across vast patches of land.
      Meat, hides (many sent to Europe), bones, and tongues were
used by Americans. There was so much waste and killing, often
times buffalo carcasses were strewn across vast expanses of
land, only their tongues missing. In effect, many tongues were
sold, while the bodies were wasted.
      The infamous Buffalo Bill Cody bragged about having
(gunned-down) around 4280 bison in a seventeen month period.
Cody claimed to have committed the act in order to help feed
railroad workers. Usually, when a person boasts about having
committed an act, it (the act) was most likely enjoyable at the
time it was committed.
      The 1860's through the 1870's signified the beginning of
the end for the American bison. Too many were being wiped out,
too fast.
      Individuals who cared and hunters began to notice a major
decrease in the numbers of bison.
      By 1893 there were according to estimates, anywhere between
23 and a few hundred buffalo left. It was a miracle the bison
didn't become extinct. Today, there are ‘comfortably’ over
200,000 bison in the Continental United States.
      Many of the bison are ‘enclosed’ in the Yellowstone
National Park. If a bison strays from the enclosure at the wrong
time it’ll gunned-down like a dog.
      This is the general policy for bison who venture out of the
park onto grazing lands.     The National Park Service and state
agencies are being pressured by cattle ranchers to keep bison in
      The Montana Department of Livestock asserts that the
Yellowstone bison slaughters are to avert a brucellosis outbreak
from bison to livestock. Activists for bison assert that there
has never been a transmission of brucellosis from a bison to
livestock. Both sides are adamant in their claims. One thing is
for sure: North Americans eat beef, not bison meat. Although
bison contains less fat and more nutrition, it’s not one of the
main food items. Also, if there were ever to be an actual case
of brucellosis transmission, there’s no telling how much damage
it would do to livestock.
     Brucellosis is a contagious bacterial disease that is found
in infected livestock and from discharges that accompany aborted
foetuses. Brucellosis is a very dangerous disease that affects
the   internal   organs,   causes   infertility,  decreased    milk
production, lameness, and death of young animals. Brucellosis is
zoonotic (can be spread from humans to animals, vice versa).
     A major outbreak of brucellosis could threaten surrounding
states’ livestock.
     The   problems   relating   to   the   bison  issue   includes
brucellosis,   roaming,   and   grazing.   There  are   two   major
adversarial parties; on the one hand, the U.S. Government and
State Governments are for the control of the bison range and
generally support the culling of strays from the Yellowstone
National Park. On the other hand, animal rights activists who
are actively involved in the bison protection campaign support
better protections of strays and according to them do not see
any hard evidence for punishing wandering bison for brucellosis.
It’s true: the cattle industry has ‘powerful persuading powers’.
     Another animal that has undergone a terrible onslaught is
the prairie dog. Before the arrival of the settlers there were
an estimated four or five billion prairie dogs. Their colonies
and towns were decimated without mercy. Up to ninety nine
percent of their populations have been poisoned, gassed, hunted,
bulldozed, and brutally extracted from their homes. The present
pet trade in prairie dogs has exacerbated their predicament.
     Prairie dogs, like other undomesticated wild animals, do
not belong in peoples' homes, biting their captors. As a result,
owners toss or give away ‘their pet’. Fortunately, some owners
send their pet to a prairie dog rescue.
     Most prairie dogs destined to be pets are yanked out of
their habitats then sent away to be sold to a human family.
     As a general rule, small, cheap-priced animals in pet
stores do not receive veterinary medical care. It is too
expensive and it is easier to toss the animal. In the U.S. pets
are a 40 billion dollar industry. The word ‘pet’ is an English
word dating back to the 1500’s.
     Rabbits have been show animals since the end of the 19th
century. There are an estimated 5 million rabbits in the United
States. Angora rabbits produce wool. Gerbils were popular pets
in the U.S. in the 1970’s.
     Napoleon’s wife owned a pug. Sigmund Freud owned a chow-
     Some prairie dogs are sent away hundreds or even thousands
of miles. A more detailed explanation of pet stores will be
given in a later chapter.
     Prairie dogs are keystone species. That is, many other
species rely on them for food, and also use their homes. They
are an important aspect of the ecosystem.
     The black-footed ferret has also undergone a catastrophic
decline in population. Black-footed ferrets prey on prairie
dogs. Furthermore, black-footed ferrets have a difficult time
surviving away from prairie dog towns. Ferrets were once used on
ships to kill off the rats.
     The prairies have lost many of its wolves, bison, grizzly
bears, and prairie dogs.
     Grizzly bears once roamed an area about half the size of
the continental United States. In the continental United States
there were up to 100,000 grizzly bears! It almost sounds too
terrible to be true. In Arizona, grizzly bears were gunned-down
out of existence in the early 20th century.      Because grizzly
bears have a low reproductive rate humans will have to monitor
grizzly bear populations. The native cultures respected grizzly
     In contrast, grizzly bears now ‘claim’ only 2 percent of
their previous habitats. Their population dropped to just over
1,000 individuals.   Perceived as large predators competing with
humans for food and eating livestock, they were gunned-down
mercilessly. In an historical context, the mass slaughters took
around a century to nearly eradicate the grizzly bears.
     Bears need to be free-roaming. The black bears of North
America are still found in 42 states. They have fared much
better than the larger and more powerful grizzly bear. Black
bears have a slow reproduction rate and are affected by human
     Bears are intelligent, powerful, fast, and can sometimes by
cunning. They can react to circumstances with lightening speed,
faster than a human can comprehend. Bears can dig large holes
into the ground quickly, ‘mutilate’ or forcefully prey open a
car door (downward-bending motion), climb trees (black bears),
take down large prey with a single blow (grizzly bear, polar
bear) and carry a carcass vast distances.
     Food and curiosity often bring bears close to human
settlements or individuals. If a bear is hungry, it will search
for food with much diligence, if necessary.
     People often get too close to bears, sometimes even petting
them or trying to hand feed them. Bears are wild animals that
are unpredictable. People should always be careful around bears.
A human may inadvertently get too close to a nursing mother
bear, or cross a hungry bear’s path.
     Bears that attack people or become a nuisance are chased
down and then shot, or may be translocated. Property owners
sometimes kill problem or trespassing bears.
     The Black Rhino is on the verge of extinction. This
prehistoric looking animal once roamed large areas of eastern
and southern Africa, reaching well into the Sudan in the north
and Nigeria in the west.
     Rhinos are valued for their horns, which are made out of
keratin. Poaching, deforestation, smorgasbord hunting, human
expansion, and killing out of spite have been the major causes
of this disaster.
     Ounce per ounce rhinos’ horns can be worth more than gold.
Rhino horns are sold as items of traditional medicine in Asia
and as handles for daggers in Yemen. Although the sales to Yemen
have decreased, the threat of a rise is ever present.
     Neither the poachers nor the purchasers of rhino horns seem
to care about conservation.
     Poachers can be extremely dangerous to law enforcement
officers. Poachers may be armed with AK-47s and some will kill
you where you stand, if you try to get in their way.
     Affected governments have begun to dehorn the Black Rhino
and other rhino species to remove the monetary gain factor. All
is not perfect through; some poachers are ordered to remove the
stub; anything for a quick buck. Worse even yet, there have been
cases of poachers killing hornless rhinos out of spite.
      Because black rhinos have poor vision, they are often
sitting targets. Pictures of dead, dehorned rhinos describe the
brutality and ruthlessness of this enterprise.
     On a more positive note, the Indian rhinos (one-horned) and
the Southern white rhino of South Africa are presently faring
better than the black rhino. With less than two hundred
individuals left, the Indian Rhinos was on the verge of
extinction.   Presently, there are 2,500 individuals.   Although
poachers still operate in India, the authorities have done a
decent job in thwarting many of them.
     Karizanga National Park (KNP), located in Assam, Eastern
India, is home to Indian rhinos, tigers, leopards, elephants,
tigers, birds, and other mammals.
     The rare Javan Rhinos, described as the one horned rhino,
are located in Western Indonesia and Eastern Indochina. This
animal is a few hairs away from extinction.
     KNP is a fine example of wildlife conservation. This kind
of park should be carved out in many countries of the world; if
the capacity exists.
      There were many thousands of southern white rhinos roaming
South Africa and bordering countries. Although the natives
hunted these magnificent creatures, their numbers were well
above the ‘danger zone’. Shortly after European settlers
arrived, the smorgasbord hunting campaign began. At the lowest,
white rhinos dipped to a few dozen individuals.
     The Umfolozi Game Reserve (UGR) was established in 1897.
It is the oldest game reserve in Africa. The southern white
rhino, cheetah, lion, antelope, buffalo, wildebeest, black rhino
(few in number), hyena, wild dog, and elephant inhabit the UGR.
Tourism through the area helps to bring in badly needed monies
for conservation and maintenance. ‘Non-invasive tourism’ better
known as ecotourism is one of the methods used to increase
funding for conservation.
     The southern white rhino population has risen to over
11,500 individuals thanks to hard-working rangers, and a
government that has acted diligently.
     Southern white rhino reproductive capacity is so successful
individuals are transferred to other reserves to inhibit
     International laws forbidding illegal transport or sale of
animals or animal by-products should be enforced and respected
by the international body of nations.
     In 1977, CITES ordered a ban on trade in rhino products, to
no avail. Member nations must be diligent in their enforcement
of bans.
     The world community must treat this problem like it treats
the global trade in illegal drugs and illegal weapons.
     Although African elephants (up to 8 tons) have been hunted
for centuries, from 1970 through the 1980's was a catastrophic
period.    A common and agreed upon estimate of the African
elephant population before 1970 is 1,300,000.      Within decades
decimation dropped the number to a low of 600,000. Like the
rhinos, an elephant’s tusks are the most valuable part of its
entire body for a poacher.
     The major obliteration of African elephants began in 1979.
The Government of Kenya has torched millions of dollars worth of
tusks in its never-ending battle against ivory poaching.
     African elephants are flagship species (a species that
symbolizes an environmental or wildlife conservation cause;
usually an attractive species).
     The international ivory trade ban officially began in 1989.
Tusks are really giant incisors. Tusk less elephants are
referred to as makhnas; while tusked elephants are referred to
as tuskers.
     Tribespersons of the Jharkhand in India have begun to
worship Asian elephants for protection.
     Asian   elephants  (up    to  6  tons)  have   also  endured
smorgasbord hunting.      Comfortably high numbers of wildlife
species can be sliced into populations if poachers, poisoning,
smorgasbord hunting, habitat destruction, killing by angry
farmers, and other anthropogenic (human caused) problems are not
addressed and alleviated.
      Today, elephants live in congested parks, game reserves,
sanctuaries, circuses, or zoos. Elephants in zoos must be
observed for possible arthritis or foot problems.
      Most elephants live in herds. The herds consist of the
dominant female (matriarch), young elephants, and a minority of
bulls. Males may live in bachelor herds.
      Male bulls tend to become more aggressive as they age. This
is why the matriarch must drive the aggressive male out of the
      Musth is a yearly period where adult males have an
incredible upsurge of testosterone levels. It is the time for
breeding. Elephants in musth are extremely aggressive. Zoo
keepers or anyone else in close proximity can be at risk of a
deadly attack.
      Elephants in musk have been known to chase down rhinos and
kill them mercilessly. Imagine what one of those elephants can
do to an unarmed, unaware human.
      There are 3 elephant species, two in Africa and one in
India. Elephants are herbivores and need much food to eat. In
the wild elephants spend much time eating and migrating in
search of food.
      During the hunting smorgasbord of elephants, larger tusked
elephants were killed first so much that the average elephant
tusk size today is smaller than in the past. In effect, the gene
pool has been altered.
      If wildlife continues to lose habitat at the current pace,
individuals and herds may one day be placed into ‘secured’,
special congested zones; closed parameters.
      From the early 1970's, poachers began to use automatic
weapons against elephants. Because elephants are very large
targets they're difficult to miss.
      In fact, they are the ones with poor vision, not the
shooters. In 1989, CITES listed the elephants in Appendix 1.
Unfortunately, the poaching still goes on, but to a lesser
extent.    Several African nations and pro-hunting organizations
want to down list the African elephant in order to return to a
larger scale of ‘legal hunting’. We must be careful not to open
up a giant can of worms. Hunting, if necessary, must be
      Elephant tusks are used in Asia, especially China, in
traditional medicine. During the elephant catastrophe period,
countless tusks or tusk by-products ended up in Europe and the
United States.
     The African Elephant Conservation Act (AECA) of 1988 is
supposed to help maintain, protect, and strengthen African
elephant populations.   African governments are given ‘funds’ to
implement and improve elephant conservation strategies.       The
AECA act places major restrictions and quotas on ivory imports
into the United States. African elephant trophies are y exempted
from quotas.
     Conflicts between elephants and farmers pose a big problem.
Elephant repulsion measures include electric fences, ditches,
and pepper-oil bombs. The latter appear to be the most
effective. Electric fencing has been neutralized by some smart
elephants. Trees can be ‘toppled’ onto the fence or control box.
     Translocation (transfer) of elephants takes much work,
coordination, and money. In addition, a suitable habitat target
area must be found first. Elephants are so large they are always
a keystone species in their natural habitat. They simply can’t
be ignored by humans, animals, or plants.
     There is an elephant sanctuary in Hohenwald, Tennessee and
the PAWS (Performing Animal Welfare Society) sanctuary in San
Andreas, California. The latter is 2300 acres in size.
     The timber industry is destroying vast tracts of native
peoples’ lands and wildlife habitats. When habitats are
destroyed, many of the wildlife therein also perish.
     Although CITES can help prevent trade of these animals
across international borders, often times if the poaching is
done within a country. Other problems emanate from government
corruption and an inability or unwillingness to enforce anti-
poaching laws.
     Benevolent organizations are trying to combat the bush meat
crisis. In 1999, Jane Goodall of the Jane Goodall Institute
helped establish the Bush meat Crisis Task Force (BCTF).
     The BCT was formed with the collaboration of twenty eight
government and non-government agencies. The BCTF promotes the
conservation of wildlife populations that are threatened by
commercial hunting for the sale of meat. In addition, the BCTF
raises awareness of this issue to many organizations and peoples
around the world. The BCTF is one of numerous benevolent
organizations helping to protect wildlife. Jane Goodall is a
well-respected, world famous primatologist, zoologist, author,
and advocate for animals around the world; in particular,
     The Great Apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orang-
utans) are genetically our closest relatives. Chimpanzees and
bonobos share nearly 90 percent of our genetic code.
     Great apes are intelligent, are tool users, display a
variety of emotions and in the case of chimpanzees have been
known to wage war and commit calculated acts of killing. Some
experts refer to these acts as murder. In addition, great apes
have opposable thumbs, tail-less, have large braincases, and
stereoscopic   vision  (binocular   vision).   Gorillas  have 3-
dimensional color vision.
     Gorillas are knuckle walkers (use their knuckles as
forelegs). There are two main species of gorillas; eastern
gorillas and western gorillas. In addition, sexual dimorphism is
well-pronounced in gorillas.
     Great apes are able bipedals, but for very brief periods.
It is not their natural gait. Orang-utans look the clumsiest and
wobbliest of all apes when walking on two legs. Orang-utans
spend much of their time on trees.
     Eating the ‘flesh’ of great apes is almost abhorrent to
most people around the world.
     Although chimpanzees ‘reside’ in twenty African countries,
they are like all great apes; endangered.
     Chimpanzees are omnivores. They eat young antelopes, red
collobus monkeys and other small animals.
     Chimpanzees are sophisticated hunters. When hunting in
groups they chase a target animal in the direction of other
chimpanzees. When they get a hold of a monkey they rip it apart
limbs and all.
     In 1900, there were between 1 to 2 million chimpanzees.
Today there are roughly one hundred thousand chimpanzees.
     The big cat family has endured excessive hunting campaigns
and much habitat loss.
     Cheetahs, the fastest land mammals on earth, can run up to
65 mph. They have incredible streamlined bodies, with long legs
suitable for sprinting short distances. Pronghorns are the
fastest land mammals in North America reaching up to 50 mph.
Unfortunately their speed wasn’t enough to enable them to evade
smorgasbord hunting. They now number roughly one million in the
United States and Canada. They once numbered in the millions.
They were booted out of much of their primary range.
     Although cheetahs are big cats most of their catches are
snatched away by other predators.          Cheetahs aren't good
fighters, and as sprinters they can't afford to be injured in a
     Cheetahs weigh between 85-140 lbs., they're considered
light for big cats.
     Cheetahs were once found in Africa and large areas of Asia.
Changes in climate, destruction of habitat (cheetahs need large
tracts of land to operate) and forfeit of prey to more
belligerent predators, excessive inbreeding, and overhunting
(trophy, hides, ranchers) have decimated cheetah populations.
Inbreeding in the wild is a recurring problem.
     At the end of the 19th century the cheetah population may
have been over 100,000 individuals. Presently, there are 12,000
individuals; scattered in sub-Saharan Africa, and in northern
Iran, they're threatened with extinction.
     Cheetahs are protected in Namibia, are classified as
endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and are
categorized in Appendix 1 of CITES.
     The clearing of land was a catastrophe for the eastern
cougar. Furthermore, ranchers considered these big cats vermin
and livestock killers. Like the wolf, the eastern cougar was
demonized. Bounties were offered for anyone killing an eastern
cougar. Cougars in the mountain zone and Pacific zone were also
     Leopards are the most numerous and prevalent of the 36 wild
cat species. Their pelts are worth much on the market. In
addition, their ‘brethren’, the snow leopard are enduring
habitat destruction, hunting for teeth, pelts, and bones. In
addition, they are sometimes shot by farmers.
     ‘Executive poachers’ are cunning and sophisticated in their
activities. Forgery, redirection, mislabelling, and bribery are
used to transport illegal animals and their by-products through
international borders.
     In general, customs officers throughout the world are
primarily attuned to identifying and finding illegal weapons,
drugs, and objects that can be used to commit attacks.
     Reformatting, dying, chopping up, or merging lawful with
unlawful items is a trick of the trade. Customs officer usually
don’t have the time or know-how to catch violators.
     Farming enabled the human population to grow rapidly. This
resulted in the domestication of animals. Predators that tried
to eat the domesticated animals were considered dangerous and a
threat to the livelihood of ranchers.
     The story of the African continent is sad indeed. Only a
few centuries ago large tracts of lands were swarming with
wildlife and contained stunning habitats.
     The first Europeans who entered the interior of Africa were
baffled at the beautiful sceneries and wildlife. Gigantic
antelope herds carpeted large areas, lions were omnipresent in
much of Africa, and numerous elephant herds included hundreds of
     Lions were once considered noble-like, while lionesses were
once worshipped as goddesses.
     Prehistoric humans who lived in present day Spain and
France drew accurate images of lions.
     Ancient men of power killed countless lions to prove their
own strength, bravery, and virility.
     Nero, the cruel Roman Emperor, enjoyed staging fights
between humans and lions. The fighters were usually prisoners
that were moderately or unarmed.
     In Hinduism Narasingha is in the lion-god form. In
addition, the ancient Egyptian sphinx is lion-headed.
     Lion kills by hunters were considered ‘valued trophies’.
The lions were no match for the special hunting rifles and
scopes. By 1000 C.E. the lion population in Europe had been
     In the Gir Forest located in Gujarat, India, reside the
sole remnant population of Asian lions.
     Lions have flexible spines, very muscular, powerful, and
are digitigrades walkers (walk on their toes).
     Man eating lions are usually unable to catch normal prey
animals, have dental problems, are medically sick, injured,
expelled from their pride, elderly, lack of prey, habituation,
or have taken an opportunity to kill an easy prey. Many lion
cubs do not reach adulthood.
     The prehistoric American lions were 25 percent bigger than
their counterparts in Africa.
     Lions in the wild and who are lucky may for up to eleven
years. In zoos lions can live for up to twenty years.
     One of the first acts of elephant exterminations took place
in the south-western Cape in the early 1700's.         Professional
hunters shot whatever they wanted to. Wildlife was of no match
to the firearms. Eventually, habitats were destroyed and
numerous    wildlife   species    became    extinct,    endangered,
threatened, or vulnerable.
     The African continent has endured slavery, colonialism, and
‘illogical borders’ drawn for the sake of ‘others’ at the
expense of the native populations.
     A case in point is the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885,
activated by Portugal and advanced by German Chancellor Otto Von
Bismarck. Government officials from fourteen western nations met
in Berlin on November 14, 1884 for the purpose of carving-up the
African continent.
     The major players in the Berlin Conference were Great
Britain, France, Germany, and Portugal. By the First World War,
the process had been complete.     The cultural, territorial, and
political aspirations of the indigenous peoples were ignored;
let alone the wildlife therein.
     The wildlife story of the Americas is like that of the
African   continent;  decimation   of   indigenous   cultures   and
peoples,   multi-species   decimation,   habitat    alteration   or
destruction, and in the case of Africa illogical borders.
     Of the original eight sub-species of tigers, three are
extinct. What remain of the sub-species tigers are the Bengal,
Indochinese, Sumatran, South China (dangerously low numbers),
and the Siberian.
     The Bengal Tiger is the most renown, followed by the
Siberian Tiger. These tiger sub-species are an awesome wonder,
but they’re no match to an armed poacher.
     From the second half of the 20th century, there has been an
onslaught against tigers; poaching, non-sustainable hunting, and
habitat loss. South China Tigers may be extinct in the wild.
     Tigers are the largest members of the cat family. They have
massive bodies, giant claws, incredible teeth, and powerful
jaws. Tigers can take down prey larger than themselves. Tigers
can live in a multitude of habitats; jungle, tropical, or
extreme cold.
     Hope lies in the passing of the Great Cats and Rare Canids
Act of 2009 (H.R. 411).
     Lions, known as the king of the jungle, are no match for
humans armed with firearms. Males can reach 550 lbs., with an
enormous quantity of muscle mass. Lions defend their prides from
other lions and predators.
     Lionesses are the primary hunters while lions are defenders
of the pride and fighters. Lions are not affected by lightning
and thunder. This helps lions hunt prey that are confused.
     Only a few centuries ago lions were omnipresent in vast
areas of Africa. Prides were practically everywhere. It is
estimated that in the past sixty years lion populations have
been cut in half. Keep in mind that smorgasbord hunters had
already begun to devastate lion populations well before sixty
years ago. Today, lions are challenged by sport hunting, canned
hunting,   poaching,  habitat   destruction,  and   poisoning  by
     Cheetah numbers in the wild are too low (15,000 or less)
for healthy existence. Excessive breeding has caused deformities
and genetic abnormalities. In zoos, cheetah breeding is
difficult. Cheetah females are picky and they are solitary in
the wild. Male cheetahs may hunt with family members or others.
More knowledge about cheetah physiology and behaviour is needed
in order to increase their populations in the wild.
     Cheetahs once roamed large tracts of the African plains and
also Asia.
     The cougar is known by the names: mountain lion, puma,
mountain devil, panther and wildcat.
     Cougars have been overhunted, trapped, tormented, and
‘bountied’ by humans. Although cougars are muscular (males
weighing up to 200 lbs.), solitary, hunt alone (pounce on their
prey), fast runners (short distance), scale trees, swim, and
have well developed senses, they can't defend themselves against
human expansion, habitat destruction, deadly firearms, or any
other anthropogenic problem that is ‘shoved into their faces’.
     Cougar populations have been decimated in eastern North
America caused by destruction of habitat, trapping,    excessive
hunting, and the reduction of white-tailed deer; an important
food source.
     The Florida panther is an endangered species. Perhaps a few
dozen remain in remote areas of south Florida. Having once
roamed parts of Texas and the south eastern United States, they
have been humiliated and almost wiped out.
     Iran has beautiful mountain scenery and wildlife. Foreign n
sport hunters can hunt red sheep, ibex, or birds. In Iran, the
practice of sport hunting began around 500 B.C. Trained dogs and
cheetahs were used to chase down prey. Today, powerful weapons
(automatic firearms are forbidden) are used to kill the target
      There are more than 70 national parks in Iran, along with
game reserves and animal sanctuaries scattered throughout the

     Isaac Bashevis Singer (1904-1991) is a well-known name in
the animal rights arena. I.B. Singer was born in a small village
in Poland. His father was a Hassidic Rabbi.
     As a child, I.B. Singer was ‘emotionally struck’ by what he
perceived as the horrible slaughter of animals to be eaten by
     I.B. Singer believed that killing was wrong. He had to
endure the deaths of relatives during the Second World War.
     I.B. Singer eventually became a staunch vegetarian. As a
general rule, he opposed hunting and vivisection.
     Henry Spira (June 19, 1927 - September 12, 1998) was born
in Antwerp, Belgium. He became an animal protectionist. Spira
was influenced by Peter Singer's book Animal Liberation (1973);
a commonly read book in the animal protection field. Animal
liberation rejuvenated the animal rights movement.
     Spira helped to convince Revlon and Avon to end their
animal testing. He also convinced Procter & Gamble to invest
into humane alternatives, thereby helping to reduce the numbers
of research animals.
     The draize test has been used since 1944, primarily on
rabbits. In this test, irritating substances are placed into the
lower eyelid pouches of restrained rabbits; rabbits don't tear.
     Whenever possible, alternatives to the draize eye irritancy
test should be performed. The FDA supports the draize test.
     Spira helped to end experimentation on cats at the American
Museum of Natural History.
     Spira often worked with, rather than against institutions
that used animals.
     Henry Bergh (1811-1888) was born in New York. He was
probably the best animal welfare activist in the history of the
United States.
     His father, Christian Bergh, was a successful New York
shipyard owner. Christian Bergh learned his trade in Nova
Scotia, Canada.
     Bergh married the woman of his dreams, Catherine Matilda
     The couple travelled to Europe and the Middle East. In
Europe the couple met many prominent individuals. This helped
give Bergh a larger outlook on life, and important connections
he would later need.
     It was during Bergh’s first trip to Europe that he took
notice of acts of animal abuse. Bergh considered Spanish
bullfights to be extremely cruel.
      Abraham Lincoln appointed Bergh to a respectable legal
post at the Russian Court of the Czar Alexander. While in
Russia, Bergh saw numerous acts of animal abuse.     Sometimes he
spoke his mind to the offender. Bergh only stayed in Russia for
a year then returned to New York.
     In New York, Bergh began to take an active role in the
prevention of animal abuse. He convinced the New York State
Legislature to accept his charter to incorporate the American
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). Hard
work and powerful connections helped him to incorporate the
ASPCA on April 4, 1866.
     Bergh was also responsible for the establishment of a
‘Declaration of the Rights of Animals’. Powerful men signed this
important document, including John T. Hoffman (Mayor of New
York), Horace Greeley, Harper & Bros., John J. Astor, and of
course Henry Bergh.
     This signing was an incredible feat considering the newly
formed union had other major problems to contend with.
     In Bergh's day, dogs, cats, pigs, and cows, could be seen
roaming the streets of New York.
     Horses were the most common and speediest form of city
transportation. In fact horse powered transport was the taxi and
the subway system of New York.
     Carriage and coach operators were usually cruel to their
working horses. Carriages could be stuffed with dozens of people
and pulled by two horses. Snow on the cobblestone streets would
eat away the horses' hoofs. Sometimes, a hoof would just drop
off. Cobblestones are uneven, causing pain to horses. Not to
mention the weather extremes. That made no difference to the
people making money from horse powered transport. Horses
sometimes died of exhaustion, lack of rest, and inadequate diet.
     Dogs and cats were routinely brutally killed.            For
instance, unclaimed dogs could be dunked into the East River
while they were inside a cage.    Today, this kind of ‘clean-up’
is still done in Taiwan.
     Bergh also fought hard against the presence of swill
dairies, blue meat (rotten meat from cows), horse racing, cock
fighting, tail docking (horses), cruel horse reins, dog
fighting, rat baiting, bull baiting (to a lesser extent),
corruption, and an outright callous and apathetic attitude
towards animal suffering.
     Many animal fights were performed at the Sportsmen's Hall,
or in the basements of buildings or saloons.    The brutality of
these fights was incredible. Animal fighting will be described
in more detail later in this book.
     Bergh's   ideas   pertaining   to  animal   welfare   spread
westwards. He even tried to halt the bison extermination
campaign. Although he couldn't end it, he should be given credit
and respect for his serious effort.
     Henry Bergh had to endure anxiety and stress while
promoting animal welfare and defending animals in the line of
duty. He was often threatened and ridiculed by both animal
abusers and passerby. One man sent him a death threat indicating
the time and day of Bergh's killing. Entrails of animals,
harmful objects, and feces were thrown at him on more than one
     Bergh performed long and tiring foot patrols scanning the
city for dog fights, overworking of horses, stray cats and dogs,
drowning of dogs in the East River, or cruel animal slaughter.
Rampant animal abuse and corruption in the courts and press made
Bergh’s job more difficult and stressful.
     Bergh founded the American Society for the Prevention of
Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) in 1866, and later helped to form the
Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
in 1874.
     The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA)
founded in 1824 was the first national animal society in the
world. The key players in this society were well ahead of their
      By 1840, the SPCA had become widely known respected Queen
Victoria permitted the addition of ‘Royal’ thereby making it the
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA).
The title has not changed since then. The society ‘inspectors’
were like officers on-the-beat. In fact, the official police
force came into being later in time.
      Today, there are thousands of animal rights and animal
welfare organizations throughout the world. Many of these
organizations have websites, making it much easier to acquire
important information pertaining to animal activism.
      The organization ‘People for the Ethical Treatment of
Animals (PETA)’ is the largest animal rights organization in the
      PETA was established in 1980, by Ingrid Newkirk and Alex
Pacheco. Active members donate monies, do volunteer work for
PETA, respond to action alerts, or help in specific campaigns.
      PETA concentrates most of its attention and activism on
factory farms, animal laboratories, the clothing industry, and
entertainment industry.
      PETA's website has regular updates and addendums pertaining
to animal news and activism, found in the ‘action alerts’
      Visible addendums are usually done on weekdays.        PETA
campaigns involve long-term issues. Although PETA falls under
the category of animal rights, many of their action alerts,
campaigns, and lots of literature is also suited for animal
welfare activists.
      PETA sends individuals to do undercover work, and has
received documentation of what they perceive (animal rights
perspective) of animal abuse in laboratories, factory farms, and
other establishments.
      The Animal Liberation Front (ALF.) was formed in Great
Britain. This ‘anonymous member organization’ consists of cells
of one or more persons. ALF members truly believe in animal
      ALF has done immense property damage to biomedical research
facilities, snatched countless animals from some of these labs,
and have removed many animals from fur farms.
      The massive economic damage inflicted upon biomedical
research facilities has forced the industry to upgrade its
security    systems  and   in  some  cases   alter  the  physical
arrangements of the premises.
Worse yet, scientists and researchers have been ruthlessly
harassed, intimidated, threatened, and demonized.
      ALF guidelines in general include the following:
      ALF seeks to liberate animals from laboratories, factory
farms, fur farms, and any other place/s they perceive animals as
being abused or wrongly used. Afterwards, their intent is to
place    the   animals   in   good   homes  where  they   can   live
normal/natural lives (easier said than done).
      ALF seeks to inflict economic damage upon institutions that
profit from the ‘abuse’ or ‘exploitation’ of animals.
      ALF further seeks to expose the actions of animal abusing
enterprises through pictures, videos, downloads, paperwork,
      ALF performs these actions with the intent to avoid harming
any animal or human.
      Any group of individuals who are vegetarians or vegans and
who carry out action according to ALF guidelines are part of the
ALF. The ALF is a clandestine group consisting of pockets of
individuals scattered without one specific overall leader. The
ALF are in a micro-minority of the overall animal protectionist
      As a result of improved security systems in animal
biomedical facilities, so-called liberations have become more
      Biomedical organizations and facilities that experiment on
animals have spent a fortune in improving security. Some
facilities almost resemble military bases.
      The Animal Rights Militia (ARM), which was first formed in
England, uses more direct and intense methods of action than the
      For instance, in 1984, the A.R.M. notified the media that a
designated number of Mars Bars (in England) had been poisoned.
In response, the Mars Company conducted a massive recall.
Although the ARM. Later admitted that the notification was a
hoax, huge monetary losses were caused by the scare.        Although
ARM's tactics were effective they were inherently wrong.
      In 1992, a similar action was conducted by the ARM, this
time in Canada. Their target was the Cold Buster (candy bars)
Company. Recalls lost the company over one million dollars!
      The Justice Department (JD, not part of a government body)
another animal liberation organization, supports the methods
used by ALF, but goes much further in their quest for animal
liberation. JD members' basic philosophy is to make the animal
abuser feel what their victims (animals) feel. The legality or
illegality of an act is somewhat irrelevant in their choice of
actions. For example, the JD has sent letter bombs, and letters
coated    with   rat   poison   to   specific  target   individuals.
Individuals     are   usually    scientists   who   perform   animal
      At the other end of the scale is Rene Descartes (1596-
1650), a philosopher who had strong views pertaining to animals.
Descartes perceived animals are automata, machine-like creatures
that could neither rationalize nor think.     Therefore they are
unable to ‘think’ about feeling pain as humans do.
     Descartes   conducted  horrible   experiments   on  animals.
Descartes believed that the shrieks and screams of subject
animals were mechanical in nature.
     Descartes explained the human body by using a ‘hydraulic
model’. Humans are similar to machines, but possess souls.
Descartes was a man of his times. In this respect, the author is
under the assumption that Descartes wasn't a cruel or sadistic
person. He just didn't know any better.
     Today, we have access to more accurate and up-to-date
literature regarding the behaviour, kinesiology, physiology, and
anatomy of animals.
     Primate literature, especially that relating to great apes
got a big boost from the hard work and diligence of numerous
scientists; one of the most notable is Dr. Jane Goodall.
     Dr. Goodall is most likely the most famous expert on
chimpanzee behaviour and culture. She was appointed UN Messenger
of Peace.
     As of recently Dr. Goodall still had the chimpanzee toy her
that her mother gave her as a child.
     Dr. Goodall (1934- ) has been studying, documenting,
lecturing, and writing about chimpanzees since 1960.
     At the Gombe National Park, in Tanzania, Dr. Goodall spent
many years observing, following, and documenting valuable
information about chimpanzees.
     Dr. Goodall was brought into the field by the famed Dr.
Louis Leakey.
     Dr. Goodall gave each chimpanzee a name. This is in an era
apes were regarded as wild and ruthless creatures. The
scientific community in general did not give personal names to
individual subjects.
     Prior to the 1960's the bulk of ethologists were men.
Ethologists could be assisted by men, or their wives. In
particular, the case of Dr. Goodall; it was perceived as ‘un-
woman-like’ for a young, beautiful woman to travel from England
to the forests of Tanzania to work alone for an extended period
of time.
     Dr. Goodall earned a Ph.D. in Ethology from Cambridge
University. Dr. Goodall did not obtain an undergraduate degree.
     Dr. Goodall observed chimpanzees kissing, holding hands,
eating flesh (chimpanzees were previously thought to have been
herbivores), fighting, tool use, fishing (fish, termites),
cannibalism, climbing, tool making, mourning, embracing, loving,
calculated killing (murder), cannibalism, disease, and engaging
in low-grade war.
     In 1972, 6 males and 3 females from the Kasakela group
broke off to form a new group, named the Kahama group. Maybe in
an act of vengeance or control, members of the Kasakela group
attacked and ‘massacred’ of the Kahama group.
     Dr. Goodall sometimes aided sick chimpanzees by giving them
medicine, and food if necessary. The scientific community, in
general, does not condone ‘intrusions’ into the natural order of
a studied animal community.
     The ‘stay clear’ policy was sometimes so ingrained,
witnessing animals dying of disease, starvation, or sickness,
was not alleviated by observers.
     Dr.   Goodall   also  observed   chimpanzees     ‘fishing’   for
termites in a termite mound.      Chimpanzees used a grass stem,
stick it in the termite mound, and then pull it out.
     Thereafter, it was fun licking for the most part.
Chimpanzees removed the leaves from twigs before using them.
Also observed were moods and varying facial expressions.
Chimpanzees have temperaments.
     David Greybeard was the first chimpanzee who approached and
‘befriended’   Dr.   Goodall.   Patience,    diligence,    and   good
observational work proved very helpful to Dr. Goodall.
     Today Dr. Goodall does work and much lecturing in regards
to   habitat   conservation,   environmental    protection,    animal
protection, and research.
     Dr. Goodall's Roots & Shoots program helps to enable and
encourage youngsters to improve their communities through
involvement through the promotion of care for animals, the
environment, and other humans
     Today,   the   field   of   Primatology    is   ‘statistically’
dominated by women. Up to eighty percent of doctoral students in
Primatology are women. Up to two thirds of individuals in field
work are women.
     Dr. Louis Leakey believed that women were better equipped
and more likely to stay for the long haul when studying primates
in their natural habitat.
     There are over 230 species of primates. The great apes and
lesser apes are only a fraction of the total number; four great
apes species and one lesser ape species. All of the ape species
should be protected.
     Leakey's girls (Goodall, Fossey, and Galdikas) were the
‘cream of the crop’ of 20th century Primatology. Although Fossey
was killed in 1985, much of her literature is still being used
     Dr. Galdikas is the world's foremost authority on orang-
utans. She has spent over three decades studying orang-utans in
Dr. Galdikas has spent countless hours of studying orang-utans
through field work observation, documentation, and enduring
tough life in a rainforest half way around the world.
     Tanjung   Puting    forest   contains    poisonous   plants,
mosquitoes, swampy waters, leaches, general deprivation of
modern day amenities, and of course, orang-utans.
     Because orang-utans are solitary by nature Dr. Galdikas had
to learn patience.
     Dr. Galdikas has observed orang-utans eating, defecating,
urinating, fighting, resting, and mating.
     Orang-utans have been known to attack and then rape women,
especially while the victim is menstruating.
     As with all other animals, field workers should never
forget that their subjects are animals. Adult primates are
immeasurably stronger than a human. An adult orang-utan can
easily kill a man or a woman.
     Dr. Galdikas is of Lithuanian origin. She was born in 1946,
in Weisbaden, Germany. At the time, her parents were on route to
     Like Dr. Goodall, Dr. Galdikas loved animals as a child.
However, of the three Leakey girls, Dr. Galdikas was the only
one that was trained as a scientist.
     Dr. Galdikas has held the position of Professor at Simon
Frasier University, and as Professor at the Universitas Nasional
in Jakarta.
     Orang-utans, like other primate species face real dangers
from humans. Poaching human encroachment and habitat destruction
are serious problems.
     Dr. Galdikas is President and founder of the Orang-utan
Foundation International (OFI). OFI is a non-profit organization
that educates the world about orang-utans and their plight. OFI
also returns former captive orang-utans back to the wild.
     Dian Fossey is the world’s most famed scientist when it
comes to the study of gorillas. Although she was savagely killed
in her sleep in 1985, her legacy continues.
     The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International still stands. In
addition, in 1967 she founded the Karisoke Research Center
located in an isolated mountain camp in Ruhengeri province,
     Fossey spent 18 years of her life studying, researching,
observing, and recording the behaviours of mountain gorillas.
She along with Jane Goodall and Birute’ Galdikas are the 3 most
prominent primatologists of the 20th century.
     Fossey learned how to behave near gorillas. Although it
took a while for them to be desensitized to her presence,
patience, diligence, hard work (much mountain climbing), and
sacrifice in a harsh and deprived atmosphere (Virunga Mountains,
Rwanda) finally paid off.
     Fossey was a chain smoker, a ‘known drinker’, and suffered
from chronic asthma.
     People around gorillas should not run about, speak loudly,
make sudden or unexpected quick motions, no sustained eye
contact, no chest pounding, no creeping up, and to stay a safe
distance away for your own safety and that of the gorillas.
Gorillas can contract many of our diseases. They have no
immunity to many of those diseases. A person with the flu or a
common cold can end up wreaking havoc upon a gorilla troop.
Although gorillas are powerfully built, they are absolutely no
match to an armed poacher.
     Gorillas have a right to be apprehensive of humans.
Countless of them have been hunted, trapped, and massacred.
Gorillas have also been eaten. Gorilla hands are used as
ashtrays and heads are used for taxidermy purposes. Lowland
gorillas are the most common species seen in zoos. In addition,
they love bamboo shoots.
     Gorilla watching tours in Rwanda began in the 1980’s. These
tours bring in revenues that create jobs, bring to light the
importance   of   gorilla    conservation,    and   help     to   fund
     The International Union for the Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) was established in 1948. The IUCN is the world’s longest
standing and ‘grandest’ global environmental network. The IUCN
contains   over   one    thousand    government   and    NGO    member
organizations. Membership is democratic in nature.
     The IUCN is very beneficial to humans, wildlife, and
nature. This is truly a benevolent organization.
     The IUCN Red List of threatened species is well-known and
highly   respected     throughout     the   world.    Valuable     and
comprehensive information pertaining to the status of both plant
and animal species can be obtained on their site.
     The Humane Methods Slaughter Act of 1958 (U.S. Federal),
was intended to protect livestock during slaughter.
     The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 (U.K.) was designed to
set limits on and to establish a licensing system for animal
experimentation.    In    effect    the   act   was     intended    to
professionalize   and   better    control   the   field    of   animal
                      CANIDS & FELINES

     There are hundreds of millions of dogs on this planet; by
far outnumbering all of their canid relatives including foxes,
wolves, coyotes, and jackals. There are presently more than four
hundred recognized/known breeds of dogs. More breeds are
discovered and added. There are over one hundred recognized pure
breeds in the United States.
     Labrador retrievers have helped hunters immensely. Labs are
fast runners, strong, good swimmers, medium-sized, and have a
generally friendly temperament towards humans.
     Labs have also been used in warfare as swimmers and canid
paratroopers. In addition, Labs are genetically inclined to
retrieve. They can also be trained to guide the blind and sick.
     Mind you, Labs need much attention and love from their
     ‘Sound dogs’ are trained to aid the deaf. Dogs have aided
humanity enormously.
     Great Danes are known as ‘gentle giant dogs’. Great Danes
aided hunters. These dogs carry a ‘blind’ or ‘deaf’ gene.
     The Assyrians used close relatives of the Great Danes for
hunting and warfare. The ancestors of the Great Danes were
boarhounds; they had a more aggressive temperament.
     Celebrities who’ve owned a Great Dane are Side Caesar,
Michael Douglass, Greg Louganis (former Olympic diver), and
Olivia Newton-John.
     Great Danes are also known for their loose and slobbery
lips. If you’re close to one and it shakes its head, you’ll be
sprayed with saliva. Otherwise, this dog is generally friendly.
     Karelian bear dogs are incredible hunters with much
tenacity and heroism. Karelian dogs can spook a bear or even try
to fight it. They are powerful, intelligent, and well-built.
     Perhaps the most respected dog breed is the German
shepherd. The German shepherd is powerful, loyal, fast, and is
the most versatile (companion, guard, military service, law
enforcement, search and rescue, showmanship, and acting), of dog
     German shepherd dogs are respected in K-9 Units and in the
Secret Service, RCMP (112 dog teams in Canada), and other law
agencies abroad.
     The ‘standardization’ of the German shepherd breed began in
the late 1880’s in Germany by Captain Max von Stephanitz.
     Mastiffs originated in Asia, were used in war (sometimes to
attack and kill prisoners) and used in blood sports (still used
to this day). The Mastiff is large, very powerful, and is known
to be stoic, especially in the dog fighting industry.
     The Molussus, an ancestor of the modern day Mastiff, was an
extremely aggressive dog.
     A properly bred Mastiff with the right genetic makeup
usually results in a good companion animal.
     The American Kennel Club officially recognized the Mastiff
breed in 1885.
     The   American   Kennel   Club  recognizes   the   following
categories of dogs:

    1.   Herding Dogs
    2.   Hounds
    3.   Non-Sporting
    4.   Terriers
    5.   Toy Dogs
    6.   Working Dogs

     Dalmatians have been used for hunting, carriage dogs, fire
departments, mascots, and companion animals.
     The Pekingese and Shitzu were referred to as ‘lion dogs’ by
ancient Chinese people.
     In ancient China, the Pekingese was bred to resemble a
miniature lion, and was housed in large palaces. Pekingese were
thought to protect their owners from evil. No wonder, theft of
one of these dogs from a palace resulted in a serious penalty.
     The Pekingese dog has legs that are disproportionate to the
head and torso. The Chihuahua is symmetrical but tiny.
     Rescue dogs are used after explosions, natural disasters,
major wrecks, avalanches, floods, or any situation where humans
or animals are hidden. There are also special ‘cadaver rescue
dogs’. These dogs are trained to scent out rotten flesh.
     Hard-working rescue dogs are heroes in the truest sense.
They can’t comprehend ‘heroism’ as we can, but they enjoy
helping their master.
     Rescue dogs must have the following characteristics:
strong, energetic, intelligent, good temperament, trainable (two
years of intense training, including obstacle training), in top
shape, obey commands, and be desensitized to new surroundings or
     Trailing dogs sniff objects and scents. They keep their
noses close to the ground. Air scenting dogs, however, sniff the
     Specially trained dogs are used by law enforcement agencies
to sniff out bombs (also includes UN mine sweeping dogs),
narcotics and in arson investigations.
     Saint Bernard dogs are primarily used for snow-bound
rescues. These dogs were first used in the Swiss Alps. Although
German shepherds and Newfoundland dogs may also be used in snow
bound rescues, the Saint Bernard dogs are the primary experts.
     Newfoundland dogs are also used for water bound rescues.
They have webbed toes, double coat of four, and are good
     Special puppies are selected to be raised and trained as
rescue dogs. The end result is a brave, obedient, versatile,
easy to handle, and athletic dog.
     Keep in mind that dogs have been serving humans for
thousands of years. Not to mention their use as companion
     Although dog breed varieties are mind-boggling, breeders
and fanciers should try to breed out genetic and physical
abnormalities. In addition, tail docking and ear cropping should
only be performed out of medical necessity.
     Dogs’ ancestors, who were wolves, tagged along and
eventually crept towards human settlements.
     Throwaway food items and in the case of individual wolves
that had the tenacity to approach humans was a precursor to a
long relationship between humans and dogs. The process of
‘doggification’ of wolves began thousands of years ago. The ten
thousand years estimate is old an outdated. Furthermore, the
‘doggification’ process began much earlier in human history.
      Dogs’ ancestors helped to warn humans of impending danger
from predators and intruders.
      Puppies from dogs’ ancestors were raised and those that
grew up to be human-friendly were used.
      Humans began a process of breeding. The 19th century saw an
incredible expansion and intensification of variable breeding of
      In ancient Egypt dogs were considered members of the
family. A dog’s death was a tragic event.
      Ancient   Egyptian  militaries   would   sometimes  unleash
specially trained attack/killer dogs upon their enemies.
      In ancient Greece and Rome dog meat was considered a
delicacy. They could also be put to work in kitchens to pump
water. Dog meat is eaten in Korea and China, and to a lesser
extent the Philippines. The Taiwanese Parliament passed a law
prohibiting the consumption of dog or cat meat and the sales of
their fur.
      The USDA uses Jack Parson Terriers to detect brown tree
snakes hidden inside cargo in the territory of Guam. Fisheries
and Oceans Canada also uses dogs.
      Servus, a Belgian Malimois and World Trade Center dog, fell
twenty feet, face first into a glass, sharp-jagged rebar, and
other dangerous rubble.
      The Suffolk County SPCA treated sick and injured dogs that
worked the World Trade Center as a result of the attacks.
        In the First World War the Russian Military used between
seventy and eighty thousand dogs. Thousands of these dogs died
during the war.
      After the Second World War and Vietnam War many war dogs
were dumped by the U.S. Military. Finding proper homes for them,
veterinary care, and shipping them back to stateside would’ve
been an enormous job, indeed.
      There were roughly three hundred and fifty rescue dogs from
around the world that were put to work in the World Trade
      Sergeant Stubby was one of the most highly decorated war
dogs in recorded history. Stubby was attained the rank of
sergeant in the United States Military. War dogs, like guide
dogs must be trained to filter out most stimuli.
      During the Second World War the favourite dog breeds of the
U.S. Military were German shepherds and Doberman pinschers. At
bit ironic, don’t you think?
       Queen Elizabeth 1 loved animal blood sports. Christopher
Columbus used attack dogs against the natives. These dogs ripped
apart many human beings.
     Robert E. Perry, the first human to reach the North Pole
(1909), was accompanied by twenty three men and one hundred and
thirty three dogs.
     Roald Amundsen was accompanied by ninety two dogs for his
Antarctic expedition (1910-1912).
     Agility training, Schutzhund, and the Iditarod (over 1,150
miles of sledding), are for the cream of the crop of
athletically inclined dogs.
     Regarding the Iditarod race it is performed in Alaska in
extreme cold. The raising, training, feeding, housing, and
racing of any dog in this brutal race must ensure optimum animal
welfare standards.
     There have been cases of dogs dying of heart attacks, of
exhaustion, trauma, and also neglect in housing. Dogs have been
photographed chained or placed into tiny, filthy pens.
     Mushers and sled dog owners must treat their dogs humanely.
In which case, many do. Many of the sled dogs are anxious to
run. It is in their genetic makeup to run in the cold. Mind you,
the time, distance, terrain, and speed of the race are under the
control of the human mushers. Furthermore, if one of the dogs is
suddenly injured or cannot run during a sled dog race or any
kind of a run serious injury or death is possible.
     Alaskan malamute and Siberian husky dogs are better adapted
to run the Iditarod than other dog breeds.
     Greenland uses over twenty thousand sled dogs. Many of
these dogs are chained up outdoors, when not in use. The lack of
sufficient food and water for the sled dogs makes this issue a
serious eyebrow raiser. Greenland has few animal protection laws
and they’re generally not enforced.       1925, Balto, a Siberian
husky, was the lead dog in an emergency sled dog delivery of
serum to for diphtheria. A possible diphtheria epidemic in Nome,
Alaska as a result of hard, strenuous work by Gunnar Kaasen,
Leonhard Seppala, and sled dogs led by Balto.
     People around the world are fascinated with animals. In
order to begin a career with animals an individual can do
volunteer work, academic studies, internship, residency, or just
go and apply. Depending on the institution, requirements vary
     Working with animals includes some possible dangers; bites,
scratches or other attacks, zoonotic diseases, or allergies.
     Many of the entry-level jobs in the animal field are low-
paying. A degree from an accredited college or university will
help open doors for the applicant, and the pay level will
usually   increase   corresponding   with    the   degree  level.
Veterinarians are the M.D.’s of the animal employment sector.
     When searching for a dog breeder make certain that the
facility is clean, dogs appear healthy, non-caged, no multi-
breeds, notice the dog to worker ratio; behaviour of the dogs,
the breeder, and the other workers (if applicable), and you
should have a right to bring along a veterinarian of your
choosing. Finally, try to get good referrals or recommendations
from trusted family members, friends, your veterinarian, or
former customers.
     Animal shelters in the United States are forced to ‘put
down’ eight million dogs and cats every year; too many births,
not enough spaying and neutering, irresponsible breeding and
irresponsible ownership.
       Puppy mills are horrible places for dogs that are to be
sold or are used as ‘breeding machines’ (breeding dogs, or
breeding bitches).
     Puppy mill breeding machines are often the dogs that suffer
the most and for the longest period in puppy mills.
     Many puppy mills place their dogs in tiny, filthy, and
barren cages that can contain urine, pasted and logged feces,
maggots, insects, blood, puss, and fresh or dry vomit. Puppy
mill dogs suffer from mental and physical ailments. Veterinary
care is the exception, not the rule. The object is to sell,
sell, and sell at the cheapest possible price.
     Puppy mills frequently sell their dogs to pet stores. As a
general rule, dogs should be purchased from a local shelter.
Depending on the jurisdiction, shelter dogs are probably on
death row. They must be sold, or they are killed. How, it
depends on the shelter and the laws of the area.
     Euthanasia (lethal injection) is the fastest and most
humane method of killing a shelter dog. Unfortunately, shelters
all around the United States are overcrowded, with not enough
staff and too much work. Not to mention the low pay and the lack
of understanding and compassion by the public.
     Depending on the jurisdiction a shelter may use lethal
injection, gas canister (gas chamber; a horror to the cramped
animals and the ones in line that can hear their brethren
suffering), or a lethal injection into the heart of a fully
conscious animal.
     People breed dogs then casually dump them in a shelter or
on the street when they realize that they cannot handle the hard
work, love, and dedication needed to care for a bitch and her
puppies. Even adult male dogs are tossed. The dog may be
incorrigible, too aggressive, or the owners don’t know how to
properly care or train him.
     If you purchase a dog from a shelter you may be helping to
save its life and you will be helping the shelter and its staff.
Please DO NOT BREED DOGS OR CATS unless you are a licensed
breeder and you know what you are doing.
      Surplus animals have to go somewhere, or they may be
      Depending on the jurisdiction an animal shelter may
practice pound seizure (sending of unclaimed or tossed dogs and
cats to biomedical labs).
      Pound seizure opens up the door to corruption. Lost animals
can be sold to biomedical labs before the deadline.
      When purchasing a dog from an animal shelter open your
hearts to multi-breed dogs. Most patron want a pure bred.
      No kill animal shelters are good in theory but can easily
become devastatingly overcrowded. Adoption rates almost never
equal the housing rates.
      Animal shelters are dumping grounds for former fighting
      Jersey City, New Jersey recently experienced a dramatic
rise in fighting dog dumping (pure breed pit bulls, mixed breed
pit bulls) into its shelters.
      These aggressive dogs have been bred to be extremely
aggressive, mean, and to not fear anything. These dogs already
have the genetic components to fight.
      Thug breeders don’t care about the dogs’ physical or mental
well-being. They want to sell and make money.
      The breeding of overly aggressive dogs has been going on
for thousands of years. The primary purposes were for war,
guarding, pitting against prisoners, bull or bear baiting,
fighting    lions,  dog   fighting,  prestige   (criminals,  drug
dealers), etc. Fighting dogs were used in Roman coliseums.
      Dog fighting promoters, dog fighter breeders, and anyone
else who supports this horrific industry must face stiff
      In dog fights at least one of the dogs is seriously
wounded, dies, or is killed as a result of incredible wounds.
The winner of any dog fight is on borrowed time, unless his
owner retires him on the spot.
      The dog fighting organization is crime infested. Drugs,
alcohol, weapons, ex-cons, illegal gambling, and a general
atmosphere of toughness prevail. Youngsters or even children who
attend these matches learn that this kind of behaviour (brutal
blood sports, criminal activity and cruelty to animals) is
      Dog fighting occurs in other parts of the world too. In
Afghanistan ‘fight day’ is on Friday morning before the weekly
congregational prayer. How hypocritical.
      In Pakistan there is ‘GITT KOOTAH’, better known as bear
baiting. Mind you, this is not the bear baiting of canned
      This kind of baiting was originally ‘imported’ into
Pakistan (the countryside) by the British. It is a horrible
      The combatants are a defanged/declawed bear that is leashed
to a pole or inanimate object. Two specially trained fighting
dogs are leashed upon the bear.
      This is a horrifically bloody and gruesome sport. The bear
may be forced to fight over and over again. Naturally, there’s
wagering on these fights. In addition, corruption reaches high
levels. It’s obvious that the promoters are siding with the
      The World Society for the Protection of Animals, other
animal protection organizations, many petitioners, brave and
hard working Pakistani government workers have combated this
      Because bear baiting occurs in the countryside corruption
and    difficulty  in   enforcement  pose   continuous  problems.
Furthermore, a nation that is facing instability and bombings on
a regular basis has other big priorities.
      Fight promoters and participants in animal blood fights are
losers; pure and simple. No human being of sound mind and who
has empathy in his/her heart would ever stage a brutal animal
blood sport.
      Fighting dogs of the American pit bull terriers are stocky,
tough, fearless, and are ‘sustained biters’.
      Dog fighting trainers need a strong, tough, preferably
medium sized or large breed of fighting dogs. The American pit
bull terriers are ‘sustained biters’. Meaning ‘they’ can bite
and hold on and not pull away until the referee or their owner
pulls them away. There are countless tough dog breeds but the
most notable is the American pit bull terrier (APBT). The
fighting version of the APBT powerfully built, fearless,
relentless, knows no fear, and is an incredible sustained biter.
      Today, ‘moulding’ a good fighting dog involves incredible
training, often times beyond exhaustion. Dogs ‘in training’
endure forced runs on moving treadmills, tree-dogging, excessive
caging, scaling trees to snatch blood pasted animals, being
bitched out for making mistakes, little or no empathy,
deprivation of food and killing weaker animals (rabbits, cats,
dogs, etc.).
      Fighting dog owners care about the bottom line; MONEY,
MONEY, AND MORE MONEY. They couldn’t care less about the dogs in
their care.
      Fighting dog owners have been known to curse, kick, punch,
shoot, or even burn alive their losing dog. Remember, there’s a
good chance that the dogs’ owners are wagering on the fights.
      Countless companion animals are stolen every year to be
used as bait for fighting dogs. The bigger and tougher dogs that
are stolen may be moulded to become fighters.
      Dog fighting is common in Japan and in certain part of
Russia. Other forms of animal fighting include horse fighting
(Philippine Island of Mindanao, thousand are maimed or killed
every year), bullfighting, cock fighting, and hog-dog rodeos
(the Deep South).
      Animal hoarding is a big problem in the United States. In
animal hoarding individuals ‘take in’ dozens or in some cases
over two hundred animals (usually dogs, but cats are also
victims) into their homes and properties.
      Rampant, unchecked births, lack of nutrition (hunger,
starvation, thirst, emaciation, death) are ever present. In
addition lack of emotional care to the animals, tiny, filthy
cages, and sickness are ever present.
      Animal hoarders are for the most part mentally ill.
Hoarders consider the animals in their care as children or
      The hoarder may or may not realize the true nature of
his/her actions. Denial is common. Unlike sadists and cruel
individuals, hoarders claim to love their animals and may show
no outward signs of hostility towards them.
      Unfortunately, it is all too common for judges to return
confiscated animals to the same hoarders.
      Hoarders should not be allowed to own animals, period! They
are sick and unable to care for them.
      Animals under the care of humans must be fed, watered,
cared for (veterinary medical care), and loved.
      Hoarding is extreme negligence and ignorance of the animals
in a person’s care but without the ‘malice’ or ‘evil intent’.
      Hoarders are a danger to the animals in their care. Persons
found guilty of hoarding must have the animals in their ‘care’
confiscated and never returned. It’s a terrible sight to see
starvation, emaciation, sickness, mental anguish, and death on
an animal hoarder’s premises. Feces, urine, blood, maggots,
fleas, vomit, horrible stench, and desperation engulf the air.
      Animals may be trapped inside tiny, filthy cages, chained
to a tree, an inanimate object, or locked up inside a home or
      Psychological or psychiatric counselling for hoarders, of
possible, is recommended. Because these individuals are sick,
there’s no telling what they’ll do after their animals are
      In the United States there are over one thousand new cases
of hoarding every single year. Unfortunately, the hoarding
problem is probably much larger. An animal hoarder who lives out
in the middle of nowhere is unlikely to be discovered; barring a
     Every continent contains wild dogs except Antarctica.
Domesticated dogs come in all shapes, sizes, coats, ‘duties’ and
personalities. Humans have moulded dogs more than any other
     Domestication of the dog began more than ten thousand years
ago. All dogs are descended from wolves; coyotes, jackals, and
foxes are relatives. However, the fox is the most distant.
     The gray wolf (also called the timber wolf) is the most
numerous of all wolf species. In addition, the gray wolf is the
largest of wolf species; or wild dogs for that matter.
     The gray wolf can weigh up to one hundred and seventy five
pounds and can attain a height of three feet at the shoulder and
six feet from one end to another.
     Historically, in the United States the gray wolves have
been hunted, killed, trapped, poisoned, demonized, cursed, had
bounties on their heads, and have been driven off of their
     By 1973, the gray wolf had been nearly obliterated from the
continental United States except for Minnesota and Michigan.
     Today, people shoot and kill wolves that are in the
‘illegal place’ at the ‘wrong time’. The age-old story of the
big bad wolf holds much weight in peoples’ attitudes.
     In 2003 Alaska began an aerial shooting campaign of wolves.
It is important to understand both sides of this equation. Of
course, wolves have endured tremendous suffering at the hands of
humans. But you, as an intended learner and perhaps an activist,
should read ‘their literature’ too. Why are they killing wolves?
This kind of question pertains to other aspects of the animal
use domain.
     Red wolf DNA is a combination of gray wolf and coyote. The
latter two have been killed wholesale.
     The Mexican gray wolf (lobo) is visibly smaller than the
gray wolf. The swift or kit fox is the fastest fox.
     Wolves, coyotes, foxes, and jackals have been killed in
large numbers. Above all else, they are considered a threat to
ranchers’ livestock.
     During the middle ages (in Europe) people commonly believed
that wolves were ‘devils’ dressed in wolf clothing. Soon
afterwards, wolves were exterminated from England and Ireland.
     There are only a few hundred Ethiopian wolves left.
Problems include habitat loss, disease, and persecution. In
addition, the maned wolf has to deal with habitat loss, disease,
and hunting.
     In the American West bison, wolves, coyotes, prairie dogs,
black footed ferrets, and grizzlies were considered vermin, and
were duly exterminated.
     In Ancient Egypt many dogs were mummified. They were
believed to be dual species gods (half human-half dog). Take a
look at their carving of the Anubis (perceived God of the dead).
The sculptured face is of a canid. In addition, many canine
images were painted.
     There are no wolves in Australia. Even the fox and dingo
(do not bark) was imported by humans.
     Dogs have been subjects of vivisection for biomedical,
pharmaceutical, toxicity, tobacco, and burning tests.
     At the Third Military Medical University at Chongquing,
China nearly ninety dogs were used in a series of ‘fire burning’
     In the napalm burning tests (thirty second duration) three
dozen dogs were used. The dogs were killed after three days of
‘napalm burn living’.
     For the second experiment an additional seven dogs were
used as control subjects (no burning).
     At the end of the experiment all of the dogs were killed
and their organs were examined to test the effects of
resuscitation fluid on internal organs of napalm victims.
     Other dogs were burned (third degree burns over half of
their bodies) then underwent brain scanning.
     The third experiment involved twenty four multi-breed dogs
(I don’t like to use the word ‘mongrel’ because it has negative
connotations) were scalded in approximately forty percent of
their bodies.
     Other    militaries   use   animals    in   experimentation.
Unfortunately, in dictatorial regimes much is hidden. Other
nations cannot hide their experiments.
     One of the largest military experiments on animals occurred
in Bikini Atoll.
     Tobacco experiments performed in Hazelton’s (now Covance)
laboratories in Reston, Virginia involved ‘smoking Beagles’ in
‘sustained’ exposure to cigarette smoke ‘adorned’ with carbon
     In the mid-twentieth century tobacco experiments conducted
on Beagles included securely ‘fastening’ Beagles next to each
other and fitting them with secure face masks. The gizmo used
allowed the experimenters to replace one lit cigarette after
another until the sequence for the particular experiment was
     Later, other experiments relating to second-hand smoke were
performed on Beagles.
     Vivisection or animal experimentation is a touchy subject.
I hold a middle line view. Vivisection should only be done if
there is some anticipated benefit for humans and/or animals. In
addition, the all ‘humane alternatives’ must be studied first.
And of course, animal welfare standards must be exercised
regarding housing, food, water, cage sizes, and enrichment.
      Tobacco is now a known carcinogen. Experiments on animals
will not solve the tobacco cancer problem. Education, and of
course, non-smoking are the best choices.
      Dr. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), the Russian physiologist
performed    experiments   on   dogs   to   better  understand   the
connection between salivation and the digestive system. An
important field of study (Classical Conditioning) in psychology
was born as a result of Pavlov’s beneficial experiments. Dr.
Pavlov received a Noble prize in 1904.
      In 1628 William Harvey proved that blood ‘proceeds’ through
the circulatory system by vivisecting living animals.
      Many ‘research dogs’ are obtained through pound seizure,
greyhound tracks, puppy mills, internet, ‘questionable sources’,
through free to a good home ads, special breeding labs, or may
be bred inside the facility.
      The   vivisection   industry   uses   labels  like   ‘number’,
‘subject’, object, or ‘research model’ when referring to the
animals in their care.
      The vivisection controversy is the most emotionally charged
of all animal uses; in particular for animals such as dogs,
cats, and primates (especially great apes). Invasive procedures
involving the head or eye cause much controversy.
      Procedures involving the strapping of the animals and using
invasive procedures are perceived as cruel and inhumane by
animal rights advocates.
      Graphic   pictures   or   images,   without  the   ‘scientific
context’ cause incredible emotionality in untrained persons.
      Animal experiments have a purpose. The best method of
understanding why a particular experiment is performed is to be
knowledgeable. Read the literature of the institution and read
the counter argument. Knowledge and objectivity are called for
at all times.
      Animal testing has been used for research in tetanus, oral
polio    vaccines,   rabies,   anthrax,   cardiac   catheterization,
insulin for diabetes, anti-coagulants, antibiotics, open heart
surgery, organ transplants, lithium, AIDS and HIV, head injury,
brain studies, whooping cough, arthritis, diphtheria, leprosy,
rubella, measles, penicillin, measurement of blood pressure,
pump-oxygenator, thyroxin, etc.
      Animal research is not perfect. There are ‘controls’ and
‘oversights’ in this field. The Institutional Animal Care and
Use Committee (IACUC) which by U.S. federal law is required to
be installed by establishments that make use of laboratory
animals in their research or educating purposes to supervise and
to judge all aspects of the institution’s animal care and use
     The IACUC consists of at least five persons including a
qualified veterinarian, a qualified scientist, a layperson (non-
scientist), a person who has no link or relationship whatsoever
with the institution except as being an IACUC member. The fifth
person can fall into one or more of the aforementioned
categories. The IACUC reserves the right to have more than five
     Large scale military ‘super bomb experiments’ are a
terrifying phenomena. They are not for the good of human kind.
     The most notable experiment was the atomic bombing at
bikini atoll (part of the Marshall Islands). For this horrible
‘experiment’ four thousand goats, pigs and rodents were used.
     In jurisdictions where pound seizure is practiced (legal)
‘authorized institutions’ can take animals from shelters and dog
pounds for the purpose of vivisection.
     The USDA licenses Class A (animal breeders) and Class B
(animal breeders, purchasers, and re-sellers of animals).
     Even puppies can be used in experiments. Beagles are the
most ‘convenient’ breed of dogs used in experiments. Beagles
have a mild temperament and are generally trusting of humans.
     The   Department   of   Defense  (DoD)   and  the    National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have used millions
of animals as research subjects. The DoD does not have to comply
with the provisions of the Animal Welfare Act.
     Throughout most of the world animal experiments are either
attributed ‘secret’ or ‘top secret’.
     Military experiments on animals can include gun shots,
stabbings, burnings, biological tests, chemical tests, atomic
tests, nuclear tests, or trauma tests. Animals used include
primates, cats, dogs, pigs, rodents, sheep, and rabbits.
     In non-military use up to ninety percent of animal subjects
are rodents. Millions of animals are used for research every
single year around the world. Rabbits are a favourite source for
eye irritation tests because they do not tear. Cats are a
favourite in brain tests.
     Animal testing is also done for HIV, AIDS, SARS (severe
acute respiratory syndrome).
     The use of animals in the cosmetics industry includes eye
irritation   tests,   soaps,   skin  irritation,   and    allergic
reactions. Protests against this industry’s use of animals have
made more headway than in others. This is likely because
alternatives have been found and the ‘cosmetics industry’ has an
overall appearance of being non-essential; not used for
military, household cleaners, medicine, pharmaceutical, or
     Leopards are an endangered species. A true leopard belongs
to one of the eight subspecies: Amur, Javan, Anatolian, South
Arabian, North Chinese, Sri Lankan, and North Persian.
     Unfortunately, all of the major leopard subspecies are
either endangered or critically endangered. The surviving
leopards can be found in deserts, rainforests, savannas,
mountains, and certainly ‘perched on trees’.
     Adult leopards are loners. In addition, meeting other
leopards is primarily for copulation. They are territorial and
mark their boundaries by urinated or clawing trees.
     Poaching of leopards is a very serious problem. Hunting,
killing as vermin, habitat loss, and the ever-present leopard
skin trade are big problems that should be tackled.
     Cats are natural hunters. They have remarkable vision,
olfactory sense, balance, speed, reflexes, agility, and good
climbing and leaping abilities. Cats in general do not have good
     Cats’ claws enable them to seize prey, attack opponents or
     Declawing a cat is quite painful and potentially dangerous.
Declawing is really an amputation. In human perspective it would
be like amputating the last digit on each of our fingers and
     Declawed cats cannot defend themselves, climb trees,
properly walk and run, and will have to be kept indoors for
life. An escape equals a death sentence.
     Problems may occur after surgery such as chipped bones,
nerve problems, abnormal re-growth, haemorrhage, chronic pain
and sensitivity, excessive biting and/or urinating, and a
noticeable personality change.
     Claws are an ‘inherently’ natural part of a cat’s body and
‘personality’. This procedure will not remove a cat’s predatory
instinct but will certainly frustrate it considerably.
     Cats were most likely used to protect food stocks from
     Ancient Egyptians loved cats. In fact, they were considered
sacred beings.
     A cat’s tapetum lucidum which increases the quantity of
light to the retina gives the eye the reflector, shiny look at
     The tigers of Sundarbans (beautiful forest; Bangladesh and
India) is a gigantic mangrove forest that covers ten thousand
square kilometres; in the Ganges Delta.
     There are roughly five hundred tigers in Sundarbans. They
are responsible for up to three hundred human deaths a year.
Most of the victims are villagers.
     Tigers are fast, quick, stealthy, powerful, beautiful,
agile, and can be extremely deadly. Sundarbans tigers are well
adapted to their environment; they are able to drink salt water.
     Tigers can eat up to eighty pounds of meat in one sitting
and are solitary hunters.
     Jim Corbett a hunter shot a tiger that killed four hundred
and thirty six people.
     The Captive Wildlife Safety Act (Effective September 17,
2007) makes it unlawful to ‘transport’ most big cat species
across state lines or U.S. borders unless the transporter is
exempt. This law came into being as a result of the American
public’s fear of big cat owning neighbours.

     Zoos also referred to as zoological gardens, zoological
parks, or animal parks. Menageries and roadside zoos should be
banned in all countries. The crowded, inhumane housing and
treatment of menagerie animals is neither educational nor
beneficial to any animal/s.
     Zoos were established in ancient Egypt, ancient China, and
the lands of the Roman Empire. The ancient Greeks had zoos
primarily for learning purposes; they were well ahead of their
time. The Sumerians collected rare animals.
     In 1828, the Zoological Society of London founded the famed
zoological garden (later known as the London Zoo) in Regents
Park, London.
     Presently, the London Zoo includes some six hundred and
fifty species of animals. Over one hundred of these species are
     Ideally, zoos are places where people can see animals in
the flesh, where it would be impossible to do so by the vast
majority of us. Animals from around the world, many from exotic
places, are enjoyable to see. For children, this can be a good
introduction to the study of animals later on in life. A good
zoo is an interesting and fun place to visit.
     Seeing wildlife on television, in books, on the net, or in
magazines or journals is good, but nothing beats real life
     Zoo animals must receive correct quantities and types of
food, adequate water supply, enrichment activities (also toys if
applicable), veterinary care, and no need to flee or be
subjected to harassment by another animal or patrons.
     Seeing animals in real life is a good step in convincing
the general public the importance of conservation. The Bronx
Zoo, Denver Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoo, Smithsonian's National Zoo ,
Oregon Zoo, Indianapolis Zoo (The Indianapolis Prize), Columbus
Zoo & Aquarium (Currently has over seventy wildlife conservation
projects),and many other zoos. In addition, the Association of
Zoos and Aquariums helps its accredited zoos to increase and
improve their conservation strategies.
     Although some animal species find it hard to breed in
captivity, most animal species can breed in zoos. This is a
boost for animals that are endangered. These animal species need
to be protected and isolated in order to reproduce. Re-
introduction programs are the ultimate aim. Every animal that
dies in an accredited zoo undergoes a necropsy (animal autopsy).
     There are many horrible zoos and roadside menageries around
the world including the Belgrade Zoo, zoos in Romania, Kabul Zoo
(animals have received terrible treatment including a hand
grenade thrown at a lion named Marjan),
     Although there are many conservation-minded zoos, there’s
still much more work to be done. Countless species are
endangered, threatened, or vulnerable. Not to mention, the
species that have become extinct as a result of humanity’s cold-
blooded hands.
     Henry 111 kept a large collection of antelopes. Antelopes
are jumpy by nature.
     Just under three thousand and five hundred years ago
ancient Egyptians were able to see animals from far off places
in ‘gardens’ brought back by soldiers. We owe Queen Hatshepsut
for her genius in ordering this venture.
     Five hundred years later (1000 B.C.), Emperor Wen Wang
ordered the formation of the first imperial zoo which was to be
called ‘The Garden of Intelligence’. Although the animals in the
garden were initially to be seen only by the royal family,
Emperor Wang’s insight has helped in the overall formation of
modern day zoos. Nothing comes instantaneously.
      Many zoos have evolved from archaic, bare, concrete
enclosures, to simulations of natural habitats. In addition,
good zoos can and do help in conservation of wildlife species.
Mind you, there are still dilapidated zoos around the world. We
must strive forward diligently to improve zoo conditions (for
the animals therein), and to educate the public.
      An abbreviated list of zoo jobs includes: zoo director,
assistant      director,    veterinarian,     veterinary     nurse,
nutritionist, and the general curator, Head of finance,
conservation biologist, custodian, maintenance, security, food
service, merchandise sales, ticket booth attendant, parking lot
attendants, tour guide, and visitor assistance workers. In zoos
with aquariums additional jobs are available.
      Animal   enclosures  must  be   temperature   regulated   (if
indoor), correct flight distance (for prey animals), correct
habitat (natural or simulated), effective barrier, clean, free
of diseased animals, correct architecture, resting place (if
applicable), and play area (if applicable).
      Humans act as ‘surrogates’ to zoo animals. Human incubators
are used in some zoos. Zoo nurseries must always be cleaned
after each use.
      Veterinarian/s, medical care and an animal dietician/s are
necessary for every zoo. Larger zoos need more of each.
      Animals are    ‘cordoned’ or ‘restrained’ in a variety of
enclosure shapes, sizes, and structures in (zoos, roadside
menageries, mascots, and circuses), laboratories (biomedical,
pharmaceutical, academic institutions), private collections,
homes, enclosed yards, aquariums, pits, tree dogs, park,
reserves, or game parks are the main areas.
      Totally free-roaming wildlife is good in theory but is
becoming more and more difficult. ‘Wildlife borders’ and
‘parameters’ are drawn up by humans, not by animals. Even polar
bears, who trek vast distances in the circumpolar region cannot
escape the long arm of humanity.
      For many of us zoos are the closest places to see animals
in the flesh. The menagerie of animals in zoos cannot be
anywhere in the natural world.
      ‘Comprehensive zoos’ may contain a wide variety of animals,
insects, and plants that you and I can see in person.
      The word ‘zoo’ is short for Zoological garden or zoological
       The age of European colonialism and vast exploration
enabled the importation of countless animal species and
individuals. European zoos were turned into animal exhibitions.
In the beginning the upper class folks were the main patrons,
but later on ordinary citizens were able to visit zoos.
      On a positive note, Przewalski’s horse breeding in zoos
helped to stop this horse breed from becoming extinct. There are
currently 1100 of these horses in zoos worldwide.
      Unfortunately, there were cases of indigenous peoples
‘incarcerated’ inside zoo cages with concrete floors and iron
      Ota Benga, an African pygmy, was ‘displayed’ in the Bronx
Zoo’s Monkey House. Thankfully, public outrage made this a short
      Aquariums   or  seaquariums  can    house   marine mammals
(performing or non-performing), fish species (may include
sharks), turtles, reptiles, and manatees.
      Marine mammals should not be forced to perform unnatural
acts; especially when the training involves deprivation of food
or any kind of coercion. They should be placed there for our
viewing, pleasure, education, and to awaken us to the importance
of conservation.
      Seeing sea mammals, turtles, reptiles, and manatees up
close can awaken patrons to the importance of these creatures
and for their conservation. A portion of the proceeds can go to
conservation projects.
      Although countless people every single day receive much
happiness and pleasure from going to seaquariums and seeing the
creatures therein, here is another aspect to the housing of
marine mammals in tiny, enclosed aquariums. Most attendees are
unaware of a few important facts. They should be known prior to
your trip to the seaquarium.

    1. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) that are in open waters
       spend hours every single day swimming long distances
       (estimates go as high as one hundred miles).

    2. Seaquariums are tiny, concrete enclosures.

    3. Orcas live in pods (groups) of between a few individuals
       to a few dozen.

    4. Cetaceans in open waters dive deep into the ocean in
       search of food and to swim underwater. In seaquariums the
       action and the ‘food-search-drive’ are obliterated.

    5. Chlorine in seaquariums is both unnatural and can cause
       eye and skin problems for cetaceans. Furthermore, the
       water is unlike the waters they would spend their natural
       lives in.

    6. Breaching out of the water is limited due to the tiny
    7. Breeding problems often occur in seaquariums.

    8. Cetaceans that are not performing tricks usually swim in
       circles (round and round) the tiny enclosure.

    9. Cetacean sonar in seaquariums is compromised. Full use of
       sonar requires open waters.

    10. Fecal matter and urine may be present in the water.
       There’s nowhere to swim away to.

     In 1970, an orca named Lolita was captured while when she
was five years old in Puget Sound (near Washington State). At
the time, Lolita was swimming with her pod. Lolita has spent
four decades in a tiny aquarium. She is presently in the Miami
     The Canadian Federation of Humane Societies is firmly
opposed to housing cetaceans and polar bears in captivity.
     Polar bears tread many miles a day in the circumpolar
region in search of food and as a natural action for them.
     Elephants are social animals. They tread long distances
every day and need to eat and drink incredible quantities to
stay alive.
     Elephants in zoos should not be placed inside concrete
winter enclosures, should be examined on a regular basis by a
qualified individual, and should be fed well. Under no
circumstances should an elephant in a zoo perform stereotyped
action. Any zoo animal seen performing any stereotyped action is
in need of help.
     Both polar bears and elephants are perhaps the most
difficult animals to protect from mental and physical strain,
including illnesses and stereotyped behaviours. Caring and
qualified zoo workers are always needed for all animals.
     The Malaysian sun bear (sleepy bear) is not considered an
exciting animal to view by zoo patrons.
     Elephants have been serving humans for thousands of years.
Since they are the largest terrestrial animal on earth they can
pull, carry, push, or lift heavy objects.
     Elephants are good swimmers, surprisingly fast runners, but
can’t jump.
     Elephants   have  been   used   in   wars,  traction  work,
entertainment and entertainment.
     A cetacean that is released from a seaquarium must be
healthy (physically and free of contagious diseases), able to
feed itself, and must successfully enter a pod.
     In the 19th century greyhound dogs were used to destroy or
to ward off coyotes. Greyhounds have very good vision (sight
hounds) and can run up to 40 mph.
     Thousands of greyhound racing dogs are killed or disposed
of every year because they cannot make the grade or are
genetically unsuitable to be professional race dogs. ‘Gambling
monies’ (legal and illegal), state profits, the public’s
ignorance of the hidden facts, and entertainment were big motive
to keep this industry going.
     Incredible      pressure     from    animal    protectionist
organizations, individuals, and a major dip in profits has
weakened the greyhound industry. Greyhound race tracks have been
in the U.S. since 1920.
     Greyhound dogs that can no longer race because they’re worn
out or are injured must be disposed of; dumping (shelter,
outdoors), sold to biomedical labs, starvation, killing by
shooting or beating.
     The very lucky ones are adopted by a reputable agency.
Unfortunately, adoption levels do not come close to the actual
numbers that are disposed of.
     The   Greyhound    Association   of America,  a   non-profit
membership association that promotes responsible greyhound
racing dog ownership and the best treatment possible.
     As in most other issues pertaining to animal use, there are
two ‘extreme opposing viewpoints’. One supports the use of
animals for that particular cause, while the other is adamantly
against it.
     I’m sorry to say this but lying is something that is close
to prevalent in the animal use field. I’ve seen enough outright
contradictory statements and statistics from the pro-use and the
anti-use camps. I prefer to take the animal welfare approach, if
possible. Some animal uses are so cruel there is no welfare
     If all breeds of dogs and individuals, ‘slow pokes’ and
‘fast pokes’ were to run in ‘fun races’, without the ‘corporate
competitive’ and ‘wagering filled’ environment, much of the
suffering of racing dogs should be removed.
     In this kind of dog racing people will come to the tracks
to see ‘fun’ and ‘funny races’. Toy dogs, giant dogs, fat dogs,
and slim dogs can race together.
     The rodeo had its North American beginnings in the 18th
century by the Spanish. Today, the vaqueros or cowboys/cowgirls
are the human participants in rodeo events.
     Events include bull riding (extremely dangerous), bareback
riding, ladies’ barrel racing, steer wrestling, saddle bronco
riding, and tie roping. The clown has a very dangerous job too.
Although he/she looks and acts funny the animal that he steers
away is extremely dangerous.
     The rodeo is a terrifying and unusual even for the animals
involved. Bone fractures, bone breaks, internal injuries,
maiming, and death can occur.
      In the ‘sport’ of horse tripping (usually in Mexican
rodeos) the contestant’s job is to trip a horse, bull, or steer.
Animals are injured, terrified, and can easily be maimed.
     Cock fighting is a cruel blood sport. A pair of specially-
bred roosters square off in a tiny, enclosed ring or area.
Naturally, there are many people surrounding them (spectators,
wagers, onlookers). One rooster must kill or seriously maim the
other for the ‘fight’ to end.
     Cockfighting is illegal in every state in the union.
Unfortunately, this blood sport still occurs. The criminal
element engulfs this sport. I pity any child who is taken to one
of these fights by a ‘trusted’ and ‘loved’ adult.
     The cruel sport of horse fighting is 500 years old. It is
still practiced in parts of Asia. Kicking, biting, intimidating,
pushing, and head butting are common actions in this blood
sport. The horses involved, usually both, but definitely the
loser, is literally beaten to a pulp and massacred by his
opponent. Incredible blood loss, torn flesh, and other injuries
make the spectators joyous and think about their wager.
     Both horses are placed in an inescapable enclosure. In
addition, although both horses are supposed to be wild and
vicious, a ‘chicken’ or ‘scaredy-cat’ horse must fight. There’s
no escape and no mercy, compassion, or love from the spectators.
They want to see a gruesome match.
     Wild animal mascots (WAMs) must endure incredibly high
levels of ‘noises’, and bright and unnatural lighting (for the
     The game, whatever it is, confuses and causes the WAM
extreme anxiety. Remember every single person in the entire
arena, field, or court, belongs to a different species than the
     WAMs are usually in tiny cages during the event. After the
event they are sent back to ‘who knows where’? Then the WAM is
re-used over and over again. The WAMs enclosure at the event and
back to its home is most likely tiny and barren.
     WAMs are extremely dangerous! There’s always a possibility
that one may ‘exit’ its cage or an intoxicated or foolish person
may try to touch the WAM.
     College ball games and events are for humans. The best,
friendliest, safest, and most natural mascots are humans dressed
in ‘animals’ clothing’. At least they know what’s going on in
the event.
                       WILDLIFE (GENERAL)

        The bald eagle has been America’s national symbol since
     The Chippewa National Forest located in Northern Minnesota
is a refuge for the bald eagle and countless other bird species.
     In 1963 the bald eagle population was down to a few hundred
nesting pairs.
     Historically, bald eagles had to endure poisoning, trapping
(non-target animals), shooting, demonization, DDT (dangerous
pesticide), and habitat destruction. DDT was a decimator of bald
eagles and peregrine falcons. From 1917 to 1952 there was a
bounty on eagles in Alaska.
     Unlike the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1913 which helped
to protect migratory bird species, The Bald and Golden Eagle
Protection Act of 1940 forbade (except under strict conditions)
the acquisition of, ownership (possession), and the selling,
trading, or exchanging of the bald eagle.
     As a result, much illegal hunting of the bald eagle
     The bald eagles’ favourite food source is fish. The bald
eagle also includes other birds, beached whales, carcasses, road
kill, and the theft of food from other birds in its diet.
     The bald eagle is the master of the sky in its domain. It
is a tough bird that can steal food from other tough bird
     Native Americans have always revered the bald eagle. Today,
many North Americans feel likewise. The presence of the bald
eagle and the California condor are miracles.
     These   two   incredible   bird  species,   especially   the
California condor were in serious trouble.
     When Europeans first arrived in North America there were
large numbers of bald eagles along the shores of the Atlantic
and Pacific oceans reaching Alaska on the west coast.
     Furthermore, eagles controlled the skies in their respected
areas and many rivers and lakes. There may have been a million
bald eagles at the time.
     On June 28, 2007 Secretary of the Interior Dirk Kempthorne
announced that the bald eagle had been officially removed from
the endangered species list.
     The art of falconry began in the Middle East 3000 years
ago. Peregrine falcons were saved from the brink of extinction.
It took 3 decades of hard work to do the job.
     Many ranchers and farmers shoot or trap raptors (birds of
prey). Raptors hunt what trappers, hunters, and fishermen hunt;
birds, rabbits, fish, and small animals.
     The Philippine eagle is hunted mercilessly. The California
condor is a miracle story; saved from the verge of extinction.
Unfortunately, by human standards this raptor is ugly and
menacing-looking. It is also a scavenger.
     There are six species of vultures who ‘observe’ the African
savannah. The lappet-faced and white-headed vultures get first
pickings of a carcass. The two species are powerful enough to
split open a carcass.
     Next in line are the griffin and white-backed vultures.
They have long and specially designed necks to enable them to
sink their heads deep into a carcass.
     Vulture populations in the Middle East and Europe have
drastically declined.
     Today, the budgerigars are the most common bird species.
     Our planet’s highest mountains are in Asia and South
America. Wildlife in mountain areas includes Barbary sheep,
mountain lions, sun bears, giant pandas, red pandas, snow
leopards, bongos, deer, elk, grizzly bears, bighorn sheep,
mountain goats, wolfs, bird species (predator and prey). IN
general, mountain prey is better protected than lowland prey.
However, human encroachment has reached our tallest mountains.
Pollution knows no boundaries.
     Wilderness safaris (ecotourism) allow tourists to enter
exotic wildlife areas (sometimes densely populated) and take
pictures of individuals or groups.
     A portion of the proceeds from wilderness safaris can go
into conservation and education. To see wildlife in its natural
habitat is a good way to remind and educate people about
wildlife conservation.
     Everyone can’t afford to go to Africa, Asia, or some other
far off lands. Good, accredited zoos can also help people to
realize the importance of wildlife conservation. If you can
afford to visit both you are double lucky!
     Zoos have helped in the re-introduction of bison, Arabian
Oryx, and red wolf. The California condor was on the verge of
extinction. Zoos can play a role in protecting individuals and
populations of critically endangered species.
     The green tree snake, a horrible pest in Guam, is a native
of the coast of Australia, Papua New Guinea, and numerous
islands in Melanesia.
     Green tree snakes have wreaked havoc on Guam’s birds, and
also have preyed on its lizards, bats, and tiny rodents. Nine
species of Guam’s bird species have been ‘exterminated’ by the
brown tree snake and several others are in trouble.
     Brown tree snakes were most likely ‘military stowaways’ at
the end of the Second World War. By the early 1950’s their
presence was already known.
     The closest U.S. state to the Territory of Guam is Hawaii.
Every measure should be taken to rid Guam of this super pest and
to prevent its ‘leap-frogging’ into Hawaii, or any other island
or country for that matter.
     People in Guam have been bitten by the brown tree snake. In
fact, one elderly man was bitten in the scrotum while he was
seated in a toilet seat. Ouch!
     There are more than 400 species of sharks. They have large
     Most shark bits are either defensive, territorial, mistakes
(humans swim like injured fish). In addition, surfers on boards
look like fish food.
     Dozens   of   humans   are  killed    by  sharks  annually,
considerably more are bitten.
     Sharks have been hunted for their flesh, medicine, teeth,
cartilage, liver oil, or for shark fin soup.
     Shark fin soup which is in high demand in Asia is obtained
by catching a shark, slicing off the fins then tossing the body
back into the water. Shark meat is generally of little or no
value however their fins’ soup can cost a restaurant customer
one hundred dollars.
     Shark populations, especially in Asian waters, are being
hunted for their fins in an unsustainable manner. Millions of
sharks are killed annually, equalling over 1 million tons of
shark flesh.
     Sharks have been demonized throughout history. It’s easy
when you imagine what a shark looks like. Most species look very
cold, terrifying, and have incredible razor sharp teeth. They
appear cold and laconic when attacking prey.
     Sharks are a keystone species. They keep prey numbers in
check and large sharks help to control small shark populations.
     Unsustainable shark hunting is aggravated by the sharks’
slow reproduction rate. The Great White Shark is an ‘apex
predator’ in the ocean. Only orca pods can threaten this
powerful shark.
     By-catch,   demonization,  pollution,   habitat   destruction
(bottom trawlers, overfishing), and less prey are problems for
the Great White Shark.
     In 1991 South Africa passed a law for the protection of
Great White Sharks.
     The Shark Finning Prohibition Act makes it unlawful for any
foreign oceanic craft to dump or unload shark fins into a U.S.
port, without unloading the rest of the sharks’ bodies.
     The North American bison has always been an important part
of Native American culture (in particular on the plains). The
bison provide Native Americans with ‘optimum nutrition’, and the
body parts of bison were stripped down. Even the bones and teeth
were used. Absolutely nothing was wasted. Hides were used as
clothing and for tee pees.
     In addition, the bison was a part of Native American
religion and folklore. Hunting was important for individual
males, the family, and the tribe.
     The U.S. Government understood that by ‘erasing’ the bison,
Native Americans would be doomed to starvation, transfer, and
     Reservation life for Native Americans was horrible. The
food handouts were of poor quality and high in fat; usually
strips of bacon or other high-fat pork products. In addition,
diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, higher body fat
composition (for males and females), cultural and religious
annihilation,   humiliation,   loss    of  bison,    unemployment,
alcoholism, high mortality rates, and a general feeling of
apathy, anger, mistrust, fear, and depression were common.
     Turtles have been around for nearly 200 million years.
There are close to 270 turtle species.
     Giant turtles are referred to as tortoises. Their smaller
relatives are the terrapins.
     The   leatherback   turtle   is   the   largest   sea   turtle.
Unfortunately,    turtle   populations   around    the   world   are
     Turtles used for food, Chinese medicine, and pollution,
habitat destruction, by-catch, pet trade, and accidents are
destroying many turtle species. Leatherback blubber is used by
the cosmetic industry. Plastic bags (cause choking), fishing
gear, and fishing nets are big problems.
     Turtle watching tours are good for conservation. In
addition, turtle breeding can help in the conservation effort.
     Nesting success for turtles is very important for their
survival. Unfortunately, people take countless turtle eggs to
sell at the market.
     In 2001, the Taiwanese Authorities seized a ‘grand illegal’
shipment of ten thousand turtles.
     Turtles in general are slow and do not fight back when
attacked or captured by humans.
     Hawksbill turtles are overhunted for their incredible
shells. Leatherback ‘baby turtles’ are a food delight for birds
of prey, crabs, bears, coyotes, raccoons, snakes, and fish.
     Frogs have been on this planet for more than 250 million
years, except in Antarctica. Frogs are a keystone species; very
important for their habitat.
     Over 30 species of frogs are extinct. In addition 25 more
frog species are either extinct or a hair away from extinction.
Dozens more species are endangered. Frogs are easily affected by
habitat loss or alteration, pollution, or the introduction of
non-native species.
     The frog pet and vivisection trade are compounding their
population decline problems.
     Frogs eat many insects that we consider pests. Frogs can be
found living in or close to ponds, lakes, rivers, muddy grounds,
wetlands, grasslands, in trees, or deserts.
     Grazing livestock destroy frog habitat by trampling the
ground and eating much of the plant life.
     Pesticides, fertilizers, acid rain, and other pollutants
cause countless frog deformities.
     Of the approximately 1000 species of bats 250, including
the Mexican long-nosed bats, are endangered. No other known
mammal has the ability to fly. Bats have many enemies including
canids,   felids,   raccoons,   snakes,   and   humans   (pollution,
pesticides, habitat destruction, and bat killings).
     Bats are classified into megabats (large type, herbivores)
and microbats (small type, carnivores). There are no bats in
     In general, bats use echolocation to zoom-in on prey
(primarily insects).
     Bats can be protected in abandoned caves and mines by
building special barriers for people and ‘NO ENTRY’ signs.
     As soon as the early American settlers began to chop down
trees in large numbers in order to clear the land for
agriculture and settlements predators in the area became vermin;
especially wolves, bears, coyotes, birds, and big cats.
     Coyotes are one of the most adaptable and opportunistic
animals. Coyotes took advantage of the new food sources imported
into the country by the settlers. The panther however, didn’t do
as well. Its food source shrunk with the expansion of human
settlements. They coyotes size and diet permitted it to eat
whatever it could find.
     By the 19th century in the U.S. the panther population had
already been devastated. Sightings by settlers became fewer and
far between. The last confirmed killing of an eastern panther
was in Vermont in 1881.
     As a direct result of dwindling wildlife, the eastern
panther was forced to eat livestock. The panther, wolf, and
coyote have been demonized like no other species in the North
America. However, the eastern panther played a significant role
in Native American culture.
     Habitat destruction, hunting, pollution, trapping, wildlife
reduction,   demonization,  fencing,   the  railroad   and  human
expansion help to reduce predator populations.
     In North America, Victoria Island, British Columbia is the
place where a person is most likely to be attacked by a panther.
Depending on what part of North America you live in the words
panther (east), mountain lion (west), or cougar (mountain) may
be used to describe the biggest cat in the region.
     Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States,
hated cougars with a passion.
                       INFORMATION BOOTH

Note: Sites that are listed without a website address can be
found by typing in the words shown on the Yahoo or Google search
engines. In addition, Wikipedia is a good source for general
information on a wide variety of subjects.

IF you decide to design a web page for an animal related issue
you can use the following recommended categories on your Home

Home | Campaigns & Issues | Newsletter | Get Involved | Events |
About Us | Blog | Contact | Links |
Note: Some words are clumped together with no Spacing. Type
exactly what you see.

DOGS     Action for Greyhounds (UK)    American Dog Breeders Association Great Danes   All Labs
American Association of Zookeepers
American Bouvier des Flandres Club    American Boxer Club
American Dog breeders Association
American Dog Owners Association
American Dog Trainers Network
American German Shepherd Rescue Association
American Kennel Club (Best site/institution to find information
about dog breeds, registration, pedigree information, etc.)
American Rottweiler Club    Contains Animal Rights Sites in Canada
AnimalShelters-Image Results     (Much Information)    The Association of Pet Dog Trainers    American Rare Breeds Association     American Rescue Dog Association    Assistance Dogs
Association of Pet Dog Owners
Association of Pet Dog Trainers    Australian Shepherd Club of America    Tail Docking    Ban Pound Seizure    Barking Buddies    The Bear Search and Rescue
Foundation (Don’t be Fooled by the Name, this is a Rescue Dog
Site)    Other Ancient
Egyptian Dogs     Bulgarian Society for Animal Protection
Preservation    War Dogs, Military
Service Dogs, Battle Dogs
Canadian Kennel Club    Canine Academy (Austin, Texas)    Canine Companions for Independence
Canine Good Citizen Award    Canis Major Dog Site (Breed Information for
Owners)    Canadian Avalanche Rescue Dogs Association    USDA’s Beagle
Brigade     Dawnrest Dogs Family & Strain
Delta Society     The Fur Traders Dogs Info
Dog Fancy    (Magazine)    Dog Fighting Info CANINE BEHAVIOR Dog Bite Prevention Information Petition Against Eating Dog Meat
Dog Owner's Guide: Canine Behavior Dog Play
Dogs for Kids (Magazine)    Dogs in the News
Dogs in Review    (Magazine)    Extensive Site    Dog Star Daily
Dog World   (Magazine)
Dog Writers Association of America
Doni's    Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Programme    FEMA Urban Search and Rescue
(Humans and Dogs are Employed)
Gaines TWT (Touring with Towser): Information pertaining to
hotels and motels that allow canine guests.
Gas Chamber in Shelters
German Shepherd Dog Club of America Great Dane Club of America    United Schutzhund Clubs of America-
For the German Shepherd Dog     Greyhounds in Need of Adoption (GINA)
www.gra-america.or    Greyhound Racing Association of America.    The Great Dane Club
The Great Dane Reporter     Dogs at War
Greyhound Action     Greyhound Adventures and
Networking Group of Greater Boston, Inc.    Greyhound Protection League     Iditarod Race Facts    Official Site of the Iditarod
International Sled Dog Racing Association      Great Dane Site      CANINE BEHAVIOR
National Association of Dog Obedience Instruction
National Association of Search and Rescue Dogs
National Disaster Search Dog Foundation
National Stock Dog Registry
North American Flyball Association
North American Working Dog Association     Nova Scotia German Shepherd
On the Road Again With Man’s Best Friend: (Good Directory)
NYC Anti-Animal Fighting Campaign
Pit Bull Rescue Central    DOG FIGHTING Puppy Mills Puppy Mills    Texas Task Force 1 (Human and Canine
Rescue Team Members)
Therapy Dogs International    Dog
Vivisection Pictures    CANINE BEHAVIOR
United Kennel Club    Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show
(World Renown)
White Shepherds Clubs     Wild
Dog Foundation   Woofstock: The Largest Annual Gathering of
Dogs/Their Owners in North America (Toronto, Canada)
World Federation of Dogs (Federation Cynologique

Africat Foundation
Alley Cat Allies
All For Tigers Cat Behavior
Burning of Cats (Found on Wikipedia)   Campaign Against Canned Hunting of Lions
Cat Fancy   (Magazine)
Cats & Kittens   (Magazine)
Cat Welfare Society Of Israel
Cat World   (Magazine)     Cat Writers Association, Inc.    Declawing   Contains Funny Cat Pictures
The Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (British)
International Cat Association IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT DE-CLAWING    Declawing   CAT Behavior CAT BEHAVIOR Declawing

A. Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care
International (AAALAC) Australian Bushmen’s Campdraft & Rodeo Association
Actors & Others for Animals    Animal Defense League of Arizona
Africa Biodiversity
African Wildlife Foundation
Africat Foundation    Afri Oceans Conservation Alliance     American Fancy Rat and Mouse Association
Alaska Wildlife Alliance
Alley Cat Allies
American Anti-Vivisection Society
American Association for the Advancement of Science    American Association of Beef Producers
American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums American Bird Conservancy: Bird Conservation in the Americas
American Bison Society A Pro-Rodeo Site    Protecting Children and Animals
American Museum of Natural History        The American Pastured Poultry Producers American Professional Rodeo Association American Pet Products Association
American Psychological Association
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
(ASPCA) Also the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Hotline Toll
Free At: 1-888-426-4432
American Zoo and Aquarium Association
American Zoological Association Best Zoos
in America     Zoos (Good Site for Kids)
Animal Activism Queensland
Animal Actors of Hollywood
Animal Alliance of Canada
Animal Allies
Animal blood sports - Contains Important Articles    Animal Connection Texas    Animal Defense Militia
Animal Diversity Web
Animal Fighting
Animal Friends of the Balkans
The Animal Holocaust    Animal Law Coalition
Animal Legal Defense Fund
Animal Liberation Front Australia Animal News
Animal News    Can Type 'History
of Veterinary Medicine' (Very Informative) for this page.
However, access to the complete site can be acquired by typing
'The Animal Pet Doctor'
Animal Protection Institute    Pro-Vivisection Site
Animal Rights Advocates of Upstate New York
Animal Rights Africa    Animal Rights Canada
Animal Rights
Animal Transport Coalition
Animal Victims of Trauma Training     Dr. Jungle’s Animal World
Anonymous for Animal Rights
The anti-Cruelty Society
The Anti-Docking Alliance (A.D.A.)
The Ape Alliance
Apes in Entertainment   The American Physiological Society
Asian Animal Protection Network (Good information about Chinese
animal abuse/use)     Ape Alliance-Action for Apes Animal Rights Advocates    Information Pertaining to Endangered Species
Association Against Animal Factories    Animal Poison Control
The Association of Sanctuaries      Organic Farming Site
The Audubon Society Australasian Raptor Association (ARA) Avian Welfare Resource Center            Animal Welfare Egypt

B.    Coalition to Ban Horse Drawn Carriages    Bat Conservation International Grizzly Bear Outreach Project    Bear With Us (Bear and People,
Conflict Prevention)
Becoming       National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (USA)    Iowa Beef Products, Inc. (IBP)    (A Farm Journal) Site Containing Beautiful Horse Photos      The Bigfoot Field Researchers Organization    British Irish Association of Zoos and
o Bigfoot Encounters
    Bikini Atoll    (Nuking of Innocent Animals by Military)    Biomedical Research
    Foundation      Bioko Biodiversity Program     Famous
    Bonobo Initiative
    Born Free Foundation Archery and Bow hunting (Canada) Best Loved Doctor for Pets (Dr. Marty
    Brigitte Bardot Foundation
    British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection      Database of Mammalian Species of the
    World    Fighting
    Dog Breeds
    Bureau of Land Management (USA)

    C. Hunting Gear
    Calcutta Zoological Garden Calgary Stampede Fishing (Canada)
    Canada Parks and Wilderness Society Exploration, the Fur Trade
    and the Hudson’s Bay Company
    Canadian Coalition for Farm Animals
    The Canadian Council on Animal Care
    Canadian Federation of Humane Societies
    Canadian Food Inspection Agency
    Canadian Museum of Nature
    Canadian Psychological Association
    Canadian Voice for Animals
    Captive Animals Protection Society Captive Wildlife
    Safety Act
    Cease Animal Torture
Center for Biological Diversity
Center for Great Apes
Centre for Orangutan Protection
CHAI Animal Rights     Chicago Union Stock
Chimpanzoo      Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
Clean Air Act
Cloud Foundation (Preservation of Horses)
Coalition to Ban Horse Drawn Carriages    All About Monkeys    Save
Endangered Hawaiian Animals WebQuest
Companion Animal Protection Society    Companion Animal Rescue Effort (CARE)
Concordia Animal Rights Association
Congo (The Painting Chimpanzee)       Conservation Force:
Staunch Defenders of Hunters’ Rights
Conservation International
Cormorants Defenders International
The Cornucopia Institute A Pro-Rodeo Site    Canadian Pork Council
Critically Ill for Biomedical Research    Crufts Hosts Dog Shows in the UK

D. Department of Agriculture and Rural
Development (UK)   Deer Hunting
Defenders of Animals    Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International
Digit Fund International
Dogs Trust
Doris Day Animal Foundation
Doris Day Animal League
Ducks Unlimited
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust   Anti-Vivisection

E.     Equine Assisted Psychotherapy    Earth Liberation Front    The European Coalition to End
Animal Experiments    Extinction: The Story of the
Passenger Pigeon
The Elephant Manager's Association    Elephant News    The Elephant Sanctuary (Hohenwald,
Tennessee)    Asian Elephant Art & Conservation Project
Database with Captive Elephants Worldwide    All About
Endangered Species Act (USA)    Information
Regarding Endangered Species The EnviroLink Network (Numerous Links) Equine Canada Hippique    Famous Riders and their
Horses' Names
The European Coalition to End Experiments


Farm Animal Reform Movement
Farm Sanctuary     Fauna & Flora International     The Fauna Foundation is a
Chimpanzee Sanctuary located in Quebec   Foundation for Biomedical Research
(Relevant Information Pertaining to Animal Research)
Feminists for Animal Rights Fishing Directory (Canada)   Fishing
Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International
Frankfurt Zoological Society
Friends of Captive Animals    Friends of McNeil River
(Protection of McNeil River State Game Sanctuary and its brown
Fur Institute of Canada


Global Action Network (Montreal)   This is a Good Blog
The Gorilla Foundation   Office of Laboratory
Animal Welfare (US)
Great Ape Alliance
Great Ape Conservation Fund
Great Ape Survival Partnership (A Project of the United Nations
Environment Programme) Great Ape Trust
The Jane Goodall Institute     Great Bear Foundation The Great Hunters
Greenpeace International Bison

H.   Habitat for Horses   Historic Hudson’s Bay Heritage   Animal Photos   U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services   Horses
(kids) Hunting (Kids)   Horse Drawn Carriages    Humane Farming Association This is a Humane Charity Seal Site ( List of Charities that Do Not Espouse the
Use of Animals in Experiments)
Humane Society International
Humane Society of the United States   Human Wildlife Conflict
Collaboration Hunting Community

I.   International Association Against Painful
Experiments on Animals Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) Must be Established
by Every Institution that Uses Animals in their Labs (U.S. Federal Law) International Gorilla Conservation
In Defense of Animals   International Species Information System    Site for Iran Hunting Safari   Irish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
Animals Intertribal Bison Cooperative      International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN)   IUCN’s Red List (Vulnerable, Threatened,
Endangered, Critically Endangered Plants and Animals)   International Zoo Educators Association


Jakarta Animal Aid Network
The Jane Goodall Institute
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust   Jewish Vegetarians of North America


Karisoke Research Center
The Kentucky Derby (Endangered Snow Leopards)   Zoos (Good Kids Site)    (Kids Farm in Colorado, Nice Information)
Kinship Circle
Korean Animal Rights Advocates
Korean Animal Protection Society
Krokodille Zoo (Denmark)


Last Chance for Animals The Latham Foundation (Promotes Humane Education)
The League Against Cruel Sports
The Leakey Foundation   The Great Apes Project     Lemurs
The Lewa Conservancy    Worldwide Zoo Net Horrendous Horse Fighting Blood
Sport   Website of Dr. Marc Bekoff   Lop Rabbit Club of America
Louisiana Fur and Alligator Advisory Council     Mules


The Madagascar Fauna Group
Maine Friends of Animals
Malay Tiger   Animal Fights   Maple Leaf Foods   March of
Dimes (Pro Vivisection)
Marsabit Game Reserve Massachusetts Animal Rights Coalition     Mercy for Animals
Meru Game Reserve
Jean Mills (Bengal Cat)
Professional Safari in Tanzania    Montana Stockgrowers Association
The Vicki Moore Foundation
The Morris Animal Foundation Medical Research Modernization Committee         Marine Stewardship Council
N.   Bison
Information   National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT)   National Animal Poison Control Center National Academy of Sciences    National Anti-Vivisection Society
National Aviary
National Geographic Society    The National Mouse Club (UK) National Institutes of Health (USA)   Animals as Cold Warriors: Atomic Animals   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The Nature Conservancy   National Wildlife Federation     National Anti-Vivisection Society
Network For Animals     New England Anti-
Vivisection Society
NHBS Alligator and Crocodile Rescue Hunting Safari in Kenya
No Caged    This Site Calls for a Ban on Foie Gras
Sales and Production
Northern Rangelands Trust
Northwest Animal Rights Network   National Pork Producers Council (United States)    The National Rifle Association
Defends Hunters’ Rights (USA) (Bow hunting in Canada) National Wildlife Federation

O.   Ocean Alliance     Orangutan Foundation International
Orangutan Conservancy Sumatran Orangutan Society    Orca News   Orca Network
Lolita’s (Orca) Life Today
Origin of Bipedalism
Orthopaedic Foundation for Animals
Ottawa Animal Advocates

P.      Primate Information
Pan African Sanctuary Alliance     Parks Canada    Performing Animal Welfare Society     Pet Names     Physician’s Committee for Responsible Medicine     Pet Foods    Petland Store     Pets America    Pet Foods & Supplies        Pig
Farming Styles in New Zealand      Pilgrim’s Pride (Giant Food Producer)
PrimateInfoNet       Primate Conservation, Inc.
Professional Hunters Association
Project Primate Inc. (The Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association)    Prosimians


R.   House Rabbit Society
Rainforest Action Network Adoption of Former Racehorses
The Responsible Animal Care Society Return to Freedom-About Wild Horses    The Most Famous German Shepherd Dog    Rocky Mountain Animal Defense Anti-Rodeo SIte   Dogs-Romania   Dogs-Romania
Romanian Alliance for the Protection of Animals
The Rome Zoo
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds

S.      Safaritalk is the African Safari Forum
S.A.F.E. animal rights
SanWild Wildlife Trust      Ending Dolphin Slauther in Taiji,
Japan      Dedicated to Saving Lucy
the Elephant
Save the Animals Rescue Foundation
Save the Manatees      Ocean Wildlife Nature Pictures      Searching for Bigfoot      Sea Shepherd Conservation Society      Society for Neuroscience      The Shadowlands Bigfoot Page SHARK (Showing Animals Respect and Kindness)
SHEVI Animal Rights Israel      Passenger Pigeon-
Sierra Club      Small Animal Channel       Smithfield Foods
The Smithsonian Institute
Smithsonian National Zoological Park      International Snow Leopard Trust
Society for the Protection of Animals
Southern Animal Rights Coalition
Southern Oregon Animal Rights Society        St.Louis Animal Rights Team
The Suffering of Animals in War


Taiji Dolphin Massacres
The Tamarin Project
Tanjung Puting National Park
Texas Humane Legislation Network
Thai Elephant Conservation Center East Texas Black Bear and Conservation
Management Plan              The
Best Zoos in the World According to Forbes Texas Hall of Fame         Tyson Foods

U. United Nations Environment Programme       One Hundred Hunting Sites
United Animal Nations     United Egg Producers
United Nations Great Apes Survival Project

United Poultry Concerns
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) USACRITTERS

V. Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society (VECCS)
Ventana Wildlife Society   Good Site for Youngsters   Vita Center for
Animal Rights Protection (Russia)
Vudzungwa Primate Conservation Project

W.   Giant Poultry Producer    World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA)   Passenger
Pigeon-Exterminated    Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society Association for the Welfare of
Animals   About Lolita the Captive Orca   South African White Shark Research
Institute Cattle
Drives of the Old West     Meat Packing
Industry (Home of the Kentucky
National Parks in Africa
Wilderness First    Wilderness Safari (Africa)
Wildlife Conservation International
Wildlife Tours in India    Lemurs
Win Animal Rights    The Working Horse Magazine
World Animal Net   Animal Magazines Online
World Small Animal Veterinary Association
World Society for the Protection of Animals

X.   History of the Pony

Y.    Orangutan Sanctuary

Z.    The Zanzibar Leopard, May Have
Been Exterminated    Zippy the Chimp    Zoo History (The Bartlett Society)
Zoological Society of London Zoo Enclosures, Fencing, Design
Technical Support (India Based) Zoos, Aquariums, Animal Sanctuaries and
Wildlife Parks (Extensive Site). Good Information for Travellers
and Vacationers.   Zoological Society of London

NAMES (Partial List):

Grizzly Adams: James ‘Grizzly Adams’ Capen   (Oct. 12, 1812-
October 25, 1860). Adams was born in Massachusetts. However,
his   ‘famed actions’ were performed on the west coast. He
hunted animals, and also collected them for zoos. He lived near
and with animals. Adams was a ‘wildlife man’,    fond of
grizzlies; even wrestling a few.

George ‘Baba ya Simba’ Adamson: February 3, 1906 – August 20,
1989. Adamson was a British wildlife conservationist and author
working in Africa, particularly Kenya. He and his wife Joy
raised an orphaned lioness named Elsa.   The book and movie
‘Born Free’ was based on George and Joy Adamson.

Adwaita (Tortoiss): Aldabra Giant Tortoise living in Kolkata,
India. He supposedly lived for at least 150 years or longer.

Akbar (Hunter): October 15, 1542 – October 27, 1605. Akbar
owned an astounding 9000 cheetahs throughout his reign. He was
also a big game hunter.

Carl Ethan Akeley: May 19, 1864-November 18, 1926. Akeley was
an American naturalist, biologist, and sculptor. He is the
father of modern day taxidermy. Akeley contributed much to the
American Museum of Natural History.

Frank ‘Bunny’ Allen: April 17, 1906-January 14, 2002. Allen was
the last of the ‘White Hunters’. He died in Kenya at the ripe
old age of 95. Allen managed the best/priciest game hunting
safaris in Africa. So much so, Hollywood employed him to ‘bring
forth’ wildlife to be used as backdrops for movies.

Tony Archer: Renowned professional ‘white hunter’.

Argos: Was a faithful canine companion of Odysseus, in Greek
mythology. Argos patiently waited for his master, Odysseus for
twenty years. His master finally returned to Ithaca. When Argos
recognized his master, he died moments later.

Aristotle: 384 BC – 322 BC. Aristotle was a ‘Greek genius’ who
excelled in philosophy, music, biology, zoology, poetry,
theatre, and politics.

John James Audubon: April 26, 1785-Janurary 27, 1851. Audubon
was a French hunter, ornithologist, and naturalist. Audubon
performed an incredible job in painting, describing, and
charting the birds of North America of his day. Today we have
the Audubon Society to continue his legacy.


Babar: French Fictional Character (Histoire de Babar ,1931 ) of
an Elephant)

Bahati: December 6, 1999-January 21, 2003. Bahati was a gorilla
who belonged to the Rugendo family. He was stoned to death by
villagers near the Virunga National Park. Gorillas had been
raiding farmers’ fields in the area.

William Charles Baldwin: March 3, 1867-November 17, 1903.
Baldwin was a big game hunter.

Smokey Bear: U.S. Forest Service Mascot, used to inform the
American public about the inherent dangers in all forest fires.

Brigitte Bardot: September 28, 1934. Bardot is a French Actress,
Animal Rights Activist (The Brigitte Bardot Foundation).

P.T. Barnum: July 5, 1810 – April 7, 1891. Barnum was the
founder of the Ringling Bro. and Barnum & Bailey Circus.

Teddy Bear: A stuffed toy bear that got its name from President
Roosevelt’s nickname ‘Teddy’.

Dr. Marty Becker: Dr. Becker is a veterinarian who is popularly
known as the ‘best loved family doctor for pets’.

Gentle Ben: The bear on the television series Gentle Ben which
aired from September 10, 1967 until August 31, 1969.

Beethoven: St. Bernard dog character in the movie Beethoven

Clyde Beatty: June 10, 1903 – July 19, 1965. Beatty was known
for his fighting shows; pitting himself against lions and
tigers. Inside the cage he held a whip, chair, and of course
carried a firearm ‘fastened’ to his waist.

Marc Bekoff: Marc Bekoff is Professor Emeritus of Ecology and
Evolutionary Biology at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He
is also an author, and defender of animals.

W.D.M. Bell: White hunter who shot and killed over 1000 (Roughly
1,011) elephants in Africa.
Henry Bergh: August 29, 1811 – March 12, 1888. Bergh was the
founder of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
Animals. Bergh was from a successful family. He worked
diligently New York to champion animal welfare, particularly,
but not limited to horses. He endured much stress and
resistance. Sometimes, animal fecal matter or dirt was thrown at
him. Overall, he was tough, resilient, and steadfast.
Unfortunately, Bergh is a relatively unknown American hero.

Captain Oscar von Beringe: First European to Discover the
Mountain Gorillas, on October 17, 1902. He later shot several
gorillas. For the gorillas, this was a taste of things to come.
Alan Black: Was a white hunter in Africa.

Manchester Billy:   Killed one hundred rats in just over six

Binti Jua: A female Western Lowland gorilla ‘living; in the
Brookefield Zoo in Chicago. On August 16, 1996 a three year-old
boy accidently fell into the gorilla enclosure. Binti cradled
the child until zoo keepers were able to retrieve him. The boy
was lucky to be unconscious. If he’d been fully conscious and
had had a tantrum there’s no telling how Binti would’ve reacted.
For now, we are all thankful that the boy was retrieved and that
Binti did not react in a hostile manner as is frequently the
case with animals who perceive themselves as defending their

Stephen Budanski: Budianski is a scientist, author of books
about the animal kingdom, and a journalist.

Bartel Bull: Bull is the author of an incredible book entitled
Safari: A Chronicle of Adventure. Safari includes detailed
information about the native African helpers, white hunters, the
long and treacherous treks, and the game animals.

Dr. Tom Butynski: Dr. Butynski is one of Africa’s leading


Rachel Carson: May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964. Carson was a
marine biologist, environmentalist, author, animal activist.
Silent Spring was her masterpiece.

Paul du Chaillu: July 31, 1835 – April 29, 1903.   Chaillu was a
French anthropologist who ‘discovered’ the pygmy people and who
‘verified’ the existence of gorillas.

Prince Chim: Was a bonobo that was studied by Robert Yerkes at
the Yerkes Institute for Primate Studies. Much information
regarding bonobo intelligence was gathered in this study. It
should be noted that at the time of the study, Prince Chim was
thought to have been a chimpanzee. Today, we are well-aware of
the difference between the two species of great apes. Hopefully,
there will be more ‘great ape’ discoveries in the future.

Corky: The first captive whale to become pregnant and
successfully give birth. Unfortunately, the calf died eighteen
days later. Corky went on to give birth seven times while at
Marine Land. Her most ‘successful’ calf lived just under seven

Buffalo Bill Cody: Was a military man and a profound bison
hunter. Cody had killed more than four thousand bison in a two
year period.

Jim Corbett: 25 July 1875 in Nainital, India – † 19 April 1955
in Nyeri, Kenya.   Corbett was a British hunter who was
notorious for killing countless big cats (tigers and leopards)
in India.

Gordon Roualeyn Cumming: 15 March 1820- 24 March 1866. Cumming
was known as the Scottish ‘lion hunter’.


Charles Darwin: 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882. Darwin was a
British naturalist and traveler who proposed and literally
expanded the theory of evolution. Although there were other
persons who’d proposed the theory of evolution before Darwin,

Father Armand David: 27 September 1826–10 November 1900. Father
Armand David was the first European to see and introduce the
giant panda to the western world.

Gerald Durrell:    January 7, 1925-January 30, 1995. Well known
author and conservationist. Founder of the Durrell Wildllife
Conservation Trust


Robert Foran: 1882-1966. Foran was a white hunter (Kenya),
policeman, and author.

Dr. Dian Fossey: January 16, 1932 – December 26, 1985. Fossey
was hacked to death with a machete while she was sound asleep.
Observed, studied, and noted gorillas for eighteen years. She
worked diligently to educate the world about the plight of
mountain gorillas (Virunga Mountains, Rwanda). Fossey had many
enemies; poachers. She was one of Leakey’s girls (Goodall,
Galdikas, Fossey).

Gary Francione: (1954- ). Francione is a distinguished scholar
of law, with particular emphasis on animal rights.


Dr. Birute’ Galdikas: (May 10, 1946- ). Dr. Galdikas is a world
famous primatologist, with particular emphasis on orang-utans.
She has worked diligently for many years in the treacherous
jungles of Borneo to help the orang-utans. She is the president
of the Orangutan Foundation International.

Allan & Beatrice Gardner: In 1966 the Gardners began teaching
sign language to Washoe, a female chimpanzee. Washoe is famous
for being a genius chimpanzee.

Dr. Jane Goodall: (April 3, l 1934- ). Goodall is the most
famed primatologist in the whole world; in particular her work
with chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania.
She has been studying and writing about chimpanzees since 1960.

Dr. Temple Grandin: (Aug. 29, 1947- ). Dr. Grandin is a hard-
working promoter and teacher of humane treatment of livestock in
facilities from handling, moving, to the slaughter. She is

David Greybeard: First chimpanzee at Gombe to approach Dr. Jane

John Gould (The Bird Man)

Hachiko: (November 10, 1923–March 8, 1935). Hachiko, a Japanese
Akita dog,   waited for the return of his ‘dead master’ return
for ten whole years. He would often go to the Tokyo train
station and wait for his master. Thankfully, many travellers
took notice of him and fed him.

Femke den Haas: (1977- ) Haas founded the Jakarta Animal Aid
Network in 2008. She has worked diligently to help improve the
situation for Indonesia’s orang-utans.

Ham: (July 1956 – January 19, 1983). Ham was the first great ape
to be sent into outer space. (Space Chimpanzee)

Clever Hans: A German horse who was initially thought to have
been able to perform basic arithmetic, but was later found to be
taking cues from his owner. Fortunately, his owner did not
deliberately give out the cues. The act was inadvertent.

Harriet: (1830 – 2006). Harriet was a Galapagos Tortoise housed
in an Australian zoo. She had apparently lived to the very ripe
old age of one hundred and seventy five.

Brian Herne: Herne is Author, and was a big game hunter in East
Africa for thirty years. Founder of Track, a hunting magazine.

William Hornaday: (December 1, 1854 – March 6, 1937). During his
lifetime Hornaday was a world famous zoologist, author, and
conservationist. Revolutionized and improved the use of wildlife
in museums; displaying them in their natural settings.

Jack Hubert: (The Armless Wonder). Hubert was an animal trainer
who lost one arm to a bear, the other to a lion.

Thomas Henry Huxley: British biologist who staunchly supported
Charles Darwin’s ‘theory of evolution’.


Mohammed ‘Bali’ Iqbal: Professional Pakistani big game hunter.


Jiggs: (1929 – 1938). Jiggs was a famous male chimpanzee actor
who played the part of Cheetah in Tarzan movies through the

Jumbo: (1861 – September 15, 1885).   Jumbo was a famous elephant
born in Sudan, ‘sent’ to a zoo in Paris, was later ‘sent’ to the
London Zoo. Finally, he was ‘purchased’ by P.T. Barnum Circus.
Jumbo was killed by a locomotive.


Kanzi: October 28, 1980- ). Kanzi is an incredibly intelligent
bonobo who has excelled in the use of lexigrams.

Koko: (July   4, 1971- ). Koko has excelled in American Sign
Language and is said to understand nearly two thousand English


Laika:   First dog in space.

Frans Lanting: (July 13, 1951).    Lanting is a famous Dutch
wildlife photographer.

Julia Marton-Lefèvre:    Director General of the International
Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

Louis Leakey: (August 7, 1903 – October 1, 1972). Leakey was a
world famous British-Kenyan archaelogist, naturalist, and
primatologist. He was the mentor of three of the most famous
and well-respected primatologists of all time: Jane Goodall,
Birute’ Galdikas, and Dian Fossey.

Lucy: (1964–1987). Lucy was a famous chimpanzee who belonged to
the Institute for Primate Studies in the state of Oklahoma. She
eventually learned 140 signs.


Richard Martin: 15 January 1754 – 6 January 1834. Martin was an
Irish Politician nicknamed ‘Humanity Dick’ because of his
tenacious animal activism.

Mikey: Poker playing chimpanzee.

Moose: (Died on June 28, 2006). Moose was the Parson Russell
Terrier who Played Eddie on Frasier.

Desmond Morris (January 24, 1928- ).Morris is a world famous
British zoologist and ethologist. He is the author of numerous
educational books.
Cynthia Moss: Moss has studied and worked diligently for the
conservation of African elephants for the past thirty years.

Motala: Motala is a Thai elephant landmine victim. Motala was
fitted with a giant prosthesis on her left foreleg.

Mrithi: Mrithi was shot and killed while sleeping, during
Rwanda’s long civil war. Mrithi was shown in the movie Gorillas
in the Mist.

Muggs: Muggs was used as a mascot for NBC’s Today show, 1953-

John Muir: (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914). Muir was a
naturalist, author, and conservationist. Muir founded the
Sierra Club.


Ingrid Newkirk (Animal Rights Activist, co-founder of People for
the Ethical Treatment of Animals-PETA). PETA is the largest
animal rights organization in the world.


Henry Osborn: (1857-1935). Osborn helped to improve the research
program and exhibits at the American Museum of Natural History.
Osborn was a biologist, zoologist, palaeontologist, and


Pal: (1940 – 1958). Pal was a male Collie and the first dog to
ever play Lassie. June 4, 1940 – 1958

Colonel J.H. Patterson: (November 10, 1867 – June 18, 1947).
Patterson was an Anglo-Irish hunter, soldier, and author.

Ivan Pavlov: (1849-1936). Pavlov was a world famous Russian
physiologist, behavioural scientist, and physician. Pavlov is
best known for his ‘discovery’ of classical conditioning. His
experiments with ‘salivating dogs’ is in virtually every
introductory psychology book.


Tom Regan: (November 28, 1938- ). Regan is a retired philosopher
from North Carolina University, an author, and an animal rights

Teddy Roosevelt: (October 27, 1858- January 6, 1919). Roosevelt
was the 26th President of the United States, big game hunter
turned conservationist. As president, Roosevelt enacted
protection for 235 million acres of timberland, and did much
work to help protect American wildlife. He’d seen first-hand the
devastating impact of overhunting on African wildlife.

Roselle: Roselle was a guide dog who successfully led her
owner, Michael Hingson, blind from birth, down and out of a
burning, smoking, ‘panic-stricken’ building .during the World
Trade Center attacks.

Nigel Rothfels: Director, Office of Undergraduate Research
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Eminent Zoo historian.

Sue Savage-Rumbaugh: (1946- ). Dr. Rumbaugh is a well-respected
and dedicated scientist emphasizing the study of ape behaviour
and intelligence. She has special standing at Great Ape Trust of

Anne Russon: Dr. Russon is a Professor of Psychology at Glendon
College of York University in Toronto, Ontario. Russon has done
extensive studies in orang-utan intelligence and behaviour.


Henry Salt: September 20, 1851– April 19, 1939). British author,
animal activist, social reformer, naturalist, and socialist.

George B. Schaller: (1933- ). Schaller is a biologist,
naturalist, conservationist, and one of the best wildlife
photographers in the world.

Seabiscuit: (May 23, 1933—May 17, 1947). Seabiscuit was a world
famous champion racehorse.

Secretariat: (March 30, 1970 – October 4, 1989). Secretariat was
a world famous Triple Crown champion.
Fredrick Courtney Selous:( December 31, 1851 – January 4, 1917).
Selous was a white hunter, military man, and a conservationist.

Upton Sinclair: (September 20, 1878 – November 25, 1968).
Sinclair was a journalist, author, and socialist. Sinclair was
most notably known for his novel The Jungle. In The Jungle,
Sinclair writes about the horrors of the meatpacking industry of
the day; including gross animal and human abuse. The humans, of
course are the meatpacking workers. The animals are those that
are brought in for slaughter. In addition, his graphic
description of the filthy environment and contamination of
Americaès meat was a shocker to the public.

B.F. Skinner: Skinner, a behavioural scientist, is best known
for his work on operant conditioning, including pigeons and
rats. The èSkinner Boxè was an apparatus that helped bring him

Siegfried and Roy: Siegfried and Roy are famous entertainers who
used illusions and tigers in many of their acts. On October 3,
2003, Roy was bitten in the neck by one of his tigers. He
sustained serious injuries.

Peter Singer: (6 July 1946- ). Singer is a philosopher, author,
and animal activist. His book Animal Liberation was a major
charge-up for the animal rights and animal liberation movement.

Henry Spira:(June 19, 1927–September 12, 1998). Spira was an
animal activist who particularly targeted the animal testing


Rin-Tin-Tin: This dog is probably the most famous German
shepherd in history. This dog starred in The Adventures of Rin
Tin Tin.

Edward Tyson: (1650–1708). Tyson was the founder of modern day


Sri Suci Utami Atmoco: Dr. Atmoco is a biologist, socio-
ecologist, and primatologist with emphasis on orang-utans and

Veerapan: (January 18, 1952 – October 18, 2004). Veerapan was a
notorious big-time poacher in India.

Vicki: Vicki was a female chimpanzee who was adopted in infancy
by Keith and Catherine Hayes. The Hayes tried to raise Vicki
like a human child in order to see if they could teach her how
to speak. Expectedly, human speech cannot be ‘correctly’
duplicated by great apes. Vicki was later taught American Sign
Language. In this venture, she did much better.


Frans De Waal: (October 29, 1948- ). De Waal is a primatologist,
biologist, zoologist,   ethologist, and writer.

Washoe: (1965-2007). Washoe was the first ‘animal’ to ‘gain’ a
human language.

E.O. Wilson: (June 10, 1929- ). Wilson is a world famous
scientist who has excelled in biology, sociobiology, entomology,
and has been a staunch conservationist. Wilson is most notable
for his knowledge of sociobiology.



Old Yeller: The Canine character in the classic 1957 film Old

Robert Yerkes: (May 26, 1876 – February 3, 1956). Yerkes
excelled as a psychologist, primatologist, and ethologist.
Yerkes did remarkable work in the study of human and primate
(Chimpanzee, Gorilla) intelligence. He served as the President
of the American Psychological Association. In addition, the
Yerkes National Primate Research Center is named after him.


Zippy: Zippy was a chimpanzee ‘actor’ in the 1950’s Howdy Doody


Addo Elephant Park (South Africa)
Adirondack State Park (New York, USA)
Albert National Park (Central Saskatchewan, Canada)
Aberdare National Park (Kenya)
Algonquin Provincial Park (Ontario, Canada)
Antwerp Zoo (Antwerp, Belgium)
Arizona Sonora Desert Museum (Arizona, USA)
Arnhem Zoo Chimpanzee Colony (Netherlands)
Atlanta Zoo (Atlanta, USA)
Auckland Zoo (Auckland, New Zealand)


Bako National Park (Sarawak, Malaysia)
Banff National Park (Canada’s Oldest National Park located in
Barcelona Zoo (Spain)
Batang Gadis National Park (Sumatra, Indonesia)
Bawangling National Nature Reserve (Southern China)
Big Bend National Park (Texas, USA)
Big Cypress National Preserve (Southern Florida, USA)
Big South Fork National River & Recreation Area
(Tennessee/Kentucky, USA)
Biharamulo Game Reserve (North Western Tanzania)
Blue Ridge Parkway (North Carolina/Virginia, USA)
Tanjung Puting National Park (Borneo, Indonesia)
Murchison Falls National Park (Uganda)
Bristol Zoo (England)
Bronx Zoo (New York City, USA)
Brookfield Zoo (Bristol, England)
Budapest Zoo (Budapest, Hungary)
Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (Indonesia)


Calgary Zoo (Calgary, Alberta)
Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine, USA)
Chang Tang Reserve (Tibet)
Chapleau Crown Game Preserve (Ontario, Canada)
Chimpanzee Sanctuary & Wildlife Conservation Trust
Chippewa National Forest (Minnesota, USA)
Chobe Game Reserve (Botswana)
Cincinnati Zoo (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA)
Cologne Zoo (Cologne, Germany)
Copenhagen Zoo (Copenhagen, Denmark)


Dallas Zoo (Dallas, Texas, USA)
Dresden Zoo (Dresden, Germany)
Duba Plains (Okavango Delta, Botswana)
Dzanga Ndoki National Park (Central African Republic)


Edinburgh Zoo (Edinburgh, Scotland-United Kingdom)
The Elephant Sanctuary (Hohenwald, Tennessee)
Etosha National Park (Namibia)
Everglades National Park (Florida, USA)


Frankfurt Zoo (Frankfurt, Germany)


Gir Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park (Gujarat, India)
Glacier National Park (Montana, USA)
Gombe National Park (Tanzania)
Gombe Stream Chimpanzee Reserve (Tanzania)
Granby Zoo (Eastern Township, Quebec, Canada)
Grand Canyon National Park (Arizona, USA)
Great Smokey Mountains National Park (North Carolina &
Tennessee, USA)
Guadalupe Mountains National Park (Texas, USA)


Haleakala National Park (Hawaii, USA
Huangshan Scenic Area (China)


Imire Private Game Reserve (Zimbabwe)
Isle Royale National Park (Michigan, USA)
Ituri Rainforest (Democratic Republic of Congo)
Iwatayama National Park (Japan)
Iwokrama Forest (Guyana)


Jardin Zoologique de Montreal (Montreal, Canada)
Jasper National Park (Alberta, Canada)
Jersey Zoo (Jersey, England)
Jim Corbett National Park (India)


Kafue National Park (Zambia)
Kahuzi Biega National Park (Democratic Republic of Congo)
Kalahari Desert (Southern Africa-Botswana, Namibia, Republic of
South Africa)
Kasokwa Forest Area (Uganda)
Katmai National Park and Preserve (Alaska, USA)
Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary (Malaysia)
Kings Canyon National Park (California, USA)
Kootenay National Park (British Columbia, Canada)
Korup National Park (Cameroon)
Kruger National Park (Republic of South Africa)
Kutal National Park (Indonesia)
Kwando Reserve (Botswana)
Kwazulu-Natal (Republic of South Africa)


Lake Clark National Park and Preserve (Alaska, USA)
Camp Leakey (Borneo, Indonesia)
Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago, Illinois, USA)
Lola ya Bonobo Sanctuary
Lomako Forest (Democratic Republic of Congo)
Londolozi Game Reserve (Republic of South Africa)
Lope’ National Park (Gabon)
Los Angeles Zoo (Los Angeles, California, USA)
Lossi Gorilla Sanctuary (Democratic Republic of Congo)
Luo Scientific Reserve (Democratic Republic of Congo)


Mahale Mountains National Park (Tanzania)
Mala Mala Private Game Reserve (Republic of South Africa)
Mamiraua Ecological Sanctuary (Brazil)
Manuel Antonio National Park (Peru)
Manu National Park (Peru)
Marahoue’ National Park (Cote d’Ivoire)
Marsabit National Park and Game Reserve (Kenya)
Masai Mara Game Reserve (Kenya)
Mbalingwe Nature Reserve (Limpopo, South Africa)
The McNeil River Sanctuary (Alaska, USA)
Melbourne Zoo (Melbourne, Australia)
Mgahinga Gorilla National Park (Uganda)
Midmar Public Resort and Nature Reserve (Republic of South
Miami Zoo (Miami, Florida, USA)
Milwaukee Zoo (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA)
Minnesota Zoo (Apple Valley, Minnesota, USA)
Moremi Game Reserve (Botswana)
Morne National Park (Newfoundland)
Mount Huangshan Scenic Area (China)
Mount Meru Game Reserve (Near Marangu, Tanzania)
Munich Zoo (Munich, Germany)


Nagarhole National Park (Southern India)
National Bison Range Wildlife Refuge (Montana, USA)
Ngala Game Reserve (Limpopo, South Africa)
Ngorongoro Crater (Tanzania)
Nyungwe National Park (Rwanda)


Ocala National Forest (Florida, USA)
Odzala National Park (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Okavango Delta (Botswana)
Olympic National Park (Washington, USA)
Omega Park (Montebello, Quebec, Canada)
Osceola National Forest (Florida, USA)
Ozark National Scenic Riverways (Ozarks, Missouri, USA)


Pacific Rim National Park (British Columbia)
Parc Nationale des Volcan (Rwanda)
Parc Nationale du Haut Niger (Niger)
Parc Zoologique de Paris (Paris, France)
Philadelphia Zoo (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA-First Zoo in
Phinda Game Reserve (KwaZulu-Natal, Republic of South Africa)
Pilanesberg National Park/Game Reserve (Republic of South
Poco das Antas Biological Reserve (Brazil)
Polonnaruwa Archeological Sanctuary and Horton Plains National
Park (Sri Lanka)
Prince Albert National Park (Saskatchewan, Canada)
Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (Wyoming, USA)



Ranomafana National Park (Madagascar)
Riding Mountain National Park (Manitoba, Canada)
Ruaha National Park (Tanzania)


Sabi Sands Game Reserve (Republic of South Africa)
Kwano Safari (Botswana)
Saiwa Swamp (Kenya)
San Antonio Zoo and Aquarium (San Antonio, Texas, USA)
San Diego Zoo/ San Diego Wild Animal Park (San Diego,
California, USA)
Sanwild Sanctuary (Republic of South Africa)
Savute Game Reserve (Botswana)
Selous Game Reserve (Tanzania)
Sepilok Forest Reserve and Orangutan Sanctuary (Malaysia)
Sequoia National Park (California, USA)
Serengeti Plains (Tanzania/Kenya)
Shawnee National Forest (Southern Illinois)
Shenandoah National Park (Virginia)
Similian Islands National Park of Thailand (Thailand)
St. Louis Zoological Park (St. Louis, Missouri, USA)
St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (Florida, USA)
Sumbu National Park (Zambia)


Tai National Forest (Côte d'Ivoire)
Taronga Zoo (Australia)
Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Center (Democratic
Republic of Congo)
Tembe National Elephant Park (Republic of South Africa)
Topeka Zoo (Topeka, Kansas, USA)
Toronto Zoo (Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
Tsavo National Park (Kenya)
Tulsa Zoo (Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA)
Twycross Zoo (England)


The Ueno Zoo (Tokyo, Japan)


Van Long Nature Reserve (Vietnam)
Vince Shute Wildlife Sanctuary (Minnesota)
Virunga National Park (Democratic Republic of Congo)


Wassenaar Zoo (Netherlands)
Waza National Park (Cameroon)
West Coast National Park (Republic of South Africa)
Whiteshell Provincial Park (Manitoba)
Wilhelma Zoo (Germany)



Yala National Park (Sri Lanka)
Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, Montana, Idaho)
Yoho National Park (British Columbia, Canada)
Yosemite National Park (California, USA)


Zoo Atlanta (Atlanta, Georgia, USA)



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