List of Tagalog loanwords by suchenfz

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									List of Tagalog loanwords
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The Tagalog language, due to its unique history of being colonized and
influenced by the superpowers of the day, had benefitted from its
colonizers'/influential migrants' unique experiences accumulated from
other cultures (viz. Sanskrit; Arabic; Spanish – Greek and Latin, Arabic,
Mexican, English Spanish, Malay, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian languages),
and has developed a unique vocabulary, since its inception from its
Austronesian roots. According to the linguistic expert Jose Villa
Panganiban (who died in the early 1970s and the numbers have surely gone
up as new words are constantly being spun), "of the 30,000 root words in
the Tagalog language, there are close to 5,000 from Spanish, 3,200 from
Malay, 1,500 from English, 1,500 from both Hokkien (Min Nan) and Yueh
Chinese dialects, 300 from Sanskrit, 200 from Arabic, and a few hundred
                                  [citation needed]
altogether from other languages"                    . Some linguists claim that
borrowings from Malay cannot be ascertained at this time, as words from
the Old Austronesian language and those from Malay are still ambiguous
and too similar to be distinguished, but some linguists studying the Malay
language came to recognize semantic cognates with other Austronesian
words, thereby classifying some others to be of Malay provenance[citation needed].


Contents
[hide]

      1   Spanish
      2   English
      3   Cognates with Malay
      4   Sanskrit
      5   Hindi
      6 Gujarati
      7 Arabic
      8 Min Nan (Hokkien), Yueh (Cantonese), and Mandarin Chinese
      9 Japanese
      10 Nahuatl (Aztec Mexican)
      11 Arawak–Taíno–Caribbean/Central American
      12 References
          o 12.1 Additional readings
      13 See also



[edit] Spanish
Spanish is the language that has bequeathed the most loan words to Tagalog.
According to linguists, Spanish (5,000) has even surpassed
Malayo–Indonesian (3,500) in terms of loan words borrowed. About 40% of
everyday (informal) Tagalog conversation is practically made up of
Spanish loanwords. An example is the sentence below, wherein
Spanish–derived words are italicized:

"Puwede ba akong umupo sa silya sa tabi ng bintana habang nasa biyahe tayo
sa eroplano?" ("Can I sit in the chair nearest the window in the duration
of our voyage in the airplane?")

Most have retained at least their spelling, sounding, and original
definition viz. 'basura', 'delikadesa', 'demokrasya' (although this word
was not popularized until the American and the Marcos-Aquino eras).

Others have morphed viz. 'ku(ha)nin' (Sp.: 'coja' + Tag. '–nin'), which
has inconspicuously developed into any other pure Tagalog–sounding word.
Another one is 'maamong kordero' (from Sp.'amo' & 'cordero') combined
together, it conveys the description of a meek, tame, harmless human with
Tagalog adjective prefix and suffix thrown in. Amazing also is the
compound word 'batya't palo–palo', a must word in the laundry business
where many Spanish words proliferate, a sign that the Spaniards really
had a hands–on interactive approach with the Filipinos to this domestic
activity (while less on academic and intellectual matters). The words were
taken from the Spanish 'batea' for 'washing tub' and 'palo' for 'stick'
or 'beater', something a typical Filipino might think had no Spanish
provenance at all.

Others are 'umpisa' (empieza), 'pulubi' (pobre), 'pader' (pared). While
others have totally evolved into new meaning viz. 'kursonada'
('corazonada' originally for 'hunch' has changed to 'object of desire');
'sospechoso', the 'suspicious person' and not the 'suspect' anymore as
it originally means in Spanish speaking countries; 'imbyerna' (invierna),
meant 'winter' became a word for 'bummer'; or 'insekto' – 'insect'
transformed into a 'pesty clownish person'; or even 'sigue' a Spanish word
for 'continue' or 'follow' now widely understood as the second or third
to the last word when about to hang up the phone ('O sigue uhm, bye.').

Others use prefixes and/or suffixes, combined from Tagalog or other
languages, without which the word can not be completed and convey its
meaning viz. 'pakialamero' (from Tag. 'pakialam' and the Sp. suffix
'–ero'); same as 'majongero' ('mahjong' an obviously Chinese word and
the Sp. suffix '–ero'). 'Daisysiete' becomes a corrupted word from
English 'daisy' and the Spanish 'decisiete' combining and overlapping to
coin the term to mean a sweet and sexually desirable sounding female who
is underaged (below 18 years old). And 'bastusing katawan' (Sp.: 'basto'
& Tag.: 'katawan') combined to form a term for a bombshell body.

Even after the Spanish colonizers left, Tagalog is still being influenced
by Spanish as new words are coined, albeit in its own terms, viz.
'alaskador' ('Alaska' + Sp. suffix '–ador'); 'barkada' (from Sp.:
'barca' or a 'boat' to a 'clique'); 'berde' ('green' nuanced to 'toilet
joke'); which are not understood in Spain or any Latin American country.
In a strange twist, even if Filipinos have a chance to Tagalized words
using foreign words, currently English—their most accessible
influence—they coin words in a uniquely Hispanizing way i.e.
'boksingero' (from Eng. 'boxing') instead of using the Spanish
'boxeador't. Or 'basketbolista' (from Eng. 'basketball'), instead of
borrowing from Spanish 'baloncesto' to make it say 'baloncestista' or
'baloncestador' (although basketball is "básquetbol" in many Latin
American countries).

Here are the examples of Spanish–derived Tagalog words in the following
format: Word (Etymology – Original Definition/s if different from
Nuanced Definition. = Derivative Definition if Compound Words) – Nuanced
Definition. Shared Definition precedes Nuanced Definition if both exist.

    Tagalog         Spanish         Meaning
Abante           Avante       Ahead, Forward
Bodega           Bodega       Warehouse
Colegio/Kolehiyo Colegio      College
Diyos            Dios         God
Edukasyon        Educación    Education
Guerra/Giyera    Guerra       War
Hustisya          Justicia     Justice
Ingles            Inglés       English
Kalye             Calle        Street
Luho              Lujo         Luxury
Mundo             Mundo        World
Nasyonalista      Nacionalista Nationalist
Numero            Número       Number
Ordinansa         Ordinanza    Ordinance
Pamilya           Familia      Family
Realidad          Realidad     Reality
Sabon             Jabón        Soap
Tableta           Tableta      Tablet
Yelo              Hielo        Ice


[edit] English
English has been used in everyday Tagalog conversation. This kind of
conversation is called Taglish. English words borrowed by Tagalog are
modern and technical terms. But English words are also used for short usage
(many Tagalog words translated from English are very long) or to avoid
literal translation that makes the meaning bad and repetition of the same
particular Tagalog word. English makes the second largest vocabulary of
Tagalog after Spanish. In written language, English words in a Tagalog
sentence are written as they are. But, they are sometimes written in
Tagalog phonetic spelling. Here are some examples:

Here are some examples:

   Tagalog      English
Basketbol      Basketball
Biskwit        Biscuit
Direk          Director
Ekonomiks      Economics
Interbyu       Interview
Iskor          Score
Iskrin         Screen
Ispiker        Speaker
Isports        Sports
Istampid       Stampede
Catsup/Kechap Ketchup
Keyk           Cake
Perpyum        Perfume
Websayt        Website


[edit] Cognates with Malay
Malays are known to be the ancestors of most Filipinos. They migrated to
the archipelago thousands of years ago, who brought language, belief etc.
to the country before the arrival of the Spanish.

Tagalog               Malay
Ako       Aku – I (first person).
Balik     Balik – Return.
Bansa     Bangsa – Country
Daan      Malay - Jalan
Hangin    Angin – Wind.
Itik      Itik – Duck.
Kalapati Merpati – Pigeon.
Lalaki    Lelaki/Laki–laki – Male.
Langit    Langit – Sky, heaven.
Sakit     Sakit – Ill.
Mura      Murah – Cheap.
Pangulo Penghulu – President.
Saksi     Saksi – Witness.
Sarap     Sedap – Delicious.
Sulat     Surat – Letter.
Tamis     Manis – Sweet.
Taon      Tahun – Year.
Utak      Utak – Brain.


[edit] Sanskrit
       Alak (Sanskrit: arak) – Wine.
       Bahala (Sanskrit: Bahala) – Fate.
       Bathala (Sanskrit: Bathala) – Almighty.
       Bahagi (Sanskrit: Bhag) – Part or portion.
       Diwa (Sanskrit: Jiwa) - Spirit, consciousness.
     Diwata (Sanskrit: Devanta) – Fairy.
     Dukha (Sanskrit: Dukkha) – Destitute.
     Guro (Sanskrit, Hindi: Guru) – Teacher, mentor.
     Karma (Sanskrit: Karma) – Karma.
     Katha (Sanskrit: Katha) – Creation.
     Mahárlika (Sanskrit: Mahardhikka) – Nobility.
     Mukha (Sanskrit: Mukha) – Face.
     Sutla (Sanskrit: sutra) – Silk.
     Visayas (Sanskrit to Sp.: Vijaya – Victory.) – A group of islands
      in central Philippines comprising the main islands of Samar, Leyte,
      Cebu, Bohol, Negros, and Panay.


[edit] Hindi
     Achara (Hindi: Achar) – Pickled or pickles.
     Chaa (Hindi: Chai) – Tea.
     Beranda (Hindi via Sp.: Veranda) – Roofed open gallery or porch.
     Mahal (Hindi: Mahal) – Beloved; sweetheart.
     Sabón (Hindi: Saboon) - Soap
     Syampu (Hindi: Champo via Eng.: Shampoo).


[edit] Gujarati
     Bumbay (Gujarati: Bombay) – Term used for people of South Asian
      descent.


[edit] Arabic
     Alam (Arabic: Alham) – Knowledge, understanding.
     hiyâ (Arabic : hayaa )to feel shame, blush
     Kuya (Arabic :akhuya )my brother


[edit] Min Nan (Hokkien), Yueh (Cantonese), and
Mandarin Chinese
     Apo (Hokkien: 阿公/A–kong) – Grandfather (the word 'apo' means
      grandchild/ren in Tagalog).
     Ate (Hokkien: 阿姊/A–chí) – Eldest sister.
     Bakya (Hokkien: 木屐/bak-kiah) – Native wooden sandals.
     Batchoy (Hokkien: 肉水/bah-chúi) – Pork in soup.
    Bihon (Hokkien: 米粉/bí-hún) – Rice vermicelli
    Bitsin (Hokkien: 味精/bī-cheng) – monosodium glutamate.
    Chekwa (Slang/corruption for Intsik, see ‘intsik’.)
    Daw/Raw (Mandarin: Tao, Originally meant "God", "Way", or "God's
     Way") – He said/she said/they said/it was
     said/reportedly/supposedly.
    Ditse (Hokkien: 二姊/Dī–chí) – Second eldest sister.
    Hikaw (Hokkien: 耳鉤/hī–kau) – Earrings.
    Husi (Hokkien: 富絲/hù-si) – Cloth made from pineapple fibers.
    Impo (Hokkien: 阿媽/A–má) – Grandmother.
    Ingkong (Hokkien: 阿公/A–kong) – Grandfather.
    Intsík (Hokkien: Din Tiak) – Chino.
    Kuya (哥哥; Cantonese: ko–ko; Mandarin: keh–ya) – Eldest
     brother.
    Lumpia (Hokkien: 潤餅/jūn-piáⁿ) – lumpia/spring rolls.
    Mami (Hokkien: 肉麵/bah-mī) – Meat and noodles in soup.
    Pati (Hokkien: ) – Including.
    Pancit (Hokkien: 便 ê 食/piān-ê-sit) – Noodles with sauce.
    Petsay (Hokkien: 白菜/peh-chhài) – Chinese cabbage.
    Pesa (Hokkien: 白 sah) – Plain boiled.
    Santse (Hokkien: 三姊/San–chí) – Third eldest sister.
    Sitsit (Hokkien: ) – Pssst...
    Siyansi (Hokkien: 煎匙/chian-sî) – Spoon-like kitchen
     turner/spatula.
    Siyopaw/siopao (Hokkien: 燒包/sio-pau) – Dough ball filled with
     pork/beef/carabao meat.
    Sungki (Hokkien: 伸齒/chhun-khí) – Malocclusion.
    Susi (Hokkien: 鎖匙/só–sî) – Key.
    Tingi (Hokkien:) – Selling at retail.
    Tokwa (Hokkien: 豆干/tāu-koaⁿ) – Soybean curd
    Totso (Hokkien: 豆油醋魚/tāu–iû-chhò -hî) – Sauteed fish.
    Toyo (Hokkien: 豆油/tāu–iû) – Soy sauce.
    Tausi (Hokkien: 豆豉/tāu-si; 'beans fermented/in brine') –
     Fermented black beans.


[edit] Japanese
    Dahan–dahan (Nihongo: Dandan) – Slowly, gradually.
    Haba (Nihongo: Haba) – Width or Breadth.
    Kaban (Nihongo: Kaban – Bag, satchel.) – Sack of rice.
    Katol (Nihongo: Katoru) – Mosquito coil.
    Jack-en-poy (NIhongo: [じゃんけんぽん|Jan-ken-pon]) -
     Rock-paper-scissors
      Tamang-tama (Nihongo: [偶々|Tama-tama]) - coincidentally
      Karaoke (Nihongo: カラオケ|Karaoke] ) – A form of musical
       entertainment, usually social in nature where one sings from a
       selection of songs with the aid of an audio–video guide that
       provides the instrumental accompaniment and flashes the scripts of
       the lyrics for the player to read.


[edit] Nahuatl (Aztec Mexican)
Tagalog gained Nahuatl words through Spanish and with the galleon trade
with Mexico during the Hispanic era both cultures have exchanged cuisine
as well as language.

      Achuete (Nahuatl: Achiotl via Mex. Sp.: Achiote) – Annatto seeds.
      Camachile/Kamatsile/Kamatsili (Nahuatl: Cuanhmochitl via Mex. Sp.:
       Guamáchili) – Sweet tamarind or Manila tamarind.
      Kamote (Nahuatl: Camotli via Sp. Mex.: Camote) – Sweet potato.
      Pitaka (Nahuatl: Petlacalli via Mex. Sp.: Petaca) – Suitcase) –
       Coin purse.
      Sayote (Nahuatl: Chayotli via Mex. Sp.: Chayote) – A Mexican
       squash.
      Singkamas (Nahuatl: Xicamatl via Mex. Sp.: Jicama) – A sweet root
       crop (water chestnut).
      Suchil (Nahuatl: Xochitl via Mex. Sp.: Suchil) – A flower.
      Tatay (Nahuatl: Tatl) – Father.
      Tiangge/Tiyangge (Nahuatl: Tianquiztli via Mex. Sp.: Tianguis) –
       Seasonal markets.
      Tsokolate (Nahuatl: Xocolatl or Chocolatl via Mex. Sp.: Chocolate)
       – Chocolate.
      Tsonggo (Nahuatl via Mex. Sp.: Chango) – Monkey.
      Zapote (Nahuatl: Tzapotl via Mex. Sp.: Chico sapote) – Sapodilla,
       now called Chico or Tsiko. However the word Zapote remained in the
       minds of Filipinos as a place i.e. Zapote, Cavite.


[edit] Arawak–Taíno–Caribbean/Central
American
      Bayabas (Always Plu.) (Arawak: Guayabo via Mex. Sp.: Guayaba) –
       Guava.
      Cacique (Arawak via Mex. Sp.: Cacique) – Chief, boss.
      Caimito (Unknown but somewhere in Caribbean/Central American via
       Mex. Sp.: Caimito) – Star fruit.
     Mani (Always Sing.) Taíno: Maní via Mex. Sp.: Maní) – Peanut. Slang
      for clitoris.
     Mais (Taíno: Maíz via Mex. Sp.: Maíz) – Maiz.
     Papaya (Arawak: Papáia via Mex. Sp. Papaya) – Papaya.
     Patatas (Always plu.) (Taíno: Batata via Mex. Sp.: Patata) –
      Potato.


[edit] References
     Azteca.net
     Academia.org
     Gbarto.com
     Hispanic Culture in the Philippines
     Asiarecipe.com
     Words of Nahautl Origin
     Mexican Words
     Azteca.net
     [1]


[edit] Additional readings

     [2]
     [3]


[edit] See also
     filipinokastila homepage
     Seasite
     homepage

								
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