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DIODE LASER STATION

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					inspector data sheet


diode Laser station
Protecting chips against laser fault attacks is one of
the main security challenges in the smart card industry.
With the Diode Laser Station, a user can perform
advanced laser fault attacks that meet the highest
international standards to assess if a smart card is
secured against laser attacks.


The Diode Laser Station offers a set of new features meeting
the latest timing and power requests from fault injection
experts around the world. The special set of diode lasers
with dedicated optics and the ultra-fast and flexible control
create the ultimate fault injection test solution. Its integration
with the Inspector software further ensures that automation
and analysis are covered by extendible modules which are
flexible and easy to use.


PoWerfuL DioDe LaSerS
The Diode Laser Station contains powerful red and near-
infrared diode lasers (resp. 14W, 20W). The red laser is
designed for front-side testing of smart card chips and in                    Figure 1: Diode Laser Station (DLS)

combination with the optics it produces a spot size of 6 × 1.4
µm on the chip surface. This gives an accurate control over                   a world-renowned optical design house in Germany, for the
the chip area. The laser has sufficient power to penetrate                    Diode Laser Station. The optics and lasers of the system
through the gaps in the shielding commonly applied in                         have been specifically designed to achieve the ultimate laser
today’s secure chips (see Figure 2). The near-infrared laser                  setup for fault injection testing.
is designed for back-side testing of smart card chips. This
powerful diode laser penetrates the chip substrate to reach
the transistors. Riscure partners with Opto (www.opto.de),                        integrateD With inSPector or
                                                                                  StanDaLone
                                                                                  inspector integration: The Diode Laser Station forms an
                                                                                  integral part of the Inspector test tool. The VC Glitcher controls
                                                                                  the timing and power settings of the diode laser pulse, and
                            red laser                            front side
                                                                                  performs triggering, synchronous power measurements and
 shield                                                                           card communication. The XY stage and camera connect
                                                                                  to the Inspector FI software for navigation and automated
                                                                                  surface scanning. The solution can further be extended with
                                                                                  icWaves to trigger faults and to prevent a card from breaking
                                                                                  down after a laser attack by triggering a cold reset on the VC
                                                                                  Glitcher.


                                                                                  Standalone: The Diode Laser Station in standalone mode
 substrate
                                                                                  can be integrated with any fault injection test software. In this
                                   infrared laser                back side        mode, the XY stage and the camera (each with software and
                                                                                  SDK) are optional.


Figure 2: Front-side and back-side testing on smart card chips
MuLti gLitching                                                                   too much energy, the so-called latchup effect occurs which
Accurate timing is critical in fault injection testing. It is required            causes chip damage. Only when injecting the right amount
when targeting specific program instructions and it saves                         of energy, integrated circuitry can be effectively manipulated.
testing time when investigating a specific weakness. The                          With the Diode Laser Station, a user can accurately tune the
Diode Laser Station has a stable and very fast response to                        laser strength from the software to find a chip’s vulnerable
a trigger which enables any multi-glitching test scenario.                        energy level. Figure 4 shows a short red laser pulse on a chip
Figure 5 shows an example of the laser response when multi                        surface.
glitching with the Diode Laser Station and the VC Glitcher.
At the top graph, three trigger pulses are generated with                         aPPLication
different lengths and a shortest interval of 20 nanoseconds.                      The Diode Laser Station is designed to test smart card chips
The bottom graph shows that the laser responds to each                            of the latest generation. The tool has demonstrated to be very
trigger with a constant delay of 50 nanoseconds, and with the                     effective in testing hardware and software countermeasures
exact same interval as the trigger pulses.                                        in smart cards. It automates the surface scanning process, it
                                                                                  offers fine control over the laser power, and it injects pulses
aDjuSting PoWer                                                                   with a small spot size. With the accurate and fast response to
Smart card chips differ and to identify a chip’s weakest                          a trigger and with the ability to perform multi glitching, it is the
spot, one has to be able to accurately adjust the strength                        ultimate fault injection test tool.
of the laser pulse. Figure 3 shows the relationship between
laser energy and the effect on an integrated circuit. When
injecting too little energy, there is no effect, and when injecting


WL,nJ



                                  latch-up effect
   10



    1

                                 reliable switching

  0.1



 0.01                     not enough energy to switch



0.001
              0.6          0.7          0.8           0.9        1.0

Figure 3: Relationship between injected laser energy and effect on                Figure 4: Red laser pulse
         transistors (source: Sergei Skorobogatov)




Figure 5: Measurement of three trigger pulses (top) and corresponding laser responses (bottom)
teSt aPProach                                                    4. Detailed testing in specific area
Although the Diode Laser Station is also available in            Once an area of interest has been identified, detailed testing
standalone mode, here we assume it operates with the other       can be performed by iteratively and automatically changing
Inspector components.                                            the strength and duration of the laser pulse and by adjusting
                                                                 the timing of the injected faults. An example of the test
1. chip preparation                                              results is shown in Figure 8. For each fault injected, the fault
The chip under test should first be de-capsulated. Figure 9      parameters and location, I/O of the card, and the measured
shows an example of a prepared chip. Note that de-               power trace are logged. For more information on the software
capsulation equipment is not included with the Diode Laser       features of Inspector FI, please refer to the Inspector software
Station.                                                         data sheet.


2. communication & parameters
The smart card under test is inserted in the VC Glitcher.            uSer controL
The user makes his own perturbation program on the VC                The user controls the following parameters from the
                                                                     Inspector FI software:
Glitcher using the dedicated fault injection API in Inspector
                                                                          Flexible multi-glitch testing
and configures the parameters such as timing and power
                                                                          Automated testing with randomized or fixed
settings of the laser pulse and triggering (e.g. see Figure 6             parameters: pulse length, offset, repetition count, timing
and Figure 7).                                                            Digital scaling of laser power strength
                                                                          Automatic XY scanning range
3. Profiling chip surface
                                                                     In addition, the following manual controls are available on
The smart card with VC Glitcher is mounted on the XY stage
                                                                     the Diode Laser Station:
to perform automated scanning of the chip surface. The                    Back / front side position of smart card
smart card behaviour during the tests is logged by VC Glitcher            Laser wavelength selection: near-infrared or red
and stored on the workstation with Inspector software for                 Joystick driven positioning of the XY stage
further analysis. The smart card power consumption is also                Spot size variation by objective selection, focus, and
                                                                          spot size reducer
monitored to assist in identifying weak spots on the chip.
                                                                          Light reduction filters for lowest power range




Figure 6: Fault injection parameters                             Figure 7: Microscope control
Figure 8: Test results after a laser attack run: power trace, camera image, and test results for each laser pulse




Figure 9: Chip prepared for laser attacks                                              Figure 10: Chip front side (5x)




Figure 11: Shield covering front side (50x)                                            Figure 12: Chip surface (50x)
DioDe LaSer verSuS LaSer cutter
Most laser setups currently used for fault injection attacks                       BenefitS
on smart cards are based on laser cutting technology. Diode                                 Near Infrared diode laser enabling silicon substrate
lasers have always been attractive but historically lacked the                              penetration for back side attack
power and small spot size for effective chip manipulation.                                  Powerful red diode laser for front side attack
These issues have been resolved in the Diode Laser Station                                  Small spot sizes
by applying a dedicated laser and optics design and by using                                Fast multi glitching
the latest diode laser technology. It further offers features that                          Accurate digital scaling
laser cutters do not offer:                                                                 Fast and predictable response to trigger pulse
                                                                                            Automatic scanning of a chip’s surface with integrated
     Effective multi glitching                                                              motorized XY stage
     A short and constant trigger response time                                             Camera inspection of laser spot and location on
     Accurate digital control over laser power                                              chip area
                                                                                            Integration with Inspector’s software and fault
This makes the Diode Laser Station a very powerful and flexible                             analysis modules
solution for fault injection testing. The table summarises the
differences between a typical laser cutter solution and the
Diode Laser Station.



                                    Solution based on typical laser cutter                        inspector Diode Laser Station
intended application                Laser cutting, failure analysis                               Side channel fault injection

Laser wavelengths                   IR/Green                                                      IR/Red

Power level control                 Difficult to adjust to lower power level in efficient         Digital control over power level that can be
                                    manner                                                        adjusted in automated manner

timing accuracy                     >1000 ns propagation delay, with significant jitter           50 ns propagation delay, no jitter

Multi-glitch frequency              Max 0.050 kHz                                                 Max 25,000 kHz

integration                         Usually a set of scripts running in different software        Inspector tool in one integrated software
                                    environments                                                  environment

visual feedback                     Oculars, camera is added separately                           Camera integrated with Inspector software

Waveform based triggering           Not available / limited to oscilloscope features              Compatible with icWaves for triggering based on a
                                                                                                  complex waveform
technicaL SPecificationS

                                 808nm red laser                                             1064nm nir laser
Purpose                          Smart card chip frontside testing                           Smart card chip backside testing
Wavelength                       808 nm                                                      1064 nm
type                             Multimode                                                   Multimode
Max laser pulse power            14W                                                         20 W
Max pulse frequency              25 MHz                                                      25 MHz
Propagation delay                50 ns                                                       50 ns
Spot size (50× objective)   1
                                 6 × 1.4 µm                                                  6 × 1.4 µm
Laser class                      CLASS IV                                                    CLASS IV
Diode life time                  No degradation of laser power @ 3500 hrs continuous         No degradation of laser power @ 3500 hrs continuous
                                 operation. In pulsed mode many more hours.                  operation. In pulsed mode many more hours.
Laser controls                   Analog input 0 – 3.3 V for power level, TTL input           Analog input 0 – 3.3 V for power level, TTL input
                                 for laser modulation, laser diode current monitor           for laser modulation, laser diode current monitor
                                 output 20 A/V                                               output 20 A/V



operating requirements                                                        Safety box (optional)
Temperature                 20 degrees Celsius +- 5 degrees                   Purpose                         Enable safe operation of the DLS in an
Relative humidity           20% – 80% non condensing                                                          open room

Voltage                     100 – 240 V, 50 – 60 Hz                           External Dimensions             76.5 × 53.5 × 44.5 cm (h×w×d)

Power                       700 W max                                         Indicators                      Externally visible light indicator during
                                                                                                              laser operation
                                                                              Shut down                       Laser power is shut down when door
Microscope
                                                                                                              is opened
Combined course -           2400 µm / rev – 350 µm / rev
                                                                              Safety regulations              No warranty is provided that the safety
fine focus unit
                                                                                                              box meets local safety regulations
Illumination                Cold light source Schott KL 1500 LED
                                                                                                              in the country in which the DLS is
                            through fiber optic
                                                                                                              operated
5x objective                M Plan NIR NA=0.14 mm,
                            F=40 mm, WD=37.5 mm
                                                                              accessories (optional)
20x objective               M Plan NIR NA=0.40 mm,
                                                                              Additional filters              On request, additional light blocking
                            F=10 mm, WD=20 mm
                                                                                                              filters to reduce laser power
50x objective               M Plan NIR NA=0.42 mm,
                                                                              Additional optics               The optics in the DLS reduce the spot
                            F=4 mm, WD=17 mm
                                                                                                              size 10:1. On request, additional optics
                                                                                                              are available to produce a different
camera
                                                                                                              reduction.
Frames per second           15
Sensor                      1/2” Sony CCD colour
Resolution                  1280 × 1024, SXGA
Die image size              1.2 × 1 mm
(5× objective)
Die image size              300 × 250 µm
(20× objective)
Die image size              120 × 100 µm
(50× objective)



Microscope XY stage
Max. travel range           75 × 50 mm                                        1
                                                                                  Spot size is measured as the chip surface area in which 80% of the laser
Minimum step size           0.05 µm                                               power is concentrated.

Accuracy                    ± 3 µm                                                                                                             dLs1.0.0714
                                                                              riscure B.v.
Repeatability               < 1 µm
                                                                              Phone: +31 (0)15 251 4090
Travel speed                45 mm/sec                                         Fax: +31 (0)15 251 4099
Controller interface        USB and joystick                                  E-mail: inforequest@riscure.com
                                                                              Website: www.riscure.com

				
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