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Outline KNR Scientific Principles of Coaching

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					KNR 205: Scientific
Principles of Coaching


      Introduction
General course stuff
 This is a new course...first for me, first for you, first
  for the school
 It is designed for athletic coaching minors, but
  available to KNR majors
 Have you had any of these...
      181 (A&P), 240 (Fitness), 280 (Ex. Phys.), 282
       (biomechanics)?
      If so, you’ll be duplicating information you’ve already
       covered.
      This course was designed to cover aspects of all those
       courses, as well as 254 and 257, so that it would
       function as a general intro to kinesiology for minors
General course stuff
 Consequences for course organization
     A lot of material
     Broad and shallow approach
     Focusing on “getting the idea” of a number of
      areas
     Assessments that survey basic familiarity
      rather than mastery
General course stuff
    To do this week...
    1.   Go to the web site (www.cast.ilstu/smith) and
         download the syllabus. Read it. Submit the on-line
         quiz by Wednesday 24th at 9am.
    2.   On the 24th, bring a photo of yourself with your
         name printed legibly on the back, so that I can
         learn your names. No photocopies. You will get
         these back later in the semester.
    3.   Download the first slides and print them up. You
         should be able to print multiple slides per page – I
         recommend 3 slides a page
    4.   Read chapters 1 & 2 and answer the online quiz on
         chapter 2 by Friday 26th
Chapter 1: Introduction
 We’re going to skim this and get into the
  nitty gritty of chapter 2 ASAP
 As this course is designed as the survey
  course for the coaching minor, it makes
  sense to read about the discipline a little
  first.
 The best summary I can see in the text is on
  page 4, figure 1.1
     As you can see, it’s busy. There’s a lot of
      stuff, and a lot of influences
Or, as we call it, kinesiology
Part One: Anatomical
Bases of Human
Movement


   Functional Anatomy
General intro...
 Again, we’ll skim this introduction so we can get to
  the meat of chapter 2.
 Functional anatomy is essentially about the
  structure and function of the human body
 Can be from a number of levels of analysis
      Subcellular
      Tissues
      Organs
 The key point is that we are interested in the
  relationship between body structure and body
  function at whatever level of analysis we study
  Chapter 2


Basic Concepts of the Musculoskeletal
               System
Objective (from syllabus)
 To understand key concepts related to the
   structure and function of the skeletal,
   articular (joint) and muscular systems
     You’ll find I stick very closely to the book
      throughout (like a drowning man clutching
      driftwood)
     I see my role as a facilitator, whose job it is
      to simply relate and explain the content of
      the text to you
     As such, I need you to simply point out
      where I’m not being clear
Tools for Measurement
 Bone density:
     radiology
 Bone structure:
     chemical preparation
 Movement:
     goniometry (joint motion)
     dynamometers (muscle force)
The skeletal system
 Functions
     Mechanical
     Physiological
 Bone composition
     Mechanical properties
     Types of bone
 Architecture of bone
     Shape and organization
     Architecture of long bones
The articular system
 Classification of joints
 Features of synovial joints
 Classification of synovial joints
 Range of movements allowed by synovial
  joints
 Joint protection, lubrication, and wear
 The joint as the functional unit of the
  skeletal system
The muscular system
 Structure
    Association of muscles with other structures
    Structural features of muscle
    Distinguishing properties
    Muscle contractions
 Mechanics of muscular action
    Types of contraction
    Explaining joint actions
    Limitations on range of joint motion
    Determinants of strength
Chapter 3


Basic Concepts of Anthropometry
Objective (from syllabus)
 To understand the relationship between
   human body size, shape and composition,
   and movement capability
Anthropometry
 Tools for measurement
 Body size
 Determination of body shape
 Tissues composing the body
 Somatotyping
 Human variation
     In the musculoskeletal system
     In physical dimensions
  Chapter 4


Musculoskeletal changes across the life
                 span
Objective from syllabus
 To summarize how concepts related to the
  musculoskeletal system and anthropometry
  are affected by growth and maturation
Auxology and gerontology defined
 Auxology
 Gerontology
 Tools for measurement
Changes across the lifespan
   Physical growth, maturation, and aging
        Embryological development
        The postnatal years
   Age-related changes in the skeletal and articular systems
        Stages in development of bone
        Growth of length and width of bone
        Skeletal composition changes across the life span
        Osteoporosis
        Bone failure in relation to bone development, age or activity
        Effect of various factors on range of motion
   Age-related changes in the muscular system
   Change in body dimensions across the life span
        Combining size measurements to provide information about shape
        Secular trend in body dimensions
        Growth rates of body segments
        Growth rates of body tissues
        Sexual dimorphism in growth
        Somatotype changes during growth, maturation, and aging
   Methods of determining age
  Chapter 5


Musculoskeletal adaptations to training
Objective from syllabus
 To summarize how concepts related to the
  musculoskeletal system and anthropometry
  adapt to physical activity
Musculoskeletal adaptations to
training
 Effects of physical activity on bone
       Effects of activity level on bone
       Effects of activity type on bone
       Bone repair and physical activity
 Effects of physical activity on joint structure and ranges of motion
       Synovial fluid, articular cartilage, and ligaments
       Degenerative joint disease and exercise
 Effects of physical activity on muscle-tendon units
       Flexibility
       Strength
       Tendon adaptation
 Effects of physical activity on body size, shape, and composition
       Role of lifestyle factors in determining physique
       Relationship of body sizes and types to sports
Part Two: Mechanical
Bases of Human
Movement


     Biomechanics
About biomechanics...
 The use of mechanics to quantitatively
  analyze movement
     Of a healthy person
     Of injured people
     Of people at different stages of training
     Of people at different stages of maturation,
      growth, and aging
Chapter 6


  Kinetics and Kinematics
Objective from syllabus
 To understand how vectors may be used to
   describe forces and motion in human
   activity
     The motion bit is kinematics, the forces
      (giving rise to motion) is kinetics
Kinematics and Kinetics
 Vectors
 Motion
    Motion of a particle
    Angular motion of a rigid body
    Motion of a point on a rigid body
 Degrees of freedom
 Force
    Internal and external forces
    Free body diagram
 Moment of force
 Equilibrium
 Computer modeling of movement
Chapter 7


      Energetics
Objective from syllabus
 To describe the role that kinetic energy,
   potential energy, and elastic energy play in
   human movement
Energetics
 Energy and power
     Kinetic energy
     Potential energy
     Total mechanical energy
     Power
     Elastic strain energy
 Metabolic energy consumption
 Efficiency of movement
Chapter 8


Biomechanics across the life span
Objective from syllabus
 To understand how the aging process
   affects the biomechanics of movement
Biomechanics across the life span
 Using gait as the conduit...
 Biomechanics of normal walking
    Kinematics of normal gait
    Muscle actions during normal gait
 Gait development in children
 Gait changes in older adults
    Changes in gait kinematics
    Causes of gait changes in aging
    Metabolic cost of walking in older adults
    Exercise and aging
  Chapter 9


Biomechanical adaptations to training
Objective from syllabus
 To summarize the typical biomechanical
   adaptations to training (natch)
Biomechanical adaptations to
training
 Muscular adaptations to training
 Neuromuscular adaptations to training
    Training to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injury
    Evaluating the effectiveness of injury prevention
     training
 Biomechanical adaptations to injury
 Dependence of motor performance on changes in
  muscle properties
      Using computer modeling to study vertical jumping
       performance
 Insights into the effects of training provided by
  computer models
Part III: Physiological
Bases of Human
Movement


    Exercise Physiology
About exercise physiology...
 How does the body’s functioning respond to
  exercise?
     Answers come from...
          Physiology
          Biochemistry
          Nutrition
          Endocrinology
          Histology
          Cell and molecular biology
     Application – see diagram on p. 120
  Chapter 10


Basic concepts of exercise metabolism
Objective from syllabus
 To summarize basic concepts of exercise
   metabolism
Exercise metabolism
 Production of energy for exercise
     Production of ATP
          The immediate energy system
          The anaerobic glycolytic system
          The oxidative system
     The 3 energy systems as a continuum
     The fueling of ATP by fats, proteins, and
      carbohydrates
     Lactic acid – friend or foe?
Exercise metabolism
 Oxygen supply during sustained exercise
    VO2 max as an indicator of endurance exercise
     capacity
 Measurement of exercise capacity
    Aerobic or endurance exercise capacity
    Anaerobic exercise capacity
    Why measure exercise capacity?

 The cardiorespiratory system and oxygen supply
  during exercise
      Cardiovascular response to exercise
      Distribution of blood flow during exercise
Exercise metabolism
 Human skeletal muscle cells
    Muscle fiber types
    Muscle fiber type and exercise capacity
       Activation of fiber types during exercise

       Skeletal muscle “fiber typing”

       Importance of muscle fiber type to sport
        performance
 Energy cost of activity
 Importance of diet to energy metabolism and
  exercise performance
      Why athletes need a high carbohydrate diet
      Do athletes need extra protein?
      Importance of replacing water lost during exercise
 Chapter 11


Physiological adaptations to training
Objective from syllabus
 To summarize how training can affect the
   capacity to perform work
Physiological adaptations to
training
 Training-induced metabolic adaptations
     Factors limiting exercise performance
     Immediate and anaerobic system changes
      after strength and sprint training
     Changes in aerobic metabolism after
      endurance training
Physiological adaptations to
training
 Endurance training-induced changes in the
  cardiorespiratory system
      Oxygen consumption
      Heart rate
      Stroke volume
      Cardiac output
      Oxygen extraction
      Blood composition
      Endurance training-induced respiratory changes
      Endurance training induced changes in the lactate
       threshold
Physiological adaptations to
training
 Muscular system changes after strength
  training
     Muscular strength
          Muscle hypertrophy
          Metabolic adaptations
          Neural adaptations
     Muscular power and endurance
     Training and muscle fiber number or type
Physiological adaptations to
training
 Basic principles of training
    Specificity
    Training variables
    Overload
    Individualization
    Reversibility
    Periodization
    Overtraining
    Continuous and interval training
        Continuous training

        Interval training
Physiological adaptations to
training
 Training for cardiovascular endurance
 Methods of strength training
       Types of muscle contractions
       Types of strength training
       Training to improve muscular strength and endurance and to induce
        hypertrophy
       The role of eccentric muscle actions in strength training
 Causes of muscle soreness
 Exercise for health-related fitness
       ACSM and USSG exercise guideline summaries
       Explaining the summaries
            Types of recommended exercise
            Intensity of exercise
            Duration of exercise
            Frequency of exercise
       Resistance exercise
   Chapter 12


Physiological capacity and performance
          across the life span
Objective from syllabus
 To describe changes in exercise capacity
   and performance across the life span
Physiological capacity and
performance across the life span
 Responses to exercise in children
    Metabolic response to exercise in children
       Aerobic capacity in children

       Anaerobic exercise capacity in children

    Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in children
    Thermoregulatory response to exercise in children
    Muscular strength in children

 Adaptations to exercise training in children
    Aerobic and anaerobic training in children
    Strength training in children
    Exercise prescription for children
Physiological capacity and
performance across the life span
   Exercise capacity during aging
        Reasons for decreases in exercise capacity during aging
              Variability in rates of physiological aging
              Aerobic capacity during aging
              Anaerobic capacity during aging
              Muscular strength
        Preventing or reversing age-related changes in work capacity
              Aerobic capacity in masters (veteran) athletes
              Anaerobic capacity and muscular strength in masters athletes
        Training effects in previously sedentary individuals
              Aerobic
              Anaerobic
              Strength
   Exercise prescription for older adults
   Life span sex differences in physiological responses and adaptations to
    exercise
        Sex differences in   aerobic exercise capacity
        Sex differences in   anaerobic capacity
        Sex differences in   muscular strength
        Sex differences in   sport performance
  Chapter 12


Applications of exercise physiology to
                health
Objective from syllabus
 To evaluate the health benefits of exercise
Applications of exercise physiology
to health
 Physical Activity and Public Health
     The public cost of inactivity
          Major causes of disease and death in developed
           countries
          Financial burden of physical inactivity
     Exercise participation and health benefits in
      adults
     Promoting a physically active lifestyle
          Reasons for differences in activity levels
          Ways to improve exercise participation
Applications of exercise physiology
to health
 Physical Activity, Cardiovascular Disease, and Metabolic Syndrome
       Cardiovascular disease
            Physical Activity & Cardiovascular disease
            Exercise prescription to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease
       Metabolic syndrome: obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and
        dyslipidemia
            Obesity
                Exercise and obesity
                Exercise prescription for obesity
            Hypertension
                Exercise and hypertension
                Exercise prescription for hypertension
            Diabetes
                Exercise and diabetes
                Exercise prescription for diabetes
            Dyslipidemia
                Exercise and dyslipidemia
                Exercise prescription for dyslipidemia
Applications of exercise physiology
to health
 Physical Activity and Other Leading Diseases and Conditions
      Cancer
           Exercise and cancer
           Exercise prescription in cancer
      Asthma
           Exercise and asthma
           Exercise prescription in asthma
      Osteoporosis
           Exercise and osteoporosis
           Exercise prescription to optimize bone health
      Arthritis
           Exercise and arthritis
           Exercise prescription in arthritis
Part IV: Neural Bases
of Human Movement


     Motor Control
About motor control...
 How does the body control its movements?
     Again a diverse range of parent disciplines
      provide clues
     Here the goal is to explain the origin of
      controlled movement, the means by which
      coordinated movement can be learned in
      both childhood and adulthood, and of course
      what happens to the potential for control and
      learning when people age
Chapter 14


Basic concepts of motor control:
Neurophysiological perspectives
Neurophysiological perspectives
 Objective from syllabus
     To understand how some basic
      neurophysiological properties of the nervous
      system can be used to explain how we move
Neurophysiological perspectives
 Components of the Nervous System
 Neurons and Synapses
    Structure and function of neurons
    Structure and function of synapses
 Sensory Receptor Systems for Movement
    The visual system
    The kinesthetic system
        Muscle receptors

        Tendon receptors

        Skin (cutaneous) receptors

        Joint receptors

    The vestibular system
    Intersensory integration and sensory dominance
Neurophysiological perspectives
 Effector Systems for Movement
 Motor Control Functions of the Spinal Cord
       Structure of the spinal cord
       Spinal reflexes
            The stretch reflex
            The flexion reflex
            The crossed extensor reflex
            The extensor thrust reflex
            Spinal reflexes for gait control
       The role of reflexes in voluntary movement control
 Motor Control Functions of the Brain
       The motor cortex
       The cerebellum
       The basal ganglia
       The brainstem
 Integrative Brain Mechanisms for Movement
Chapter 15


Basic concepts of motor control:
 Cognitive science perspectives
Cognitive science perspectives
 Objective from syllabus
     To understand how models of motor control
      can be used to explain how we move
Cognitive science perspectives
 Using Models to Study Motor Control
     The role of models in scientific study
     Key properties to be explained by models of
      control
          Degrees of freedom
          Motor equivalence
          Serial order
          Perceptual-motor integration
          Skills acquisition
Cognitive science perspectives
 Information-Processing Models of Motor Control
    The human motor system as computer-like
       Hardware and software

       Processing stages

    Perceiving: determining what is happening
       Underlying processes

              Detection
              Comparison
              Recognition
              Selective attention
         Processing limitations
Cognitive science perspectives
      Deciding: Determining what has to be done
         Underlying processes

         Processing limitations

      Acting: organizing and executing the desired
       movement
         Underlying processes

             Movement organization
             Movement initiation
             Movement monitoring
        Processing limitations
      Some implications
 Some Alternative Models of Motor Control
 Chapter 16


Motor control changes across the life
                span
Motor control changes across the
life span
 Objective from syllabus
     To understand how the capacity for
      coordinated movement changes across the
      life span
Motor control changes across the
life span
 Changes in Observable Motor Performance
    Motor development in the first two years of life
       General developmental principles

       Motor milestones for normative development

       Motor milestones in special populations

       The notion of critical periods

       Practical applications

    Development of fundamental motor patterns in
     childhood
       Ages and stages in the development of a locomotor
        skill
       Ages and stages in the development of a non-
        locomotor skill
       Practical applications
Motor control changes across the
life span
 Changes at the Neurophysiological Level
    Major physical changes in the central nervous
     system
    Changes in the sensory receptors and sensory
     systems
           The visual system
           The kinesthetic and vestibular system
      Changes in the effectors (muscles)
      Changes in reflex systems
           Primitive reflexes
           Postural and locomotor reflexes
Motor control changes across the
life span
 Changes in Information-Processing
  Capabilities
     Developmental improvements in information-
      processing capability
          Decision making
          Organizing and executing movement
     Declines in information processing with aging
 Chapter 17


Motor control adaptations to training
Motor control adaptations to
training
 Objective from syllabus
     To summarize the adaptations in motor
      control at the neural and behavioral levels
      that occur as a consequence of training
Motor control adaptations to
training
 Changes in Observable Motor Performance
     Characteristics of skilled performers
          Stages in the acquisition of motor skills
             Verbal-cognitive
             Associative
             Autonomous
          The specificity of motor skills
Motor control adaptations to
training
 Changes at the Neurophysiological Level
       Challenges for a neurophysiological account of learning
       Plasticity as the basis of learning
       Synaptic changes and long-term potentiation
 Changes in Information-Processing Capabilities
       Sensory reception
       Perception
       Decision making
       Movement organization and execution
       Observable movement pattern and movement outcome
       Implications for training
 Factors Affecting the Learning of Motor Skills
       Imperfectability of skills
       Necessity of feedback for learning
       Importance of type of practice
       Limitations of verbal instructions and conscious attention
       Dependency of learning on readiness
Part V: Psychological
Bases of Human
Movement


 Sport and exercise psychology
About sport and exercise
psychology...
 This is basically about anything in the realm
  of thinking that affects performance in
  physical activity (or indeed the choice to
  participate in physical activity)
Chapter 18


Basic concepts in sport psychology
Basic concepts in sport psychology
 Objective from syllabus
     Um, well, to describe the major concepts of
      sport psychology, of course
Basic concepts in sport psychology
 Personality
     Trait framework of personality
     Interaction framework of personality
     Practical implications of personality in sport
 Motivation in Sport
     Definition of motivation
     Definition of success
     Achievement goal orientations and motivation
     Motivational climate
Basic concepts in sport psychology
 Arousal, Anxiety, and Sport Performance
       Arousal
       Anxiety
            Trait and state anxiety
            Cognitive and somatic anxiety
       The arousal-performance relationship
       The anxiety-performance relationship
       Measuring anxiety
 The Practice of Applied Sport Psychology
 Imagery: An Example of a Psychological Skill
       How imagery works
            Psycho-neuromuscular theory
            Symbolic learning theory
            Attention-arousal set theory
       Reasons to use imagery
       Developing vividness and control
  Chapter 19


Basic concepts in exercise psychology
Basic concepts in exercise
psychology
 Objective from syllabus
     That would be to describe the major
      concepts of exercise psychology
Basic concepts in exercise
psychology
 Effects of Psychological Factors on Exercise
    Exercise participation motivation
    Exercise adherence motivation
       Goal setting

       Sensory factors

       Situational factors

    The transtheoretical model
    Exercise addiction
 Effects of Exercise on Psychological Factors
    Exercise and psychological well-being
    Exercise and negative mood states
    Exercise and cognitive performance
Chapter 20


Physical activity and psychological
   factors across the life span
Physical activity and psychological
factors across the life span
 Objective from syllabus
     Describe how the major concepts of sport
      and exercise psychology relate to changes in
      movement across the life span
Physical activity and psychological
factors across the life span
 Changes in Personality
 Psychosocial Development Through Sport
  Participation
      Design of youth sport
      Adolescence, peers and exercise
 Exercise in Older Adults
    Exercise and life satisfaction in older adults
    Encouraging participation of older adults in exercise
     and sport
 Termination of Athletic Careers
    Voluntary versus involuntary termination
    Assisting the termination process
 Chapter 21


Psychological adaptations to training
Psychological adaptations to
training
 Objective from syllabus
     To evaluate the psychological consequences
      of prolonged participation in sport and
      exercise
Psychological adaptations to
training
 Aerobic Fitness and the Response to Psychological Stress
 Changes in Personality
 Changes in Motivation: Staleness, Overtraining, and Burnout
      Definitions related to training stress
           Staleness
           Overtraining
           Burnout
    Measuring overtraining and burnout
    Strategies
    Avoiding training stress syndrome
    Managing stress
 Changes in Mental Skills
    Transferring skills from sport to work
    Acquiring mental skills

				
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