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									Marine Boundary Layers
       Shear Stress
       Velocity Profiles in the Boundary Layer
                 Laminar Flow/Turbulent Flow
                 “Law of the Wall”
                 Rough and smooth boundary conditions

                                         Suspended Load


                             threshold
 U z   b   critical 
                            of motion

                                         Bed Load
                 Shear Stress
     Force ML 1     M
         2  2  2
     Area  T   L   T L

In cgs units: Force is in dynes = g * cm / s2
             Shear stress is in dynes/cm2
                       (N/m2 in MKS)
        Z


                                      xz
                                 Y
                                                 xy
                                                   xx

                                            X

Each plane has three components – i.e., for the x plane:
For three dimensions: nine components


What are the key components in the marine boundary layer?
XX, YY, ZZ component – is the pressure force, doesn’t act to move
particles


XZ, YZ component – the flow is not shearing in the z-direction (in the
mean)


XY, YX component – assume uniform flow (flow not rotating in the
mean)
         End up with two components:

               zy
                     ,
                            zx
                                       shear on the z-plane in x and y directions


As we get close to the seabed and rotate into flow:

                                  τb
Simplest boundary layer case:


Laminar Flow – smooth boundary
                 no turbulence generated
Z                layers of fluid slipping past each other
                                                            F

          h

                                                                X

                          “No-slip” condition


                            F
In this case:       zx       constant
                            A
Deformation of fluid layers is at same rate for shearing
force
                                du
 linear velocity profile          K
                                dz

   Integrating:


   Boundary conditions:


   Description of velocity profile:
What force (or shear stress) was needed to pull plate A and
create this velocity profile?




                                   u
                          zx   
                                   z

    Molecular viscosity of the fluid (resistance of the fluid
     to deformation)
                    f T , Sal, P 
    Provides transfer of momentum between adjacent fluid layers
Another way to think about shear stress:

   Transfer of momentum perpendicular to the surface on
   which stress is applied.
                     u  
             zx      
                     z  

                      u 
             zx                 u  momentum
                       z

                        kinematic viscosity

    Velocity gradient
           Fluid momentum gradient
                   Diffusion of momentum
Turbulent Flows

    A random (statistically irregular) component added to
    the mean flow




                                     Dyer, 1986

Define u = instantaneous velocity
        u’ = random turbulent velocity
        ū = mean velocity                         u = ū + u’
NOTE! Beware of averaging time scale.


Turbulent fluctuations follow a Gaussian distribution:
                                  Frequency of occurrence

                                                     Average of u’==0




                                                            u’

Turbulence intensity can be described by the RMS fluctuation

                                        
                                  sqrt u'2

Turbulent eddies transfer momentum, much the same way as
molecular diffusion, but at appreciably greater rates.
Van Dyke, “An Album of Fluid Motions”, 1982
Transfer of momentum can be described by:
   “eddy” viscosity - Az – transfer of momentum in z-
   direction
      (note:  in Wright, 1995 chapter)
                        du
       zx  (   Az )
                        dz


      Az >> 


                  du
       zx  Az
                  dz
Eddy fluctuations and momentum transfer:
   u’, v’, w’ - responsible for the transfer of momentum




                             Middleton & Southard, 1984
Z                               • Parcel has lower momentum
                                  at z2 by ρΔu
                                • flux of momentum:
                                    w’•(ρΔu)
                                • As z2 and z1 approach each
                                  other,
                                    u2 - u1 = Δu u’
                                • flux of momentum:
                       ū            w’•(ρu’) or u’w’

    This rate of change of momentum represents the resistance to
    motion, or the shear stress, and averaged over time:

                      zx   u' w'            Reynolds Stress
Since turbulent fluctuations difficult to characterize,
simplifying assumptions can be made:


   u’  u      turbulent fluctuations are proportional to
               the mean flow
   u’, v’, w’ are of similar magnitude



                    zx  u     2




      zx  C d u   2
                             Quadratic Stress Law
Summarize: Three ways to describe shear stress in
the turbulent bottom boundary layer.
• Eddy Viscosity
                 du
        zx  Az
                 dz
•Reynolds Stress

         zx   u' w'
•Quadratic Stress Law

          zx  C d u   2

								
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