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					Workshop on becoming a better Teacher




                                  Workshop
                                        On

                 Becoming a better Teacher
                 – A Micro Teaching approach




                                  June 1 –3, 2004

                                 Venue: AeA, Palani

                           Report Compiled by: Radhika

                              Operations Department

                                   AeA , Chennai.




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Workshop on becoming a better Teacher



                                                                  CONTENTS


1.       INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 3

  1.1.        BACKGROUND .................................................................................................................................... 3

2.       Workshop Process ...................................................................................... 4

  2.1.        PROCESS OF THE WORKSHOP FOR MICROTEACHING ............................................................................... 4
     2.1.1.       Knowledge Acquisition Phase ................................................................................................ 5
     2.1.2.       Skill Acquisition Phase ......................................................................................................... 15

3.       FEEDBACK OF THE PARTICIPANTS ................................................................ 21

4.       Annexes
         Program schedule……………………………………………………………….. 23




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1. INTRODUCTION


   1.1. Background

Presently, more and more children with their many and varied interest present themselves at the
doors of primary schools, it is incubent upon any society to motivate and lead them through as
many and varied kinds of learning experiences as the understanding and skills of more fully
qualified teachers can provide.
To equip with such qualifications, it is equally obligatory upon any society as to see that its
teachers are made equal to the challenges that comfront them. To reach such objectives and
realize high standards, this workshop technique is used and also should be used as often as
possible.


The objectives of this Workshop are:

       To develop appreciation of the important role played by teachers
       To develop in teachers understanding and skills in the field of teaching-learning process.
       To develop insight into the essential skills involved in effective teaching.
       To provide training in the development of skills for different educational objectives
   through micro teaching approach.




The Methodology that were adopted are:

       Group work
       Lecture Method
       Demonstrations and
       Discussions


   Coverage:16 teachers of "Education for Development" project-Kodaikanal




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2. WORKSHOP PROCESS


    2.1. Process of the workshop for Microteaching

In the process of microteaching, there are two phases during which acquisition of skills is done.
The diagrammatic representation is given below.


Phases of micro teaching process


                                                            Observe demonstration
                                                           of the skill




                                                           Analysis and discussion
 Knowledge acquisition Phase                              of the demonstration




                                                           Prepare micro lesson




                                                       Practice of the skill         Feed back

   Skill acquisition Phase


                                                     Evaluation of the skill




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   2.1.1.       Knowledge Acquisition Phase
This phase involves the following steps:
Orientation
        The teachers were oriented to microteaching through theoretical discussion. Here
micro teaching procedures were discussed.
Definition of MICRO TEACHING
 Micro teaching is essentially a training technique which is called `micro' since a teacher
practices with a small group (6-10 pupils) for short duration (5-10 minutes) a simple concept
lesson and concentrates on a single skill which is magnified and exaggerated.


The Micro teaching steps


        The teacher teaches a short lesson of about 5-10 minutes duration.
        She teaches a very small group - between 5-10 pupils or peers.
        She concentrates on practicing one specific skill, which she maximizes.
        She plans a lesson with a single unit in mind as she teaches for only 5-10 minutes.
        Immediately after teaching, she receives feedback or a critique of her lesson from her
    supervisor, peers or from `self appraisal' devices.
        She then re-plans her lesson in the light of the suggestions received.
        She then re-teachers her lesson to a different group of pupils or peers.
        She again receives feedback and may resume the cycle of teach -feedback -re-teach till
    she is satisfied that she has achieved the desired level of performance.




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                           MICRO TEACHING CYCLE




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Discussion of the Teaching Skills
        The concept of teaching skills was clarified first with different examples.. Then a few
teaching skills were selected and explained to them. One skill at a time was discussed before
practice. The particular skill was explained to trainees in items of components (teaching
behaviors) to provide them the knowledge and awareness of the teaching skill.


     Some Important Skills Of Teaching
        Writing instructional objectives
        Introducing a lesson
        Stimulus variation, or in simple words, maintaining the attention of the pupils;
        Reinforcement, or encouraging desirable behavior in pupils by praise;
        Keeping silent and using non-verbal cues like gestures and body movements;
        Asking probing questions;
        Explaining and illustrating with examples;
        Using the blackboard;
        Using audio-visual aids;
        Story telling
        Closure
        Lecturing
        Classroom management and organization.


The Skill Of Introducing A Lesson
The skill of introducing a lesson may be defined as a proficiency in the use of verbal and non
verbal behavior, teaching aid and appropriate devices for making the pupils realize the need of
studying the lesson by establishing cognition and affective rapport with them.
        To arouse curiosity of the students the lesson can be introduced by:
            Using by shock treatment
            Doing something unusual
            Asking provocative question
            Using an analogy to excite curiosity
            Relating a personal incident
            Narrating a story
            Using audio visual aids
            Using role playing or dramatization.




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Components
Use Of Previous Knowledge /Experience

One cannot teach in vacuum. The new learning is to be based or completed with the previous
learning knowledge or experiences acquired through formal or informal education/direct or
indirect experiences. An appropriate introduction of a lesson has to be based on the previous
knowledge and experiences of pupil. Therefor a teacher has to acquire the art of utilizing such
knowledge and experiences.
The concept of this component is to make students learn from known to unknown.
Link Between Introduction And Main Points
Proper introduction requires the continuity in the ideas or information presented to the pupils.
There should be a logical sequence between the main parts of the introduction. One
question/statement or activity on the part of the teacher should lead to the other related ones
in a chain of continuity creating the need of studying the lesson. What is done at a particular
moment should properly relate to the pupils' previous responses and it should be properly linked
with the preceding activity of the teacher herself.
Success In Focusing Attention At The Start Of The Lesson
        When the introduction is given, it should be in such a way that it motivates the students
properly. This makes the students to concentrate in what the teacher says.




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The Skill 0f Reinforcement
Reinforcement as a technique belongs to the area of psychology of learning and helps in
influencing the responses or behaviors of the learners. There are two types of reinforcement-
positive and negative reinforcement. While using the former (providing pleasant
experiences)contributes towards strengthening the desirable responses ,the latter (providing
unpleasant experiences are used for weakening or eliminating the undesirable responses .In view
of the above discussion the skill of reinforcement may be defined as the art of learning the
judicious and effective use of reinforcers by a teacher for influencing the pupils' behavior in the
desired direction directed towards maximum pupils' participation for realizing the better results
in the teaching-learning process.


Components
Positive verbal reinforcement
The teacher, using positive verbal reinforcement like good, excellent, correct etc to encourage
the students.
Positive non-verbal reinforcement
The teacher can use this concept to encourage by nodding, smiling and clapping.
Negative verbal reinforcement
The teacher is recommended not to practice this component, such as 'No', 'wrong', 'Incorrect',
'stop-it', 'non-sense' as this will definitely discourage students.
Negative non-verbal reinforcement
The teacher is recommended not to practice like frowning, staring, banging the book and giving
punishment etc.
Extra verbal reinforcement
 Using extra-verbal reinforcement like 'um', 'aha' and prompts like 'carry on', 'think again' the
teacher can gather more information from the students.
Proximity reinforcement
The teacher displays interest by moving nearer to, standing next to, sitting nearer etc.
Contact reinforcement
The teacher patting the pupils head, shaking hands with the pupil etc.
Token reinforcement
The teacher comments on the test paper, gives marks etc




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The Skill Of Black Board Work
Black board work intensify pupil interest and attention on the main aspects of the lesson,
allowing the teacher to proceed at the pace which takes heed of varying rates of understanding
of her pupils. It is the widely used teaching aid ,inspite of newer and better devices in vogue.

The following rules should be followed to increase the effectiveness of the skill

        Collect everything you will need-chalk, ruler, eraser, compass
        Check lighting to avoid blackboard glare
        Keep the blackboard clean
        Erase all unrelated material with an eraser
        Plan your work
        Prepare illustration before hand
        Do not crowd the black board-only few important points
        Make simple, brief ,concise statements
        Draw on a large scale
        Use color chalk for emphasis
        Stand at one side of the blackboard so that you do not obstruct the view
        Use pointer for explaining the various points
        Avoid making squeaking noises with the chalk while writing
        Avoid committing spelling mistakes.
Components for the skill of black board writing
        The letters are distinct.
        Adequate spacing between two letters
        Adequate spacing between words
        Letters are large enough to read from the back row.
        Capital letters are large enough.
        The hand writing is not slanting forward or backward but they are vertical.
        The sentences are parallel to the base of the blackboard.
        There is adequate spacing between lines
        The words are not overwritten
        Irrelevant words are not written on the board
        Long sentences are not written but brief and concise statements are written
        Important words are underlined
        Color chalks are suitably used.
        Diagrams are simple and large enough




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Presentation of Model Demonstration Lesson
This session starts with the presentation of the model lesson presenting the skill to be practiced
followed by discussion .The weaknesses and strengths of the skill are identified and the
component behavior of the skills are discriminated. Positive or desired behavior is presented
through positive examples. The facilitator while presenting the skill, the teachers learn them
through imitation and practice. They acquire the teaching skill, performance, personality and
attitude of the facilitator through observations. The model lesson for the above-discussed skills
was demonstrated.



Skill of Story telling using micro teaching approach

The session on storytelling aims at:

        Exploring basic elements of storytelling
        Telling stories using the skills of microteaching, which includes use of voice modulation,
facial expression, gestures, dialogue, repetition of key words and audience participation.
        Using the innovative teaching aid called the ‘storytelling apron’ and make aids related to
storytelling
        Using the storytelling apron to teach different subjects




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Importance of storytelling
Methodology - Participatory mode
Objective      - To understand why we tell stories and how it is useful in a classroom

Why do we tell stories?
To share experiences, to introduce to books, to expand vocabulary, to develop creative
imagination, to learn through repetition, to keep alive cultural heritage, to develop
communication skills, to develop the moral character of the child
Basic elements of storytelling
Methodology - Lecture mode/ participatory method
Objective      - To understand the basic elements of a story and analyze a simple story based
                 on these elements




Every story has the five basic elements:

        Introduction of a character example: Once upon time there was a crow or introduction of
    a setting eg. Once upon a time in a forest there lived a crow
        Rising action which forms many knots in the plot example:The crow is thirsty, finds a pot
    but cannot reach the water
        Climax where the character reaches a point of saturation and does not what to do. It is
    also the time where the story can take any track example: The crow does not know what to
    do – the crow may fly away still thirsty because of discouragement or find a solution to the
    problem
        Falling action where each knot is unravelled. example: The crow puts pebbles in the pot
    to raise the level of the water
        Conclusion where the story ends on a happy note or a sad note. For primary school
    children all stories should be of an happy ending. Example:. The crow drinks the water and
    happily flies away




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Storytelling and Micro teaching skills
Methodology - Participatory method
Objective       - To put into practice the micro teaching skills learnt the previous day

Summary of the story

The Musicians of Bremen is about a donkey who runs away because his master throws him out
because of his age and his uselessness. Along the road he meets other animals who are similarly
thrown out and he asks them if they can sing. The dog says ‘woof woof’, the cat says ‘miaow
miaow’, the cock says ‘cock-a-doodle-do’. They walk together and sing. When night falls they
are hungry and tired. Luckily they find a house, but there are robbers inside. They frighten the
robbers away by singing outside the window. Then they take over the house and eat the food the
robbers have left. Another robber comes and they frighten him too. They are so happy in this
house they decide to stay and sing there forever.
Using the storytelling apron, the entire story was demonstrated to the teachers with actions,
voice modulation based on these characters

Micro teaching skills identified by the teachers
The groups identified the different micro teaching skills used in the session which were as
follows:
        Skills of introducing a lesson - The introduction to the story by singing a song was
    interesting and therefore will catch the attention of the children. The story was also
    introduced by using the previous knowledge of the children on animals in general and pet
    and domestic animals in specific.
        Skill of stimulus variation - gestures, facial expressions, voice modulation, etc
        Skill of using audio-visual aids – pictures on the apron
       Skill of reinforcement was used every now and then in order to motivate the children to
    answer.
        The children were encouraged to participate actively by answering questions, by pointing
    out what they see on the apron, by telling what they think will happen next in the story, and
    by repeating the refrains.
        Skills of explaining and illustrating with examples on the blackboard
        Skill of closure was used to bring the story session to a smooth end.

Storytelling Apron & other subjects

Methodology     - Lecture method
Objective       - To explore the ways in which the aid can be used to teach other subjects

        Identification and sorting...
    Place different pictures ( example: colors, land and water animals) and let the children
    identify each and sort them according to their group.
        Matching...
    Create different items to set-up a matching game. Ask the children to find the matching
    picture and place it on the apron.
        Mathematics...
    Use the apron for counting along with matching items. Example. Choose 3 red triangles to
    place on the apron, ask the children how many triangles, what color etc.
            Mathematics story problems can also be illustrated using the apron. Example: I have
        1 sweet (place one sweet picture on the apron) and went to the shop and bought 2


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       sweets (place the picture of 2 sweets). The total number of sweets can be found by the
       class by counting the number of sweets on the apron.
   These examples are just to trigger the imagination capacities of the teachers to exploit the
   storytelling apron. It is up to the teachers to make optimal use of the teaching aid in the
   classroom.




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   2.1.2.       Skill Acquisition Phase

Preparation of micro-lesson plans
The teachers selected one unit-concept and prepared the micro-lesson plan.
Micro-teaching Settling
The following setting was suggested for the micro-teaching technique.
        Number of students : 5-10
        Type of students :Real pupils or preferably peers.
        Type of supervision: Teacher educators and peers.
        Time duration of a micro-lesson : 6 minutes
        Time duration of a micro-teaching cycle : 36 minutes
        This duration was divided as under :
        Teaching session         :      6 minutes
        Feedback session         :      6minutes
        Re-plan Session          :      12 minutes
        Re-teach Session         :      6 minutes
        Re-feedback Session      :      6 minutes
                                        ______
                Total                   36 minutes
                                        ______
Simulated Condition
Teachers acted as students and lessons were conducted in the workshop venue itself.
Practice of teaching skills
The teachers practiced a few selected teaching skills.
Observation of Teaching Skills
In this step, the teacher taught the lesson to a small group of students, preferably of peer group
in a simulated condition. The workshop facilitator and the peers observed the lesson given by
the trainee and wrote down her observations in a specially developed proforma.




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Observation schedule for the skill of introducing a lesson

Name of the teacher :
Subject :
Topic :
Teach / re teach:


Components                                                   Tallies (occurrence of the
                                                             component behavior)
Use of previous knowledge /experience
Link between introduction and main point
Success in focusing attention at the start of the lesson



Observation schedule for the skill of Reinforcement


            Components                                       Tallies

            Positive verbal reinforcement

            Positive non-verbal reinforcement

            Extra -verbal reinforcement

             Non - verbal reinforcement

            Proximity reinforcement

            Contact reinforcement

            Writing pupil's answer on the blackboard

            Token reinforcement




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    Observation schedule for the skill of using the Black board



Components                                                                     Tallies


The letters are distinct.

Adequate spacing between two letters
Adequate spacing between words
Letters are large enough to read from the back row.
Capital letters are large enough.
The hand writing is not slanting forward or backward but they are vertical.
The sentences are parallel to the base of the blackboard.
There is adequate spacing between lines
The words are not overwritten
Irrelevant words are not written on the board
Long sentences are not written but brief and concise statements are written
Important words are underlined
Color chalks are suitably used.
Diagrams are simple and large enough
Necessary details in the diagram
Labeling in dark letters.




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Providing Feedback

The teaching was followed by discussion to provide feedback to the trainees. For providing
feedback on the teaching performance the micro lesson given by a teacher is supervised by the
fellow teachers and facilitator. For the purpose of obtaining objectivity and reliability in the
observation process an observation schedule is used. This consists of 2 columns. The first
column specifies the components of the skill and the second indicate the occurrences of the
different component behavior of the skill.




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Storytelling Process


  As a prepatory phase for storytelling exercise a roleplay was given for us to understand
  their level of expression teachers an icebreaker was introduced.
  The 4 groups were requested to dramatize the following topics :
           The last scene of an Indian movie
           A wedding scene
           A Railway station scene
           Ladies at the water supplying spot scene

  It was observed and appreciated that every participant in each group was given a role
  and came out with very interesting way of presenting such simple themes. The role-play
  was informative, humorous and very innovative.




Learning the art of storytelling using the apron
Methodology - Group work

The participants were divided into 8 groups with two in each. The group chose their own story
for group work and presentation using the storytelling apron. The following observations on the
teachers’ presentations were made :

       The teaching aid can be adjusted to suit the size of the person
       The teaching aid is designed to help the teachers to show the pictures and at the same
   time keep their hands free to gesture. Therefore the teachers should turn their body from
   side to side to allow the children to have a full view of all pictures as they are placed on the
   apron. The teachers should therefore not cover the front with their hands
       The characters should be neatly arranged on the table in the order of their appearance
   and then as the storytelling session goes they should be placed on the apron.
       The pockets are to be used to hold storytelling characters after their appearance in the
   story is over. The characters should be removed carefully using the index finger and thumb.
       If the story contains few characters then only the character without any background
   scene can be drawn. But if the story has too many characters then scenes can be drawn
       The smooth flow of the story should not be broken by asking too many questions
       More facial expression and gestures should be used to attract the children
       The teachers have to keep eye contact with every child in the classroom in order to
   sustain the interest of the children.




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Feedback of the participants on training workshop on becoming better teachers

        Components                                        Good   Average     Poor
        Understanding of the following

        The role of the teacher                           100    0           0

        Importance of skills in teaching                  80     20          0
        The micro teaching approach in teaching           86     14          0
        Basic elements in story telling                   100    0           0
        Use of story telling in teaching other subjects   86     14          0


        Methodology adopted
        Demonstration of skills                           86     14          0
        Planning for the episode                          93     7           0
        Group work on presentation                        93     7           0
        Evaluation of presentation                        86     14          0
        Evaluation of the teaching aid


        Usability                                         86     14          0
        Durability                                        73     27          0
        Potential usage                                   93     7           0
        Child friendly                                    100    0           0
        Innovativeness                                    86     14          0




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   3. FEEDBACK OF THE PARTICIPANTS


                                                      Understanding of the components


                    Evaluation of presentation
                 Group w ork on presentation
                      Planning for the episode

                       Demonstration of skills
Use of story telling in teaching other subjects
                Basic elements in story telling
    The micro teaching approach in teaching
               Importance of skills in teaching

                       The role of the teacher



                                                  0          20          Good
                                                                        40      Average
                                                                                   60     80         100       120




         Innovativeness


            Child friendly


         Potential usage


                Durability


                 Usability



                             0                        50                100               150
                                                           Good   Average




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WORKSHOP ON "BECOMING BETTER TEACHERS"-MICRO TEACHING APPROACH


DATES :1-3 JUNE ' 04                                   VENUE: AeA, Palani


PROGAMME SCHEDULE: 01-06-'04.


TIME           ACTIVITIES
10:00-10:15    Welcome and introduction
10:15-10:45    Workshop activities and sharing of expectations
10:45-11:15    Micro teaching (What, Why and How)
11:15-11:30    Different teaching skills
11.30-11:45    Coffee break
11:45-12:15    Demonstration of skill if introducing the lesson
12:15-12:45    Discussion
12:45 -1:00    Micro planning for the skill of introducing the lesson(group work)
1:00-2:00      Lunch break
2:00-2:30      Presentation of micro lesson (group work)
2:30-3:15      Feed back and discussion
3:15-3:30      Coffee break
3:30-:4:00     Demonstration of skill of blackboard work
4:00-4:30      Discussion
4:30-5:00      Micro planning for the skill of blackboard work (group work)
5:00-5:15      Recapitulation of the day's work


Program schedule: 02-06-'04



TIME           ACTIVITIES

10:00-10:30    Presentation of the skill of blackboard work(group work)
10:30-11:15    Feedback and discussion
11:15 -11:30   Coffee break
11:30-12:00    Demonstration of skill of reinforcement
12:00-12:30    Discussion
12:30-1:00     Micro planning for the skill of reinforcement (group work)
1:00-2:00      Lunch break
2:00-2:30      Presentation of micro lesson (group work)
2:30-3:15      Feed back and discussion
3:15-3:30      Coffee break
3:30-:4:00     Recapitulation of the day's work
4:00-5:00      Planning for the follow up activities




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Program schedule: 03-06-'04



TIME           ACTIVITIES

10:00-10:30    Introduction (game and importance of story telling)
10:30-11:15    Basic elements of story telling
11:15 -11:30   Coffee break
11:30-12:00    Demonstration of story telling
12:00-12:30    Discussion on skills used in story telling
12:30-1:00     Group work for Demonstration of story telling
1:00-2:00      Lunch break
2:00-3.00      Group work for Demonstration of story telling
3.00-3.15      Coffee break
3:15-4:00      Presentation of the group work
4:00-4;30      Story Telling and other subjects
4:30-5:00      Feed back and closure




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