Lab Exercise by nikeborome

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									Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Lab Exercise 1                                 Name
COSI Investigation 1: The Effect of Tempe rature on Bitume n Extraction
Reducing the temperature reduces the energy input needed to extract bitumen from oil sand.
Research provides information to determine the feasibility of reducing the temperature—by
testing the stated hypothesis. Complete the Purpose, Design, Materials, Evidence, Analysis and
Evaluation (Parts 1, 2 and 3) sections of the following laboratory report. Use the Problem,
Hypothesis and Procedure to help complete the Purpose, Design and Materials sections of the
report.

Purpose


Proble m
How does the temperature of the chemical system affect the extent of bitumen extraction from
oil sand?

Hypothesis
According to Karl Clark and many other researchers since the 1920s, the extent of bitumen
extraction from oil sand increases as the temperature increases.

Design




Materials




Procedure
Safety: Do not overheat the vials—they may explode from air pressure. Be cautious with the hot
plate and hot water (and glass). Wear safety glasses and a laboratory apron.
1. Obtain 2-3 sealed glass vials (marked for temperature) with oil sand in a controlled mixture.
2. Measure and record (in the Materials) the height of oil sand, pH solution and air in each vial.
3. Use water baths such as 250 mL beakers and enough water (e.g., 125 mL) at about 20 ºC, 50
    ºC and/or 80 ºC to three-quarters immerse the vials (to a controlled height).
4. Place the vials vertically in the constant-temperature, hot-water baths on hot plates for 5 min.
5. Measure and record the temperature of the water in the baths/beakers at the end of 5 min.
6. Remove the vials one at a time by grasping the plastic cap and avoiding the hot water.
7. Wrap several layers of paper towel around each vial and hold tightly.
8. Shake the vial for 45 s horizontally and 15 s vertically and set it to settle for 5 min.
9. Record evidence of the relative separation of bitumen from the oil sand.


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Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Evidence
Table 1.1: The Effect of Temperature on the Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sand
Vial Temperature Relative height of                          Evidence of bitumen
            (ºC)          bitumen froth                         on/in the sand
1            21                 least                                most
2            52             in between                           in between
3            78                 most                                 least
Verified control of the initial quantity/height of oil sand, water and air. (yes/no)




Other evidence:

Analysis




b256c4f6-e30e-43e5-b14f-0199b 50345ff.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                             2/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Lab Exercise 2                                 Name
COSI Investigation 2: The Effect of Air on Bitumen Extraction
The empirical effect of air on bitumen extraction is very important to reducing the quantity of
energy (the temperature) and the pH of the water used. For example, does the air adhere best to
the water, the sand or the bitumen. Complete the Purpose, Design, Materials, Evidence, Analysis
and Evaluation (Parts 1, 2 and 3) sections of the following laboratory report. Use the Problem,
Hypothesis and Procedure to help complete the Purpose, Design and Materials sections of the
report.

Purpose


Proble m
How does the quantity of air the chemical system affect the extent of bitumen extraction from oil
sand?

Hypothesis
According to the concepts of density and intermolecular forces, if air is bubbled into a bitumen
mixture and the air bubbles are captured within the bitumen, then more bitumen floats to the top
as froth.

Design



Materials




Procedure
Safety: Do not overheat the vials—they may explode from air pressure. Be cautious with the hot
plate and hot water (and glass). Wear safety glasses and a laboratory apron.
1. Obtain the 2-3 sealed glass vials with oil sand in a varied mixture of pH 9 solution and air.
2. Measure and record (in the Materials) the height of oil sand, pH solution and air in each vial.
3. Use a hot water bath such as a 250 mL beaker and enough water at about 80ºC to three-
    quarters immerse the glass vials (to a controlled height).
4. Place the 2-3 glass vials vertically in the hot water bath on a hot plate for 5 min.
5. Measure and record the temperature of the water in the bath/beaker at the end of 5 min.
6. Remove the vials one at a time by grasping the plastic cap and avoiding the hot water.
7. Wrap several layers of paper towel around each glass vial and shake horizontally for 45 s and
    vertically for 15 s, and then set the vials upside down on a paper towel for 5 min.
8. Record the relative height of bitumen froth in all the glass vials and any evidence of bitumen
    in the sand layer.


b256c4f6-e30e-43e5-b14f-0199b 50345ff.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                             3/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


   Evidence
Table 2.1: The Effect of Air on the Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sand
Vial Height of air (cm) Temperature           Relative height of    Evidence of bitumen
                                 (ºC)           bitumen froth           on/in the sand
 1              0                 82                 least            a layer & specks
 2             3.0                83          most (but frothy)         thinne r layer
 3             6.0                80         between (but dense)     no laye r or specks

Other evidence: The wate r layer in the 0-cm vial is relatively dark brown; the water layer in
the 3-cm vial is less brown; and the water layer in the 6-cm-of-air vial is a light tan colour.




Verified control of the temperature and the initial qua ntity/height of oil sand. (yes/no)

Analysis




b256c4f6-e30e-43e5-b14f-0199b 50345ff.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                             4/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Lab Exercise 3                                 Name
COSI Investigation 3: The Effect of pH on Bitumen Extraction
This investigation is restricted to studying the effect of pH on bitumen extraction from oil sand.
The research program herein includes studies of the effect of temperature, air, pH, calcium ion
concentration, and oil sand type. Complete the Purpose, Design, Materials, Evidence, Analysis
and Evaluation (Parts 1, 2 and 3) sections of the following laboratory report. Use the Prob lem,
Hypothesis and Procedure to help complete the Purpose, Design and Materials sections of the
report.

Purpose


Proble m
How does the pH of the chemical system affect the extent of bitumen extraction from oil sand?

Hypothesis
According to Karl Clark and many other researchers since the 1920s, the extent of bitumen
extraction from oil sand increases as the pH increases.

Design




Materials




Procedure
Safety: Do not overheat the vials—they may explode from air pressure. Be cautious with the hot
plate and hot water (and glass). Wear safety glasses and a laboratory apron.
1. Obtain the three sealed glass vials with oil sand in a controlled mixture with water and air,
    but with varying pH of 7, 9 and 11.
2. Measure and record (in the Materials) the height of o il sand, pH solution and air in each vial.
3. Use a hot water bath such as a 250 mL beaker and enough water at about 80 ºC to three-
    quarters immerse the vials (to a controlled height).
4. Place the vials vertically in the hot water bath on a hot plate for 5 min.
5. Measure and record the temperature of the water in the bath/beaker at the end of 5 min.
6. Remove the vials one at a time by grasping the plastic cap and avoiding the hot water.
7. Wrap several layers of paper towel around each vial and shake horizontally for 45 s and
    vertically for 15 s.
8. Record the relative height of bitumen froth in all three vials and the extent of bitumen in the
    sand layer.


b256c4f6-e30e-43e5-b14f-0199b 50345ff.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                             5/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Evidence
Table 3.1: The Effect of pH on the Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sand
 Vial        pH        Temperature        Relative height of      Evidence of bitumen
                             (ºC)           bitumen froth             on/in the sand
  1           7               79             in between             thin layer; specs
  2           9               79                most              thin layer; no s pecs
  3          11               77          least (& brown)         brown everywhere
Verified control of the initial quantity/height of oil sand, water and air and of the te mperature.
(yes/no)
Other evidence: The pH 7 and 9 vials show a separation of air, bitumen, water and sand (top
to bottom). The water layer is a light brown (tan) colour. The sand has a thin black layer
on top of it and some specs of black (assume bitumen) in the pH 7 vial. The pH 11 vial has a
light and thin brown froth, a brown water layer, and a brown sand layer.




Analysis




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Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Lab Exercise 4                                 Name
COSI Investigation 4: The Effect of Calcium Ion Concentration on Bitume n Extraction
The following investigation (with more sophisticated equipment) was recently carried out at the
Centre for Oil Sands Innovation at the University of Alberta. The research program herein
includes studies of the effect of temperature, air, pH, calcium ion concentration, and oil sand
type. Complete the Purpose, Design, Materials, Evidence, Analysis and Evaluation (Parts 1, 2
and 3) sections of the following laboratory report. Use the Problem, Hypothesis and Procedure to
help complete the Purpose, Design and Materials sections of the report.

Purpose


Proble m
How does the concentration of calcium ions affect the extent and quality of bitumen extraction
from oil sand?

Hypothesis
Based upon previous laboratory (empirical) work, increasing the calcium ion concentration
increases the quantity of bitumen froth but decreases the quality (purity) of the froth.

Design




Materials




Procedure
Safety: Do not overheat the vials—they may explode from air pressure. Be cautious with the hot
plate and hot water (and glass). Wear safety glasses and a laboratory apron.
1. Obtain the 2-3 sealed glass vials with oil sand of varying calcium ion concentration.
2. Measure and record (in the Materials) the height of oil sand, pH solution and air in each vial.
3. Create a hot water bath using a 250 mL beaker and enough water at about 80 ºC to three-
    quarters immerse the vials.
4. Place the vials vertically in a hot water bath for 5 min.
5. Measure and record the temperature of the water in the beaker.
6. Remove the vials one at a time by grasping the plastic cap a nd avoiding the hot water.
7. Wrap several layers of paper towel around each vial and shake horizontally for 45 s and
    vertically for 15 s
8. Compare the extent and quality of bitumen from oil sand in each vial.


b256c4f6-e30e-43e5-b14f-0199b 50345ff.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                             7/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Evidence
Table 4.1: The Effect of Calcium Ions on the Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sand
 Vial [Ca2+(aq)]       Temp.        Relative height      Evidence of bitumen on/in
         (mmol/L)        (ºC)      of bitumen froth                the sand
  1          0            78              less                thin layer on top
  2         1.0           77             more               thin layer and specs
  3         10            77             more               thin layer and specs
Verified control of the initial quantity/height of oil sand, water and air and of the temperature.
(yes/no)

Other evidence: The wate r layer for 0 mmol/L Ca2+(aq) is brown. The water layer for the
1.0 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L Ca2+(aq) is mostly clear and colourless. However, there appears
to be a low-density (light brown) precipitate forming from the water laye r that settles on
the sand layer.




Analysis




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Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Lab Exercise 5                                 Name
COSI Investigation 5: The Effect of Oil Sand Type on Bitume n Extraction
The following investigation is often replicated (repeated) with slight variations of secondary
variables in research laboratories like the Centre for Oil Sands Innovation at the University of
Alberta. The research program outlined here includes studies of the effect of temperature, air,
pH, calcium ion concentration, and oil sand type. Complete the Purpose, Design, Materials,
Evidence, Analysis and Evaluation (Parts 1, 2 and 3) sections of the following laboratory report.
Use the Problem, Hypothesis and Procedure to help complete the Purpose, Design and Materials
sections of the report.

Purpose


Proble m
How does the type of oil sand (i.e., dry vs. wet) affect the extent and quality of bitumen
extraction from oil sand?

Hypothesis
Based upon past experience in research and industry, the quantity of bitumen extracted from oil
sand is affected by whether the oil sand is allowed to dry in air.

Design




Materials




Procedure
Safety: Do not overheat the vials—they may explode from air pressure. Be cautious with the hot
plate and hot water (and glass). Wear safety glasses and a laboratory apron.
1. Obtain the two sealed glass vials with oil sand of varying dryness (i.e., dried vs. not).
2. Measure and record (in the Materials) the height of oil sand, pH solution and air in eac h vial.
3. Create a hot water bath using a 250 mL beaker and enough water at about 80ºC to three-
    quarters immerse the vials.
4. Place the vials vertically in a hot water bath for 5 min.
5. Measure and record the temperature of the water in the beaker.
6. Remove the vials one at a time by grasping the plastic cap and avoiding the hot water.
7. Wrap several layers of paper towel around each vial and shake horizontally for 45 s and
    vertically for 15 s.


b256c4f6-e30e-43e5-b14f-0199b 50345ff.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                             9/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


8. Compare the extent and quality of bitumen from oil sand in each vial.
Evidence
Table 5.1: The Effect of Oil Sand Type on the Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sand
 Vial Oil Sands         Temp.        Relative height       Evidence of bitumen in the
           Type           (ºC)      of bitumen froth                   sand
  1         dry            82           very little       thicker laye r; lots of specs
  2         wet            82          much more            thinne r layer; fe w specs
Verified control of the initial quantity/height of oil sand, water and air and of the temperature.
(yes/no)

Other evidence: The dried sample produces less bitumen froth and more bitumen on and in
the sand layer. The fresh (wet) sand samples produces more bitumen froth and less
bitumen in the sand layer. The pH 9 vials produced relatively more bitumen froth than the
pH 7 vials, and less bitumen in the sand. The water layer in the dried, pH 7 vial was
clearest. The water layer in the dried, pH 9 vial was least clear.




       dry dry fresh fresh
       pH 7 pH 9 pH 7 pH 9



        dry   dry   fresh fresh
Analysis 7 pH 9 pH 7 pH 9
      pH




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