UCD Mechanical Eng

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					                            RESEARCH REPORT
                                  2001 - 2002
                                            FACULTY OF
                            ENGINEERING & ARCHITECTURE




                            DEPARTMENT OF
                            MECHANICAL ENGINEERING




University College Dublin
DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


The Department is housed in a purpose-built Engineering building at Belfield that was completed in
1989. This provides a range of modern teaching, laboratory and office facilities to the Department. Both
the teaching and the research laboratories are well equipped, with considerable expenditure on both
equipment and instrumentation in recent years. The present intake of undergraduate students (partly by
direct entry from 2001) is 66-70. Approximately 50 postgraduate students are enrolled for either Masters
or Doctoral degrees by research. The staff of the Department comprises 18 academic staff, as well as 12
technical staff, and 2 administrative staff. The Department offers one primary degree in Mechanical
Engineering, which is of four year’s duration. In addition to an M.Sc. in Technology Management which is
run in conjunction with the Faculty of Commerce, the Department offers a taught part-time Masters in
Industrial Engineering for engineering and other technology professionals who wish to strengthen their
management competencies. Participants on this course normally have a number of years work
experience since completing their primary degree. Areas covered on this course include Operations
Management and Human Resources, Information Technology and Systems Engineering.
Further information on this course can be obtained from the programme webpage at
                                                                                                                        Head of Department
www.ucd.ie/~mecheng/mie.
                                                                                                                Professor Dr.-Ing Gerald Byrne,
                                                                                                                           Chartered Engineer
The Department is active in both basic and applied research programmes in a number of important
areas. There are five broad research themes within the Department, namely, (i) Bioengineering, (ii)
Manufacturing & Industrial Engineering, (iii) Materials, (iv) Mechanics, and (v) Energy Conversion. The
range of project activities in each of these areas is described in this report. Additionally, there are three
Technology Centres in the Department, which complement various of the research activities, namely AMT
Ireland, the Materials Ireland Research Centre and the National Heat Treatment Centre.
                                                                                                         RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                               2001-2002


ACADEMIC STAFF & RESEARCH INTERESTS                                          management; Production and operations planning and control; Discrete
                                                                             and continuous modelling and simulation of industrial engineering and
Eamonn Ambrose                                                               production systems.
BE, MBA – College Lecturer:                                                  Donal P. Finn
Production and Operations Management; Supply Chain Management;               BE, MEngSc, PhD (Dub), CEng, MASHRAE, MIEI – College Lecturer:
E-business Technology Management.                                            Heat transfer; Building energy eystems: free/evaporative cooling,
Barry Brophy                                                                 radiative cooling; Refrigeration and heat pumps: control and optimisation,
BE, MEngSc, MISTC – Assistant Lecturer (September 2000 – August              transient system response evaluation, multi-evaporator systems;
2002):                                                                       Particulate drying: heat transfer mechanisms, process modelling.
Cognitive processes involved in communication of technical concepts;         David FitzPatrick
Next generation refrigeration systems for road transport of food;            BA, BAI, DPhil – College Lecturer:
Tool breakage detection in automated drilling using neural networks.         Musculoskeletal mechanics; Medical device technology; Design.
David J. Browne                                                              Michael D. Gilchrist
BE, MSc (Oxon), DPhil (Oxon), CEng, MIEI, MIM – Lecturer:                    BE, MEngSc, PhD (Sheffield), FInstP, FIMechE, FIEI, FIMMM, CPhys, CEng –
Non-ferrous metallurgy; Numerical modelling of alloy solidification: grain   Senior Lecturer:
nucleation and growth, heat transfer, front tracking, natural convection;    The mechanical performance of viscoelastic and anisotropic material
Experimental studies of alloy solidification: evolution of macrostructure,   systems (including structural engineering materials, composites and
interface heat transfer in casting processes, semi-solid processing of       biological tissue); Head impact biomechanics; Processing and
aluminium alloys; Gradient and composite materials; Plastic deformation      performance of polymer matrix composites; Mechanics and
of metals; Microgravity experimentation.                                     mechanism of fracture, damage and failure of materials; Experimental
Gerald Byrne                                                                 and computational modelling.
BSc(Eng) (Dub), MSc, MA (Dub), Dr-Ing (TUBerlin), FIAE, FSME, CEng,          Donal Hughes
EurIng, FIEI, FIMechE, FIEE, Hon M VDI, Active member CIRP                   BE, MEngSc, MIE – College Lecturer and Director of Master of Industrial
Professor of Mechanical Engineering:                                         Engineering (MIE) Programme:
Precision and ultra-precision machining science; Machine tool technology;    Production management; Industrial systems; Industrial engineering;
Temperature measurement in machining; Sensors for tool condition             Production systems design; Project management.
monitoring; Integrated manufacturing processes; Process chains.              Neal Murphy
Alun J. Carr                                                                 BE, MEngSc – College Lecturer:
BSc (Newcastle), PhD (Newcastle), MIM – College Lecturer (sabbatical         Computational methods in solid mechanics, particularly finite element and
leave January – August 2002):                                                finite volume formulations; Dynamic fracture mechanics; Simulation of
Development of technical ceramics and interstitial alloys for structural     rapid crack propagation in brittle polymers, particularly pipe-grade
wear and biomedical applications; Design of test methods for studying        polyethylene at low temperatures and PMMA at room temperature.
abrasive wear; Development and testing of coatings for biomedical            William J. O’Connor
applications; Thermal fatigue of ceramics.                                   BE, PhD, CEng, FIEI – Senior Lecturer (sabbatical leave October 2001 to
David N. Collins                                                             September 2002):
Dip Met (Flintshire), MSc (Aston), CEng, MIM – College Lecturer:             Control of flexible mechanical systems; Novel application areas of the
Ferrous metallurgy; Alloy and tool steels; Ductile irons; Heat treatment     Transmission Line Matrix modelling method, especially in mechanics,
and surface hardening processes; Effects of composition and processing       acoustics, computational fluid mechanics, diffusion and magnetostatics;
parameters on micro-structure and performance of these alloys.               Software for the design of acoustic devices; Design of special-purpose
Patrick T. Connolly                                                          sensors, including sensors for moisture content, fluid density, relative
BE, MEngSc, FIEI, CEng, EurIng – College Lecturer:                           humidity, fluid level in sealed containers, and counting people.
Manufacturing information systems; Flexible automation; Data                 Garret E. O Donnell
acquisition; Computer aided design and manufacture.                          BSc(Eng) (Dub), MIEI, MSME, MInstP – Assistant Lecturer (from September
Gerard F. Cummings                                                           2002):
ME, PhD, CEng, MIEE, PE, FIEI, EurIng – Senior Lecturer (Until September     Machine tool technology; Machining technology; Automation; Sensors and
2002):                                                                       algorithm development for tool condition monitoring; Artificial intelligence
Computer numerical control and flexible manufacturing; Operations            in decision making; Discrete and continuous simulation.

                                                                                                                                                            1
    DEPARTMENT OF
    MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


    Malachy J. O’Rourke                                                             RESEARCH STAFF
    BEng (QUB), PhD (QUB), MAIAA – College Lecturer:
    Transonic Aerodynamics: control of shock boundary layer interactions;           Mr Eamonn Ahearne, Materials Ireland Research Centre
    Boundary layer control methods: suction, injection, passive vortex              Mr Micheal Armstrong, AMT Ireland
    control jets, porous plate and passive cavity; Hemodynamics:                    Prof. Jurek Banaszek, Visiting Researcher (from March 2001), Warsaw
    abdominal aortic aneurysms, development of surgical devices; Radial flow        University of Technology
    turbomachinery: secondary flows and wake development due to rotation            Mr Derry Dillon, AMT Ireland (until May 2002)
    and curvature, wake mixing.                                                     Prof. Takeshi Fujimoto, Visiting Researcher (from May 2002),Yuge National
    Peter T. O’Neill                                                                College of Maritime Technology
    BE – College Lecturer:                                                          Mr David Heeran, AMT Ireland (July – October 2002)
    Quality control and the application of statistical methods to industrial        Mr Martin Hussey, Materials Ireland Research Centre
    problems; Operations research; Information systems; Computer graphics.          Ms Barbara Ann McCabe, AMT Ireland (until August 2001)
    William J. Smith                                                                Dr Ciaran McNally, Materials Ireland Research Centre, Department of Civil
    BE, PhD, MIEI, AMSAE – College Lecturer:                                        Engineering
    Theoretical and experimental analysis of gas flow, fuel injection, combustion   Mr Graham Thomas, Materials Ireland Research Centre
    and pollutant formation in internal combustion engines; Engine condition        Mr Kieran Ryan, AMT Ireland
    monitoring; Second Law analysis of thermal systems and cycles.                  Mr James Ryder, AMT Ireland
    David J. Timoney
    BE, MEngSc, PhD, CEng, FIEI, MSAE, CDipAF – Senior Lecturer:                    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies
    Internal combustion engines and exhaust emissions; Hydrogen as an               (AMT - Ireland)
    automotive fuel; Energy in transport; Combined heat and power; Transport        Director: Donal Hughes
    refrigeration.
    Sean Timoney                                                                    AMT Ireland was established under the Programmes for Advanced
    BE, MEngSc, MIEI, MSAE, FIMechE – Senior Lecturer (leave of absence             Technology (PAT) and is a partnership between Enterprise Ireland, the
    September 2000 – August 2001):                                                  Universities and Irish Industry. AMT Ireland’s role is to support research in
    Automotive design; Vehicle suspension design effects on handling,               advanced manufacturing technology within the universities and to ensure
    stability ride and road damage; Component fatigue; Gear design;                 that the results of this research are transferred to Industry in Ireland.
    Experimental and computer-aided stress analysis; Noise and vibration            There are AMT centres located in Cork, Limerick, Galway and UCD.
    measurement, modal analysis, sound intensity.                                   The AMT Ireland Centre located within the Mechanical Engineering
                                                                                    Department at UCD is a centre of excellence in Manufacturing Systems
    EMERITUS STAFF                                                                  Design and Operation. It interfaces with Industry through collaborative
                                                                                    research projects and also by offering consulting services within its field
    Michael Hayes                                                                   of expertise. Areas of research interest include automation systems
    PhD (Brown), DSc, MRIA – Emeritus Professor:                                    integration; total preventive maintenance (TPM); business excellence
    Finite deformation of elastic solids; Wave propagation in finitely deformed     model; world class manufacturing; new product introduction; competitive
    elastic and viscoelastic materials; Deformations of Bell constrained            benchmarking; product data management.
    materials; Theory of bivectors; Wave propagation in crystals; Kinematics
    of finite strain and straining.                                                 Materials Ireland Research Centre (MIRC)
    Desmond F. Moore                                                                Director: Michael Gilchrist
    BE, MS (MIT), PhD (Penn), DSc, EurIng, CEng, FIMechE, FIEI, MASME,
    MSTLE – Emeritus Professor:                                                     The Materials Ireland Research Centre at UCD was established in 1989 as
    Tribology of elastomers and rubber like materials; Fundamental energy           one of the Programmes for Advanced Technology. Its objectives are to
    and tribology relationships; Viscoelasto-hydrodynamics and micro-               undertake and support Research & Development for Irish industry and for
    lubrication; Impact and crashworthiness of collapsible structures;              appropriate international organisations: this is accomplished through
    Thermodynamic energy degrading.                                                 short, medium and long-term project activities. MIRC-UCD is sister to five
                                                                                    other centres in Trinity College, University of Limerick, Polymer
                                                                                    Development Centre Athlone, and Enterprise Ireland Glasnevin.

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                                                                                                              RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                    2001-2002


Approximately 25 postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers have been             The Degradation Characteristics of a Resorbable Polymer and
associated with MIRC since 1989; many of these people have                       Their Application to Long Bone Fracture Fixation
subsequently been employed within Irish and international research and           DP FitzPatrick & L Balfe
industrial environments. Research ranging from fundamental science
through to applied engineering is conducted across a spectrum of specific        Resorbable polymers have traditionally found biomedical application in the
materials areas including metals processing, concrete and cementitious           areas of sutures and fracture repair. Emerging applications such as tissue
materials, polymer matrix composites, surface engineering, precision             engineering and drug delivery also rely heavily on the use of these
grinding/polishing, bioengineering and biological materials. This addresses      polymer families, and as such, on the reliable and accurate determination
both materials, products and processes. Research activities are funded           of their degradation characteristics. To utilise existing, and future,
directly by Irish and international industry, and by Irish, European and         resorbable polymers to their full potential it is necessary to fully
international organisations and research agencies. In addition to                understand their degradation characteristics.
conducting short and medium-term industrial contract research, the                 To further this objective, in-vivo and in-vitro degradation of resorbable
Centre also serves to facilitate the transfer of expertise and technology to     polymers has been investigated by many authors, however, there has been
industry (SMEs and MNCs).                                                        no standardisation of test method, sample size or geometry. As a result,
                                                                                 comparison of results between studies is very difficult. This study proposes
National Heat Treatment Centre                                                   a standardised degradation test protocol, based on ASTM standards, to
Director: David Collins                                                          determine the degradation characteristics of resorbable polymers. It is
                                                                                 hoped that the protocol will be adopted by other researchers in the field,
Founded in 1995 under the Technology Centres Programme, this Centre,             thereby providing the opportunity to consolidate the available information
which is self-financing, acts as a central resource for the heat treatment       on the time-dependent mechanical performance of these polymers.
and tooling industries. The Centre is equipped with a wide range of modern
facilities, including vacuum, fluidised bed, controlled atmosphere furnaces, a   Evaluating Ergonomic Simulation Software
range of quenching, deep cryogenic treatment and ancillary equipment. As         DP FitzPatrick & L Coffey
well as Research and Development, the Centre provides technical
assistance, testing and investigation facilities, courses, and also undertakes   Ergonomic Simulation Software (ESS) is increasingly used in the design and
specialised sub-contract heat treatment on a semi-commercial basis, which        development of workplace environments, allowing identification of possible
is the main source of its income. Recent research has concentrated on            sources of work related injury. Within the algorithms for the ESS models,
specialised heat treatment of tooling materials, including deep cryogenic        assumptions are made as to the type and form of motion that can occur
treatments and fluidised bed thermochemical surface treatments.                  within the body. It is hypothesised that the level of simplification introduced
                                                                                 during this process has a significant influence on the accuracy of the data
BIOENGINEERING                                                                   produced. However, no standardised means exists to determine the accuracy
AJ Carr, DP FitzPatrick, MD Gilchrist, M O’Rourke                                to which such software can simulate the normal kinematics of an individual.
                                                                                   An easily implemented test environment is defined, based on a series
Research within bioengineering involves an interdisciplinary group of            of six tasks, representing movements of increasing complexity. The results
engineers, material scientists, biochemists, anatomists, veterinary              for the measurement and simulation are presented by comparing the time
surgeons and medical practitioners. The main research themes are:                dependent joint angles subtended by human subjects to those produced
(i) biomaterials – experimental and theoretical modelling of the                 through two ESS algorithms. The results provide a unique insight into the
fundamental relationship between the physiology and the mechanics of             level of simulation error encountered for a given task simulation. Detailed
bone, (ii) musculoskeletal mechanics – combining experimental and                analysis of the kinematics highlighted a number of areas in which both
theoretical analysis of joint kinematics and biomechanics to evaluate the        ESS models appeared to be deficient. In particular, simplified modelling of
performance of joint replacements, spinal implant technology and soft            shoulder and spinal kinematics resulted in a significant influence on the
tissue reconstruction on clinical outcome, (iii) medical imaging – applying      simulated kinematics of the upper limb.
novel analysis techniques to raw image data, allowing the analysis of
contact geometries articular surfaces as well as the development of              Comparison of Asian and Caucasian Knee Anthropometrics
patient-specific computational models, and (iv) biomechanics of head             DP FitzPatrick & N Rooney
impact – the use of computational mechanics methods to simulate impact
events and to identify the consequent clinical trauma.                           Success of Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) relies upon the correct sizing and

                                                                                                                                                                   3
    DEPARTMENT OF
    MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


    positioning of the prosthetic implants. It is therefore important to quantify   illustrates the initiation and progression of the scoliotic deformity during
    the key dimensional variables of the knee so that an accurate anatomical        adolescent growth and suggests that imbalance in collagen fibre direction
    dataset is available for use in prosthesis design and as an aid to surgical     within the AF of the interverterbal disc contributes to the progression of
    technique. Incorrect sizing can cause prosthesis loosening, incorrect soft      the spinal deformity. The influence is not governed by the rate of increase
    tissue balancing and uneven stress distribution across the tibiofemoral         in height, being a constant for any given fibre ratio.
    joint area. Accounting for variation in implant size is a critical step when
    developing a range of implant sizes to meet the needs of the world-
    wide market.
       Previous studies of knee anthropometrics have used insufficient
    sample sizes, typically 30, with low confidence in results. This study uses
    linear intraoperative data collected from TKA patients and 3-D data from
    CT imaging to develop a statistically significant understanding of the
    dimensional changes that occur within a given patient population.




                                                                                    Scoliotic curve pattern changes due to collagen fibre imbalance (r=0.95 & 0.80).
                                                                                    Left: DY= 5%, Right: DY= 20%. Dashed line: normal thoracic spine; solid line:
                                                                                    thoracic spine with r=0.95, solid surface: thoracic spine with r=0.80.

                                                                                    Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland (PRP 2000)


    Three-dimensional reconstruction of knee geometry from CT data for use in the   Reconstructing Real World Head Injury Accidents
    analysis of knee anthropometrics
                                                                                    Resulting from Falls
    Sponsors: DePuy International Ltd & Enterprise Ireland                          MD Gilchrist, K O’Riordain & M Doorly


    Spinal Disc Mechanics                                                           Mechanical impact is the leading cause of injury, death and disability in
    DP FitzPatrick & B Heidari                                                      people aged under 45 in the USA, Europe and increasingly so in Third
                                                                                    World countries. Head impact injuries account for approximately half of all
    The primary objectives of this work are to assess the potential influence       deaths due to mechanical trauma, but account for the majority of cases of
    of collagen fibre imbalance within the Annulus Fibrosus (AF) on the             disability after injury. In addition to the huge human cost to society, the
    progression of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) deformity and              financial cost of hospitalisation, care and rehabilitation of head injured
    to model the progression of AIS deformity due to collagen fibre imbalance       people has been estimated to be as high as $33 billion per year in the US
    in the intervertebral disc in the thoracic region during rapid growth.          alone. In Ireland, falls are the single greatest cause of hospital admissions
    A number of aetiological factors have been proposed for idiopathic              for both males and females across most age groups, with head injuries
    scoliosis. Some have indicated a contribution from the intervertebral disc,     occurring in approximately a quarter of fall admissions. The objective of
    but the specific influence of the AF has yet to be effectively modelled.        this programme of research is to reconstruct real life head injury
    A mathematical model has been developed from first principles to                accidents resulting from falls using multibody dynamics simulations, with
    determine the contribution of AF imbalance to vertebral rotation and            the aim of relating predicted impact velocities, forces and accelerations to
    overall deformity of thoracic spine. Combined rotational (due to the AF         injuries sustained. Reconstructing such real life accidents offers new
    imbalance) and translational (due to the rapid growth) movements were           insights in understanding the mechanisms of head injury and establishing
    applied to a simplified model of the thoracic spine, using a three-             human tolerances to head injury.
    dimensional transformation matrix approach.                                       Cycling accidents constitute a significant percentage of non-fatal road
       Alterations of the ratio of clockwise to counterclockwise fibres in the      accidents within Ireland’s urban environment. The National Roads
    interverterbral disc (from unity to 0.85) demonstrated a considerable           Authority is statutorily charged with collating all road accident facts within
    influence on the spatial curvature. The three-dimensional model                 Ireland and while these records do not discriminate between serious and

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                                                                                                                  RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                        2001-2002


minor injuries, such information can be obtained by cross-reference                   developed and validated such a 3DFE model of the human head.
against hospital records. The objective of this project is to obtain a                The constitutive properties and physical geometry of the model were
statistically reliable perspective on Irish cycling accidents and to                  validated (against the results of published cadaveric and in-vivo
reconstruct the biomechanics of a representative selection of such                    experiments) for transient frontal and occipital impact conditions using a
accidents. This information will ultimately help to better understand the             variety of linear and nonlinear material properties. By simulating identical
causative mechanisms of particular injuries that cyclists would sustain               impact scenarios with a range of different finite element models it has
and will suggest how Ireland’s future infrastructural development could               been possible to investigate the influence of model topologies. Results
usefully be improved for the cyclists of tomorrow.                                    indicate that careful modelling of the cerebrospinal fluid (depth/volume)
                                                                                      and skull thickness (including cortical/trabecular ratio) is necessary if the
                                                                                      correct intracranial pressure distribution is to be predicted.




Initial position of woman immediately prior to falling from chair


                                                                                      Layered 3DFE head model used to simulate impacts and neural damage




Initial position of cyclist prior to hitting road obstruction and sustaining a fall


Sponsors: UCD (President’s Research Award),                                           Computed tomography brain scan of a person who sustained extradural
PRTLI (Urban Institute Ireland), Materials Ireland.                                   haematoma (indicated by arrow) from a fall

Collaboration: Beaumont Hospital (JP Phillips & PM Thomas).
                                                                                      Sponsors: Enterprise Ireland (Basic Research Grant), UCD (President’s
Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modelling of                                         Research Award), Materials Ireland.
Human Head Impact Events                                                              Collaboration: University of Strasbourg (R Willinger & D Baumgartner).
MD Gilchrist & T Horgan
                                                                                      A Fully Automated System for Generating Three-dimensional
The head is one of the most frequently injured body regions and                       Finite Element Models of Biological Structures
neurotrauma constitutes one of the major causes of death in accidents.                MD Gilchrist & B Canton
Simple two-dimensional models can be used to indicate the qualitative
effects of a head impact but three-dimensional models are necessary to                Biomechanics research depends largely on using accurate computational
obtain more accurate quantitative insights. In order to investigate the               simulations to predict the response of the human body to mechanical
mechanisms of injury a three-dimensional finite element (3DFE)                        forces. Developing appropriate three-dimensional finite element (3DFE)
representation of the human head complex is necessary to simulate the                 models of biological objects, which have highly irregular geometries, is
transient occurrence of simple pedestrian accidents. This project has                 both time consuming and a subjective task. The objective of this project

                                                                                                                                                                      5
    DEPARTMENT OF
    MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


    is to develop a rapid, accurate and automatic system for developing such        establishing a biochemical threshold for intervention and predicting
    models. Minimal user interaction and an ability to create a mesh from a         clinical course and outcome of different types of brain lesion.
    CT dataset in a matter of minutes were two desired characteristics of this
    system. The finite element meshes that this system generates have a             Sponsors: IRCSET (Research Scholarship), PRTLI (National Neuroscience
    geometry that is patient specific, based on CT scans of the object.             Network and Conway Neuroscience).
    The system generates a hexahedral mesh comprising a user specified              Collaboration: Department of Human Anatomy & Physiology (WT O’Connor
    number of material classes. An automatic image segmentation system              & A Smyth).
    was developed in MATLAB. This used a combination of thresholding and
    seeding to produce an accurate segmentation of the image. A further             Design, Manufacture and Testing of a Prototype Wheelchair for
    automatic series of morphological operations ensure that the image data         People with Special Seating Needs
    will generate a well-structured and connected FE mesh. In contrast to           MD Gilchrist & J Tiernan
    traditional meshing systems, the newly developed system is flexible to a
    wide range of input objects and geometries. Current work is aimed at            The goal of this project has been the design of an armchair with the
    evaluating the functionality of the system and the quality of resulting         added functionality of a wheelchair for immobile people who are heavily
    meshes. Initial results suggest the accuracy of meshes compares                 dependent on others for every aspect of their care. A person may be
    favourably with those of less automatic systems.                                dependent on others for any number of reasons, including age and a
                                                                                    range of debilitating conditions. By incorporating features that allow for
                                                                                    easy transfer and positioning of patients, it is expected that this working
                                                                                    prototype design will act as an aid in reducing the incidence of pressure
                                                                                    sore development. The prototype chair design also aims to provide a less
                                                                                    traumatic and more dignified patient-transfer method than the hoisting
                                                                                    method currently in use. The design incorporates a vertical-height
                                                                                    adjustment mechanism and a tilt-in-space mechanism, which is a key
                                                                                    factor in the prevention of pressure sores, since this acts to take pressure
                                                                                    off the ischial tuberosities and redistribute it over the back. Another cause
                                                                                    of pressure sores, shearing, is significantly reduced by a novel back
    Typical 3DFE skull model generated automatically from CT data                   recline mechanism that enables the back support translate in line with the
                                                                                    patient’s back while the support is being reclined. A significant
    Sponsors: IRCSET (Research Scholarship), UCD (President’s Research Award).      feature of the design is the frame structure, where the wheelbase of
    Collaboration: Catholic University Leuven (J Vander Sloten & C Van Lierde).     600mm comprises large wheels located at the centre-point of the chair
                                                                                    with four castors at the extremities. This configuration proves highly
                                                                                    stable, offering manoeuvrability far superior to conventional wheelchairs.
    Computational, Biomechanical & Biochemical Studies of Blunt
    Head Impact Trauma                                                              Sponsors: Materials Ireland, National Rehabilitation Hospital.
    MD Gilchrist & C Gallagher                                                      Collaboration: Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering (AM de
                                                                                    Paor), Royal Hospital Donnybrook (C Leonard).
    The objective of this project is to establish quantitative levels of severity
    associated with focal impact injuries to the frontal, temporal and occipital    MANUFACTURING & INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
    cortex of the intact brain using computational biomechanical models in          E Ambrose, G Byrne, P Connolly, G Cummings, D FitzPatrick, DF Moore,
    combination with experimental in-vivo biochemical measurements.                 GE O Donnell
    This will be achieved by developing a biologically motivated,
    experimentally testable biomechanical model for evaluating the effects          The Advanced Manufacturing Science (AMS) Research Group is working in
    of head impact on discrete brain regions. In conjunction with these             the area of advanced manufacturing processes. The objective of the
    laboratory experiments, a three-dimensional finite element model will           group is to develop reliable and reproducible manufacturing processes
    simulate the full-field stress, strain and strain rate fields throughout the    such that engineering surfaces of a defined integrity can be economically
    neural tissue due to various impact events. By correlating microdialysis        produced in a clean environment. The sensors and algorithms for process
    data and other indices of neurotrauma, such a model may be useful in            and tool condition monitoring are also under investigation.

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                                                                                                             RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                   2001-2002


Adding Value to the Supply Chain Through B2B E-Commerce                        effectiveness of the procurement of MRO items, and to identify
E Ambrose                                                                      opportunities for e-procurement.


With the growing importance of Supply Chain Management, the importance
of purchasing and its strategic role in the business is being increasingly
recognised. The inexorable growth of e-commerce has intensified the interest
in supply chain issues and particularly eprocurement. While the business-to-
consumer (B2C) e-commerce has largely been seen as a passing fad,
business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce is showing continued growth.
  A wide range of e-commerce models has evolved, some in specific
industries, others spanning a range of generic products. These models
create value in a variety of ways - enabling low-cost high-speed
transactions, global search and specification matching functionality,
                                                                               Positioning of MRO supplies within a two-dimensional procurement portfolio
industry sector collaboration and information sharing. The ownership of
these e-commerce sites varies from buyer consortia through industry            Sponsor: Smurfit Business School, UCD.
sector hubs to third party service providers. The academic and business
worlds have yet to concur on the future shape of the eprocurement              Process Monitoring of Flexible Machining Centres
environment, leaving practitioners with little guidance.                       G Byrne & GE O Donnell
  This research will examine the development of various B2B
e-commerce models internationally, and identify the various means by           The term process monitoring can be regarded as an enhancement of tool
which each model adds value to the supply chain. This will involve             condition monitoring, incorporating information related to the cutting tool,
developing a new classification of e-commerce models, which will be            process, workpiece and machine tool. Based on a summary of the state of
verified across a range of industry sectors. The work will provide guidance    the art it can be said that (a) existing monitoring systems are not performing
to buyers and suppliers in identifying the opportunities for generating        to a satisfactory level and (b) there is an absence of transferable technology
savings or developing new business through e-commerce activity.                from research institutes due to the complexity of the solutions developed and
                                                                               the lack of robustness to factors in the manufacturing environment.
Sponsor: National Institute of Technology Management, UCD.
Collaboration: Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, UK.


E-procurement of Maintenance, Repairs and Operating Supplies
in a Manufacturing Organisation
E Ambrose


The procurement of maintenance, repairs and operating (MRO) supplies is
not well understood by purchasing practitioners, and its importance to a
business is usually underestimated. This project examines the nature and
importance of MRO purchasing, from the perspective of the buying
organisation, and focuses on indirect purchases only i.e. excluding raw
materials and capital expenditure.
  A model for the effective management of MRO purchasing is
developed, encompassing the purchasing process, the organisation of the
purchasing function and the purchasing channels available. The model
provides a means to assess the relevance of electronic procurement
(e-procurement) in MRO purchasing, addressing what is currently
perceived as the burning issue for purchasing managers.
  As a preliminary validation of the model, a case study of a major
multinational manufacturer in Ireland was carried out to assess the
                                                                               Process reliability and alarm frequency during 80 hours
                                                                                                                                                                7
    DEPARTMENT OF
    MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


      This research work is particularly concerned with identification and              The main purpose of this research work is to address this knowledge gap.
    quantification of the factors that affect the monitoring system performance         This study is reviewing the state of the art of condition monitoring in
    in the manufacturing environment, and the subsequent development of                 industrial practice and the state of the art in research. A survey of the
    more robust sensor technology. Comprehensive investigations were carried            level of knowledge and implementation of condition monitoring in Irish
    out in production facilities resulting in a quantitative and qualitative analysis   manufacturing industry has been piloted. The survey targets specific
    of the influences affecting the performance of monitoring systems.                  manufacturing sectors that dominate the Irish manufacturing landscape
      The application of process monitoring to flexible machining centres               such as Engineering Components, Finished Pharmaceuticals, Food
    was the main focus of the research work as these machining centers                  Manufacture, Semiconductor, Computer Peripherals, Biomedical Devices,
    typically carry out a large variety of machining operations on a large              Furniture and Glass Manufacture. Publication of a final report
    variety of workpiece types. This level of flexibility/variation is particularly     summarising the state of the art, the results of the survey, and the
    challenging for sensor technology and decision algorithms. A sensor                 inclusion of case studies is intended.
    integrated motor spindle was developed within the project and used to
    measure torque and 3 components of force. These integrated force                    Sponsor: AMT Ireland.
    sensing elements provided high quality process information, including               Collaboration: AMT Ireland, A consortium of manufacturing companies is
    very high quality information regarding the condition of the spindle.               being negotiated.
    This processing framework for the sensor integrated motor spindle is a
    topic of further ongoing research.                                                  Investigating Silicon Wafer Temperature Variations during
                                                                                        Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP)
    Sponsor: European Commission (BE3565-COMPRO).                                       G Byrne & B Mullany
    Collaboration: Robert Bosch GmbH, Scania CV AB, COMAU Mechanical
    Systems, IDEKO, A. I. E., Hüller Hille GmbH, Kistler Instrumente AG, IPK            Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) is the process used for wafer
    Berlin and ARTIS GmbH.                                                              planarisation in the semiconductor industry. The process relies on both
                                                                                        chemical and mechanical interactions between the wafer, the pad and an
    Condition Monitoring in Manufacturing: An Assessment of the                         abrasive loaded slurry to successfully remove material from the wafer
    Level of Knowledge and Implementation in Irish Manufacturing                        surface. Since an explanation for the precise manner in which the
    Industry                                                                            chemical and the mechanical aspects interact to planarise a wafer is
    G Byrne & GE O Donnell                                                              still somewhat elusive, there remains a need for fundamental research
                                                                                        in CMP.
    At present, there are substantial difficulties in diagnosing or predicting            Process temperatures and thermal gradients across the wafer have
    equipment problems with the types of advanced manufacturing                         not received much attention. However, it would be of considerable
    equipment used in high volume and flexible production, e.g. CNC machine             interest to have knowledge in this area as both chemical reaction rates
    tools, automated assembling machines etc. This is due to the relative               and slurry viscosity will be affected by changes in temperatures. This
    complexity of the manufacturing processes and the difficulty of monitoring          research program uses radiation thermometry to investigate the thermal
    all significant process variables. Therefore there is a necessity for the use       gradients across a 4-inch wafer during polishing. An infra-red thermal
    of automated data acquisition, signal processing and decision making                imaging camera captures the thermal gradients at the pad wafer interface
    techniques generally referred to as condition monitoring. Much of the               and subsequent analysis provides information on the effects of changing
    research work in the area of condition monitoring considers advanced                various process parameters and polishing pads.
    signal processing algorithms such as wavelets and advanced knowledge                  A thermal image of the wafer, polishing pad and the loading arm is
    based systems such as neural networks for decision making. Integration              shown below and is typical of the results recorded. The graph depicts the
    of these techniques into the computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)                difference in the average wafer temperature when polished on three
    environment is both necessary and feasible using open system                        different polishing pads, a soft grooved pad, a soft non-grooved pad and a
    architectures. Open systems are advantageous in providing ease of                   hard polishing pad. The applied load was 14.4 kPa, platen speed = 143
    access to information, and interoperability (multi platform software)               rpm, wafer speed = 7 rpm and the slurry supply rate was 140 ml/min at
    reduces the cost of installation.                                                   22˚C. The maximum and minimum temperatures at a particular wafer
      The rate of development of manufacturing equipment and the                        radius are indicated on the graph by the error bars. Differences between
    sophistication of the technology involved in condition monitoring can               the results for each of the pads can be attributed to the polishing pad
    result in a knowledge gap between developer/researcher and end user.                grooves and the different pad materials. The large difference between the

8
                                                                                                                 RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                       2001-2002


maximum and minimum temperature values indicates that significant                  the pad. Geometric pad wear, surface roughness, and percentage of
temperature variations can exist across the wafer during polishing.                glazing were determined experimentally on pads of known conditioning
                                                                                   history. By comparing experimental results with the conditioning density
                                                                                   data, its influence on pad properties could be seen (below). This provides
                                                                                   a baseline simulation for future research. Gaining a better understanding
                                                                                   of the influence of conditioning and its effect on pad wear is essential to
                                                                                   future process optimisation. In turn this will enable a reduction in overall
                                                                                   operating costs.




Thermal image of the polishing pad, wafer and loading mechanism taken during
the chemical mechanical polishing of a thermal oxide wafer




                                                                                   SEM micrograph showing plastic flow leading to glazing on worn pad




Variations in wafer temperature due to polishing on different polishing pads.
Error bars indicate the max. and min. temperatures at a particular wafer radius.


Sponsors: Intel Ireland Ltd., Enterprise Ireland.
Collaboration: National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA
(C. Evans); University of California at Berkeley, USA (D. Dornfeld).


The Effect of Conditioning on Polishing Pad Wear in Chemical
Mechanical Polishing
G Byrne & BJ Hooper


For successful manufacture of complex integrated circuits, high levels of
wafer planarity are required. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is               Top: conditioning densities for two different conditioning profiles
                                                                                   Below: experimental geometric wear results for same conditioning profiles
used for this purpose on the wafer surface, however, the level of planarity
is influenced by the polishing pad properties. During polishing, pad               Sponsors: Intel Ireland Ltd., Enterprise Ireland.
deterioration causes reduced removal rates and poorer planarity. SEM               Collaboratuion: University of California at Berkeley (D. Dornfeld), USA.
examination has shown that this is caused by plastic flow of the pad
material, leading to glazed areas on the pad surface. Conditioning by              Machining Hardened Steels
diamond abrasives is used to regenerate the pad surface by breaking up             G Byrne & J Barry
these areas but this induces pad wear. As some areas of the pad
experience higher levels of glazing, it is necessary to locally vary               The influence of inclusion content on the rates and mechanisms of
conditioning density. The conditioning profile dictates the travel of the          alumina/TiC and CBN/TiC tool wear was assessed for the machining of
conditioning arm over the pad and hence the conditioning density                   hardened steels. A sixfold variation in the wear rate of alumina/TiC
experienced at each point.                                                         cutting tools was observed in the machining of BS 817M40 steel
  This work concerns the effect that different levels of conditioning              (equivalent to AISI 4340) subjected to varying heat treatment conditions
density across the pad have on both geometric pad wear and pad surface             and of 52 HRC. In machining steels containing Ca-bearing mixed oxide
characteristics, such as roughness and percentage glazing. A model was             inclusions, a reaction between inclusionary deposits and the alumina
developed to determine the conditioning density resulting at each point on         phase of the tool is the dominant wear mechanism. In machining low-Ca

                                                                                                                                                                  9
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     steels, or steels with a very low inclusion content, plastic deformation and    feasibility of integration. It is proposed herein, to develop the state-of-
     grain spallation are the dominant mechanisms. In machining of BS                the-art of such models by developing an algorithm that determines the
     817M40 steel subjected to three different heat treatment conditions, a          technical feasibility of integrating production processes. It is intended
     fourfold variation in the wear rate of CBN/TiC cutting tools was observed.      that the model also incorporate qualitative analysis of auxiliary factors and
     Irrespective of wear rate, the dominant wear mechanism is based on the          an existing state-of-the-art economic algorithm.
     preferential wear of the CBN phase through a complex chemical reaction,
     the rate of which appears to be partly determined by the aluminium
     content of the steel.
       Regarding the mechanisms of material removal: examination of the
     quick-stop specimens reveal the primary metallurgical instability resulting
     in sawtooth chip formation to be adiabatic shear. Adiabatic shear initiates
     at the tool tip and propagates partway to the free surface. Catastrophic
     failure in the upper region of the primary shear zone occurs through
     either of two mechanisms: ductile fracture or large strain plastic
     deformation, under severe and moderate cutting conditions, respectively.
     Prior to the onset of sawtooth chip formation, there is a transition in the     Integration of multiple processing technologies into single machining centre
     structure of the free surface of continuous chips, from the lamellar
     structure to what has been termed a ‘fold’ structure. The relationship          Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland.
     between chip formation and Acoustic Emission is also discussed, for both        Collaboration: Daimler Chrysler AG.
     hardened steels and Ti6Al-4V.
       White layers, in the surfaces machined with unworn and worn cutting           The Integration of Laser Processing into
     tools, were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).              Conventional Machining Centres
     The primary characteristics of the surface white layer are; a fine cell size,   G Byrne & E Kennedy
     between 10-100nm, the presence of retained austenite, the volume
     fraction of which increases with increased flank wear and the presence of       The rationale for integrating high power lasers into conventional
     extremely fine carbides. The similarity between the structure of the            machining centres is to implement the principle of integrated
     surface white layers and that of adiabatic shear bands indicates that           manufacturing so that diverse operations can be carried out on a
     the surface generation in hard machining is essentially an adiabatic            component in a single clamping. Two areas where lasers can be utilised
     shear process.                                                                  in manufacturing are being studied: laser hardening and laser assisted
                                                                                     machining. In laser assisted machining, a high power laser beam is used
     The Development of an Evaluation Algorithm for Integrated                       to selectively soften the workpiece ahead of an approaching conventional
     Production Chains                                                               cutting tool. With laser hardening, hardening of the workpiece can be
     G Byrne & A Corcoran                                                            done in combination with other operations such as cutting, milling and
                                                                                     forming thus eliminating the need for a subsequent hardening process.
     Analysis of automotive production chains has revealed that many                 There are a number of benefits associated with each of these concepts
     manufactured components are subject to high levels of stand-by (non-            which are being explored in relation to specific industry applications over
     production) time. Stand-by times represent a gross inefficiency to the          the course of the project.
     manufacturer, as component lead times are extended. Furthermore,                  The primary goal of the project is to develop a centre of expertise in
     components in stand-by require storage space and thus increase the              U.C.D. for the transfer of laser-integrated technology to Irish manufacturers.
     necessary process workspace considerably. Integrated manufacture is             Laboratory experimentation and mathematical modelling is being carried
     a production methodology that arose from the idea of concurrent                 out to develop application specific data to demonstrate that components
     engineering. By integrating multiple production processes into one              of high quality, conforming to industry standards and cost constraints can
     station, a component can be formed by numerous processes                        be produced.
     simultaneously. Such integration has been observed to reduce lead times
     and yield a significant return-on-investment.                                   Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland.
       The integration of production processes is cost intensive. Integrated
     production models have been developed that evaluate the economic

10
                                                                                                                 RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                       2001-2002


                                                                                    Clean Machining Processes
                                                                                    G Byrne & M Cotterell


                                                                                    In many cases, modern manufacturing processes are not adequately
                                                                                    clean. In material removal operations, problems arise from the disposal of
                                                                                    process residuals such as cutting fluids, grinding sludge, contaminated
                                                                                    filters, wet chips etc. Hard machining offers significant advantages over
                                                                                    grinding as a finishing operation in terms of greater flexibility, lower
                                                                                    energy consumption and lower environmental loading. However, there are
The Hembrug Super Microturn CNC machine on which the research is conducted          some concerns about the effects of machining on the surface integrity of
                                                                                    engineering components and their subsequent performance.
                                                                                      The aim of this project is to develop a model of the microstructural
                                                                                    evolution of an engineering component due to finishing operations.
                                                                                    Rough grinding, or machining with worn tools, results in significant
                                                                                    microstructural alterations to the surface layers of the workpiece
                                                                                    material. Plastic deformation results from mechanical loading and phase
Laser hardening of a crankshaft                                                     transformations due to the elevated temperatures involved. In this project,
                                                                                    the effects of finish machining on the surface integrity of hardened AISI
Dynamic Behaviour of Materials in Machining                                         4340 and AISI 52100 steels are investigated. A finite element
G Byrne & M Cotterell                                                               thermo-mechanical model is proposed and this is coupled with material
                                                                                    constitutive models in order to predict the resulting microstructure, the
The mechanics of chip formation during orthogonal cutting are being                 hardness profile and the residual stress profile of the surface layers.
investigated using high speed photographic techniques. Cutting tests are
conducted on a conventional CNC lathe. A CCD camera with a long distance
microscope lens is focused on the primary and secondary shear zones. The
dynamic components of the cutting force are monitored using a PVDF
piezoelectric force sensor. The force signal triggers a short duration (less than
1ms) high intensity flash at various stages of the chip formation cycle. An
infrared thermal imaging system with a microscope lens attachment is used
to measure temperatures in the primary and secondary shear zones. Models
for the prediction of the onset of chip segmentation and segmentation
frequency are being evaluated for various materials including titanium alloy        Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland.
(Ti6Al4V), stainless steel (SS 316) and hardened bearing steel (AISI 52100).        Collaboration: Cork Institute of Technology.
The models consider the thermal aspects of the cutting process, the frictional
characteristics of the tool-chip interface and incorporate constitutive models      Performance Evaluation of PVD Coated Cemented
of material behaviour at elevated temperatures and high strain rates.               Carbide Cutting Tools
                                                                                    G Byrne & K Tuffy


                                                                                    Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) is an advanced plasma deposition
                                                                                    technique for the application of coatings onto engineering components.
                                                                                    In this project titanium nitride (TiN) is deposited on cemented carbide tool
                                                                                    inserts (CNMG 432) using two PVD techniques known as magnetron
                                                                                    sputtering (MS) and HYBRID plasma. The research work will compare the
                                                                                    mechanical performance of inserts coated using the two deposition
Temperature distribution during orthogonal cutting of SS316 modelled using          systems. One evaluation of insert performance will be obtained from tool
AdvantEdge
                                                                                    life studies in the dry turning of AISI 1040 carbon steel. The study will also
Collaborators: Cork Institute of Technology, Enterprise Ireland.                    include a detailed analysis of the wear behaviour during machining.

                                                                                                                                                                     11
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     Determination of the optimum machining parameters of the coated inserts       microfabrication of integrated circuits. The substrate must meet extreme
     based on the Taguchi method is currently being carried out                    form and finish specifications which, for the next generation of 300mm
     considering tool life, cutting forces and surface roughness.                  diameter substrates includes: total thickness variation of less than one
       The optimum coating thickness that yielded the longest tool life            micron over the substrate area, site flatness of less than 130 nm and
     according to the ISO 3685 criteria was a 3.5µm thick coating. Coatings        surface finish of less than 0.1 nm Ra. Ultra-precision grinding and polishing
     up to 7.5µm thick were deposited but as the coating thickness increases       technologies enable the realisation of these specifications. While much of
     so does the compressive stress in the coating resulting in poor               the research will apply generally, the specific grinding operation of interest
     mechanical performance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the coatings was           is “backgrinding” of the substrate after microfabrication. This operation is
     carried out revealing that the coating grew with a strong (111) orientation   critical as the surface quality after grinding determines the substrate
     as the thickness increased. Coating adhesion was assessed using the           strength and, accordingly, production yields in subsequent processing.
     Rockwell indentation test. Coating thickness was determined using             Surface quality improvement is also of fundamental interest for the
     optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results          production of ultra-thin integrated circuits for “smart card” applications.
     show that the uncoated tools are inadequate for machining without the           The project is considering recent research into the fundamental
     aid of coolant and at high cutting speeds. The coated tools perform well      phenomena in fixed abrasive finishing (grinding) of silicon with particular
     during dry cutting and there is a dramatic increase in tool life.             reference to the effect of process parameters on the ductile-brittle
                                                                                   transition. Recent technological developments in relation to the total
                                                                                   machine system will also be appraised including: high loop stiffness,
                                                                                   machine tools with high dynamic damping, electrolytic in-process
                                                                                   dressing (ELID) and ultra-precision control systems. The project is also
                                                                                   uniquely considering the effect of grinding tool design and production
                                                                                   parameters through collaboration with the project sponsor.




     Graph showing tool life achieved vs. coating thickness




                                                                                   Cranfield’s Tetraform high loop stiffness grinding machine



                                                                                   Sponsors: Element 6, Atlantic Diamond.
                                                                                   Collaboration: Cranfield University.

     Cross section of TiN coating clearly showing columnar growth typical of
     magnetron sputtering                                                          Laser Drilling of Aerospace Components
                                                                                   G Byrne, L Sexton & A Corcoran
     Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland.
     Collaboration: Surface Engineering Group, Enterprise Ireland (D. Dowling).    Due to continuing advances in jet engine efficiency, components are
                                                                                   exposed to ever-increasing combustion and exhaust gas temperatures.
     Material Removal Mechanisms in Nanogrinding of Silicon                        Air plasma sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) protect jet engine
     G Byrne & E Ahearne                                                           components (Cobalt/Nickel base superalloys) from direct exposure to the
                                                                                   corrosive temperatures. The TBC is affixed to the superalloy substrate by
     This project is concerned with the general objective of extending the         an intermediate bond coat thus producing a multi-layer material system.
     capabilities of grinding technology to produce high quality surfaces in       A laser drilling technique has been developed, to generate cooling holes in
     monocrystalline silicon. Silicon is the main substrate material used in       multi-layer systems, for use in the aerospace industry. The purpose of

12
                                                                                                                 RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                       2001-2002


such cooling holes is to provide a protective film of cool air over the           components, for repair and engineering industries. This technology enables
surface of the component, that further shields it from high temperature           alloy layers to be deposited with minimal pre-processing and post-processing
exhaust gases. The cooling holes are required to conform to strict                on steel or other substrate surfaces. Localised treatment causes reduced
standards stipulated by the original engine manufacturer. Two pulsed              distortion of the component and minimises the heat affected zone. The result
Nd:YAG lasers were used to study the parameters affecting hole                    is a wear and corrosion resistant surface applied in a specific region in a
generation in TBC coated superalloy materials. Thorough investigation into        shorter time and at lower cost to comparative techniques. Furthermore,
the negative effects of percussion laser drilling on material interfaces,         recent adaptation of the process has led to a novel method to directly build
hole geometry, and the negative effects on the individual microstructures         components from CAD data, which offers a means of rapid prototyping or
such as remelt-layer and microcracking, has led to the development of an          rapid production of the appropriate metal or alloy.
optimised percussion drilling process. Percussion laser drilling represents
a significant time saving in comparison with more traditional hole                Sponsor: Sifco (Ireland) Ltd.
generating techniques such as laser trepan drilling and EDM. Through              Collaboration: University of Liverpool.
further experimentation at acute angles, the percussion drilling process is
being integrated into a product development plan for the repair of TBC            Investigation of the Dimensional Stability of Rapid Tooling
coated nozzle guide vain components as SIFCO (Ireland) Ltd. The final             Processes
phase of this research into the laser drilling of aerospace components is         G Byrne & P Dunne
concerned with the development of a more suitable laser barrier material
for the aerospace industry. Laser barrier materials are required to protect       The process and materials limitations of rapid prototyping systems have led
the intricate inner-channels of turbine blades and nozzle guide vanes from        to the development and industrial application of rapid tooling techniques.
laser radiation as it breaks through in the hole drilling process.                These techniques allow prototypes to be manufactured in final materials by
                                                                                  injection moulding. Enhanced silicone moulding is one such process, which
                                                                                  offers a rapid, low cost route to the manufacture of thermoplastic
                                                                                  prototypes in a metal impregnated rubber mould. During the moulding
                                                                                  cycle, the mould deforms under the high pressures and temperatures
                                                                                  experienced and components produced suffer significant tolerance
                                                                                  deviations. A theoretical model of the system has been developed using
                                                                                  finite element techniques to allow prediction of the tolerance deviations.
                                                                                  The model is two dimensional with the rubber material represented by an
Blown powder laser cladding process using reflective dome to enhance absorption
of laser energy into molten material                                              Ogden hyperelastic function. The model is subjected to thermal and
                                                                                  pressure loads which are predicted independently using moulding
Collaboration: SIFCO (Ireland) Ltd., DaimlerChrysler AG, Ulm, Germany.            simulation techniques. The diagram below shows the pressure profile in the
                                                                                  mould cavity over the moulding cycle. The model has highlighted that areas
Laser Surface Treatment Technologies for Enhanced                                 close to the gate of the mould are most affected during the moulding cycle
Competitiveness in European Industries (LASCLAD)                                  with maximum tolerance deviations occurring in these areas. Research is
G Byrne & L Sexton                                                                continuing on development of the model and comparison of predicted
                                                                                  results with experiment.




The StarDrill/Cut 150 Nd:YAG high power laser system. The motion system can be
seen on the right with the laser above. On the left are the power supply and      Predicted pressure profile in mould cavity during filling (stages 1-2) and packing
controllers for the system                                                        (stages 3-4)

This project promotes the advantages of laser surface treatment technologies      Sponsors: AMT Ireland.
(including cladding and surface alloying) of components, or discrete areas of     Colaboration: Queen’s University of Belfast, University of Sunderland.

                                                                                                                                                                       13
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     Acoustic Emission and Surface Integrity                                         diminished to sub-micron dimensions, the surface stiffening effect is
     G Byrne & M Woulfe                                                              greatly enhanced about micro-texture elements, even at moderate sliding
                                                                                     speeds of engineering interest. At the same time, local viscoelastic effects
     Monitoring systems applied to the machining process should ensure that          on a micro-level become negligible. The elastomeric sliding material
     components are produced to the required dimensional accuracy and                appears to exhibit a stratified stiffening profile across its thickness, with
     surface quality. To date, monitoring systems fall short of achieving this       maximum effect at the sliding interface itself. This stratification is the net
     objective. Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors are increasingly used to monitor      result of an apparent stiffening due to dynamic frequency indentation
     the AE signals from the turning process. In this work, AE signals in the 100-   from the micro-texture, and the actual temperature softening from energy
     900 kHz range are investigated for a range of cutting speeds and feeds in       dissipation, both predominant at the sliding interface.
     the turning process. The results indicate that AE levels rise above those         This profoundly affects the nature of the frictional mechanism and
     predicted by the established theory as the quality of the surface decreases.    explains the apparent convergence of micro-adhesion and micro-hysteresis
     Further research is required to investigate the possibility of monitoring the   conceptual modelling. In practical terms, the harshness and scale of
     surface in-process without extensive modification of the machine tool.          micro-texture remain the key elements in determining friction levels. In
                                                                                     the presence of a lubricant, effective micro-lubrication in contrast
                                                                                     necessitates the complete absence of harshness in the micro-texture.
                                                                                     Apart from sliding speed, the key variable now becomes micro-reservoir
                                                                                     lubricant capacity in the void spacing between micro-texture elements.
                                                                                     Significantly, it also appears that the very nature of elastohydrodynamic
                                                                                     fluid film entrainment is altered because of surface stiffening. Effective
                                                                                     micro-lubrication can be significantly enhanced on an apparently smooth
                                                                                     substrate by introducing crazing or micro-cracking at the manufacturing
                                                                                     stage. These observations shed new light in particular on the design and
                                                                                     nature of micro-lubrication in ball- or roller-bearing races, and on the
                                                                                     mechanism of micro-slip in tyres and elastomeric seals.


                                                                                     The Impact of Product Life Cycle and Innovation Strategy on
                                                                                     Corporate Performance
                                                                                     DP FitzPatrick & B Dattee


                                                                                     Increasingly more rapid advances in technology are contributing to the
                                                                                     concatenation of product life cycles. In industries with a fast rate of
     A quick-stop specimen produced from the low alloy tool steel of 56HRC.The
     arrows indicate the primary shear band which originates at the tool tip         evolution, new products with better technology are replacing products
                                                                                     based on conventional technology at increasingly faster rates. Rapid
     Collaboration: Kistler AG (Switzerland), Technical University Berlin (IWF),     acceleration of the product life cycle in response to technology push/
     University of California, Berkeley, USA.                                        market pull ultimately increases a company’s dependence on a smaller
                                                                                     number of products, therefore increasing its overall business risk.
     Micro-Tribology                                                                 This project has focussed on identifying the dynamics that lead to life
     DF Moore                                                                        cycle acceleration and has used a research approach that integrates
                                                                                     diffusion models, utility theory, technology assessment methods and
     A fundamental understanding and exposition of the nature of contact             business simulation. A simulation model has been developed which
     between a sliding elastomer and a textured substrate is being developed,        operates on three levels: an analytical model of an industry technological
     with particular attention to micro-events. Both micro-friction and              evolution, a System Dynamics model of technological innovation diffusion,
     micro-lubrication for dry and lubricated conditions respectively are            and a System Dynamics model of the firm’s performance.
     being considered.                                                                 The model allows the level of technological innovation to the market
       The deformation pattern of elastomeric material about a macro-asperity        diffusion, through the use of product attribute levels and risk-adjusted
     exhibits complex frequency-stiffening, temperature-softening and local          utility. Thus, the model can replicate diffusion and substitution effects
     viscoelastic effects. It appears that according as the scale of events is       leading to the acceleration of technology life cycles. Partial validation

14
                                                                                                                    RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                          2001-2002


of the model has been achieved through the use of data from the                        Aerospace Supply Chain Business Processes
development of public switching technologies and the DRAM industry.                    DP FitzPatrick & K O’Brien
The research has demonstrated the need for coherence between the
innovation strategy, the firm’s capabilities and its market environment.               The subcontract repair process in the aerospace industry would benefit
                                                                                       hugely from e-commerce development. The large number of parts and
                                                                                       interacting suppliers, over 3 million parts from thousands of suppliers in
                                                                                       the case of a Boeing 747, suggests that significant gains in efficiency
                                                                                       could be realised if the subcontract repair process could be systemised.
                                                                                       Ths project is concerned with the detailed mapping of the supply chain
                                                                                       interfacing business processes from a selected number of Maintenance
                                                                                       Repair and Overhaul (MRO) organisations. The primary objective is to
                                                                                       develop a prototype B2B e-commerce solution.
                                                                                         The development and documenting of process mapping methodologies
                                                                                       has enabled detailed process maps to be developed for the collaborating
Acceleration engine model demonstrating the increase in product sales with
succesive generations of technology until a saturation effect occurs with the fourth
                                                                                       companies, selected to form a cross-section of the aerospace
generation, resulting in a marked fall in new sales                                    industry and includes a regional airline, a base maintenance
                                                                                       organisation, a piece part supplier and a component repair organisation.
Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland.                                                           The business process review has concentrated on the Engineering,
                                                                                       Planning/Operations and Materials departments of the organisations
Collaborative Design - Analysis of Web-based Technology Use                            concerned. The results have enabled a generic process map for the
and Effectiveness                                                                      aerospace industry to be developed.
DP FitzPatrick & B O’Doherty
                                                                                       Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland.
Currently SMEs in Ireland are involved in global scale design efforts in               Collaboration: Faculty of Commerce, UCD (M. McDonnell).
many different sectors. The concept of “lean design” is beginning to gain
the momentum that lean manufacturing enjoyed in previous years. The                    E-Commerce Technology in the Aerospace Industry - Capability
cost of the design process is exaggerated by the difficulties of                       Assessment and E-Commerce Solution Development
communicating between various parts of an often international design                   DP FitzPatrick & D Sexton
team. The project has the following high-level objectives:
•   A review the current collaborative design tools available. These                   This project examines the existing technological initiatives within the
    include design tools, real time Internet collaboration tools, design               Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) sector of this industry and hopes
    project management tools and combinations thereof.                                 to identify a set of recommendations and an e-commerce prototype for the
•   A review of the current collaborative design processes used within                 future technological progression of the Irish MRO companies. The two
    a number of industry sectors for different size organisations.                     primary objectives of the project are to provide a set of recommendations
•   A compilation of the findings from the software tools review and                   based upon the review of the existing technical infrastructure, and to
    business process review and best practice recommendations for                      develop a prototype for a commercial message brokering system tailored
    different industries/company sizes.                                                to the individual needs of the aerospace MRO industry.
The project has shown that the range of software tools which offer the                   The use of IT solutions in the Irish aerospace industry varies from
benefit of increased collaboration to product development groups is wide               company to company. Some of the factors that influence the level of IT
and growing. However the level of usage of such tools is markedly low                  usage within companies include the IT policies of parent companies and
in a sector which has a number of well established communication                       their competitors, the availability of relevant IT solutions and the expertise
requirements. Many of the identified problems associated with product                  within the companies themselves. In general, autonomous companies
development have potential solutions based on the appropriate use of                   tended to have a lesser level of systemisation within their processes while
Internet technologies but the level of understanding and knowledge of                  subsidiaries of larger companies used the initiatives and methodologies of
these solutions is low among Irish SMEs.                                               the parent companies. Some of the companies visited have necessitated
                                                                                       solutions that fall between two stools in terms of functionality and this
Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland.                                                           has led to a need to complement existing applications by developing

                                                                                                                                                                        15
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     systems in-house. It is hoped that this project will provide a direction for   laboratory, a ceramics laboratory, a plastic injection moulding facility, an
     the industry to follow in order to successfully compete in the New             alloy heat treatment centre, and a metallography laboratory. Facilities
     Economy with a set of recommendations accompanied by a sample                  exist in the Department for static and dynamic mechanical testing, high
     prototype of a tailored e-commerce system.                                     strain rate testing, diffraction studies of structure, corrosion and fatigue
                                                                                    testing, and quantitative microstructural evaluation. Also available within
     Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland.                                                   the University is a well-equipped electron microscopy facility.
     Collaboration: Faculty of Commerce, UCD (M. McDonnell).
                                                                                    Solidification of Metal Alloys: Modelling the Evolution of
     Distributed Industry Systems in the Aerospace Sector -                         Microstructure
     Technology Audit and E-Commerce Solution Specification                         DJ Browne
     DP FitzPatrick & E Kearney


     The project examines the methods currently used by airlines to calculate
     the inventory spend and how they manage this inventory, specifically
     rotable inventory components, including in-house inventory management
     methods and the range of third party solutions which exist. The objective
     of the project is to specify a web-based solution which can calculate
     inventory quantities for fleet-wide service levels which minimize cost and
     calculate the optimum points to store this inventory in the airlines
                                                                                    Prediction of the growth of two “twin” equiaxed grains during alloy solidification;
     operational network.                                                           position every 1 s after nucleation; Al-2wt.%Cu; h=0.05 W/cm2K; initial alloy liquid
                                                                                    temperature Ta=675oC. Axes show distance from mould corner
       The project has shown that, through the application of management
     science techniques, airlines can reduce capital investment on rotable
     inventory, by as much as 50% without compromising fleet service levels.        A novel computer model of the development of grain structure during
     They can also increase the efficiency of this inventory by applying            alloy solidification in a shape casting process has been developed.
     management science solutions to the distribution problem. More efficient       The non-equilibrium kinetics of nucleation and growth of crystals in the
     distribution of inventory will also impact airlines revenue by reducing the    melt are treated computationally via a front-tracking algorithm, whereby
     number of grounded aircraft, increasing aircraft dispatch reliability and      the moving crystal boundaries are tracked across a fixed grid. The new
     increasing customer goodwill. A web-based system would allow real-time         model has been used successfully to predict the temporal advance of a
     traceability of all rotable components and dynamic reallocation of             front of columnar crystals in a mould, and has been verified by
     inventory when parts are withdrawn from stock.                                 comparison with results from the well-known enthalpy method.
                                                                                       In the undercooled liquid ahead of such a front, equiaxed solidification can
     Collaboration: Faculty of Commerce, UCD (M. McDonnell).                        occur. The nucleation and growth of equiaxed grains in such a zone have
                                                                                    been modelled, and preliminary results agree with experimental findings.
     MATERIALS
     DJ Browne, AJ Carr, DN Collins, MD Gilchrist, MA Hayes, DF Moore,              Sponsors: Materials Ireland.
     N Murphy                                                                       Collaboration: University of Oxford (JD Hunt).


     Over the period covered by this report, there has been very active             Microgravity Solidification
     research taking place into the science and engineering of materials. In        DJ Browne, J Banaszek
     addition to basic research covering metal alloys, polymers, ceramics and
     composites, the Department and the Materials Ireland Research Centre           Funded by the European Space Agency, Professor Jerzy Banaszek of the
     have been working with industrial partners in applied R&D projects.            Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, joined UCD
     Particular expertise of the academic staff members include phase               for a two-year period to work on the development of a computer model in
     transformations in alloys, mechanics of composite materials, development       which the effects of natural convection, in the liquid phase, on the
     and characterisation of new materials, and computer modelling and              structure of a freezing alloy could be simulated. Such natural convection
     simulation of materials processing and behaviour.                              occurs on earth due to density gradients in a fluid, in turn caused by
       The Department’s materials laboratories include a solidification             spatial, thermal or compositional variations. In microgravity conditions (for

16
                                                                                                                RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                      2001-2002


example on board the International Space Station), such convection does           Direct Thermal Method of Rheocasting
not occur, and diffusion dominates; under such conditions the model of            DJ Browne, M Hussey & AJ Carr
Browne and Hunt (see above) can be used. The effects of convection on
columnar solidification have been ascertained via a new numerical model.          Experimental studies in the UCD Solidification Laboratory led to the
The front-tracking microstructural evolution model is now being coupled           invention of a new casting process to produce a microstructure of
to a model of convection heat transfer. ESA have extended the UCD                 globular (non-dendritic) primary phase in an alloy. This is a rheocasting
funding to 2006, which will enable completion of this work.                       process, but unlike competing technology, no special device to stir the
                                                                                  material (electromagnetically or mechanically) during its solidification or
                                                                                  external thermal management system is required. Rather the design of
                                                                                  the experimental geometry and choice of materials leads to a situation
                                                                                  wherein the alloy in a simple mould is held nearly isothermally for
                                                                                  prolonged periods. This isothermal environment leads to the surface
                                                                                  energy-reducing ripening of the solid morphology, forming globular
Flow pattern and the solidus and liquidus isotherms (which bound the grey mushy
zone) for solidification with natural thermal convection                          shapes. Because of the absence of external intervention in the natural
                                                                                  progress of solidification in this process, it was given the name Direct
Sponsors: European Space Agency and Materials Ireland.                            Thermal Method. Its invention has been met with considerable
                                                                                  enthusiasm in both industrial and academic circles.
Investigation of Thermal Boundary Conditions in Casting
Processes
DJ Browne, N Coone & M Hussey


Using an inverse computer model developed in the Department, the heat
transfer at the interface between a solidifying alloy and its mould, in a
casting process, has been characterised. This has been completed for
the ceramic moulds used in investment casting, and also for metallic
(permanent) moulds and sand moulds. The solidification of Al, Pb and Fe
                                                                                  Direct Thermal Method (DTM) of rheocasting: schematic of apparatus
alloys has been studied. Via design of experiments, the effects of process
variables, such as alloy preheat and freezing range, on the interface heat
transfer coefficients have been determined. The results of this work have
been used as boundary conditions in simulations of alloy solidification in
castings, both for commercial processes and for research experiments.




                                                                                  Microstructure of DTM cast A356 aluminium alloy

                                                                                  Sponsor: Materials Ireland.
                                                                                  Collaboration: Dublin City University (D Brabazon) and INSA, Rouen
                                                                                  (L Legendre).
Columnar and equiaxed grain structure in a typical casting

                                                                                  Optimising Moulding Conditions to Improve the Quality of
Sponsors: Enterprise Ireland.                                                     Injection Moulded Parts
Collaboration: Ecole Centrale de Nantes (M. Jacot) and NMRC-Cork (D               MD Gilchrist & F O’Dowd
O’Mahoney).
                                                                                  It is increasingly important that products that are manufactured using high
                                                                                  cost and high energy content materials be done so using environmentally
                                                                                  efficient processes. Injection moulding offers the potential to manufacture
                                                                                  plastic and reinforced-plastic products in a single operation to net shape

                                                                                                                                                                17
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     geometries. The quality of an injection-moulded part is affected by many       •    the clamping force should be kept as high as possible without
     factors, including part geometry, material properties and processing                inducing compressive failure of the test material.
     conditions. Due to the large number of processing parameters involved in
     injection moulding a comprehensive investigation of their main effects         Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland (Applied Research Grant).
     and interactions is vital to the understanding of the process and also in      Collaboration: Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (B Fisa).
     achieving optimum part quality. In this project the main influencing factors
     that have been varied are flow rate (fill time), melt and mould                Design and Performance of a Composite Seat for
     temperatures, injection pressure, cooling time, packing pressure, part         Civil Aircraft Applications
     thickness and material type. The influence that these variables have on        MD Gilchrist, G Byrne & M Levesque
     the shrinkage and strength of an injection moulded component was
     analysed using a design of experiments approach. Based on analysis of          The objective of this project has been to develop a systematic procedure
     variance (ANOVA), the best condition set, which gives the best response        that can be used for the design & manufacture of lightweight composite
     (minimum, maximum, or close to an average value), are obtained.                seat frames in civil aircraft. The motivation for this research is the
                                                                                    demand for increased passenger and flight capacity, achieved through
                                                                                    weight reduction, in the latest and next generations of commercial
                                                                                    aircraft. Within an Irish context, specific opportunities exist for
                                                                                    manufacturing high added-value niche products (viz. sub-structural
                                                                                    components) for supply into the competitive international aeronautics
                                                                                    industry. This present project has directly assisted in this endeavour by
                                                                                    reducing the weight of current seats through innovative design
                                                                                    modifications. The results that have emanated from this project are (i)
                                                                                    the development of a unique experimental facility that can be used to
                                                                                    determine the structural performance (and compliance with FAA
     Predicted variation of injection pressure during injection moulding process    regulations) of different seat frame designs, and (ii) the creation of a
                                                                                    computer simulation tool that can be used to predict the behaviour
     Sponsors: Enterprise Ireland (PRP2000), EU (Thematic Network), PRTLI           of alternative seat frame designs (different materials and composite
     (Urban Institute Ireland), Royal Irish Academy.                                stacking sequences).
     Collaboration: ENSAM-Paris (D Baptiste).
                                                                                    Sponsors: Enterprise Ireland (Applied Research Grant), Carbofast.
     A Theoretical Study of the Tensile Test for Highly Anisotropic
     Composite Materials                                                            A Micromechanical Model for Non-Linear Viscoelastic Particle
     MD Gilchrist & M Lévesque                                                      Reinforced Polymeric Composite Materials
                                                                                    MD Gilchrist
     Various standard procedures (ISO 527 parts 4&5 and ASTM D3039) exist
     for measuring the tensile strength of composite laminates. However,            A theoretical model has been developed to predict the mechanical
     situations can arise when these standards fail to produce acceptable           behaviour of reinforced polymers where the matrix is nonlinear viscoelastic.
     results. In such cases, the standards provide no guidance for modifying        The model is based on knowledge of the microstructure of the composite
     the specimen to improve the quality of results when unacceptable failures      material and on the mechanical behaviour of each constituent phase,
     occur. The aim of this research has been to analyse the precise stress         namely glass bead-reinforced polypropylene. The beads are assumed to
     field in a tensile test specimen when measuring the tensile strength in the    be randomly distributed throughout the matrix. The glass is assumed to
     fibre direction of a unidirectional composite material. This theoretical and   be linear elastic (isotropic) while the matrix is assumed to be nonlinear
     experimental analysis has shown that:                                          viscoelastic (isotropic). The polypropylene is assumed to obey a
     •   increasing the value of E22,t and ν12t and decreasing the value of G13,t   generalised 3D form of Schapery’s behaviour law.
         will decrease the peak intensities of the parasitic stresses and the           Simulations of the behaviour accurately predict the mechanical
         failure index in the test material,                                        response under constant stress rates of loading: the material becomes
     •   the most influential tab engineering constant on the parasitic stress      stiffer as the volume fraction of reinforcement increases. In addition, the
         field in the test material is E11,t and                                    stress-strain curves become increasingly linear as the reinforcement

18
                                                                                                                  RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                        2001-2002


volume fraction increases.The composite material behaves less as a               MECHANICS
nonlinear viscoelastic material and more like a linear elastic material as       MD Gilchrist, WJ O’Connor, SS Timoney
the volume fraction of reinforcement increases.
                                                                                 Ultrasonic Detection of Embedded and Surface Defects in
Sponsors: Enterprise Ireland (PRP2000), Royal Irish Academy                      Thin Plates Using Lamb Waves
(Ulysses Grant).                                                                 MD Gilchrist & M Conry
Collaboration: ENSAM-Paris (D Baptiste, M Lèvesque & K Derrien).
                                                                                 Conventional ultrasonic NDT&E relies mainly on through-thickness wave
Experimental Studies in Micro-displacement Characteristics of                    propagation. For plate-like sections, this is a very slow process. The present
Rubber Adhesion                                                                  research is focused on exploring an alternative form of propagating waves.
DF Moore and T Fujimoto                                                          Lamb waves are waves that propagate longitudinally along a plate (as
                                                                                 opposed to transversely through the plate thickness). At least two
In this research three rubbers of varying hardness and hysteresis are            propagating (Lamb) modes can exist at any given frequency. These modes
subjected to an increasing tangential shear force in a purpose-built precision   are classified as either symmetric or anti-symmetric. The lowest order
laboratory rig. Pre-slip transient micro-displacement characteristics are        symmetric mode is denoted So and this is the mode which has been used in
established for both dry and lubricated contact conditions. During               this work. The characteristic equation governing the phase-velocity for
subsequent micro-slip, peak and quasi-static friction coefficients are           Lamb waves is dependent upon the frequency of the wave, the elastic
measured and the phenomenon of macro stick-slip is identified.                   constants of the plate material, and the plate thickness. For anisotropic
                                                                                 plates, for example fibre-reinforced composites, the frequency-velocity
Sponsor: Japanese Ministry of Education.                                         relation is highly dependent on the propagation direction. This dependence
                                                                                 is illustrated in the two dispersion curves shown. Both curves are
Dynamic Fracture Simulation of Brittle Polymers Characterised                    calculated using the same material properties for a unidirectional fibre-
by Microcrack-dominated Failure Mechanisms                                       reinforced composite plate, but with different propagation directions.
N Murphy


A wealth of experimental evidence on the dynamic fracture of some brittle
polymers such as PMMA indicates that their primary failure mechanism is
the formation and coalescence of microcracks. Associated observations
include attempted branching from the initial fracture plane, variation of
                                                                                 Propagation normal to fibres
macroscopic roughness of the fracture surface, oscillations in crack
velocity and a substantial increase in the energy dissipation of the crack
with increasing velocity. For this class of materials, the model of a single
crack tip is inappropriate and further insight may only be made by
exploring alternative modelling techniques. In this work, a non-linear
elastic Finite Volume formulation is adopted for the two-dimensional
transient stress analysis. The finite normal and shear cohesive strengths        Propagation parallel to fibres
and separation energies of the material are incorporated into the
formulation and the fracture behaviour emerges as a natural outcome of           Sponsors: Materials Ireland, Enterprise Ireland (Basic Research Grant and
the solution of the resulting initial-boundary value problem.                    International Collaboration Programme).
                                                                                 Collaboration: Trinity College Dublin (LJ Crane), Polish Academy of
Sponsors: Enterprise Ireland (International Collaboration Programme),            Science, Gdansk (WM Ostachowicz).
British Council.
Collaboration: Imperial College, London (A Ivankovic).                           Prediction and Detection of Critical Defects in Engineering Structures
                                                                                 MD Gilchrist


                                                                                 This project simulates the propagation of an acoustic wave within a
                                                                                 delaminated beam in order to use the known fact that material

                                                                                                                                                                  19
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     discontinuities affect the propagation of elastic waves in solids.
     The change in certain material characteristics, such as a local change in
     stiffness or inertia caused by a crack or the presence of material
     damage, affects the propagation of transmitted elastic waves and thus
     modifies the received signal. Wave frequencies associated with the
     highest detection sensitivity depend, among other things, on the type of
     structure, the type of material, and the type of damage. This research
     uses spectral finite elements to detect small delaminations in
     beam-like structures.
                                                                                   An actuator controls the position of a remote load through an intermediate
                                                                                   flexible system


                                                                                   Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland (Basic Research Grant).


                                                                                   Dynamics of Musical Instrument Plates
                                                                                   WJ O’Connor & T Hanson


                                                                                   Although a violin’s sound is produced by a complex interaction of many
     Transverse acceleration at the free end of a delaminated cantilever beam
                                                                                   effects, all agree that the way the plates vibrate is crucial. Violinmakers
     Sponsors: Enterprise Ireland (International Collaboration Programme),         (“luthiers”) often measure the mode shapes and frequencies of
     Royal Irish Academy.                                                          unassembled violin plates and then try to “tune” them, by thinning certain
     Collaboration: Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk, Poland (WM                 areas, to get mode shapes and frequency relationships as close as
     Ostachowicz).                                                                 possible to some perceived ideal, despite the idiosyncracies of any given
                                                                                   piece of tonewood.
     Wave-based Position Control of Flexible Mechanical Systems                      From the perspective of dynamics, plate thinning has the main effect of
     WJ O’Connor & C Hu                                                            changing the local bending-stiffness and mass-density over some area of
                                                                                   a plate. Most experts agree that three vibration modes, numbered 1, 2
     A successful new approach to the old problem of positioning flexible          and 5, are particularly important. A common strategy is to use thinning to
     mechanical systems, such as gantry cranes or long, light, flexible robot      try to get them to have the right shapes and harmonic frequency
     arms, has been developed. The crane trolley (or actuator) must attempt to     interrelationships. For many reasons this is much easier said than done.
     reconcile two apparently conflicting requirements: position control           User-friendly software is being developed to make it easy to analyse the
     (despite elasticity) and active vibration (or swing) damping. Previous        vibration of a real plate and to predict the effects of a proposed tuning
     approaches based on, for example, input shaping, active modal damping,        strategy before actually thinning the wood, and so to tell the craftsman
     or wave absorption, typically have been open-ended, giving an asymptotic      (a) where to thin and (b) when he has reached the optimum and therefore
     approach to the final rest position. By contrast, the new control strategy    should stop.
     stops the load dead, exactly at target, in a finite time, after a single        The work has wider application not just to many other musical
     smooth transit (without swings) and no overshoot.                             instruments but generally to problems involving vibrating beams or plates.
       Using ideas based on mechanical waves, the gantry controller learns
     from the previously unknown dynamic response in the first part of the
     motion exactly how to terminate the motion. In a sense, the system itself
     serves as the controller “model”. The controller is self-adapting, needs no
     system model, needs minimal sensor information, minimal computation
     overhead and no adjustment for load changes. Furthermore, the trolley (or
     actuator) can be speed-limited or force-limited without even marginally
     impairing the vibration control performance. The analytical results
     have been confirmed by numerical simulation and by experimental
     measurement.
                                                                                   Software predicts mode shape and frequency of vibration, in this case for a
                                                                                   uniform beam with ends free
20
                                                                                                          RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                2001-2002


The Application of TLM to the Design of Acoustic Devices                      The Fundamentals of TLM
WJ O’Connor                                                                   WJ O’Connor & A Kennedy


TLM (Transmission Line Matrix) is an inherently stable time domain            There is ongoing research into the fundamentals of the TLM (Transmission
numerical technique for solving variants of the wave and related              Line Matrix) numerical modelling method. One area of interest is
equations. Its application areas include electromagnetics, thermal            modelling waves in moving media, where the wave speed is direction
diffusion, and acoustics. TLM is characterised by its close relationship to   dependent. A successful model has been developed and analysed. A
the physical processes being simulated. In other words, the modelling         second area concerns the time-domain dynamics of TLM.
process conceptually resembles the actual propagation process. The
calculations required are very simple, and may be implemented efficiently
on a computer. This project is concerned with the development of a user-
friendly TLM acoustic modelling software application. As a design tool it
provides an attractive alternative to time-consuming prototype testing of
acoustic devices. Of particular interest is acoustic device design is the
mechanical-acoustical interaction between sound waves and membranes,
as found for example in microphones and loudspeakers. A condenser
microphone is an example of where this interaction is of importance.

                                                                              Relative motion between source and wave medium modelled by TLM
TLM Applied to CFD
WJ O’Connor & F O Cleirigh
                                                                              Numerical Solution of PDEs by Impulse Propagation
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models the mechanics of flow.              and Scattering (IPS)
The basic CFD variables are pressure and velocity, as in acoustics.           WJ O’Connor
But CFD is broader. The acoustic wave equation, which the basic TLM
method can solve, makes certain approximations that are no longer valid       Impulse propagation and scattering (IPS) is a development of the
for most fluid dynamic problems. For this reason the basic TLM algorithm      Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) numerical modelling technique to solve a
has to be modified and developed. Firstly an extra pressure gradient          range of important partial differential equations of mathematical physics.
associated with the convective acceleration term in Euler’s equation of       The primary dependent variable is modelled throughout space and time
fluid mechanics was incorporated into the TLM model. Then the effects of      by impulses that can be considered as sample values of the variable.
viscosity were studied and incorporated. The end result is a completely       Space is discretised by a series of nodes, interconnected by transmission
new way of solving the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics which       lines, along which the impulses propagate during each time increment.
has many of TLM’s attractive features, including complete modelling of        At the nodes the impulses undergo a scattering process that obeys
time transients and a very close relationship between the model and the       fundamental conservation laws. By varying the scattering algorithm
physics of the problem.                                                       and/or the nature of the propagation, the method provides a numerical
                                                                              solution technique for a wide and growing range of PDEs. The method has
                                                                              many attractive features.


                                                                              Sensors
                                                                              WJ O’Connor


                                                                              Work is continuing on the design and development of a variety of sensors
                                                                              for special purposes. Sensors recently studied include a sensor for
                                                                              measuring the moisture content of solid fuel, the relative humidity of
                                                                              exhaled breath, the density of fluids, and the mode shapes of vibrating
                                                                              plates. Already developed are sensors for measuring the fluid level in
TLM software models laminar flow around a square obstacle in a pipe           sealed containers and for counting people.



                                                                                                                                                           21
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     Vehicle Roll Control                                                                 Spark Ignition & Diesel Combustion,
     SS Timoney, P Christian & C Begley                                                   Alternative Fuels.
                                                                                      •   Power Plant and Power Generation
     In order to provide good vehicle ride behaviour, a relatively soft vehicle           Combined Heat & Power Systems,
     suspension is desirable. A consequence of using soft suspension is that              Steam and Gas Turbine Modelling.
     the vehicle roll stiffness is reduced leading to higher roll angles in           •   Building Energy Systems
     cornering maneuvers. Anti-roll bars or similar devices are often used to             Refrigeration & Air Conditioning,
     increase the vehicle roll stiffness. Soft suspension may also result in more         Heat Pumps,
     severe vehicle pitch oscillations. The use of devices such as anti-roll bars         Evaporative / Radiant / Displacement Cooling,
     tends to degrade the performance of an independent suspension system.                Water Heating Boilers.
     The anti-roll bar increases the suspension stiffness, even in the absence        •   Energy and the Environment
     of body roll, when the wheels on opposite sides of the vehicle are moving            I.C. Engine Exhaust Pollutant Formation,
     in different directions in response to uneven terrain, thus reducing the             External Costs of Power Generation,
     independence of the wheel movements.                                                 Energy Usage in Transport.
         This project is intended to bring a patented idea for vehicle roll control   •   Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamics
     to the stage where it is ready to be installed in a test truck. The project          Drying of Particulate Materials,
     addresses the mechanical and hydraulic design of the system and will                 Compact Heat Exchanger Technology,
     simulate the total vehicle system behaviour with and without the control             Computational Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamics.
     system present. It will also encompass the design and testing of a control
     system for the suspension.                                                       Response Characteristics of Vapour Compression Cycles subject
                                                                                      to Non-Uniform Operating Conditions
     Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland (Innovation Partnership).                            DP Finn & K Grant


     Racing Car Yaw Response                                                          Multi-temperature vapour compression systems are frequently utilised in
     SS Timoney & C O’Kane                                                            transport refrigeration containers and consist of two or more evaporators
                                                                                      in conjunction with a single compressor-condenser unit. Although multi-
     The response of a racing car to steer inputs is characterized by two             temperature systems are designed to provide independent cooling of
     degrees of freedom namely the yaw response (rotation) and the lateral            separate compartments in a single container, they are usually subject to
     acceleration response (translation). This response must combine rapid            highly non-uniform operating conditions that makes independent
     transients with stability at high speed. The aim in all motor racing is to       temperature control particularly challenging. In this project, a custom
     optimize this response under the constraints of cost, mass, moment of            designed multiple-evaporator test facility capable of examining the
     inertia, packaging, etc. Active yaw control is currently being developed         dynamic behaviour of multi-temperature vapour compression systems has
     as a safety feature in the automotive industry to improve the high-speed         been developed. The test facility is based on three evaporators in parallel,
     stability and low-speed maneuverability of vehicles. In the racing               a compressor-condenser unit that utilises either a reciprocating or scroll
     environment, the challenge is to produce a system that improves dynamic          compressor and a choice of throttling mechanisms to include
     performance under race conditions. Similar constraints apply, although           thermostatic, stepper motor or modulated pulse expansion valves. In
     their relative importance differs.                                               addition, the facility is capable of direct optimisation of the vapour
         Four-wheel steering (4WS) has been investigated in the literature for        compression cycle by real-time control of evaporator throttling, suction
     some time. This project aims to apply the improvement in dynamic                 line pressure regulation and compressor capacity regulation. To facilitate
     response available from 4WS to a small racing car.                               development and testing of control and optimisation algorithms, a model
                                                                                      capable of simulating both steady state and dynamic performance of the
     ENERGY CONVERSION                                                                multi-temperature experimental facility has been developed. Typical
     (DP Finn, MJ O’Rourke, WJ Smith, DJ Timoney)                                     operational sequences representative of steady state and transient
                                                                                      behaviour of transport refrigeration systems are tested and evaluated
     The Energy Conversion Research Centre was established in 1987 and                using the experimental facility and are compared with simulated
     acts as a focus for faculty activities in the fields of:                         predictions of the model.
     •    Internal Combustion Engines

22
                                                                                                              RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                    2001-2002




                                                                                Experimental and simulated temperatures during step load change to a single
                                                                                evaporator in a multi evaporator system




                                                                                Evaporator Performance Optimisation using Algorithm Controlled
                                                                                Throttling Devices in Vapour Compression Systems
                                                                                DP Finn & K Toumanguelov


                                                                                Recent developments in refrigerant expansion devices include pulse and
                                                                                stepper motor electronic throttling valves. In this research, evaporator
                                                                                heat transfer performance subject to electronic throttling devices is
                                                                                examined under steady and transient conditions. For both devices,
                                                                                refrigerant expansion is controlled by custom-designed algorithms, which
Schematic representation of multi-evaporator experimental test facility         have been developed from first principles and implemented by means of
                                                                                a Building Energy Management System. Evaporator heat transfer
Sponsor: Enterprise Ireland (Basic Research Grant).                             performance subject to control by different devices is benchmarked
                                                                                against standard reference throttling devices. Extensive experimental
Transient Modelling and Optimisation of Multi-Evaporator                        testing under steady state and transient conditions demonstrate the
Refrigeration Cycles                                                            importance of algorithm design and tuning in achieving optimisation of
DP Finn & A Stack                                                               evaporator heat transfer.


This research focuses on modelling multiple-evaporator transport
refrigeration systems under transient operating conditions.
Multi-evaporator systems are extensively used in urban transport
refrigeration where flexible modular cooling is required. An approach
which combines dynamic modelling, stability analysis and experimental
validation is being followed. A discrete multi-zone control volume
approach is utilised for modelling the condenser and evaporators. All
other major refrigeration components including compressor, expansion
valves, receiver, pressure-regulating valves are modeled using time-
dependent differential equations. The model is implemented using
MATLAB. Component models are validated individually and are then
combined to give an overall system model. Overall model predictions are
further validated using experimental data obtained from a purpose-built
multi-evaporator test rig for transient and non-uniform operating conditions.   Transient and steady evaporator response to PID control in a pulse electronic
                                                                                expansion valve

Sponsors: Enterprise Ireland (Basic Research Grant)                             Sponsors: Cylon Controls Ltd. and CIBSE.




                                                                                                                                                                23
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     Analysis and Optimisation of Evaporative Cooling in                              drying characteristic of a blend appears to be an average of the
     Building Energy Applications                                                     characteristics of its constituent peat types. This could be used to improve
     DP Finn & BM Costelloe                                                           the planning of blend make-up at Bord na Móna plants.


     Evaporative cooling has had limited application in maritime, temperate,
     climates due to the low levels of cooling water availability which result
     when low temperature (5 to 8˚C), convection based, building cooling
     systems are used. However, the success of high temperature radiant
     cooling, in the form of chilled ceilings, has prompted a review of
     evaporative cooling in maritime, temperate, conditions. In order to
     maximize evaporative cooling availability, however, in this application, it is
     necessary to achieve low wet bulb temperature approach conditions, at            Fluidised bed test rig

     viable levels of primary energy consumption. The focus of this research          Sponsors: Enterprise Ireland and Bord na Mona.
     is to examine how the combination of radiant systems with evaporative
     cooling will perform under maritime-type climate conditions.                     Analysis and Optimisation of Secondary Circuit Multi-Evaporator
        An instrumented experimental test facility has been constructed and           Refrigeration Cycles
     testing to date has indicated that evaporative cooling can provide a             DP Finn, DJ Timoney, J Carroll & R Kelehan
     significant proportion of the total annual cooling requirement. Results from
     experimental research into the energy performance of an                          The overall aim of this project is to design and test a prototype multi-
     evaporative cooling test facility are compared with typical energy               temperature refrigeration system that uses secondary-loop refrigerant
     efficiencies of conventional, refrigeration based, building cooling systems.     circuits. Unlike direct expansion vapour compression systems, secondary
     A significant potential for improved energy performance has been found.          loop systems utilise a primary refrigeration cycle to cool a single-phase
                                                                                      coolant which is then circulated to cool separate compartments in
                                                                                      an independent manner. Although secondary loop systems may
                                                                                      exhibitertain thermodynamic penalties, it is envisaged that they also
                                                                                      address some of the significant control and defrost issues associated with
                                                                                      the current multi-temperature units. A thermodynamic transient model of
                                                                                      the secondary system has been developed thereby facilitating validation
                                                                                      and design optimisation of different prototypical secondary systems.

     Evaporative cooling test facility

     Sponsors: Enterprise Ireland and CIBSE.


     Process Analysis of the Artificial Drying of Milled Peat
     DP Finn & D Hanratty
                                                                                      Direct expansion multi evaporator vapour compression system in transport
                                                                                      refrigeration application
     Artificial drying of milled peat is typically carried out in large scale shell
     and tube process heat exchangers. The objective of this research is on           Sponsors: Enterprise Ireland and Themo King Ltd.
     process optimization associated with the drying of different milled peat         Collaboration: University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, USA (P Hrnjck).
     types. Work to date has focused on developing drying correlations that
     link drying parameters such as drying rate, drying duration, etc., with          Influence of Urban Pollution on the Effectiveness of Natural
     various peat physical properties as well as process parameters. This has         Ventilation for Low Energy Heating and Cooling of Commercial
     been achieved by experimental testing using fluidised drying as well as          and Institutional Buildings
     process simulation models. By monitoring differential absolute humidity          DP Finn & J Horan
     across the fluidised bed throughout a test, the process of moisture
     removal from a sample could be examined. This process is presented as            Building energy is responsible for approximately 40% of EU energy
     drying characteristic curves. A significant finding of this work is that the     consumption and associated emissions. Air conditioning occupies a

24
                                                                                                             RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                   2001-2002


significant portion of this figure and is projected to increase over the        pre-building commissioning before satisfactory performance can be
coming decades. Natural ventilation has recently emerged as an                  achieved. This project aims to address this shortcoming by developing
innovative alternative low energy concept for heating and cooling of            novel self-learning predictive routines aimed at automated commissioning
commercial and institutional buildings. However, in urban environments,         and improved real-time control. In this way these developments will
ambient air pollution is perceived to have a detrimental effect on the          increase the uptake by architects and engineers of this promising concept.
effectiveness of natural ventilation systems, thereby acting as a barrier
to its adoption. This project aims to examine the sensitivity of the internal   Sponsor: Urban Institute Ireland.
building environment to external urban microclimate parameters such as          Collaboration: School of Architecture (P. Kenny).
wind speed, wind direction, pollution, noise and other urban parameters,
with the aim of establishing correlations that will assist with the design      Optimisation of Radiative Cooling in Mixed-Mode
of natural ventilation systems. A combination of computational fluid            Building Energy Systems
dynamics and experimental testing will be utilised. The outcome of this         DP Finn & C Ruane
research will be used to formulate guidelines and best practice codes on
the use of natural ventilation solutions thereby improving the uptake of        The use of radiant cooling panels in conjunction with low energy building
this technology in future building energy solutions.                            energy systems (eg, evaporative cooling, displacement ventilation) has
                                                                                been the subject of considerable interest in recent years. However, to
                                                                                date little work has been carried out that focuses on the design and
                                                                                optimisation of radiant cooling panels in building energy applications. The
                                                                                aims of the proposed research project are (i) design of a high
                                                                                efficiency radiant panel which optimises radiant and convective heat
                                                                                transfer using computational design tools, (ii) assessment of the
                                                                                performance of such panels in mixed mode operation (eg, natural
Velocity streamlines in a naturally ventilated building using CFD aanalysis     ventilation, displacement ventilation), (iii) verify any computational
                                                                                predictions by an experimental test programmme. This will be achieved
Sponsor: Urban Institute Ireland.                                               by a combination of CFD analysis and laboratory testing.
Collaboration: Department of Geography (G. Mills).
                                                                                Design and Evaluation of a Variable Intake System for a Formula
Knowledge-based Predictive Control and Optimisation of Night                    Student Engine
Ventilation in Low Energy Passively Cooled Buildings                            W Smith & A Bates
DP Finn & D Connolly
                                                                                This project aims to design and develop a variable-length intake runner
                                                                                system for a Formula Student race engine. The performance of such an
                                                                                engine is highly dependent on the geometry of the intake system, as this
                                                                                exerts a strong influence on both the magnitude of the engine torque
                                                                                peak, and the engine speed at which that peak will be attained. The
                                                                                implementation of a variable-length intake runner system allows
                                                                                the torque peak to be maintained over a wide range of engine operating
Night ventilated buildings
                                                                                conditions, enhancing both the absolute performance of the vehicle and
This project aims to develop novel predictive algorithms for real-time          its driveability.
control and optimisation of night ventilation cooling systems in building          The project involves a tightly coupled programme of experimental and
energy applications. Night ventilation involves pre-cooling of the building     theoretical experimentation, integrating data obtained from UCD’s engine
fabric during nocturnal hours by circulating cool external air through the      test facility with the predictions of commercial and in-house simulation
building. This stored resource is used during the subsequent daytime            codes. Information derived from this programme will inform the
period to condition the building. Night ventilation systems offer the           parametric design of the variable intake system. Detailed mechanical
potential to eliminate the use of energy intensive refrigeration-based          design will lead to the production of a variable-length intake runner
water chillers. Optimisation of night ventilation systems has to date           system, which will be tested and evaluated on the Formula Student
proven to be very difficult and involves weeks and sometimes months of          race engine.

                                                                                                                                                              25
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     Design, Analysis and Implementation of a Suspension System for                 train code with the vehicle dynamic model to yield a comprehensive
     a Formula Student Racing Car                                                   full-vehicle model to assist further refinement of the design.
     W Smith, W Carroll, C O’Kane & S Clancy
                                                                                    Sponsor: Jordan Grand Prix
     The lateral grip, traction, braking performance and transient response of a
     Formula Student race car are heavily dependent on the configuration,           Design and Development of a Lightweight Body Structure for a
     geometry and mass of the tyres, wheels, springs, dampers and links             Formula Student Race Car
     that constitute the suspension system. Design and development of an            W Smith & N O’Toole
     optimised suspension design is therefore critical if the car is to perform
     well in competition. The project involves a comprehensive review and           A key objective when designing a Formula Student racing car is to
     analysis of potential design solutions, leading to the definition of an        minimise the overall mass of the vehicle. At the same time, there are
     appropriate outline performance specification for the Formula Student          strict requirements concerning the strength and stiffness of the vehicle
     suspension system. Based on that specification, kinematic analysis is          structure in order to protect the driver. Suspension and drive-line
     employed to devise a physical mechanism that approximates the required         performance are also strongly influenced by the stiffness of the structure
     performance, while minimising attendant mass, cost and volume. This is         in torsion and in bending. The objective therefore is to design the body
     followed by detailed mechanical design involving material selection, finite-   structure such that weight is minimised while the safety and performance
     element analysis and component integration. Finally, the complete system       requirements are satisfied or exceeded. The structure should also be
     is manufactured and installed on the Formula Student racing car, its           cheap and easy to manufacture and to repair, provide adequate space for
     performance recorded using on-board data acquisition and compared              the driver, and neatly accommodate ancillary items.
     with the predictions of the theoretical models.                                  These conflicting requirements are best resolved using a space-frame
                                                                                    structure fabricated from steel tubing. Optimisation of the solution
     Analysis and Evaluation of Gear-ratio Selection Mechanisms for a               requires the extensive use of 3-D solid modelling and finite element
     Formula Student Car                                                            analysis (FEA), and careful analysis of the load lines associated with the
     W Smith & D Halpin                                                             range of static, dynamic, and impact loads associated with aggressive
                                                                                    driving of the car.
     Formula Student engines are typically based around a motorcycle unit,
     with an integrated clutch and gearbox. On the motorcycle, gear ratio
     selection is performed using a foot-operated rod linkage combined with a
     hand-operated clutch, and such a mechanism is not appropriate for use in
     a Formula Student car. This project examines the relative performance of
     hand-operated rod linkage, hand-operated push-pull cable linkage, and a
     semi-automatic solenoid-operated linkage, using either a foot-operated or
     hand-operated clutch. The objective is to design and implement each of
     these systems, and to evaluate performance in terms of shift duration,
     shift repeatability, system weight and cost, packaging constraints and
     driver satisfaction. The characteristics of the gear selector drum within
     the gearbox are also analyzed, and modified to better suit the Formula
     Student application.                                                           Combustion and Emissions Formation Processes in Spark
       In parallel with this mechanism evaluation programme, a dynamic              Ignition Engines with Multi-Constituent Fuels
     model of the Formula Student power train is created and combined with          DJ Timoney & B Tapley
     measurements of on-track performance to optimize choice of gear ratio
     and final-drive ratio for specific track characteristics and conditions.       Use of small amounts of hydrogen as a fuel supplement permits operation
     This power train code also models the effects of changes in engine torque      of spark ignition engines at very lean air-fuel ratios and this can yield
     curve, tyre characteristics, and vehicle mass distribution, and                significant emissions and efficiency benefits. A partial-oxidation (POx)
     constitutes an important part of the feedback loop for the engine              reforming reactor can be used for on-board hydrogen generation, using a
     development programme.                                                         hydrocarbon fuel feed from a liquid storage tank. This system generates a
       A further extension of the programme will aim to integrate the power         hydrogen-rich gas stream which also includes several other, less

26
                                                                                                           RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                 2001-2002


desirable, ingredients such as CO, CO2, CH4, C2H2, C2H6, H2O and N2.         transient during this stage and as a result the products of partial oxidation
A steady state test program was carried out on a Rover K16, 1.6 litre        and the engine-out emissions will vary greatly with time. The
4-stroke spark ignition engine, where measured quantities of H2, CO2         effectiveness of this technology therefore depends greatly on what occurs
and H20 were mixed into the intake air stream whilst the gasoline was        during these transients. The principal aim of this project is to formulate a
supplied through port fuel injectors, operating under computer control.      simulation of a more complete system - which is capable of predicting
The experimental results indicate that the addition of supplemental          the effects of partial oxidiser operating conditions on engine out
hydrogen (at 5% energy fraction) can yield increased rates of combustion,    emissions. The present work focuses particularly on the effect of unsteady
improved combustion stability, and reduced exhaust emissions,                pressure waves in the intake system during transient operation, and their
particularly under lean burn conditions. This experimental data was          influence on trapped air - fuel ratio, internal exhaust gas recirculation and
subsequently used to further validate the UCD-developed thermodynamic        volumetric efficiency. An existing single-cylinder engine simulation code
cycle simulation computer model (SPARK37) which predicts engine gas          (SPARK37) is being expanded to incorporate multi-cylinder capability and
flows, power output, efficiency and exhaust emissions quantities.            is being integrated into a Simulink-based transient vehicle demand
                                                                             model. The combined model will be capable of predicting the performance
                                                                             and exhaust emissions from a vehicle engine during typical operation.




Rover K16 test engine installation
                                                                             Partial oxidization (POx) system used for on-board hydrogen production


                                                                             Evaluation of Options for Reducing Irish Diesel Particulate
                                                                             Emissions - Utilising Measurement and Modelling Methods
                                                                             DJ Timoney & SO’Sullivan


                                                                             Exhaust emissions from newly manufactured vehicles and diesel engines
                                                                             are heavily regulated by EU Directives but very little data is currently
                                                                             available to indicate quantities of diesel particulates emitted from actual
                                                                             vehicles in service. This is especially the case for older, poorly maintained
Effect of supplemental hydrogen addition on rates of combustion in a spark
ignition engine at 2000 rev/min, part load                                   diesel vehicles still in service on Irish roads. This project aims to refine
                                                                             and use a novel measurement device to collect real world particulate
Sponsors: Flogas (Ireland) Ltd. and Enterprise-Ireland / Irish American      emissions data from a variety of used vehicles, with a view to identifying
Partnership.                                                                 and targeting heavy polluters. The data gathered will then be used, in
                                                                             combination with localised pollution dispersion modelling techniques, to
Application of On-Board Gasoline Reforming to S.I. Engines:                  determine the peak doses of particulate matter to which city pedestrians
Prediction of Performance and Emissions Under                                might typically be exposed. This and other data will be used subsequently
Transient Conditions                                                         in cost-benefit analyses - to evaluate alternative policy options aimed at
DJ Timoney, WJ Smith & A Drew                                                reducing emissions and improving Irish urban air quality.


Significant strides have been made in the prediction of engine
performance and emissions under steady operating conditions. In
practice, however, the great majority of mobile engine operation involves
unsteady (or transient) operation, where prediction of performance and
emissions is considerably less well understood. Partial Oxidation systems,   Diesel exhaust flow splitter - for on-board particulate measurement using
supplied with hydrocarbon fuel are being considered for hydrogen             particulate filter.

production during the warm up stage of an engine. Most parameters are        Sponsors: Urban Institute Ireland and EPA ERTDI Doctoral Scholarship Programme.

                                                                                                                                                               27
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     A Novel Diagnostic Method for Emissions Control in Diesel Engine              Life Cycle Energy Accounting in Road Design
     Combustion Systems                                                            DJ Timoney & P Gahan
     DJ Timoney & C Lyons
                                                                                   The objectives of this project are to facilitate and encourage road designers
     This project is aimed at developing and validating a computational            to consider the energy implications when they are planning new roads
     scheme which accepts data obtained from high speed sampling of                and/or realigning existing roads. The project will look at all aspects of
     instantaneous cylinder pressures in a 4-stroke diesel engine as input, and    road design and the energy implications involved in them. Route selection,
     computes (i) rates of heat release due to combustion, (ii) rates of in-       route design and construction on specific new road projects will have
     cylinder nitric oxide (NOx) formation, and (iii) rates of particulate         their energy use quantified and the projection of energy usage by vehicles
     formation. This involves the formation of simplified theoretical              using the road will be evaluated. The project should allow the use of
     representations, which are adequate to describe the temporal and some         energy in road construction to be reduced by quantifying what energy is
     spatial variations of in-cylinder gas composition and temperature. It is      used and identifying potential energy efficiencies. It will also demonstrate
     envisaged that this computational method could be employed in real-time       how energy usage by vehicles can be reduced by designing roads that
     combustion and emissions control strategies. Comprehensive engine             facilitate energy efficient driving.
     tests have been carried out on a modern automotive diesel engine and
     that the resulting trends are being used to verify the results estimated      Collaboration: Waterford County Council (Ireland), VTI (Swedish National
     by the computational scheme.                                                  Road and Transport Research Institute), Infrasoft Solutions Ltd (UK),
                                                                                   ENGIVIA - Consultores de Engenharia, SA (Portugal), Agência Municipal de
     Sponsor: IRCSET (Basic Research Grant).                                       Energia do Seixal (Portugal), Gaudriot SA (France) and CDV - Transport
     Collaboration: CMT-Motores Térmicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia,     Research Centre (Czech Republic).
     Spain.
                                                                                   PUBLICATIONS
     Planning for Airport Demand and Accommodation: An Integrated
     Planning Methodology for Assessment of Airport Capacity                       JOURNALS
     DJ Timoney, W Hynes & MJ Bannon                                               Barry, J. and Byrne, G.
                                                                                   Cutting tool wear in the machining of hardened steels Part I: Alumina/TiC
     The expected consequences of the continued forecast growth in                 cutting tool wear. Wear, 247: 139-151, 2001.
     worldwide air travel will be a need for the provision of extensive and
     expensive additions and improvements to the aviation industry’s basic         Barry, J. and Byrne, G.
     infrastructures, more efficient airport terminals and runways, enhanced air   Cutting tool wear in the machining of hardened steels Part II: cubic boron
     traffic control systems to ensure greater passenger safety while reducing     nitride cutting tool wear. Wear, 247: 152-160, 2001.
     aircraft delays, and improvements in landside access to and egress from
     airport complexes. In order to allow for informed decision making             Barry, J. and Byrne, G.
     concerning investment in airport infrastructure, whilst ensuring that the     Observations on chip formation and acoustic emission in manufacturing
     utilisation of associated resources are maximised, there is a need for a      Ti-6AI-4V alloy. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture,
     clear unambiguous statement of airport capacity, and an identification of     41: 1055-1070, 2001.
     the difference between airport capacity demand and airport capacity
     supply. This project has developed and implemented an integrated              Barry, J. & Byrne, G.
     approach and methodology for the assessment of capacity of the entire         TEM study on the surface white layer in two turned hardened steels.
     airport system, to enable the orderly planning and development of an          Materials Science and Engineering A, 325: 356-364, 2002.
     airport complex. This methodology should allow for the establishment of
     clear definitions of airport capacity “demand” and “supply”.                  Barry, J. and Byrne, G.
                                                                                   The mechanisms of chip formation in machining hardened steels. Journal
     Collaboration: Aer Rianta / Dublin Airport.                                   of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 124 (3): 528 – 535, 2002.


                                                                                   Barry, J. and Byrne, G.
                                                                                   Cutting tool wear in the machining of hardened steels Part I: Acoustic

28
                                                                                                           RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                 2001-2002


emission during saw-tooth chip formation. Journal of Engineering              Gilchrist, MD., O’Donoghue, D. and Horgan, T.
Manufacture, 215 (11): 1549-1559, 2001.                                       A two dimensional analysis of the biomechanics of frontal and occipital
                                                                              head impact injuries. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 6 (2): 253-
Barry, J. and Byrne, G.                                                       262, 2001.
Cutting tool wear in the machining of hardened steels Part II: Acoustic
emission during continuous chip formation with a non-overlapping cutting      Hartman, AM., Gilchrist, MD. and Nolan, D.
arrangement. Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 215 (11): 1561-1570,         Wheeltracking fatigue simulation of bituminous mixtures. International
2001.                                                                         Journal of Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2 (2): 141-160, 2001.


Barry, J. and Byrne, G.                                                       Hartman, AM., Gilchrist, MD., Owende, P., Ward, S. and Clancy, F.
Chip formation, acoustic emission and surface white layers in hard            In-situ accelerated testing of bituminous mixtures. International Journal of
machining. CIRP Annals 2002, 51 (1) 65 – 70, 2002.                            Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2 (4): 337-357, 2001.


Boulanger, P. and Hayes, M.                                                   Hartman, AM., Gilchrist, MD. and Walsh, G.
On shearing, stretching and spin. Theoretical and Computational Fluid         Effect of mixture compaction on indirect tensile stiffness and fatigue.
Dynamics, 15: 199 - 229, 2002.                                                ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering, 127 (5): 370-378, 2001.


Brabazon, D., Browne, DJ. and Carr, AJ.                                       Hayes, M. and Saccomandi, G.
Mechanical stir casting of aluminium alloys from the mushy state:             Finite amplitude waves superimposed on pseudoplanar motions for
Process, microstructure, and mechanical properties. Materials Science         Mooney Rivlin viscoelastic solids. International Journal of Non-Linear
and Engineering A, 326 (2): 370-381, 2002.                                    Mechanics, 37: 1139 1146, 2002.


Brophy, B., Kelly, K. and Byrne, G.                                           Hooper, BJ. Byrne, G. and Galligan, S.
AI-based condition monitoring of the drilling process. Journal of Materials   Pad conditioning in chemical mechanical processing. Journal of Materials
Processing Technology, 124: 305-310, 2002.                                    Processing Technology, 123 (1): 107-113, 2002.


Browne, DJ. and O’Mahoney, D.                                                 Miodownik, MA., Smereka, P., Srolovitz, DJ. and Holm, EA.
Interface heat transfer in aluminum investment casting. Metallurgical and     Scaling of dislocation cell structures: diffusion in orientation space.
Materials Transactions A, 32 (12): 3055-3063, 2001.                           Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 457: 1807-1819, 2001.


Conry, MJ., Crane, LJ. and Gilchrist, MD.                                     Moore, DF.
Rayleigh-Lamb wave detection of two-dimensional defects in metal              On the micro-tribology of elastomeric contacts. International Journal of
plates. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, 81 (S4):          Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 7 (3): 903 – 910, 2002.
S975-S976, 2001.
                                                                              Murphy, C. Byrne, G. and Gilchrist, MD.
Corcoran, A., Sexton, L., Seaman, B., Ryan P. and Byrne, G.                   The performance of coated WC drills when machining carbon fibre-
The laser drilling of multi-layer aerospace material systems. Journal of      reinforced epoxy composite materials. Journal of Engineering
Materials Processing Technology, 123 (1): 100-106, 2002.                      Manufacture: Proc. IMechE Part B, 216: 143-152, 2002.


Destrade, M. and Hayes, M.                                                    O’Connor, WJ.
Circularly-polarised plane waves in a deformed Hadamard material. Wave        Wave speeds for a TLM model of moving media. International Journal for
Motion, 35: 289 – 309, 2002.                                                  Numerical Modelling, 15 (2): 195-203, 2002.


Gilchrist, MD., Hartman, AM., Owende, PMO. and Ward, SM.                      O’Connor, WJ.
Full scale accelerated testing of bituminous road pavement mixtures. Key      TLM model of waves in moving media. International Journal for Numerical
Engineering Materials, 204-205: 443-452, 2001.                                Modelling, 15 (2): 205-214, 2002.



                                                                                                                                                             29
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     O’Connor, WJ. and Clune, FJ.                                                   Gilchrist, MD.
     TLM-based solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation (Part I). International       Use of advanced composite materials in the construction of suspension
     Journal for Numerical Modelling, 14: 439-449, 2001.                            push-rods for a Formula one racing car. Handbook of Composite Blends
                                                                                    and Polymers, Vol. 2, Chapter 3, pp. 81-102. Kulshreshtha, A. & Vasile, C.
     O’Connor, WJ and Clune, FJ.                                                    (Eds.), Rapra Technology Ltd., UK, 2002.
     TLM-based solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation (Part II). International
     Journal for Numerical Modelling, 15 (2) 215-220, 2002.                         Miodownik, MA.
                                                                                    Normal grain growth. The Encyclopaedia of Materials Science and
     O’Donnell, G., Young, P., Kelly, K. and Byrne, G.                              Technology, Elsevier Science Ltd., Oxford, Vol.4, pp. 3636-3641, 2001.
     Towards the improvement of tool condition monitoring systems in the
     manufacturing environment. Journal of Materials and Processing                 Miodownik, MA.
     Technology, 119: 133-139, 2001.                                                Zener pinning. The Encyclopaedia of Materials, Science and Technology,
                                                                                    Elsevier Science Ltd., Oxford, Vol.10, pp. 9855-9859, 2001.
     Owende, PMO., Hartman, AM., Ward, SM., Gilchrist, MD. and O’Mahony, MJ.
     Minimising distress on flexible pavements using variable tire pressure.        O’Sullivan, S. and Timoney, DJ.
     ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering. 127 (3): 1-9, 2001.                Diesel particulate emissions and air quality - The Irish context.
                                                                                    Achievement and Challenge Rio+10 and Ireland, Edited by F. Convery & J.
     Rackard, SM., Carr, AJ., Callanan, JJ. and Bellenger, CR.                      Feehan, UCD Environmental Institute, Part 3: Transport, Energy, Urban, pp.
     An avian model of limb deviation induced by periosteal surgery. Research       288-296, 2002.
     in Veterinary Science, 73: 237-241, 2002.
                                                                                    Ridgeway, O., Timoney, DJ. and Convery, FJ.
     Sexton, L., Lavin, S., Byrne, G. and Kennedy, A.                               Integrating environment and tourism in Ireland – Environmental
     Laser cladding of aerospace materials. Journal of Materials Processing         implications of air access transport to Dublin, in Tourism and the
     Technology, 122 (1) 63-68, 2002.                                               Environment: Sustainability in Tourism Development, Edited by N.
                                                                                    Andrews, F. Convery, S. Flanagan & J. Ruddy, Dublin Institute of
     Tancred, DC., Carr, AJ. and McCormack, BAO.                                    Technology, pp. 19-37, 2002.
     The sintering and mechanical behavior of hydroxyapatite with bioglass
     additions. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 12: 81-93,     CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS
     2001.                                                                          Banaszek, J., Browne, DJ. and Furmanski, P.
                                                                                    Some aspects of modelling of binary system solidification on a fixed grid.
     Tiernan, J., Gilchrist, MD., dePaor, AM. and Leonard, C.                       Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Transport
     A review of seating principles in the context of a prototype design project.   Phenomena in Multiphase Systems, Baranów Sandomierksi, Poland, June
     Posture and Mobility, 15 (Spring): 5-11, 2002.                                 24-27, (Eds. ME Poniewski, TM Wójcik, R Pastuszko), pp. 201-209, 2002.


     Tikare, V., Miodownik, MA. and Holm, EA.                                       Boulanger. P. and Hayes, M.
     Three dimensional simulation of grain growth in the presence of mobile         Energy flux in elasticity and electromagnetism. Proceedings of IUTAM
     pores. Journal of the American Ceramics Society, 84(6): 1379-1385, 2001.       Symposium on mechanical and electromagnetic waves in structural
                                                                                    media, (R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten and N. A. Nicorovici, eds.) Kluwer,
     Thomas, PM., O’Riordain, K., Phillips, JP., Kumar, R. and Gilchrist, MD.       Dordrecht, pp. 89 – 100, 2001.
     A novel approach to computer modelling in head injury. Irish Journal of
     Medical Science, 171 (3, S2): p. 73, 2002.                                     Brophy, B., Kelly, K. and Byrne, G.
                                                                                    Anomaly Detection in Drilling Using Neural Networks. Proceedings of the
                                                                                    18th International Manufacturing Conference (IMC-18), pp.321-329, UCD,
     BOOKS AND BOOK CHAPTERS                                                        September 2001.
     Byrne, G.
     Engineering as a Career – A Detailed Guide to the Engineering Profession       Browne, DJ., Banaszek, J. and Hunt, JD.
     in Ireland, 2002.                                                              Front tracking on a fixed grid versus enthalpy approach in modelling of

30
                                                                                                         RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                               2001-2002


binary alloy solidification. Proceedings of the ASME International           Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites, Tsukuba, Japan, pp 575-580,
Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exhibition, New Orleans, USA,            September 2002.
paper IMECE2002-32871, 2002.
                                                                             Hussey, MJ., Browne, DJ. and Carr, A.
Browne, DJ. and Hunt, JD.                                                    Production of aluminium alloys suitable for semi-solid metal processing:
Modelling of moving boundaries in multi-phase systems: a front-tracking      new direct thermal method. Proc. 18th International Manufacturing
approach. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on               Conference, UCD, 5th-7th September, pp. 209-218, 2002.
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems, Baranów Sandomierksi,
Poland, June 24-27, (Eds. ME Poniewski, TM Wójcik, R Pastuszko), pp.         Levesque, M., Byrne, G. and Gilchrist, MD.
227-232, 2002.                                                               Design & performance of a light weight composite seat for civil aircraft
                                                                             applications. Proceedings of the Institute of Materials 6th international
Byrne, GD. and Gilchrist, MD.                                                conference on Deformation and Fracture of Composites, Paper P28, April
Design and performance of a lightweight composite seat for civil aircraft    4th – 5th, Manchester, UK, 2001.
applications. Proceedings of the 19th International Manufacturing
Conference, pp. 33-42, August 28th – 30th, Belfast, UK, 2002.                Levesque, M., Byrne. G and Gilchrist, MD.
                                                                             Design and performance of a lightweight composite seat for civil aircraft
Byrne, G., O’Donnell, GE., Kelly, K. and Kirchheim, A.                       applications. Proceedings of ECCM-10, Paper No. 188, June 3rd – 7th,
An integrated sensing solution for the monitoring of a flexible machining    Bruges, Belgium, 2002.
centre. Proceedings of the 18th International Manufacturing Conference
(IMC-18), pp. 331-340, UCD, September 2001.                                  Mullany, B. and Byrne, G.
                                                                             The effect of slurry viscosity on chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of
Carr, AJ., FitzPatrick, D., Hennessy, RJ., Lawlor, GJ. and Lee, TC.          Silicon Wafers. Proceedings of the 18th International Manufacturing
The application of a 3D hand-held laser scanner to human joint modelling.    Conference (IMC-18), pp.113-122, UCD, September 2001.
Proc IMechE ‘Comrade in Arms’, London, April 2001.
                                                                             Murphy, C., Byrne, G. and Gilchrist, MD.
Coone, N., Browne, DJ., Hussey, M. and O’Mahoney, D.                         A qualitative investigation of the drilling induced damage of carbon fibre-
Investigation of thermal boundary conditions for computer simulation of      reinforced epoxy composites. Proceedings of the 18th International
investment casting. Proc.19th International Manufacturing Conference,        Manufacturing Conference, pp. 193-202, September 5th – 7th, Dublin,
Queen’s University Belfast, 28th-30th August, pp. 773-781, 2002.             Ireland, 2001.


Costello, B. and Finn, DP.                                                   Murphy, N. and Ivankovic, A.
Energy reduction by enhanced evaporative cooling of buildings in             A numerical and experimental investigation of dynamic fracture of poly
maritime climates. Renewable Energy in Maritime Climates REMIC               (methylmethacrylate). Proceedings of 10th Annual Conference of the
Conference, Belfast, N. Ireland, 2001.                                       Association of Computational Mechanics in Engineering, Swansea, pp.
                                                                             177-183, April 2002.
Finn, DP. and Costello, B.
Evaporative cooling systems in deep-plan office buildings. CLIMA2000,        O’Connor, WJ.
Naples, Italy, Sept. 2001.                                                   TLM models of a heavy gantry crane. Proceedings, International TLM
                                                                             Workshop, Warsaw, Poland, October 1-2, pp 3/1 - 3/7, 2001.
Healy, M., O’Rourke, MJ. and Raghunathan, SR.
Further investigations of passive vortex control jets for shock boundary     O’Connor, WJ.
layer interactions. 1st AIAA Flow Control Conference, St. Louis, Missouri,   The time-domain dynamics of 2-D TLM. Proceedings, International TLM
24-26, AIAA-2002-2732, 2002.                                                 Workshop, Warsaw, Poland, October 1-2, pp.9/1 - 9/11, 2001.


Hussey, MJ., Browne, DJ., Brabazon, D. and Carr, AJ.                         O’Connor, WJ.
A direct thermal method of attaining globular morphology in the primary      Gantry crane control: a novel solution explored and extended. ACC02,
phase of alloys. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Semi-    American Control Conference, Alaska, May 2002.

                                                                                                                                                           31
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     O’Connor, WJ.                                                                 O’Sullivan, S. and Timoney, DJ.
     Numerical solution of partial differential equations by impulse propagation   Diesel particulate emissions and air quality - The Irish context. Rio+10
     and scattering. XV International Scientific Conference “Mathematical          Achievement and Challenge Conference, 18pp, 10-14 September, 2001.
     methods in engineering and technology, Tambov, Russia, June 5-7, 2002.
                                                                                   Owende, PMO., Ward, SM., O’Mahony, MJ., Hartman, AM. and
     O´Connor, WJ. and Wilde, E.                                                   Gilchrist, MD.
     Modelling acoustic transducer surface waves by Transmission Line Matrix       Variable tyre pressure for control of damage on low volume roads with
     method. 19th CADFEM-User´s meeting, Berlin, 17-19, Oct. 2001.                 peat soil subgrade. Proceedings of IUFRO 03.09, September 9th – 14th,
                                                                                   Quebec City, Canada, 2001.
     O’Connor, WJ. and Hu, C.
     A simple, effective position control strategy for flexible systems.           Raghunathan, SR., O’Rourke, MJ. and Healy, M.
     International Federation of Automatic Control, 2nd IFAC Conference on         The concept of passive vortex control jets for shock boundary layer
     Mechatronic Systems, December, Berkeley, California, USA, 2002.               interactions. CEAS Aerospace Aerodynamics Research Conference,
                                                                                   Cambridge, 10-12 June 2002.
     O’Dowd, F., Walsh, O., Locufier, A. and Gilchrist, MD.
     Design and optimisation of a customised compression moulding machine          Sheridan, JT., Byrne, G., Connolly, P., Glennon, B., Heneghan, C.,
     for composites manufacturing. Proceedings of the 19th International           FitzPatrick, D., Finn, D., Gilchrist, M., Kieran, P., McLoughlin, F.,
     Manufacturing Conference, pp. 387-397, August 28th – 30th, Belfast, UK,       Mulkeen, B., Murphy, N., O’Connor, W., O’Dowd, R., O’Malley, M.,
     2002.                                                                         O’Rourke, M. and Reilly, R.
                                                                                   Optics education within engineering at UCD. Proceedings of the SPIE
     O’Mahoney, D., Browne, DJ. and Hussey, M.                                     Optics and Photonics Technologies and Applications, Vol. 4876, September
     Effect of experimental uncertainty on the accuracy and stability of a new     5th – 6th, Galway, Ireland, 2002.
     inverse method for heat transfer in solidification. Proceedings of 35th
     ASME National Heat Transfer Conference, Anaheim, CA, USA, Paper No.           Stack, AJ. and Finn, DP.
     NHTC2001-20165, June 2001.                                                    Modelling and validation of a multi-evaporator vapour compression cycle
                                                                                   subject to non-uniform loading in transport refrigeration applications.
     O’Riordain, K., Thomas, PM., Phillips, JP. and Gilchrist, MD.                 Proceedings of the Ninth International Refrigeration Conference, Purdue
     Applications of multibody dynamics to the simulation of head impact           University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, July 2002.
     biomechanics. Proceedings of International Conference on Computation in
     Engineering & Science, August 19th – 24th, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, 2001.     Thomas, PM., O’Riordain, K. Phillips, JP. and Gilchrist, MD.
                                                                                   Mathematical reconstructive modeling applied to intra and extra-axial
     O’Riordain, K., Thomas, PM., Phillips, JP. and Gilchrist, MD.                 head injury resulting from standing falls. Proceedings of the Congress of
     Analysis of traumatic head injury using multibody dynamic computational       Neurological Surgeons, 52nd Annual Meeting, September 21st – 26th,
     techniques. Proceedings of 5th International Symposium on Computer            Philadelphia, USA, 2002.
     Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering, October 31st –
     November 3rd, Rome, Italy, 2001.                                              SEMINARS AND CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS
                                                                                   Balfe, L. and FitzPatrick, DP.
     O’Rourke, MJ., Healy M, and Raghunathun, SR.                                  Characterisation of the degradation characteristics of a resorbable polymer.
     Computational experiment investigating passive vortex control jets for        Proc. Bioengineering in Ireland (7), p. 31, 2001.
     shock/boundary layer interactions. 31st AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference
     and Exhibit, Anaheim, CA, AIAA-2001-3028. 11-14 June 2001.                    Banaszek, J., Browne, DJ. and Rebow, M.
                                                                                   Computer simulation of transport phenomena during solidification of one-
     O’Rourke MJ., Kyle DA. and Raghunathun, SR.                                   component and binary systems. Paper delivered at the Annual Symposium of
     Implementation of turbulence models for shock/boundary layer interaction      the Irish Society for Scientific and Engineering Computation, UCD, May 2001.
     in Transonic Flow. 31st AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit,
     Anaheim, CA, AIAA-2001-2856, 11-14 June 2001.                                 Browne, DJ.
                                                                                   A Model of columnar and equiaxed growth using a front-tracking

32
                                                                                                           RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                                 2001-2002


technique, Research Seminar, Department of Materials, University of           Conry, M., Crane, LJ. and Gilchrist, MD.
Oxford, March 2001.                                                           NDE of defects in thin plates using ultrasonic Lamb waves. Proceedings of
                                                                              the Annual Symposium of the Irish Society for Scientific and Engineering
Browne, DJ.                                                                   Computation (ISSEC) meeting,
Modelling of the columnar to equiaxed transition in solidification            p. 21, May 18th – 19th, Dublin, 2001.
processing, European Space Agency, Space Research and Technology
Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, December 2001.                            Drew, A., Smith, WJ, and Timoney, DJ.
                                                                              Numerical simulation of one-dimensional unsteady gas flows in reciprocating
Browne, DJ.                                                                   engine inlet manifolds. Irish Society for Scientific and Engineering Computation
Progress at UCD on modelling of alloy solidification and the effects of       Annual Symposium, National University of Ireland, Galway, May 24-25, 2002.
gravity. European Programme on Life and Physical Sciences in Space,
Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment, Kildare Street, Dublin,       FitzPatrick, DP., Byrne, S., Russell N., Kenny, P., Harty, J. and
January 2002.                                                                 McCormack, D.
                                                                              Modes of failure and pull-out strengths of Isola and Colorado 2 pedicle hooks:
Browne, DJ.                                                                   a biomechanical study. Proc. Bioengineering in Ireland (7), p. 12, 2001.
The columnar to equiaxed transition: review of theory and experiment,
Corus plc, Swinden Technology Centre, Rotherham, UK, March 2002.              Horgan, T. and Gilchrist, MD.
                                                                              Finite element modeling of the biomechanics of head impact. Proceedings
Browne, DJ.                                                                   of the 7th Biomechanics in Ireland Conference, p. 19, January 27th –
The columnar to equiaxed transition in solidification processing : theory,    28th, Arklow, 2001.
experiment and modelling, Research Seminar, Institute of Process and
Power Engineering, Cracow University of Technology, Poland, June 2002.        Horgan, T. and Gilchrist, MD.
                                                                              Mesh generation challenges in modeling highly irregular biomechanical
Browne, DJ.                                                                   systems. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium of the Irish Society for
Multiscale materials modelling: atoms to aircraft, Department of              Scientific and Engineering Computation (ISSEC) meeting, p. 11, May 18th
Mathematical Physics, October 2002.                                           – 19th, Dublin, 2001.


Browne, DJ. and Hunt, JD.                                                     Horgan, T. and Gilchrist, MD.
Modelling of alloy solidification - heat conduction and interface tracking.   Finite element analysis of traumatic brain injury due to inpact: Model
Paper delivered at the Annual Symposium of the Irish Society for Scientific   development. Proceedings of the 8th Biomechanics in Ireland Conference,
and Engineering Computation, UCD, May 2001.                                   p. 50, January 26th – 27th, Sligo, 2002.


Browne, DJ. and Hunt, JD.                                                     Kent, J., Faulkner, A. and FitzPatrick, D.
An interface tracking model of columnar and equiaxed growth in castings,      Engineering body parts: A sociological approach to developments in
European Space Agency HQ, Paris, July 2001.                                   tissue engineering, Proc. ESA Annual Conference, University of Helsinki,
                                                                              p.107, 2001.
Byrne, G., O’Donnell, G, and Kelly, K.
Technical Report Summary: COMPRO – Compensation for Stochastic                Lyons, C., McNally, C. and Timoney, DJ.
Deviations in Process Monitoring for Flexible Production Systems. CIRP        Development of a three zone heat release model for direct injection diesel
January 2001 Scientific Technical Committee ‘C’ Meeting, Paris, 25th          combustion analysis. Irish Society for Scientific and Engineering
January 2001.                                                                 Computation Annual Symposium, National University of Ireland, Galway,
                                                                              May 24-25, 2002.
Coffey, L. and FitzPatrick, DP.
Validation of ergonomic simulation software. Proc. Bioengineering in          McCullough, J., FitzPatrick, D.P and O’Rourke, MJ.
Ireland (7), p. 20, 2002.                                                     Development of abdominal aortic aneurysm models for flow visualisation.
                                                                              Proc. Bioengineering in Ireland, p.12, 26-27 January 2002.



                                                                                                                                                                 33
     DEPARTMENT OF
     MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


     Mullaney, B., Byrne, G. and Evans, C.                                        O’Riordain, K., Thomas, PM., Phillips, J.P and Gilchrist, MD.
     An overview of infra-red thermal images taken during chemical mechanical     Reconstruction of head injury accidents using computational methods.
     polishing (CMP). CIRP Scientific Technical Committee ‘G’ Meeting, Paris,     Proceedings of the 8th Biomechanics in Ireland Conference, p.49, January
     25th January 2001.                                                           26th – 27th, Sligo, 2002.


     Mullett, H., King, J., O’Rourke, K. and FitzPatrick, D.                      O’Sullivan, S. and Timoney, DJ.
     Occipito-cervical fusion: a biomechanical analysis of initial construct      Development of an on-road measurement system for particulate
     stiffness of five implant systems. Proc. Bioengineering in Ireland (7),      emissions from diesel-engined vehicles, Urban Institute Research Forum,
     p.11, 2001.                                                                  Trinity College Dublin, March 28th 2001.


     O’Connor, WJ.                                                                O’Toole, G., Salih, E., FitzPatrick, DP. and O’ Rourke, SK.
     A gantry crane problem solved exactly. Symposium of Irish Society for        Bone sialoprotein improves implant pull-out strengths by osteoinduction.
     Scientific and Engineering Computation, National University of Ireland,      Proc. Bioengineering in Ireland (7), p. 35, 2001.
     Dublin, 18-19 May 2001.
                                                                                  Rackard, SM., Bellenger, CR., Carr, AJ. and Callanan, JJ.
     O’Connor, WJ.                                                                Analysis of an avian model of limb deviation induced by periosteal
     Tuning mode shapes and frequencies of violin plates. Symposium of Irish      surgery. Proceedings of the 7th Biomechanics in Ireland Conference, p. 6,
     Society for Scientific and Engineering Computation, National University of   January 27th – 28th, Arklow, 2001.
     Ireland, Dublin, 18-19 May 2001.
                                                                                  Tapley, B. and Timoney, DJ.
     O’Connor, WJ.                                                                Combustion and emissions formation processes in spark ignition engines
     Wave-based position control of flexible mechanical systems, Research         with multi-constituent fuels. Proc. 5th Annual Sir Bernard Crossland
     Seminar, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, December 2001.            Symposium and Postgraduate Research Workshop, University of Ulster,
                                                                                  Jordanstown, p. 109, March 13th 2002.
     O’Connor, WJ.
     Position control of flexible mechanical systems. Taiwan National             Tapley, B. and Timoney, DJ.
     University, May 2002.                                                        Simulation of gas flows, combustion and pollutant formation in spark
                                                                                  ignition engines with supplemental hydrogen fuelling. Irish Society for
     O’Connor, WJ.                                                                Scientific and Engineering Computation Annual Symposium, National
     Position control of flexible mechanical systems. Dalian University of        University of Ireland, Galway, May 24-25, 2002.
     Technology, China, May 2002.
                                                                                  Thomas, PM., O’Riordain, K., Phillips, JP., Kumar, R. and Gilchrist, MD.
     O’Connor, WJ.                                                                Head impact angular velocity associated with parenchymal brain injury.
     Position control of flexible mechanical systems. Shenyang Institute of       Poster presention at Annual Meeting of Irish Neurological Association, May
     Automation, China, May 2002.                                                 17th – 18th, Dublin, 2002.


     O’Connor, WJ.                                                                Tiernan, J., Gilchrist, MD., de Paor, AM. and Leonard, C.
     Position control of flexible mechanical systems. Tsingua University,         The design and product development of a prototype mobile chair to assist
     Beijing, China, May 2002.                                                    in transfers and positioning of the elderly and infirm. Proceedings of the
                                                                                  7th Biomechanics in Ireland Conference, p. 27, January 27th – 28th,
     O’Riordain, K., Thomas, PM., Phillips, J.P and Gilchrist, MD.                Arklow, 2001.
     The simulation of head impact biomechanics using multibody dynamics.
     Proceedings of the Annual Symposium of the Irish Society for Scientific &    LECTURES HOSTED IN DEPARTMENT
     Engineering Computation (ISSEC) meeting, p.13, May 18th - 19th, Dublin,      Dr A Saidi (Lund University of Technology, Sweden), Numerical
     2001.                                                                        investigation of some convective heat transfer and fluid flow problems
                                                                                  with relevance to gas turbines, February 2001.



34
                                                                                                        RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                                                              2001-2002


Mr G Anderson (Reynard Motorsport North America), The design of single-     Dunne, P.
seat racing cars, February 2001.                                            An Investigation into the Dimensional Accuracy of Injection Moulded
                                                                            Components Produced in a Silicone Rubber Mould, 2001.
Dr D Wood (Denis Wood Associates, Dublin), Accident investigation: A
perspective on forensic engineering, April 2001.                            Mullany, B.
                                                                            Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Oxide Coated Silicon Wafers, 2001.
Dr C Simms (TNO International, Detroit, USA), The application of Madymo
to human body modelling, April 2001.                                        M.Eng.Sc. THESES
                                                                            Balfe, L.
Prof M Krane (Purdue University, USA), Macrosegregation during              Analysis of Time-Dependant Properties of Resorbable Biomaterials, 2002.
solidification in direct chill casting of aluminium alloys, May 2001.
                                                                            Coffey, L.
Prof P Furmanski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Basic           A Biomechanical Validation Study of Ergonomic Simulation Software,
aspects of modelling of transfer phenomena during alloy solidification,     2002.
February 2002.
                                                                            Goulding, C.
Dr D Baumgartner (University of Strasbourg, France), Human head             Development of a Modular Combined Cycle Simulation Model, 2001.
tolerance limits against impact for specific injury mechanisms: Numerical
and experimental head injury simulations, March 2002.                       Corcoran, AJ.
                                                                            Laser Drilling of Aerospace Materials, 2001.
Dr M Rebow (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Application of
particle image velocimetry, true colour image processing and process        Grant, K.
tomography in phase change problems of pure substances and binary           Design of an Experimental Test Facility to Examine the Use of Electronic
mixtures - present state and future possibilities, April 2002.              Control in Multi-Evaporator Vapor Compression Systems, 2002.


CONFERENCES AND CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSES                                Hickey, J.
Dr MD Gilchrist was Chairman of the Annual Symposium of the Irish           Experimental Investigation into the Artificial Thermal Drying of Milled Peat,
Society for Scientific & Engineering Computation, at which thirty four      2001.
lectures were delivered by Irish and international speakers, UCD, May
18th – 19th, 2001.                                                          Hooper, BJ.
                                                                            Effect of Conditioning on Polishing Pad Wear in Chemical Mechanical
Dr GF Cummings was Chairman of the 18th International Manufacturing         Planarization, 2001.
Conference, IMC-18, UCD, September 5th – 7th, 2001.
                                                                            Kyle, DA.
Prof G Byrne was Chairman of the CIRP UK/AMT Ireland Workshop on            Turbulence Modelling for the Computation of Transonic Aerofoil Flows, 2001.
Future Direction for R&D in Manufacturing Engineering in Ireland and the
UK, UCD, 3rd and 4th May 2002.                                              Murphy, C.
                                                                            Drilling of Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy Composites with Titanium
Ph.D. THESES                                                                Nitride and Diamond-Like Carbon Coated Tungsten Carbide Drills, 2001.
Brabazon, D.
Processing and Properties of Rheocast Alloys, 2001.                         O’Riordain, K.
                                                                            Reconstruction of Real World Head Injury Accidents Resulting from Falls
Browne, DJ.                                                                 Using Multibody Dynamics Modelling, 2002.
Modelling Columnar and Equiaxed Growth, D.Phil. thesis, University of
Oxford, 2002.                                                               Stack, A.
                                                                            Transient Modelling and Experimental Verification of Multi-Evaporator
Duignan, B.                                                                 Vapour Compression Systems in Transport Refrigeration Applications, 2001.
Optimised Trajectory Control of Redundant Robotic Manipulators, 2001.
                                                                            Tiernan, J.
                                                                            Design, Manufacture and Testing of a Prototype Wheelchair for People
                                                                            with Special Seating Needs, 2001.

                                                                                                                                                            35
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.


Tel. +353 1 716 1787 Fax. +353 1 283 0534 Email. mecheng@ucd.ie Web. www.ucd.ie/~mecheng/


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