SOFC at the Research Centre Juel by ps94506

VIEWS: 46 PAGES: 16

									Mitglied der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft




                                      FDFC Conference 2008
                                      10. – 12. Dec. 2008
                                      Nancy




                                      Overview of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
                                      Development at FZJ



                                      Dr. Robert Steinberger-Wilckens
                                      Institute of Energy Research IEF-PBZ
                                      Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany
Jülich R&D Focus on Fuel Cells

    High-temperature                        Fuel Processing                            Polymer Fuel Cells
     Fuel Cell SOFC                            Systems                                 DMFC and HT-PEFC




► SOFC systems for efficient        ► H2 from diesel or kerosene for                ► DMFC systems for light traction
  power generation (CHP) and          on-board supply (APU) with                    ► HT-PEFCsystems for reformate
  on-board supply (APU)               fuel cells                                      utilization


  Fuel Cell                                                                                                       Slide 2
                      Project Management                                                  Central Dept of
  Project             Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ   Institute of Energy Research   IEF   Technology        ZAT   FDFC 2008
FZJ SOFC Stack Technology Highlights


     •      anode-supported planar cells, operating temp. 700 - 800°C
            transition from thick cells (1.5 mm) to
            tape cast standard cells 300 to 600 µm
     •      ferritic interconnect steel CroFer22APU and CroFer22H
     •      standard testing item: two-cell stack
            (short stack, F-Design, >115 stacks tested)
     •      power stacks (F-Design) of 1 to 15 kWel
            (hydrogen and methane, delivered for own tests & for partners)
     •      light-weight cassette-type stacks (CS-Design with EK/BMW)
     •      20 kW SOFC system technology demonstrator


Fuel Cell                                                                                                       Slide 3
                    Project Management                                                  Central Dept of
Project             Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ   Institute of Energy Research   IEF   Technology        ZAT   FDFC 2008
    SOFC from Cell to Stack

  cell                                               repeating unit                                                  stack




                  anode substrate
               anode layer
            electrolyte layer
         cathode layer

                                                            interconnect
electrolyte   yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)           anode contact layer
anode         Ni / YSZ cermet                         cathode contact layer
cathode       (La,Sr)MnO3                                               cell frame
              (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3                                                 sealing
                                                   interconnect
                                                       and cell frame             CroFer22APU
                                                   sealing                        (Ba,Ca) silicate glass
                                                   anode contact layer            Ni-mesh

    Fuel Cell                                                                                                                Slide 4
                              Project Management                                                   Central Dept of
    Project                   Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ    Institute of Energy Research   IEF   Technology        ZAT     FDFC 2008
                                Scope of SOFC Activities
                                                                                        1.2
                                                                                                                                                   SK170 (F1002-34) cell 1
                                                                                                                                                   SK170 (F1002-34) cell 2
                                                                                                                                                   SK180 (F1002-40) cell 1
                                                                                        1.0                                                        SK180 (F1002-40) cell 2
                                                                                                                                                   SK183 (F1002-44) cell 1
                                                                                                                                                   SK183 (F1002-44) cell 2

                                                                                        0.8
                                                                                                                                                            degradation




                                                                     cell voltage / V
                                                                                                                                                            1% / 1000 h
                                                                                        0.6


                                                                                        0.4

                                                                                                                                               temperature: 800 °C
                                                                                        0.2                                                    current density: 0.3 A/cm
                                                                                                                                                                         2

                                                                                                                                               fuel: H2 (4 l/min) + 10% H2O


             μm
                                                                                                                                               fuel utilisation: 8.4 %

            55 μm                                                                       0.0
                                                                                                                                               oxidant: air (8 l/min)


                                                                                              0   1000   2000   3000   4000   5000   6000   7000    8000        9000 10000
                                                                                                                  operation time on load / h




Fuel Cell                                                                                                                                                           Slide 5
                    Project Management                                                                          Central Dept of
Project             Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ   Institute of Energy Research                     IEF         Technology                  ZAT                     FDFC 2008
                   Long-term degradation behaviour in FZJ stacks
                   1.2
                                                                                                           SK170 (F1002-34) cell 1
                                                                                                           SK170 (F1002-34) cell 2
                                                                                                           SK180 (F1002-40) cell 1
                   1.0                                                                                     SK180 (F1002-40) cell 2
                                                                                                           SK183 (F1002-44) cell 1
                                                                                                           SK183 (F1002-44) cell 2

                   0.8
                                                                                                               degradation
cell voltage / V




                                                                                                               1% / 1000
                                                                                                           degradation h
                   0.6                                                                                       ~12 mV/ kh
                                                                                                           800 °C
                                                                                                           300 mA/cm²
                   0.4                                                                                     uF = 8,4 %
                             all 2-cell short-stacks; 80 cm²/cell
                                                                                                      temperature: 800 °C
                             all cells with LSM/YSZ cathodes (SP)
                   0.2                      interconnect         cathode contact   glass sealing      current density: 0.3 A/cm
                                                                                                                                2


                             F1002-34: JS-3 (JWB)                MnOx+LCC10        73GA11             fuel: H2 (4 l/min) + 10% H2O
                             F1002-40: JS-3 (JWB)                OxMix+LCC12       73GA11             fuel utilisation: 8.4 %
                             F1002-44: CroFer22APU-1st MnOx+LCC10                  48GN2              oxidant: air (8 l/min)
                   0.0
                         0       1000       2000        3000        4000      5000        6000     7000     8000            9000 10000

                   Fuel Cell                                 operation time on load / h                                           Slide 6
                                               Project Management                                         Central Dept of
                   Project                     Fuel Cell (SOFC)IEF-PBZ Institute of Energy Research IEF   Technology        ZAT   FDFC 2008
Durability Tests > 10 000 hours
                                    1000                                                                                                 25


                 Temperatur / °C
            temperature [°C]
                                     800                                                                                                 20
                                     600                                                                                                 15
                                     400                                                                                                 10
                                     200                                                                                                 5
                                     1.2                                                                                                 1.8
                                                                                                                           700 °C
                                     1.0                                                                                                 1.5

                                     0.8                                                                                                 1.2
                 Zellspannung / V
                 voltage [V]




                                     0.6                                                                                                 0.9
                                                       baseline
                                     0.4               0.5 A/cm²                                                                         0.6
                                                        uF 40%
                                     0.2                 700°C                                                                           0.3
                                                     LSCF cathode
                                     0.0                                                                                                 0.0
                                           0             2000         4000        6000            8000             10000             12000
                                                                                Zeit / h
                                                                              time [h]
Fuel Cell                                                                                                                                      Slide 7
                                               Project Management                                                  Central Dept of
Project                                        Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ   Institute of Energy Research   IEF   Technology         ZAT      FDFC 2008
Quantifying Degradation
                      100
                                                                 moving
                            Degradation: Regression über 1000 Stunden average over 1000 h
                      90
                      80
                      70
                      60
degradation [mV/kh]




                      50
Degradation / mV/kh




                      40
                      30
                      20
                      10
                       0
                      -10
                      -20
                      -30
                      -40
                      -50
                            0       2000                4000          6000                 8000               10000           12000
                                                         Laufzeit unter Konstantstrom / h
                                                             time on load [h]
Fuel Cell                                                                                                                         Slide 8
                                   Project Management                                                     Central Dept of
Project                            Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ      Institute of Energy Research   IEF   Technology        ZAT   FDFC 2008
Trends in Cell Performance: LSM to LSFC

                                                                                                                   3.00




                                                                                   Stromdichte (700 mV) [A/cm²]
                                     2.50                                                                          2.50




                                                                             Current Density (700mV) / A/cm²
Current Density (700 mV)/[A/cm²]
        Stromdichte (700 mV) A/cm²




                                     2.00                                                                          2.00


                                                                                                                       1.50
                                     1.50

                                                                                                                       1.00
                                     1.00
                                                                                                                       0.50
                                                                                                                                                                                                          800
                                      0.50
                                                                                                                       0.00                                                                            700
                                                                                                                                                              850
                                                                                                                              00

                                                                                                                                    02

                                      0.00                                                                                                                                                          600
                                                                                                                                               03
                                                                                                                          20




                                                                                                                                                        04
                                                                                                                                   20



                                                                                                                                                           750




                                                                                                                                                                  05
                                                                                                                                             20


                                                                                                                                                      20




                                                                                                                                                                             06
                                             95




                                                                                                                                                                 20




                                                                                                                                                                                    07
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Temperatur / °C
                                                   96




                                                                                                                                                                            20
                                                         97
                                            19




                                                                                                                                                       650




                                                                                                                                                                                  20
                                                               99
                                                  19




                                                                      02
                                                        19




                                                                            03




                                                                                                                          Entwicklungsstand with
                                                                                                                        Development statusSOFCs
                                                              19




                                                                                                                   04
                                                                    20




                                                                                                                          05
                                                                           20




                                                                                                                                   06
                                                                                                                  20




                                                                                                                                         07




                                                                                                                              mit LSCF Kathode
                                                                                                                         20




                                                                                                                             LSFC cathode Temperatur / °C
                                                                                                                               20

                                                                                                                                        20




                                              Entwicklungsstand SOFCs
                                             Development status with
                                                  mit LSM Kathode
                                                   LSM cathode

Fuel Cell                                                                                                                                                                                                    Slide 9
                                                                   Project Management                                                                                             Central Dept of
Project                                                            Fuel Cell (SOFC)                                     IEF-PBZ              Institute of Energy Research   IEF   Technology        ZAT      FDFC 2008
Low-Degradation Stacks
                          000                                                                                       25
       temperature [°C]   800                                                                                       20
                          600                                                                                       15
                          400                                                                                       10
                          200                                                                                       5
                          1.2                                                                                       1.8

                          1.0                                                                                       1.5

                          0.8                                                                                       1.2
           voltage [V]




                          0.6                                                                                       0.9

                          0.4                                                                                       0.6

                          0.2                                                                                       0.3

                          0.0                                                                                     0.0
                                0      500       1000     1500    2000      2500       3000        3500       4000

                                                                 time [h]
Fuel Cell                                                                                                                        Slide 10
                                    Project Management                                                   Central Dept of
Project                             Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ    Institute of Energy Research   IEF   Technology        ZAT   FDFC 2008
       Quantifying Degradation (2)
                                         g          g                              moving average over 1000 h
                               100
                               90                                                                                          Z1
                               80                                                                                          Z2
                                                                                                                           Z3
                               70
                                                                                                                           Z4
         degradation [mV/kh]




                               60
                               50
Degradation / mV/kh




                               40
                               30
                               20
                               10
                                0
                               -10
                               -20
                               -30
                               -40
                               -50
                                     0       500           1000         1500             2000                2500               3000
                                                                      time /on load [h]
                                                                        Zeit h
      Fuel Cell                                                                                                                           Slide 11
                                              Project Management                                                  Central Dept of
      Project                                 Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ   Institute of Energy Research   IEF   Technology        ZAT   FDFC 2008
100 Thermal Cycles of SOFC Stack

                                                                fuel utilisation / %
                               0                   10           20               30               40                 50
                         1.1
                                                                     KL     date / time                 e
                                                                                                  runtim # deep    #m edium
                                                                     number                               cycles   cycles
                         1.0                                         8
                                                                     23
                                                                            01.02.2008 / 15:17
                                                                            14.04.2008 / 11:30
                                                                                                  76
                                                                                                  1824 11
                                                                                                          0        0
                                                                                                                   34
                                                                     30     03.06.2008 / 15:27    3028 32          34
                                                                     40     12.08.2008 / 14:11    4875 62          34
                         0.9                                         54     17.11.2008 / 14:15    7035 100         34
      cell voltage / V




                         0.8
                                   temperature:
                         0.7                 807
                                             800
                                                    °C
                                                    °C
                                             797    °C
                                             801    °C
                         0.6                 811    °C



                         0.5       F1002-100
                                   SK331/ 080129
                         0.0
                            0.0            0.2           0.4         0.6            0.8          1.0             1.2          1.4
                                                                                                         2
                                                           current density / A/cm
 Fuel Cell                                                                                                                                      Slide 12
                                           Project Management                                                           Central Dept of
 Project                                   Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ           Institute of Energy Research   IEF    Technology        ZAT   FDFC 2008
20 kW SOFC System (with dummy stacks)




 Fuel Cell                                                                                               Slide 13
             Project Management                                                  Central Dept of
 Project     Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ   Institute of Energy Research   IEF   Technology        ZAT   FDFC 2008
SOFC for APU Applications

     •      project consortium BMW, ElringKlinger, Eberspächer, Behr,
            a.o. with FZJ, University of Karlsruhe a.o.
     •      consortium leader now ElringKlinger, application: lorries
     •      ‚cassette‘ type design tailored for industrial manufacturing
     •      work on more robustness: sulphur, re-oxidation, rapid start-
            up
     •      achieved:
            * start-up 30 minutes (to first power)
            * ~250 redox and thermal cycles
     •      ongoing: prototype
            development

Fuel Cell                                                                                                       Slide 14
                    Project Management                                                  Central Dept of
Project             Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ   Institute of Energy Research   IEF   Technology        ZAT   FDFC 2008
Future FZJ SOFC Trends

     •      thin-film, low-temperature SOFC cells, 600 down to 400°C
     •      high performance, robust and reproducible quality stacks
            for stationary and mobile applications – design, joining
            materials & processes, contacting, protective layers,
            manufacturing
     •      in-depth clarification of degradation effects, including
            modelling, lifetime-prediction, accelerated testing, advanced
            diagnostics and quality assurance methodologies
     •      multi-10 kW SOFC system concepts for APU and stationary
            power applications – cell size, stack & system concepts



Fuel Cell                                                                                                      Slide 15
                   Project Management                                                  Central Dept of
Project            Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ   Institute of Energy Research   IEF   Technology        ZAT   FDFC 2008
            Thank you for your attention!

                           Acknowledgments go to
                 the whole project team at FZJ, to
      The German Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour
               (BMWi) and The European Commission
        for co-financing part of the research presented here,
            and to all partners in the co-operation projects
                 ZeuS II & III, ENSA and Real-SOFC

      Real-SOFC is co-financed by the European Commission under
               the contract no. SES6-CT-2003-502612


Fuel Cell                                                                                                  Slide 16
               Project Management                                                  Central Dept of
Project        Fuel Cell (SOFC)     IEF-PBZ   Institute of Energy Research   IEF   Technology        ZAT   FDFC 2008

								
To top