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العمارة الخضراء

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					                                    :                1.1



                                                 ,

                           Ken Yeang :
            ,

                       William Reed :


            ,

            Stanley Abercrombie :
                                             .
,



        ,                               33
    ,




                   1
            % 73




:


              (pv cells ) :




                              ,
                      ,
        ,                 (pv panel )




    ,
        ,



              ,


                                  .




                  2
    Adapting With Climate :                    2

          ,


                                   ,


                       ,


              ,



      ,
                                   :


                                               .


.


      .
                                           :


                           .




                                       .




                               .



          3
                                                    .


.

    Minimizing New Resources :




                   ,




                                         ,




        .

                               Respect for site :       4




                           ,




                                     ,




                       4
((Susan Maxman)


                                                 .
                           ( Ian Macharg))
                      .




                                   ,


                      (Sustainable Design)




                                       :             1
                      :
                               .
   .
                                                 :
                                             .


                  :




                      5
            :                                   2




                                      .



                .


        .


                    .




                            ,
                                    Pueblo Bonito
,


                        ,
                                ,


    ,




            6
                     ,
                                     ,


        (


                                             ,



.


    ,



                                         .
                Respect for users                2




                         ,




            ,
                                 (




                             7
                                                    ,


                                            ,
                               Holism :                     6

                                                        ,




                                                ,
   ,


                              Jean Nouvel




            ,




                          :                                 1


                      :
                                   :                        2



Thermal Comfort




                  8
    :

        ,




                        ,




            :

                            1


                            2
,
                            3
                    ,
                            4
                    ,




                9
                               .


        Biomass ,




                                                    Biogas


                                   .


                                            :


,
                       :

    .                                                        1
                                                             2
                           .


                    P.V.C                       ,




                                                         ,




                                       10
                          :                        3




    .
        Grey Water



                      ,




                1.3                            ,
                 .

                                          :        4



,


                                   Synthetic




                                                   ,




                              11
                 Porous Material




                                                                       ,


                                                                   :       5


    Sheard


             ,


                   :                                   ,
                                       :
.                                                                          1
                                                                           2
                                                               .
                                   )                                       3
                                                   .
             4.3                                                           4


                                                           .
                                               :


                                           .


                       .




                                   12
                   :       6




Reflect




                       ,


.

               :           7




     ,




          13
) 5.3
        15-6           Shelterbelt Planting       ,
                   .


                                         :        8




                                              ,




               ,



           ,




                                     .




                         14
         :           9




    .




             .




                 .


.




        15
                                      :        13




(           63
                 ,                              ,




        .


                                              7.3


                         .                ,
                         :
                                                -




    .

                                               -




                     .

                                                -


                             .

                                 16
                                                                                   -

                                                .


                       .



Ken Yeang ,                                         Menara1992
         Ken               I.M.B. ,                           Subang Jaya
                                                                               Yeang



                   ,                                             Ken Yeang :
                                                                               :
                                                                       .
                                                                                   -
                                            .

                                                                       :
               ,
                                   .

                                                                           :
                                                                      , 63         -
                                                ,                14                -
     ,                                                                             -
                                                          ,   6533                 -

                                                                 :
 ,                                                                                 -
         :                                                                         -
                               ,                                                   -
                                       ,-

                                                     17
                         ,

    ,                    Curtain Walls    -
                                          -


            ,
        ,
,
                ,                 13593



                              .




                    18
                                              :




                  (Sustainable Development)




                                        .




(Renewable
                                        Sources).




             19
         :
               ..




                        (Running)
                                                             )


.                              (Sustainable Development)




         (Sick Buildings)




                                            (


     .




                                                .
    43
                    3                      (Raw Materials)
                                 65
                          20
                                                            33
           (James Wines)



23                                    (built environment)
                                                            .         43



                           (by-products)
                         (bio-systems)
                                           .



                                                                 .
                 (Michael Crosbie)
                                           (Steven Winter Associates)


            ".


     (Green Design                             -
                       (Clever Technology)                 Techniques)



.


                                                      99
                                                                 33


      .




                              21
                      (Rachel and Stephen Kaplan)


         (Lockheed Martin)
                       )       2.533                15


                                              .


(40%)                                       (Heschong Mahone)
                (Skylights).
                   (20%).


                                              :




   " (Initial
                                                                Costs)
                                1993                        (BREEAM)
    (Leadership in Energy and                                   (LEED)
                                                  Environmental Design)
         (LEED)                 . 2333                    (USGBC)
  (LEED)




                               17
           15                                                    5

                                       22
39                                           (LEED)


     52                                                        53
                                                 (
                              .                             %) 73


                                              (Inefficient Buildings)
                   (Phillip Bernstein)
                                                               (Yale)




                                                        .

                                                 :




               .


          48        (Conde Nast)
                                         (


                             23
               433
           5




                                                     (Photovoltaic Panels)
                                                                         15


       .                           43 35
                     (The Swiss Re Tower)


41


               53




                                            .



     (Skidmore, Owings &
                                       Merrill and Studio Daniel Libeskind)
                               1.776
               1
                                                23


                                       24
                      .
       :




                                                  .


1851                      (Crystal Palace)
                                      (Milan's)
               1877         (Galleria V. Emanuele II)
           .
                                  :




               25
             ...".




                     .




                         ""




                         (Tools)


    "




.


        26

				
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posted:4/5/2011
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