"DIODE LASER STATION"
inspector data sheet diode Laser station Protecting chips against laser fault attacks is one of the main security challenges in the smart card industry. With the Diode Laser Station, a user can perform advanced laser fault attacks that meet the highest international standards to assess if a smart card is secured against laser attacks. The Diode Laser Station offers a set of new features meeting the latest timing and power requests from fault injection experts around the world. The special set of diode lasers with dedicated optics and the ultra-fast and flexible control create the ultimate fault injection test solution. Its integration with the Inspector software further ensures that automation and analysis are covered by extendible modules which are flexible and easy to use. PoWerfuL DioDe LaSerS The Diode Laser Station contains powerful red and near- infrared diode lasers (resp. 14W, 20W). The red laser is designed for front-side testing of smart card chips and in Figure 1: Diode Laser Station (DLS) combination with the optics it produces a spot size of 6 × 1.4 µm on the chip surface. This gives an accurate control over a world-renowned optical design house in Germany, for the the chip area. The laser has sufficient power to penetrate Diode Laser Station. The optics and lasers of the system through the gaps in the shielding commonly applied in have been specifically designed to achieve the ultimate laser today’s secure chips (see Figure 2). The near-infrared laser setup for fault injection testing. is designed for back-side testing of smart card chips. This powerful diode laser penetrates the chip substrate to reach the transistors. Riscure partners with Opto (www.opto.de), integrateD With inSPector or StanDaLone inspector integration: The Diode Laser Station forms an integral part of the Inspector test tool. The VC Glitcher controls the timing and power settings of the diode laser pulse, and red laser front side performs triggering, synchronous power measurements and shield card communication. The XY stage and camera connect to the Inspector FI software for navigation and automated surface scanning. The solution can further be extended with icWaves to trigger faults and to prevent a card from breaking down after a laser attack by triggering a cold reset on the VC Glitcher. Standalone: The Diode Laser Station in standalone mode substrate can be integrated with any fault injection test software. In this infrared laser back side mode, the XY stage and the camera (each with software and SDK) are optional. Figure 2: Front-side and back-side testing on smart card chips MuLti gLitching too much energy, the so-called latchup effect occurs which Accurate timing is critical in fault injection testing. It is required causes chip damage. Only when injecting the right amount when targeting specific program instructions and it saves of energy, integrated circuitry can be effectively manipulated. testing time when investigating a specific weakness. The With the Diode Laser Station, a user can accurately tune the Diode Laser Station has a stable and very fast response to laser strength from the software to find a chip’s vulnerable a trigger which enables any multi-glitching test scenario. energy level. Figure 4 shows a short red laser pulse on a chip Figure 5 shows an example of the laser response when multi surface. glitching with the Diode Laser Station and the VC Glitcher. At the top graph, three trigger pulses are generated with aPPLication different lengths and a shortest interval of 20 nanoseconds. The Diode Laser Station is designed to test smart card chips The bottom graph shows that the laser responds to each of the latest generation. The tool has demonstrated to be very trigger with a constant delay of 50 nanoseconds, and with the effective in testing hardware and software countermeasures exact same interval as the trigger pulses. in smart cards. It automates the surface scanning process, it offers fine control over the laser power, and it injects pulses aDjuSting PoWer with a small spot size. With the accurate and fast response to Smart card chips differ and to identify a chip’s weakest a trigger and with the ability to perform multi glitching, it is the spot, one has to be able to accurately adjust the strength ultimate fault injection test tool. of the laser pulse. Figure 3 shows the relationship between laser energy and the effect on an integrated circuit. When injecting too little energy, there is no effect, and when injecting WL,nJ latch-up effect 10 1 reliable switching 0.1 0.01 not enough energy to switch 0.001 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Figure 3: Relationship between injected laser energy and effect on Figure 4: Red laser pulse transistors (source: Sergei Skorobogatov) Figure 5: Measurement of three trigger pulses (top) and corresponding laser responses (bottom) teSt aPProach 4. Detailed testing in specific area Although the Diode Laser Station is also available in Once an area of interest has been identified, detailed testing standalone mode, here we assume it operates with the other can be performed by iteratively and automatically changing Inspector components. the strength and duration of the laser pulse and by adjusting the timing of the injected faults. An example of the test 1. chip preparation results is shown in Figure 8. For each fault injected, the fault The chip under test should first be de-capsulated. Figure 9 parameters and location, I/O of the card, and the measured shows an example of a prepared chip. Note that de- power trace are logged. For more information on the software capsulation equipment is not included with the Diode Laser features of Inspector FI, please refer to the Inspector software Station. data sheet. 2. communication & parameters The smart card under test is inserted in the VC Glitcher. uSer controL The user makes his own perturbation program on the VC The user controls the following parameters from the Inspector FI software: Glitcher using the dedicated fault injection API in Inspector Flexible multi-glitch testing and configures the parameters such as timing and power Automated testing with randomized or fixed settings of the laser pulse and triggering (e.g. see Figure 6 parameters: pulse length, offset, repetition count, timing and Figure 7). Digital scaling of laser power strength Automatic XY scanning range 3. Profiling chip surface In addition, the following manual controls are available on The smart card with VC Glitcher is mounted on the XY stage the Diode Laser Station: to perform automated scanning of the chip surface. The Back / front side position of smart card smart card behaviour during the tests is logged by VC Glitcher Laser wavelength selection: near-infrared or red and stored on the workstation with Inspector software for Joystick driven positioning of the XY stage further analysis. The smart card power consumption is also Spot size variation by objective selection, focus, and spot size reducer monitored to assist in identifying weak spots on the chip. Light reduction filters for lowest power range Figure 6: Fault injection parameters Figure 7: Microscope control Figure 8: Test results after a laser attack run: power trace, camera image, and test results for each laser pulse Figure 9: Chip prepared for laser attacks Figure 10: Chip front side (5x) Figure 11: Shield covering front side (50x) Figure 12: Chip surface (50x) DioDe LaSer verSuS LaSer cutter Most laser setups currently used for fault injection attacks BenefitS on smart cards are based on laser cutting technology. Diode Near Infrared diode laser enabling silicon substrate lasers have always been attractive but historically lacked the penetration for back side attack power and small spot size for effective chip manipulation. Powerful red diode laser for front side attack These issues have been resolved in the Diode Laser Station Small spot sizes by applying a dedicated laser and optics design and by using Fast multi glitching the latest diode laser technology. It further offers features that Accurate digital scaling laser cutters do not offer: Fast and predictable response to trigger pulse Automatic scanning of a chip’s surface with integrated Effective multi glitching motorized XY stage A short and constant trigger response time Camera inspection of laser spot and location on Accurate digital control over laser power chip area Integration with Inspector’s software and fault This makes the Diode Laser Station a very powerful and flexible analysis modules solution for fault injection testing. The table summarises the differences between a typical laser cutter solution and the Diode Laser Station. Solution based on typical laser cutter inspector Diode Laser Station intended application Laser cutting, failure analysis Side channel fault injection Laser wavelengths IR/Green IR/Red Power level control Difficult to adjust to lower power level in efficient Digital control over power level that can be manner adjusted in automated manner timing accuracy >1000 ns propagation delay, with significant jitter 50 ns propagation delay, no jitter Multi-glitch frequency Max 0.050 kHz Max 25,000 kHz integration Usually a set of scripts running in different software Inspector tool in one integrated software environments environment visual feedback Oculars, camera is added separately Camera integrated with Inspector software Waveform based triggering Not available / limited to oscilloscope features Compatible with icWaves for triggering based on a complex waveform technicaL SPecificationS 808nm red laser 1064nm nir laser Purpose Smart card chip frontside testing Smart card chip backside testing Wavelength 808 nm 1064 nm type Multimode Multimode Max laser pulse power 14W 20 W Max pulse frequency 25 MHz 25 MHz Propagation delay 50 ns 50 ns Spot size (50× objective) 1 6 × 1.4 µm 6 × 1.4 µm Laser class CLASS IV CLASS IV Diode life time No degradation of laser power @ 3500 hrs continuous No degradation of laser power @ 3500 hrs continuous operation. In pulsed mode many more hours. operation. In pulsed mode many more hours. Laser controls Analog input 0 – 3.3 V for power level, TTL input Analog input 0 – 3.3 V for power level, TTL input for laser modulation, laser diode current monitor for laser modulation, laser diode current monitor output 20 A/V output 20 A/V operating requirements Safety box (optional) Temperature 20 degrees Celsius +- 5 degrees Purpose Enable safe operation of the DLS in an Relative humidity 20% – 80% non condensing open room Voltage 100 – 240 V, 50 – 60 Hz External Dimensions 76.5 × 53.5 × 44.5 cm (h×w×d) Power 700 W max Indicators Externally visible light indicator during laser operation Shut down Laser power is shut down when door Microscope is opened Combined course - 2400 µm / rev – 350 µm / rev Safety regulations No warranty is provided that the safety fine focus unit box meets local safety regulations Illumination Cold light source Schott KL 1500 LED in the country in which the DLS is through fiber optic operated 5x objective M Plan NIR NA=0.14 mm, F=40 mm, WD=37.5 mm accessories (optional) 20x objective M Plan NIR NA=0.40 mm, Additional filters On request, additional light blocking F=10 mm, WD=20 mm filters to reduce laser power 50x objective M Plan NIR NA=0.42 mm, Additional optics The optics in the DLS reduce the spot F=4 mm, WD=17 mm size 10:1. On request, additional optics are available to produce a different camera reduction. Frames per second 15 Sensor 1/2” Sony CCD colour Resolution 1280 × 1024, SXGA Die image size 1.2 × 1 mm (5× objective) Die image size 300 × 250 µm (20× objective) Die image size 120 × 100 µm (50× objective) Microscope XY stage Max. travel range 75 × 50 mm 1 Spot size is measured as the chip surface area in which 80% of the laser Minimum step size 0.05 µm power is concentrated. Accuracy ± 3 µm dLs1.0.0714 riscure B.v. Repeatability < 1 µm Phone: +31 (0)15 251 4090 Travel speed 45 mm/sec Fax: +31 (0)15 251 4099 Controller interface USB and joystick E-mail: email@example.com Website: www.riscure.com