Docstoc

Sociological Perspective on Family Violence UNH IT pubpages unh edu

Document Sample
Sociological Perspective on Family Violence UNH IT pubpages unh edu Powered By Docstoc
					          A SOCIOLOGICAL PERPSECTIVE
              ON FAMILY VIOLENCE


                     OBJECTIVES
• UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
  SOCIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY
• UNDERSTAND THE IDEA OF "SOCIAL CAUSES" AND
  LEARN HOW TO IDENTIFY THE SOCIAL CAUSES OF
  DIFFERENT FAMILY PATTERNS, INCLUDING FAMILY
  VIOLENCE




                                                1
   Soc Perspective
               INTERRELATION OF SOCIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY

  CAUSE (“INDEPENDENT                         EFFECT ( “DEPENDENT
  VARIABLE” )                                 VARIABLE”)


CHARACTERISTICS,              PSYCHOLOGY         CHARACTERISTICS,
& BEHAVIOR 0F                                    & BEHAVIOR 0F
AN INDIVIDUAL                                    AN INDIVIDUAL
PERSON                                           PERSON



                             SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY



CHARACTERISTICS OF
                                                 CHARACTERISTICS OF
A SOCIAL UNIT (FAMILY,
                                                 A SOCIAL UNIT (FAMILY,
CLUB, SCHOOL, STATE,         SOCIOLOGY
                                                 CLUB, SCHOOL, STATE,
NATION). INCLUDES
                                                 NATION) . INCLUDES
CULTURAL NORMS
                                                 CULTURAL NORMS
AND BELIEFS
                                                 AND BELIEFS 2
           Soc Perspective
EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENCES IN ISSUES THAT ARE
 THE FOCUS OF PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIOLOGY AND
           SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

PSYCHOLOGY: The effect of a child’s temperament on
     the child’s reading ability
     What Makes it Psychology?

SOCIOLOGY: The effect of a child’s social class on
     whether a child goes to college, and which one
     What makes it Sociology?

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
     The effect of a child’s temperament on the
            number of friends friendship group
     The effect of the number of friends on depression
     What makes these Social Psychology?

                                                         3
     Soc Perspective
               DIAGRAM AND EXAMPLES ARE
                AN AID TO UNDERSTANDING,
                   NOT LITERALLY TRUE
• Deliberate exaggerations
• Many exceptions
• Much social psychology (especially small groups) is concerned
  with social organization
• Much sociology uses psychological variables
• Much anthropology is “social anthropology” and focuses on
  cultural norms and social organization




                                                              4
        Soc Perspective
PSYCHOLOGICAL, CULTURAL, AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONAL
     THEORIES OF BEHAVIOR AND FAMILY PATTERNS

TYPE OF THEORY (EXPLANATION, CAUSE) PRESUMED OR INVED STUDIED

PSYCHOLOGICAL: Characteristics of the individual persons such as intelligence,
aggressiveness, depression, empathy

CULTURAL:         Traditions and customs transmitted through learning that govern the
beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them (Kottak 1997 12.2)

SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONAL (1) A relatively stable pattern of relationships between
individuals, or between groups, acting in specific capacities or roles. (2) The
composition of a group, such as its size or its heterogeneity, for example: the size of a
family, city, or nation; the degree of inequality in income within a group, whether one
or both parents are employed outside the home.

   CULTURE AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION ARE SOCIAL CAUSES
   CULTURE AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION ARE OFTEN REFERRED TO AS
    “SOCIAL STRUCTURE”
   ANTHROPOLOGY ALSO FOCUSES ON SOCIAL STRUCTURE BUT MOSTLY
    IN NON-WESTERN SOCIETIES



                                                                                    5
         Soc Perspective
                           WHAT IS A THEORY
For Purposes Of This Course

* AN EXPLANATION FOR WHY SOMETHING EXISTS, OCCURS, OR
CHANGES

* “PROVEN” OR ESTABLISHED THEORY VERSUS HYPOTHESIZED THEORY
    • Proven means that the accumulated the evidence has reached the point
      where there is a concensus among scientists that the theory is correct.
      Examples: Heliocentric theory of the solar system
                 Evolution
                 Birds descended from dinasors now proven

* ANY THEORY ABOUT HUMAN BEHAVIOR THAT IDENTIFIES ONLY ONE
     CASUSE IS PROBABLY WRONG IN THE SENSE OF INCOMPLETE
        Almost all behavior has multiple causes. Examples:
                 Drinking problems
                 Male dominance
                 Social learning


                                                                         6
         Soc Perspective
                      CULTURAL NORMS

* THE RULES SPECIFYING HOW TO BEHAVE THAT
     ARE TAUGHT TO MEMBERS OF A SOCIETY
     OR SEGMENT OF SOCIETY
* NORMS ARE USUALLY SPECIFIC TO A TYPE OF
     PERSON AND A TYPE OF SITUATION

     WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES?
         Children versus adults
         In class and at the beach, ski area
         Among family members versus others
 * MANY CULTURAL NORMS ARE LEARNED AND
        FOLLOWED WITHOUT AN AWARENESS OF
        FOLLOWING RULES


                                               7
    Soc Perspective
          THE CONCEPT OF A "SOCIAL SYSTEM"
Social System is a concept that can help understanding all aspects
of society, including violence
   • Parts are interrelated and influence each other
    • “Influence” does not mean one-to-one link. The fact that there
        are many influences makes that impossible.

VIOLENCE LIKE ANY OTHER SOCIAL BEHAVIOR IS PART OF A
SOCIAL SYSTEM
• Many aspects of society promote or inhibit violence
• Violence has many causes, not just one or two
• Violence in one sphere of life influences violence in other spheres
of life
        Examples on next slide




                                                                 8
         Soc Perspective
       EXAMPLES OF SYSTEMIC ASPECTS
OF VIOLENCE: LEGITIMATE VIOLENCE INCREASES
    ILLEGITIMATE AND CRIMINAL VIOLENCE


• Corporal Punishment Of Children Increases
  Children Hitting Parents (next slide)
• Corporal Punishment of Children Increases
  Hitting of Dating and Marital Partners
• Capital Punishment Increases Murders
• War Increases Homicide Rates




                                              9
   Soc Perspective
                           Figure 1. PREVALENCE OF
                 CORPORAL PUNISHMENT BY NUMBER OF CHILDREN


                         80


                         75


                         70
               PERCENT




                         65
                                                       Unadjusted

                         60


                         55


                         50


                         45
                              .    1     2     3       4+      .

                                  NUMBER OF CHILDREN
                                                                    10
CP20VB2BP
            Soc Perspective
                  11
Soc Perspective
WHAT DOES
THIS CHART                                       FIG. 5 PERCENT OF CHILDREN HITTING
SHOW?                                          PARENTS, BY VIOLENCE BETWEEN PARENTS
                                                    AND PARENT-TO-CHILD VIOLENCE
A. Literal facts
                                                      BOTH VIOLENT
B.
                                         60%
                                                      WIFE ONLY

Conclusions
                PERCENT HITTING PARENT
                                                      HUSBAND ONLY
                                         50%          NEITHER VIOLENT



                                         40%



                                         30%



                                         20%



                                         10%



                                         0%
                                               NO VIOLENCE     CORPORAL        CORPORAL       MORE SEVERE
                                                BY PARENT     PUNISH 1 OR 2     PUNISH 3+       ASSAULT
                                                 (N=361)      TIMES (N=113)   TIMES (N=359)      (N=131)
                                                             PARENT-TO-CHILD VIOLENCE                       12
          Soc Perspective
                  13
Soc Perspective
     EXAMPLES TO HELP UNDERSTAND THE
  DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGICAL AND
        SOCIAL CAUSES OF BEHAVIOR
• TWO ASEPCTS OF SOCIAL CAUSES
     * Cultural Norms
     * Social Organization
• EXAMPLES OF SOCIAL CAUSATION
     * I will give two examples, and explain them
     * Class will identify social causes for two family variables
     * You will write and identify two and turn those in for grading




                                                                    14
       Soc Perspective
CLASS TO DISCUSS AND SUGGEST EXAMPLES OF EACH


                      CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                                EXPLAINED
       TYPE OF
  CAUSE/EXPLANATION           Parent Spanks Child


  PSYCHOLOGICAL


  CULTURAL


  SOCIAL
  ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                         15
    Soc Perspective
                    CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                              EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION              Parent Spanks Child


PSYCHOLOGICAL       Parent with an aggressive personality


CULTURAL            Cultural norms permit or encourage
                    spanking

SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL      Many children in the family




                                                            16
Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION        Making a daring run in football


PSYCHOLOGICAL


CULTURAL


SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                           17
   Soc Perspective
                           CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                                     EXPLAINED
        TYPE OF
   CAUSE/EXPLANATION            Making a daring run in football

   PSYCHOLOGICAL          Temperament of the player


   CULTURAL               Whether the rules of the game permit a run
                          of this type


   SOCIAL                 The player’s position on the team.
   ORGANIZATIONAL         The style of play which the team tends to
                          use




Note: No two football games are ever identical. But we all know that does
not mean that there are no regularities or structure.

                                                                            18
        Soc Perspective
CLASS TO SUGGEST


                      CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                                EXPLAINED
      TYPE OF
 CAUSE/EXPLANATION      Permissive Child Rearing Practices


 PSYCHOLOGICAL


 CULTURAL

 SOCIAL
 ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                             19
    Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION       Permissive Child Rearing Practices


PSYCHOLOGICAL        Rigid vs flexible personality of parent


CULTURAL             Recommendation of child care experts

                     High rate of social change & influence of
SOCIAL               other socialization agents reduce parental
ORGANIZATIONAL       authority (Davis)




                                                                  20
   Soc Perspective
CLASS TO SUGGEST EACH TYPE OF
EXPLNATION

                      CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                                EXPLAINED
       TYPE OF
  CAUSE/EXPLANATION             Hitting a wife


  PSYCHOLOGICAL


  CULTURAL


  SOCIAL
  ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                         21
    Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
      TYPE OF
 CAUSE/EXPLANATION                Slapping a wife

 PSYCHOLOGICAL       Aggressiveness of husband


 CULTURAL            Values and beliefs of some societies and
                     sector of society

                     Legal code

 SOCIAL              Unemployment or other events which
 ORGANIZATIONAL      deprive husband of means of maintaining his
                     position (O’Brian)




                                                                   22
Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION           Family size limitation


PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                        23
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION               Family size limitation
                     Wife has high need autonomy and
PSYCHOLOGICAL        achievement

                     Ridicule of those with many children
CULTURAL             reflecting and enforcing the norms of family
                     size
SOCIAL               Poor husband-wife communication
ORGANIZATIONAL       preventing effective use of contraception
                     (Hill, Stycos, and Back)




                                                                    24
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION          Aggressive Masculinity

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                        25
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION              Aggressive Masculinity

PSYCHOLOGICAL        High general activity level


CULTURAL             Social definitions of manly behavior (Mead)


SOCIAL               Presence of older sib. Of opposite sex
ORGANIZATIONAL       (Brim)




                                                                   26
   Soc Perspective
                    CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                              EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION   Talkativeness of a child at family dinner

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                                27
  Soc Perspective
                       CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO
                              BE EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION Talkativeness of a child at family dinner

PSYCHOLOGICAL         Child’s drive level or verbal fluency

CULTURAL              Concepts of correct behavior by children
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL        Number of children in the family




                                                                 28
    Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION            Child is delinquent

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                        29
   Soc Perspective
                    CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR
                         TO BE EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION            Child is delinquent


PSYCHOLOGICAL       Impulsiveness of child


CULTURAL            Learning deviant norms from peers


SOCIAL                 Parents do not adequately
ORGANIZATIONAL           supervise
                       Single parent


                                                        30
  Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION                 Suicide


PSYCHOLOGICAL


CULTURAL


SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                        31
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION                      Suicide


PSYCHOLOGICAL        Depressive personality

                     Laws, folkways, mores, religions forbidding
CULTURAL             or requiring suicide

SOCIAL               Social integration (Durkheim)
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                                   32
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION          Cross-Religious Marriage

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                        33
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION            Cross-Religious Marriage

PSYCHOLOGICAL        Liberalism – conservatism of the person

                     Church regulations and customs of the
CULTURAL             society

SOCIAL               Number of members of the same faith in the
ORGANIZATIONAL       community (Thomas, 1951)




                                                                  34
   Soc Perspective
                  END FOR SOC 695




                                    35
Soc Perspective
                      CULTURAL NORMS
* THE RULES SPECIFYING HOW TO BEHAVE THAT
     ARE TAUGHT TO MEMBERS OF A SOCIETY
     OR SEGMENT OF SOCIETY
* NORMS ARE USUALLY SPECIFIC TO A
TYPE OF PERSON AND A TYPE OF
SITUATION
* WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF NORMS?

    NOTE: MANY NORMS ARE TAUGHT AND FOLLOWED
    WITHOUT AN AWARENESS OF THEM:
               Standing in an Elevator
               Politeness in family




                                               36
    Soc Perspective
                      CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                                EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION     Bullying by Elementary School Childen

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                              37
    Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION     Bullying by Elementary School Childen

PSYCHOLOGICAL        Aggressivenss of child

CULTURAL             Norms and values that accept “fighting” by
                     children
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL       Structure and Supervision of –playground
                     (Kasen et al., 2004)




                                                                  38
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION        Rate of Absence Due to Illness

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                          39
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION         Rate of Absence Due to Illness

PSYCHOLOGICAL        Work commitment and motivation


CULTURAL             Work highly valued in the culture

SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL       Whether benefits are paid automatically or
                     require medical evidence

                     (NY Times article on Norway 25July 04: A4)




                                                                  40
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION          Cross-Religious Marriage

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                        41
   Soc Perspective
                    CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                              EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION    Parents economic support of married
                                  children

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                      42
  Soc Perspective
                           CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                                     EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION        Parents economic support of married children

PSYCHOLOGICAL        Improvident child, or generous parent
                     High value on individualism and consequent social
CULTURAL             expectations that married children should “stand on their
                     own feet”
SOCIAL               Bureaucratization, affluence, and stabilization of society.
ORGANIZATIONAL       Early marriage.




                                                                           43
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION                Divorce

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                        44
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION                     Divorce
                     Incompatible personalities of husband & wife
PSYCHOLOGICAL        (Terman & many others)

                     Legal and informal restrictions on divorce
CULTURAL
SOCIAL               Number of wives (monogamy vs polygamy)
ORGANIZATIONAL       or Ties of one spouse to his or her family of
                     orientation interfere with obligations to family
                     of procreation (Lidz et al.)




                                                                        45
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION          Type of person married

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                        46
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION           Type of person married
                     Complementary personality needs (Winch)
PSYCHOLOGICAL
                     Rules of racial, religious, and class
CULTURAL             endogamy.
SOCIAL               Degree of integration with family of
ORGANIZATIONAL       orientation




                                                               47
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION         Spousal task differentiation

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                         48
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION          Spousal task differentiation
                     “Masculinity” of husband
PSYCHOLOGICAL
                     Community or class standards of what a
CULTURAL             good husband and wife should do (Olson)
SOCIAL               “connectedness” of families network of
ORGANIZATIONAL       associates (Bott)




                                                               49
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION             Ethnic prejudice

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                        50
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION                  Ethnic prejudice
                     Authoritarian personality (Adorno et al)
PSYCHOLOGICAL
                     Legal restrictions on racial equality reflecting
CULTURAL             & enforcing norms (Williams)
SOCIAL               Membership in a hierarchical organization
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                                        51
   Soc Perspective
                  CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                              EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF       Number of dates and type of persons
CAUSE/EXPLANATION                dated

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                         52
    Soc Perspective
                      CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                                  EXPLAINED
         TYPE OF       Number of dates and type of persons
    CAUSE/EXPLANATION                dated

    PSYCHOLOGICAL         Amount of poise, masculinity-feminity


    CULTURAL              Rating and dating complex (Waller)
    SOCIAL
    ORGANIZATIONAL        Fraternity or sorority membership (Waller)

`




                                                                       53
        Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION              Marihuana use

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                        54
   Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION                Marihuana use
                     Name your own trait!
PSYCHOLOGICAL
                     Laws and customs which forbid or require
CULTURAL             marihuana use (USA versus India,
                     Engineers versus rock musicians)
SOCIAL               Association with persons who define and
ORGANIZATIONAL       legitimize marihuana use (Becker, 1953)




                                                                55
   Soc Perspective
                  CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF       Degree to which parents can influence
CAUSE/EXPLANATION             school policy

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                           56
    Soc Perspective
                   CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                                     EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF        Degree to which parents can influence
CAUSE/EXPLANATION                   school policy
                  Degree of interest in child’s education
PSYCHOLOGICAL
                  Whether school policy is designed to
CULTURAL          minimize or maximize parental input
SOCIAL            Number of children the parent has: If only
ORGANIZATIONAL    one or two then by the time the parent
                  discovers the problem and thinks through
                  the solution, it is too late to do something for
                  that child. But if there are several children, it
                  is worth the effort




                                                                      57
     Soc Perspective
                     CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                               EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION       Limiting the number of children

PSYCHOLOGICAL

CULTURAL
SOCIAL
ORGANIZATIONAL




                                                          58
   Soc Perspective
                    CHARACTERISTIC OR BEHAVIOR TO BE
                              EXPLAINED
     TYPE OF
CAUSE/EXPLANATION        Limiting the number of children
                    Wife has a level of achievement motivation
PSYCHOLOGICAL       and career interest


CULTURAL

SOCIAL                 “Social Security” or other means of
ORGANIZATIONAL           providing monetary income in old age
                         avoids the need to have children who
                         can support on in after age forces
                         retirement.
                       Pattern of communication between
                         husband and wife: if restricted, this can
                         lead to not discussing children, sex,
                         contraception and ineffective
                         contraception even when both want to
                         limit number of children
                                                                     59
Soc Perspective