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The Magic World of Adhesives The Magic World of Adhesives


									                         The Magic World
                           of Adhesives
P U B L I S H E D B Y T H E G E R M A N A D H E S I V E S A S S O C I AT I O N ( I V K ) , D Ü S S E L D O R F, I S S U E 2 0 0 8

F R O M Z E R O TO 10 0

Everyone needs adhesive
Adhesive is a product that every-
one needs, from babies to elderly
people. From diapers to denture
adhesive, people need adhesives
regardless of age or phase of life.

Strictly spoken, our use of adhesive be-
gins even before we are born. Of
course, we do not sit in the womb with
a mini glue stick making a welcome gift
for mommy. However, the gynecolo-
gist’s instrument works with adhesives.
Without adhesives, there would be no
prenatal screening, no ultrasound pic-
ture and, of course, mommy and daddy
would not know whether they're ex-
pecting a baby boy or a baby girl.
Once junior has seen the light of day,
adhesives become truly indispensable.
Thanks to adhesives, a baby's "busi-
ness" is today no longer such a chore.
While generations of mothers de-
spaired over piles of dirty diapers, mod-
                                              From diapers to denture adhesive : Adhesives are of the essence at any age.
ern mommies can use handy dispos-
able diapers. Speaking of baby clean-
ing, those moist wipes used to clean         put together using glue sticks, which    ate. Likewise, dollhouses, toy cars and     wild ride tears may fall, but they will
that rosy little bottom? They are glued      are, of course, solvent free. And then   rocking horses are put together with        swiftly dry once the friend has been
together using thin layers of adhesive!      come lovingly produced pictures for      glue, although perhaps not by the           repaired with glue.
And so it goes from kindergarten to          Christmas, Easter and birthdays which    children themselves. And when a             And what about young people?
school. A toddler’s first craft project is   all parents and grandparents appreci-    child’s play horse loses its tail after a   seguel on page 2

    Industrieverband Klebstoffe e.V                                                                                                                               page 1
                                                                                              G E R M A N A D H E S I V E S A S S O C I AT I O N
 Editorial                                      seguel of page 1
                                                Posters can easily be fastened to walls
                                                using removable adhesive - without
                                                drilling holes or driving the parents nuts.
                                                Cell phones can be used for long talks,
                                                                                              The right hand
                                                text messaging and, of course games,
                                                but they too work thanks to adhesive,
                                                more precisely with adhesive films
                                                                                              of the adhesives
 Let’s stick
                                                which sometimes even transmit power
                                                and offer thermal insulation properties.
                                                What is more, computer games and
 together!                                      music downloads would be impossible           A good 6,000 years after the pro-           As representatives of the interests of
                                                without adhesives.                            duction of glues was discovered             the innovative adhesive industry, the
 IVK - the German Adhesives                     Once children spread their wings, they        by the Sumerians, Babylonians               German Adhesives Association (IVK)
 Association – is proud to                      will move to their own apartment - a          and Egyptians the substance for-            concerns itself with product, quality and
 activ-ely participate in the                   difficult undertaking without the use of      merly made by boiling animal                environmental standards, and industrial
 2008 World Adhesive Confer-                    adhesive tape and wallpaper paste.            skins has become one of the most            safety guidelines. The Association also
 ence & EXPO 2008 in Miami,                     Further, packing cases would have to          important materials of our time.            publicizes matters of importance to the
 Florida.                                       be carried from door to door or trans-        It is therefore not surprising that         adhesives industry, such as information
 On behalf of the entire IVK                    ported by horse-drawn carriage if there       the adhesives industry is of im-            on technical, environmental, consumer
 membership I would like ex-                    were no adhesives. Why is that? The           portant value to the national               and industrial safety.
 press a special “thank you” to                 moving van - like all cars - is assembled     economy.                                    The IVK celebrated its 62nd anniver-
 the Adhesive & Sealant                         using adhesives.                                                                          sary this year. In 1946, 29 companies
 Council (ASC) for hosting this                 In professional life, adhesives ensure        The total turnover of the industry –        founded the “trade association for glues
 unique platform for the indus-                 smooth processes. From computers to           which includes adhesives, sealants, ad-     and adhesives” in Düsseldorf – what is
 try to meet colleagues from all                pocket calculators to briefcases - every-     hesive tape, and cement glues for the       now the German Adhesives Associa-
 around the world.                              thing is glued together. What about sta-      construction industry – came to ap-         tion. Currently the Association has a
 It is always good to be with                   tionery? The seams of envelopes and           proximately    2.9   billion   Euro   in    membership of 129 companies pro-
 friends!                                       stamps are held in place thanks to ad-        Germany in 2007. The application of         ducing adhesives, adhesive tape and
 Adhesives and sealants are                     hesive. To ensure that in the hassle of       adhesives and sealants in almost every      adhesive raw materials in Germany and
 familiar and reliable partners to              everyday business nothing is neglected        industrial process generates a potential    Austria,    whose        economic     and
 the industry, and a life without               - while the phone rings and the door-         added value of far in excess of 300 bil-    technical interests are represented by
 adhesives would be a complete-                 bell buzzes (also glued together!) - you      lion Euro.                                  the IVK.
 ly different one. Adhesive                     use adhesive notes.
 bonding is the key technology                  After retirement, adhesives are handy
 of the 21st century!                           helpers as well. Now there is enough
 With The Magic World of Ad-                    time to pave the terrace - using tile ad-
 hesives, it is our intention to                hesive - or repair leaky tiles in the bath-
 create awareness for a unique
 technology and to give a dee-
 per insight into the fascinating
                                                room or the kitchen using silicone.
                                                With wood glue, spray glue and super-
                                                glue grandparents and grandchildren
                                                                                              The history of adh e
 and multi-faceted world of ad-                 can create beautiful model landscapes
 hesives.                                       or cute bird houses.
                                                And if grandpa should take a tumble,
                                                some bone cement would help fasten
                                                a new hip joint. Ensuring that grandpa
 Ansgar van Halteren                            won’t be out of action for long.
 Senior Executive IVK                           Life without adhesives?
                                                Simply forget about it.                                                      Sumerians
                                                                                                                             glue using
                                                                                                                              animals                                            The Greeks
Imprint                                                                                                                         skin
                                                                                                                                                     Egyptians use
                                                                                                                                                     animals glue                 invent an
                                                                                                   Mesoptamiens                                      for inlay work                effective
The German Adhesives Association (IVK)
                                                                                                   use asphalt for                                                                    fish
                                                                                                    construction                                                                     glue
Völklinger Straße 4 (RWI-Haus) · D- 40219 Düsseldorf
Phone +49 (0)211/6 79 31-10 · Fax +49 (0)211/6 79 31-33
Henkel, IVK, Salmon, obs/bofrost,
Purbond, obs/Ströer, adidas, Haribo, VDT, 3M                                                               4000                3000                      1500                          500
Editorial/Design:                                                                                           BC                  BC                        BC                           BC
Dülberg & Brendel GmbH · Düsseldorf
Heinendruck, Düsseldorf

 Industrieverband Klebstoffe e.V                                                                                                                                              page 2
          H E A LT H Y A N D E C O LO G I C A L

          Bonded houses
          Today architectural masterpieces
          or multi-story apartment houses
          are made from timber which is
          glued together, and is also a
          renewable building material.
          Thanks to latest adhesive technol-
          ogy, this is the most sustainable
          and the safest way to build a

          Scandinavia and USA have a history of
          timber buildings and now, the Germans
          have started building houses using this
          traditional material. Today every 5th
          house is constructed from timber,
          which has made many other materials
          completely superfluous: even load-bear-
          ing structures are made from wood or,
          more precisely, wood plus an adhesive,
          a composite of various layers of timber
                                                       Timber buildings in Europe.
          which are glued together under pres-
          sure. The result is an absolutely stable
          element of any length and thickness.       vironmentally safe, not harmful to         hesive technology does without sol-       of the future) in St. Moritz. For this
          Curved components can also be man-         health and, what is more, invisible. The   vents or formaldehyde. This gives a       remarkable building, to begin with,
          ufactured by laminating wood with a        special adhesive reacts with the mois-     great indoor environmental quality to-    architect Lord Norman Foster had all
          suitable adhesive. A single-component      ture contained in the wood. As an al-      gether with outstanding comfort of liv-   load-bearing timber components pre-
          polyurethane adhesive (i.e., PUR), al-     ternative to conventional glue used for    ing and a unique design. A prominent      fabricated from glued timber elements
          lows for adhesive bonds which are en-      this type of application, this new ad-     example is „Chesa Futura„ (i.e., house    and then assembled on site.

h esives

                                                                                                       29 Businesses
                                                                                  The first            found the trade                                 Today there are
      A stronger                                                                                       association of         Special adhesives      over 30,000 types
                                                                                artical glue                                      for metal
        glue is                                                                                           Glue and                                     of adhesives
                                                                               is produced                                       and plastic
      developed                                                                                      Adhesives - Today
          for                                                                                           the German             compounds are
     bookbinding               The first glue                                                              Adhesives              produced
ks                                                     The first ready
                              factory is built                                                           Association
n                                                    to use plant glue
                                in Holland
e                                                       is invented

         1500                     1690                    1889                      1909                    1946                     1960                   2008
          AD                       AD                      AD                        AD                      AD                       AD                     AD

          page 3                                                                                                                              Industrieverband Klebstoffe e.V.

In lingerie and other clothing:
What men and women wear “down there” continues to be an exciting,                                                                     meet the demanding criteria put for-
voyeuristic question. The answer is always: adhesives. In bras, as well                                                               ward in the Oeko-Tex Standard 100
as in other clothing, special adhesives bind together the various layers                                                              (German standard) for environmentally
of material.                                                                                                                          friendly clothing.
                                                                                                                                      The constantly changing demands put
When Halle Berry took the stage to ac-    The requirements for the textiles are                                                       on material and clothing are only real-
cept the Oscar for Best Actress, envi-    highly varied and often so complex that                                                     izable   with   adhesive   technology.
ous women and admiring men looked         a single material is not enough. That is                                                    Outdoor clothing today must be re-
on. Her appearance, her evening gown      why it is necessary to combine materi-                                                      silient to the rigors of the washing ma-
and cleavage were impressive. And         als, regardless if it is for lingerie or out-                                               chine, dirt and UV exposure. Protective
more than a few were asking them-         door clothing.                                                                              clothing must be resistant to fire and
selves what was hidden under this fab-    The adhesives that allow the laminat-                                                       chemicals. Surgical gowns must be re-
ulous outfit.                             ing and coating of textiles are hot melt                                                    sistant to sterilization and hydrolysis.
You can be safe in assuming one thing:    adhesives, dispersion adhesives and                                                         All of these demands are met without
she was wearing adhesives.                powdered adhesives. They combine the                                                        sacrificing the comfort or reducing the
The reason? A lot of our clothing, es-    different materials and membranes per-                                                      breathability of the clothing.
pecially bras and panties are composed    manently and make sure that we stay                                                         The same goes for everyone, whether
of multiple layers of material coated     warm and dry in our clothing, and at                                                        or not you, like Halle Berry, shine in
with special adhesives. Often these ma-   the same time allow our skin to                   Special adhesives combine                 Hollywood’s spotlight: Clothing makes
                                                                                            the different layers of clothing.
terials contain breathable membranes.     breathe. These high-tech adhesives                                                          the man – and adhesives too.

T R A M P L E D U N D E R F O OT …

Good grip
Trampled under foot - can you             „Where you find the ground, spread
imagine what carpet, parquet,             something good on it“, said the Swiss
linoleum and the like have to en-         poet and philosopher John Caspar
dure? Every day, people trip, scam-       Lavater. True, he probably was not think-
per, shuffle, trudge and tramp on         ing about floor coatings, nor carpeting,
them. Sometimes in high heels,            PVC coatings and related adhesives.
sometimes with rug-ged boots or           These surfaces are subject to a per-
other heavy foot-wear. Of course,         manent load, particularly in public
the adhesive underneath the floor         buildings. That said, quality is not a lux-
surface has to endure these loads         ury but of the essence. Rubber coatings           Trampled under foot: Adhesives used for floor coverings must
                                                                                            maintain outstanding durability.
as well.                                  in airports and railway stations have to
                                          resist loads comparable to several herds
                                          of hippos, elephants and rhinos cross-          tomary in railway stations or airports,     duct electricity. This as applies too for
                                          ing. Every day, armies of passengers,           they are glued with resin adhesives.        all rooms where major IT equipment is
                                          pilots, flight attendants and train con-        Finally, temperature variations, solar      housed. The machines must be-
                                          ductors lug their baggage over them.            radiation, moisture or heavy equipment      grounded to the floor.
                                          Furthermore, floors and adhesives both          as used for damp cleaning, add on to        In residential buildings, carpet, lami-
                                          have to stand up to other demands               these strains.                              nate, cork and adhesives are exposed
                                          placed during regular cleaning using            Likewise, floors in hospitals are subject   to less harsh conditions. Still furniture
                                          heavy machines and rotating brushes.            to major loads as well. Wheel chairs        castors and floor heating challenge ma-
                                          Usually elastomer covering can be               and meal carts compress floor material      terial resistance. And the adhesive def-
                                          glued using dispersion adhesive which           and adhesives together. What is more,       initely has to hold up if junior decides
                                          is selected to match the covering type.         in the surgery and intensive care units,    to practice roller-skating on the carpet
                                          If the floor is subject to a load, as is cus-   adhesive and floor coating have to con-     while mommy is out shopping!

    Industrieverband Klebstoffe e.V                                                                                                                                     page 4
 Adhesives reliably seal packaging for deep freezers, and your fridge guarantees cool temperatures thanks to polyurethane rigid foam.


Frozen food
It has a long shelf life but is still   No packaging without adhesive?               foods. Of course it goes without saying      lies in the network of polymers with a
fresh and on the table within min-      Can this really be true?                     that adhesives used to make packaging        predominantly closed cell structure.
utes: frozen food is a permanent        A glance at food packaging clearly says      for food conform to all of the strict reg-   Each cell has a sealed cell membrane
fixture on the menus in most            yes. The range of application is enor-       ulations governing food production.          which causes the movement of gas
homes nowadays. Whether it is           mous; from aroma impermeable soup            Invisible, tasteless and odourless – ad-     within the material to be greatly
pizza, fries, summer vegetables or      packets to frozen gourmet sushi, from        hesives hold the very fabric of our su-      delayed – to put it simply, the cold stays
ice-cream – steady temperatures         sealed cheese slices to air- and water-      permarkets together and even play            in the fridge.
below zero are used to conserve a       tight dairy products.                        their part in our culinary paradise at       Foaming agents are used to create this
boundless cornucopia of food.           Just take a walk through your local su-      home. Where would a kitchen be with-         cell structure. CFCs used to be used
Only adhesives make frozen food         permarket – you’ll find yourself in a        out a fridge or freezer? Luckily adhe-       until it was discovered that they were
possible. They provide a reliable       paradise held together by adhesive.          sives ensure that the cold stays where       a great contributor to global warming.
seal for the packaging and ensure       The result: The modern systems of dis-       it belongs and reliably protects ice         Nowadays fridges and freezers are CFC-
that the low temperatures in the        tribution, self-service, ready-meals and     cubes & co.                                  free. Instead, cyclopentane and carbon
freezer remain constant and that        frozen foods are unimaginable without        How is a fridge sealed? Inside there is      dioxide are used; even the addition of
energy costs are minimized.             adhesives to produce impermeable             a particularly cold-resistant layer of       water can help the cells to form.
                                        packaging materials such as laminating       thermoplastic synthetic material, so-        The fact that it is possible for you to carry
                                        foil or to hermetically seal packaging       called HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene).       your fridge into your new home when
                                        (e.g., pa-ckets of coffee). The smallest     Equally resistant to cold is the adjacent    moving – or at most with one helper –
                                        amounts of laminating adhesive (approx.      thick, insulating layer of polyurethane      is due to a second property of polyure-
                                        1 to 3 g/m²) are added to laminating foils   rigid foam, used to fill the housing and     thane. Thanks to a low density, it is very
                                        at rates of up to 1640 ft/min.               door cavities. The PU-mix is injected        light. As it is also impervious to mold and
                                        Adhesives that are resistant to high and     using special machines, and reacts in-       rotting, and not on the menu of pests,
                                        low temperatures allow packaging to          side to form polyurethane rigid foam.        this means that your fridge, made of
                                        be made for frozen and microwavable          The secret of polyurethane rigid foam        polyurethane rigid foam, stays hygienic.

page 5                                                                                                                                 Industrieverband Klebstoffe e.V.

Stuck on sport
„Shotgun for McNair...takes the snap, looks to the right, throws...and it’s complete the Titan at the one yard        the $25,000 for Tiffany’s Vince
line and he’s stopped short!0...” Can you feel the adrenaline? It’s clear that the most important holiday is in       Lombardi Trophy without the sticky
February, but what allows you to enjoy Super Bowl Sunday in front of the TV in your own living room? How              perimeter advertising and sparkling ads
does the ball keep its shape? Why are there fewer broken bones today than in Vince Lombardi’s time? And               on the score board.
can they shake those colorful pom-poms so hard? The answer, of course, is that adhesives are part of the              You could forget about the tickets too,
game – at the playoffs and always in tackles wherever they occur.                                                     with their glued-on information chips.
                                                                                                                      Even if you were to make it into the
For us to recognize the players tackling                                                                              stands, there would be no beer or gua-
from the stands means we need several                                                                                 camole because the packaging wouldn’t
adhesives. To be more precise: flock                                                                                  be water-tight without adhesives.
adhesives. They not only help the play-                                                                               And do you want one more reason why
ers’ numbers to stay on their shirts, but                                                                             football can only survive thanks to
the name of the player and team too.                                                                                  adhesives?
So without adhesives, football wouldn’t                                                                               Well here you are: The ball, player’s
be a spectator sport at all, with fans                                                                                boots and protective clothing are glued
and reporters in the stadium having                                                                                   so cleverly and produced with such
trouble making out who scored the de-                                                                                 strong adhesives that they get lighter
cisive touchdown for the New York                                                                                     yet more robust every year. The same
Giants this past year. After all, the sta-                                                                            is true for the equipment of the much-
dium would be in complete darkness                                                                                    loved cheerleaders. Where would pom-
and TVs and Radios silent as all the                                                                                  pons be without adhesives? To put it
electronics depend on adhesives.                                                                                      simply: The fascinating sport of foot-
Even worse, the Super Bowl Champi-                                                                                    ball would lose not only its color, but
onship wouldn’t exist at all, because                                                                                 also its speed and liveliness – if strong
teams and the league couldn’t be paid                                                                                 adhesives were not playing the game.

                                             When football is played, adhesives are always playing too – whether on
                                             the ball, shirts or boots.

    Industrieverband Klebstoffe e.V                                                                                                                     page 6

Adhesives take wing
The development of flight over               have, in many areas of the industry,          Weight reduction is an economically          Keeping in mind that today there are
the last six decades is pretty im-           taken the place of rivets, bolts and          advantageous aspect, in addition to the      already around 250,000 adhesive for-
pressive. Today we jet all over the          welding and are still gaining ground.         technical advantages offered by adhe-        mulas worldwide which are completely
earth as if it were the most natu-           Bonded assemblies can be found in             sives. Every pound that is saved reduces     specialized in application, it becomes
ral thing in the world. However,             practically all areas of an airplane: help-   the operating costs of an aircraft; and      clear that there is hardly any other
no less impressive is the develop-           ing to increase stability, safety and pas-    savings in the production costs and -        method of combining components as
ment of adhesives during the                 senger comfort. Today, a modified, or         based on the overall life of the vehicle -   specialized as the adhesive industry.
same period. Over the years, this            optimized, epoxy technology is increas-       fuel consumption are extremely impor-        This is not only, but particularly, true
practical household helper has               ingly used in the production of socalled      tant for the auto and aviation industry.     in the aviation industry.
become a high-tech tool.                     composites, restricting the use of pure
                                             metal adhesive to strictly defined areas.
The use of adhesives as a key techno-        One advantage of the adhesive ele-
logical tool has grown steadily. Highly      ments in paste form is obvious.
specialized adhesive products have now       Because of its consistency, it can also
taken on a central role in the aviation      be used locally and its compensatory
industry. Strictly speaking, without the     tolerances allow for a stable bond.
use of adhesives, airplanes would no         Also, it offers high stability because the
longer even be able to take off because      use of adhesives allows the structure to
the wings, fuselage and tail units would     remain intact during the binding
lack the necessary stability. Application    process. This offers the chance for new         High-tech adhesives are now indispensable in aviation. They pro-
                                                                                             vide comfort, stability and, above all, safety above the clouds.
specific, high-performance adhesives         composite materials to be developed.


Bonded communications
Some inventions become indis-                                                                                                           Isotropic conductive adhesive
pensable within a very short time.                                                                                                      In this type of adhesive film, the cur-
And the cell phone is one of them.                                                                                                      rent can flow in all directions. This is
How did we ever get along with-                                                                                                         how it works: Electrically conductive
out them? Hardly anyone had one                                                                                                         adhesive particles are pressed into the
in the 1980s, but by the end of the                                                                                                     contacts during the drying process, al-
1990s they were everywhere. Now,                                                                                                        lowing an electrical connection. The
one is always within easy reach.                                                                                                        minimum distance between two con-
But nobody realizes that up to 21                                                                                                       tacts is only 0.035 mm. Incidentally,
different types of adhesive foil are                                                                                                    isotropic conductive adhesive film is
used in cell phone production                                                                                                           used in EMI shielding (electromagnetic
today.                                                                                                                                  interference).
                                                                                                                                        Anisotropic conducting adhesive
The cell phone has been an indispen-                                                                                                    This type of adhesive film allows power
sable tool of daily life for more than ten                                                                                              to flow in only certain directions.
years. Business people on the go are                                                                                                    Micro-particles are embedded in the ad-
reachable thanks to cell phones; if an                                                                                                  hesive, which are compressed between
accident happens, help is just a phone         Bonded communications: Modern cell phones function thanks to up                          two contact points, simultaneously gen-
                                               to 21 different adhesive films.
call away; if you are running late, a                                                                                                   erating insulation between the individ-
quick text message keeps your friends                                                                                                   ual points.
and family informed.                         polyurethane, can accomplish is amaz-         to solder joints, adhesive film is lead      Further adhesive film in cell phones
But why are cell phones getting              ing. You can produce electrical con-          free and less vulnerable to heat,            protects against shock and prevents the
cheaper, better and smaller?                 nections between two or more contact          thereby reducing the risk of thermal         permeation of moisture. And adhesive
The answer is simple: Adhesives.             points or replace small screws and sol-       damage.                                      film protects the screen from unpleas-
What modern adhesive films, com-             der joints. The bond is flatter, less com-    There are two types of electrically con-     ant scratches, ensuring untarnished
posed of epoxy resin, silicone or            plex and cost-intensive. In comparison        ductive adhesive film.                       communication.

page 7                                                                                                                                       Industrieverband Klebstoffe e.V.

Safer cars with adhesive
“Glued cars” are safer and more           less. This gives maximum protection to
economical. It is no wonder then          passengers. Today, so-called „crashre-
that adhesives have entered what          sistant adhesives“ are used for this pur-
used to be the domain of welding          pose.
in the automotive industry. For           However enhanced safety is not the
instance, in 2001, 33 feet of             only benefit of adhesives in vehicle pro-
adhesive were used for the body           duction. If doors were welded, the out-
of the BMW 7 model, today 500             side would have to be laboriously
feet are used. About 9 % of annual        reworked to ensure a good appearance.
adhesive production is used in            For glued doors though, there is no
vehicle construction.                     need for reworking, resulting in lower
                                          production costs.
Today a car contains up to 40 lb of ad-   In order to ensure that the windshield,
hesives. And for good reason: crash       which is subject to enormous loads
tests have demonstrated that „glued       (imagine the headwind when riding
cars“ do better than „welded“ designs.    down the highway at 80 mph) and
                                                                                        Adhesives have become a key technology in vehicle construction.
What is more, adhesives do not affect     remains perfectly in place in the frame,
                                                                                        For instance, the front windshield must resist extreme pressure and
how parts are assembled. Other tech-      the automotive industry uses advanced         temperature variations.
niques including welding, riveting or     high performance adhesives. These
bolting impact the rigidity of assembly   guarantee perfect hold overall, even
materials. In the event of an accident,   under extreme conditions including          For modern cars, manufacturers use a        other vehicles as well. While an
adhesives behave like a „buffer“.         wind, rain or hailstorm, blistering heat    range of materials besides steel sheets.    average rail car built between 1981 and
That said, automotive engineers design    in the summer or bitter frost in the        This mix of materials is also held          1993 contained some 22 lb of adhe-
car bodies so that as much impact         winter. Directly glued front and rear       together by adhesive.                       sive, some modern rail cars used in
energy as possible is transformed into    screens ensure lower air resistance,        Incidentally, the use of adhesives is not   Germany today weigh in with up to
deformation energy, rendering it harm-    thereby reducing gas consumption.           limited to car production but is used in    1100 lb of adhesive.


Gummibear-Adhesives & Co.
You have something you want to                                                                                                    The uses people come up with are as
glue? Then just heat up a few                                                                                                     original as they are effective when it
Gummi Bears. Simply place them                                                                                                    comes to adapting adhesive tape to
in a double boiler at a maximum of                                                                                                their own needs.
140 degrees F, then add a little                                                                                                  Cat and dog owners, who fight a daily
water to the bears until you can                                                                                                  battle to remove the hairs of their four-
easily apply the mixture with a                                                                                                   legged friends from pullovers, trousers
paint brush and, hey presto! –                                                                                                    and sofas, have come to love all types
there’s your adhesive. This is just                                                                                               of strong, wide adhesive tape, which
one of over 30,000 types of adhe-                                                                                                 are ten times more effective than any
sive, and this incredible diversity                                                                                               regular clothes-brush. Hair, crumbs, fluff
of adhesives is matched only by                                                                                                   and dust are grabbed by the sticky side.
the variety of ways they are used,                                                                                                Even photographers and the fashion
which is sometimes very strange                                                                                                   industry have long since discovered the
indeed.                                                                                                                           usefulness of adhesive tape. The fact
                                                                                                                                  that the clothes in glossy magazines,
                                                                                                                                  advertisements and catalogs always
                                                                                                                                  look as if they fit the models like a
                                           Do it yourself: making adhesive with gummi bears is easy!
                                                                                                                                  glove, is not only down to their great

   Industrieverband Klebstoffe e.V                                                                                                                                  page 8
figures, but also to the clever use of       Loren and Gina Lollobrigida used           just by using tape. Problem areas are      away in the cellar quietly, it isn’t the
adhesive tape. Anything sticking up or       tape to give themselves deep décol-        simply pulled smooth and stuck down.       revolver that is his best friend; it’s the
out won’t be sewn, but simply stuck          leté without the need for unsightly        And just by the way, even gangsters        strong adhesive tape that makes sure
down. And anyone who has worn a              brastraps.                                 in action films are glad to have their     that the captive keeps his mouth shut
backless evening gown knows the true         Photographers too make unwanted            trusty adhesive tape along. When the       and draws a gasp when he rips it off
value of strong tape. Even Sophia            chubby rolls and wrinkles disappear        bad guy wants to lock his captive          again.


The ocean on your table
What was all the rage in the man-
sions of 19th century? Fishbowls
and aquariums. Technically
though, this was quite a messy
hobby. Candles underneath the
tank provided heating and light-
ing, yet most of the fish did not
outlive winter. The aquariums
were sealed using window putty.
However this material aged
quickly, becoming
brittle and eventually leaking.
Since the late 1960s, aquariums
have therefore been sealed using
silicone adhesive.

Thanks to silicone, proud owners of
goldfish can contentedly watch their
finned friends from all angles. But this
has not always been the case.
The first aquarium was introduced to
the public at large in 1851 at the
London World-Exhibition. The win-
dows were held in place with a cast iron
frame. Until the late 1960s, most
aquariums were built based on this prin-
ciple. The windows were fastened to a
metal frame using window putty. The
product, made from 85% calcium car-
bonate and 15% linseed oil varnish, is
a sealant that has been in use since the       Exotic underwater world or a plain goldfish bowl: with silicones, Aquariums remain watertight.
1700s. While the product is definitely
watertight at the beginning, over time
it becomes brittle as linseed oil oxidizes   ter world behind the window is artifi-     terial, the aquarium’s windows were        form molecular chains. The remaining
in the air, thus leading to leaks.           cial. The only alternative was aquari-     fixed into place and effectively tight-    free exter-nal atoms of the silicone are
The disadvantages of a framed aquar-         ums made completely of glass. Yet          ened at the same time.                     saturated by residual hydrocarbon.
ium, however, were not limited to win-       there was a catch again: although these    Now why are silicones perfectly suited     Compared to window putty, silicones
dow putty, which began to crumble            designs were frameless, they accom-        for aquarium design? They are water        keep their elasticity and remain water-
over time and was rendered useless.          modated a maximum of 20 liters (about      resistant and adhere firmly to glass. As   tight even under extreme conditions
The metal frame also meant an ob-            5.3 US gallons).                           is the case with window putty, they        and for a long period of time. What is
struction of the line-of-sight. When gaz-    Fortunately, late in the 1960s the first   harden in the air, more precisely by at-   more, they do not yellow and the un-
ing at the fish, nothing should remind       silicone sealants provided the solution    mospheric moisture. The silicone           usual, underwater fish paradise remains
the beholder that the exotic underwa-        to the problem. Using the invisible ma-    atoms, together with oxygen atoms,         unclouded by the silicone strips.

page 9                                                                                                                                  Industrieverband Klebstoffe e.V.

Adhesives bring color to
your walls
Walls are like chameleons - whether you want the ambience of the Mediterranean with rich ocher or terra-
cotta tones or the sensibility of modern design with cool colors — wallpaper is the answer. No other
accessory can influence the atmosphere of your home like wallpaper; it really shows off the personality of
the inhabitants. A new phase of life can often begin with a change of wallpaper. And modern
wallpaper paste ensures a smooth transition.

Wallpapering makes it simple.                                       viscosity were    crushed velvet to metallic and matte fin-   Additionally, for every wallpaper job
With a change of wallpaper, you                                      added.           ishes or even shimmering glass beads.       there is a specialized wallpaper paste.
can change a child’s room                                             The type of     Paste for fleece wallpaper can be ap-       As old walls are extremely absorbent
into the room of a teenager,                                          paste de-       plied directly to the wall, and the wall-   and new walls absorb very little mois-
give your dingy apartment a                                           pends     on    paper can be easily unrolled and di-        ture, special products are offered which
homey feel, or make your row                                         the kind of      rectly hung.                                regulate the amount of moisture ab-
house into a real family home.                                    wallpaper used.     In this case, the paste must have a high    sorbed.
However, the old-fashioned wall-                                Modern fashion-       initial adhesive strength, but at the       There is even paste for frequently
papering methods are a thing of the                     prefers fleece wallpaper,     same time it must be remain adjustable      papered, uneven walls which can be
past. Thanks to modern wallpaper and       which is especially long-lasting and can   for a while.                                smoothed over in the one step like a
paste. Modern wallpaper paste still uses   be dry-stripped – provided the right                                                   wallpaper spatula; then the paper can
methylcellulose and starch - of course,    glue is used! Fleece wallpaper comes                                                   be applied in the second step.
both natural substances and both non-      in numerous designs, patterns and sur-                                                 Amazing, what a little methylcellulose
toxic. Often other resins and materials    face textures. Many manufacturers offer                                                and starch can do!
to facilitate application and increase     them with textures that range from

  Modern wallpaper paste makes a simple job of wallpapering, which after years of enjoyment can be easily removed.

    Industrieverband Klebstoffe e.V                                                                                                                                page 10

The classic adhesive
– invented in a church choir
We all know them, we all use                                                        when he turned the pages the scraps           A clever combination of materials, mix-
them – Post-its in every size and                                                   of paper often fluttered out. Since Fry       ing speed and emulsifier creates an ad-
color. But hardly anyone actually                                                   worked for a large company, 3M,               hesive dispersion causing little spheres
knows where this classic                                                            which also produced adhesives, he re-         with a diameter of 30 to 50 microns to
adhesive comes from. The history                                                    membered a colleague who had found            form. These balls of adhesive are an-
of these small, usually yellow,                                                     an adhesive that hadn’t really stuck          chored to the paper with a different
notes began in a church choir in                                                    properly. It was precisely this adhesive      type of adhesive. This base is a dis-
Minnesota.                                                                          that Fry used on his paper strips, which      persion adhesive where the balls have
                                                                                    now stayed in exactly the right position      a far smaller diameter. The combina-
The history of the Post-it note began                                               in his music score.                           tion of large balls of adhesive bedded
in the church choir in the parish of                                                This was the start of the rapid career        in an adhesive layer creates the desired
North St. Paul in the U.S. State of                                                 of a rather unassuming, but incredibly        effect: the note sticks without damag-
Minnesota. A member of the choir, Art    The classic yellow sticky note:            practical product.                            ing the surface it is stuck to because
                                         Post-its can be found on every
Fry, had marked various places in his                                               But what makes the notes actually             only the tops of the larger balls stick,
music score with strips of paper, but                                               stick?                                        not the broad uniform base layer.

A D H E S I V E S U S E D I N M O D E L- B U I L D I N G

A world
in miniature
As it brings out the kid in many        What usually starts out with a small
adults, model-building remains a        model ship or train, often ends in the
very popular hobby. Each year           building of great model landscapes.
thousands make the pilgrimage to        Model-building hobbyists dole out
special model-building trade fairs      countless millions of dollars each year,
and are amazed - what they find         and a great deal of this goes on the
                                                                                      As it brings out the kid in many adults, model-building remains a very
is the stuff of model-building          classic model – the electric railway.
                                                                                      popular hobby. None of this would be possible without adhesive.
dreams. There are cars, ships,          Most modellers are, of course, men.
planes, trains, steam engines,          Many buy complete kits; others insist
hot-air balloons and zeppelins,         on making their own. The passion of         used in model ship-building and all           fuselage and airplane wings, but is also
houses and trees, landscapes and        some goes so far that they install ma-      types of glazing – or Lexan – used in         used in building the landscapes for
streets – all, of course, in minia-     chines for working metal in their           building many model cars, are often           model railways.
ture and as true to the original as     garages. But whether a cheap model          fixed with specialist synthetic adhesives.    Apart from the strength and the dura-
possible. A great deal of adhesive      for beginners is being built, or the mod-   These adhesives in part rely on the           bility of the binding, the method and
has been used in their construc-        eller has greater plans in mind, whether    principle of cold welding: the adhesive       dose of application also plays a role in
tion.                                   the project is a railway system, planes     dissolves the synthetic surfaces of the       adhesives for model-building. Fine noz-
                                        or model ships, a simple static model       parts and then fuses them together.           zles for pin-point application to tiny
                                        or a fully-functioning replica, none of     The hulls of model ships are made of          pieces and hard-to-reach edges make
                                        this would be possible without adhesive.    hardened glass-fiber polyester or epoxy       things much easier. The gluing of base
                                        Classic wood adhesives and instant ad-      resin. To bind these, adhesives with an       coverings requires adhesives that can
                                        hesives are very popular, which can be      epoxy resin base are needed. These            be applied evenly over larger surface
                                        used to join many metals and synthetic      can even be used to attach such tricky        areas: sprayable adhesives help the
                                        materials.                                  surfaces as polystyrene, which through        grass to shoot up in model railway land-
                                        Synthetic materials such as Plexiglas –     its lightness is a perfect material for the   scapes.

page 11                                                                                                                                Industrieverband Klebstoffe e.V.

Chips in your passport
In addition to smart chips, today’s    The capture, storage, and retrieval of    cantly, the chip stays on the plastic card   played a role in the documentation and
passports contain so-called Die        personal data stored on travel docu-      and conducts electricity to allow the        dissemination of information. Their sig-
Attach Adhesives. With their help,     ments, tickets for big events like the    flow of data. This technology was re-        nificance has been shown and proven
the chips containing the neces-        Super Bowl or business inventory is be-   alized with an adhesive that was spe-        throughout the millennia - from papyrus
sary biometric data, such as per-      coming increasingly important. A          cially developed for this application.       of the ancient Egyptians to the naviga-
sonal details and the digital visual   large amount of data can now be           This utilizes two different types of con-    tion system, laptop and LCD-TV of today.
image, are glued directly onto the     quickly recorded and processed. In        tact: on one side a conducting, aniso-
chip’s casing and then the elec-       particular, the increasing need for se-   tropic adhesive and on the other side
tronic connection is made with         curity in inter-national travel and in    a non-conducting underfiller were de-
wires. By connecting wirelessly to     enterprise resource planning have in-     veloped. The high numbers achieved
an antenna, the chip transfers the     creased this demand.                      through the development of adhesives
relevant data to a reader at pass-     The existing technology in the chipon-    that harden in 4-10 seconds and the
port control.                          board (COB) process produced smart        low production costs have opened
                                       cards; however, these proved too elab-    new areas of application
                                       orate and too expensive for wide-         Adhesives in electronics?
                                       spread application in disposable arti-    Without adhesive we would live in a
                                       cles, such as tickets. But then the new   world of electronic chaos. Conductive
                                       Flip-Chip-Technology paved the way        adhesives combine different materials
                                       for mass-market applications.             quickly, safely and permanently - even
                                       The chips were smaller and could be       in small areas.
                                       placed directly on so-called smart la-    Keyword miniaturization:
                                       bels (thin, containing plastic film an-   Micro-assemblies - applications made
                                       tennas) and electrically contacted.       possible in ever-smaller electronic mod-       Adhesive application on a cir-
                                                                                                                                cuit board for later mounting
                                       The production costs are significantly    ules and components - are only possible
                                                                                                                                of electronic components.
                                       lower than for plastic cards. Signifi-    with adhesive. Adhesives have always

  M E M B E R S O F T H E G E R M A N A D H E S I V E S A S S O C I AT I O N ( I V K )
  3M Deutschland GmbH · 3M Österreich GmbH · Adtracon GmbH · Air Products Polymers GmbH & Co. KG · Alberdingk Boley
  GmbH · ARDEX GmbH, DE · ARDEX Baustoff GmbH, AT · Ashland Chemical SP & A Division Drew Ameroid Deutschland
  GmbH · BASF Aktiengesellschaft · Bayer Chemicals AG · Bayer MaterialScience AG · Bona GmbH · BOSIG Chemie GmbH ·
  Bostik GmbH · Botament Systembaustoffe GmbH & Co. KG, AT · Friedrich Branding GmbH & Co. · BÜHNEN GmbH & Co. KG ·
  BYLA GmbH · Cabot GmbH · Celanese Emulsions GmbH · Celanese Emulsion BV, NL · certoplast Vorwerk & Sohn GmbH ·
  ChemCyle Bitterfeld GmbH · Chemetall GmbH · ChemQuest Inc. Europe · Cognis Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG · Coim
  Deutschland GmbH Novacote Flexpack Division · Klebstoffwerke COLLODIN GmbH & Co. KG · COROPLAST Fritz Müller GmbH
  & Co. KG · Cyberbond Europe GmbH · DEKA Kleben & Dichten GmbH · DELO Industrieklebstoffe GmbH & Co. KG · DOW
  Automotive (Deutschland) GmbH · DOW Deutschland GmbH & Co. oHG · DuPont Performance Coatings GmbH & Co. KG ·
  Dymax Europe GmbH · Dynea Moers GmbH · Eastman Chemical BV, NL · Eluid Klebstoffe e.K. · EUKALIN Spezial-Klebstoff
  Fabrik GmbH · Evonik Degussa AG · Evonik Goldschmidt GmbH · Exxon Mobil Chemical Central Europe GmbH · Follmann
  & Co. · Forbo Erfurt GmbH · Gludan (Deutschland) GmbH · H. B. FULLER Deutschland GmbH · H. B. FULLER Austria GmbH ·
  Hinterwaldner Consulting & Partner (GbR) · Fritz Häcker GmbH & Co. KG · Hanno-Werk GmbH & Co. KG, AT · Henkel KGaA
  Henkel Central Eastern Europe GmbH · Huntsman Advanced Materials (Deutschland) GmbH · IBOLA Klebstoffe GmbH &
  Co. KG · IFAM Fraunhofer-Institut für Fertigungstechnik und Angewandte Materialforschung · IMCD Deutschland GmbH &
  Co. KG · Jowat AG · Jowat Klebstoffe GmbH & Co. KG · Kaneka Belgium N.V. Deutschlandvertretung Kunststoffe W. Holl-
  beck · Kiesel Bauchemie GmbH & Co. KG · Kleiberit Klebstoffe Klebchemie M.G. Becker GmbH & Co. KG · KNAUF Gesell-
  schaft m.b.H., AT · Kömmerling Chemische Fabrik GmbH · KRAHN CHEMIE GMBH · Kraton Polymers GmbH · Lanxess Europe
  GmbH · Lohmann GmbH & Co. KG · LOOP GmbH · LORD Germany GmbH · LUGATO GmbH & Co. KG · MAPEI GmbH, AT·
  Johannes Märtens KG · Minova CarboTech GmbH · Murexin AG, AT · National Starch & Chemical GmbH · Newport Industries
  Ltd. · Nordic Adhesive Technology GmbH · Novamelt GmbH · NYNAS GmbH · Hermann Otto GmbH · Panacol-Elosol GmbH
  PCI Augsburg GmbH Niederlassung Österreich · Planatol Adhesive GmbH · PLANATOL Milker Adhesive GmbH · Polimeri
  Europa GmbH · PolymerLatex GmbH & Co. KG · PRHO-CHEM GmbH · Ramge Chemie GmbH · RENIA Ges. mbH chemische
  Fabrik · Rhenocoll Lacke Leime Lasuren · Robatech GmbH · Rohm and Haas Deutschland GmbH · Röhm GmbH & Co. KG ·
  Rütgers Chemicals AG · Saba Dinxperlo BV, NL · Schlüter-Systems KG · SCHÖNOX GmbH · SIEMA Industrie-Klebstoffe
  GmbH · Sika Automative GmbH · Sika Deutschland GmbH · Sika Österreich GmbH · Sopro Bauchemie GmbH, DE + AT ·
  STAUF Klebstoffwerk GmbH · Synthopol Chemie Dr. rer. pol. Koch GmbH & Co. KG · TER HELL & CO. GMBH · tesa AG ·
  TOTAL Deutschland GmbH · Türmerleim GmbH · UHU Austria Ges. mbH, AT · UZIN UTZ Aktiengesellschaft · VINAVIL S.p.A
  Vertretung Deutschland · VITO Irmen GmbH & Co. KG · WACKER SPECIALTIES · Wakol Walter Kolodziej GmbH & Co. KG
  Wakol GmbH, AT · Weiss Chemie + Technik GmbH & Co. KG · Wetzel GmbH & Co. KG · Willers, Engel & Co. (GmbH & Co.) ·
  Worlée-Chemie GmbH · Zelu Chemie Chemische Fabrik Zeh GmbH · Zika Leime + Klebstoffe L. Zimmermann GmbH + Co. KG

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