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Perspective Drawing Boxes One point: ‘when parallel lines appear to converge and disappear at One Point: You have three kinds of lines in one point one point on the horizon.’ perspective—vertical lines, horizontal lines, and perspective Two Point: ‘when, from a given edge, parallel lines converge at two lines. single points on the horizon line at opposite sides of your paper.’ Two Point: Easiest to draw. You have only two kinds of lines— Three Point: ‘when lines appear to converge at three given points perspective lines or vertical lines. either to the sides of the picture plane or at the top or bottom of the Three Point: There is only one kind of line in three-point page, depending on where your eye level line is.’ perspective—perspective lines. 1 of 7 Units of Measurement Dividing a Square Usually measured in Height x Width x Depth The best way to divide a square in perspective is to draw a diagonal line from corner to corner. The two diagonal lines intersect at the centre of the Square. Adding Squares Make diagonal lines to find the centre of the square. Use this to find the middle of the edges. Create another diagonal line from one corner to the bottom perspective line, intersecting the middle of the outside edge. Figure 1: This cube is 10 units tall x 5 units wide x 10 units deep 2 of 7 Multiplying Squares Just stack cubes on top of one another or next to one another to draw larger, more complicated objects. Different Views When drawing buildings for architecture, you show different views of the proposed building—front view, side view, and top view. If you look down, directly on top of your box, you see the top view of the building. If you look at one side, you see the side view, and so on. Visualizing the Object This section contains the top, front, and side views of many different objects. You need to learn how to visualize those objects as they really look. In other words, you need to recognize the three-dimensional object by seeing the two-dimensional top, front, and side views. (Hint: Hidden lines are indicated by a dashed line. These dashed lines are edges that you cannot see from the view that you are looking at.) 3 of 7 The cube method Drawing Basic Shapes If you can draw a cube, then you can All objects are made up from apply the cube method to draw other four basic shapes—cube, objects. For example, you can create a sphere, cylinder, or cone. You chair by stacking two cubes, one on top can use the box method to of the other, and then erasing the lines. accurately draw these shapes to round out your body of Similarly, a couch can be drawn by knowledge of all basic shapes stacking three or four chairs one after needed to create accurate the other. drawings. If you learn to see objects as basic shapes, you will more easily be able to draw the objects. Circles and Ellipses To draw a perfect circle, first draw a square and then draw a circle inside the square. Draw diagonal lines from the midpoint of the sides of the square. Plot a point 1/3 in from the corner on the diagonal. Now draw a gentle curve that passes through the points 1/3 in on the diagonals and touches all four midpoints of the sides of the square. Drawing an ellipse is a simple process. Begin by drawing a perfect circle using the previous technique, except draw the square in perspective this time. When drawn in perspective, the circle in the square is an ellipse. 4 of 7 Spheres The Grid Method To draw an accurate sphere, begin by drawing a cube. Then draw two The grid method is a way of enlarging, reducing or putting in dissecting planes that cut the cube in half both vertically and perspective any object that you draw. Place a grid over the drawing horizontally. Draw ellipses within the planes in the square. Touch the and then make a new grid apart from your drawing. Finish transferring mid-points of the squares within the cube. the drawing square by square from the old grid to the new one. If you want to move the drawing in perspective, draw the grid in perspective. Cylinders and Cones To draw a cylinder, begin by drawing a box in perspective. Then draw ellipses on opposite sides of the box. Connect these circles with straight lines to form a cylinder as in the following illustration. Shading • Shading gives form to objects. • The principle is simple, the closer to the direct light source, Drawing a cone is similar to drawing a cylinder, except this time draw an the lighter the tone of the object. ellipse on only one side of the box. Find the midpoint on the opposite • In order to simplify drawing, only use four types of shading on side of the box, and draw lines from the midpoint to the edges of the an object: light, light gray, dark gray, black. circle. You now have a cone as shown here. Contour Lines Contour lines are lines that wrap around objects to depict what the surface of the objects’ like. 5 of 7 Curved Surfaces Shadows Drawing shadows for Shading a curved surface is like shading a A shadow is the base of complicated objects: plane surface. The only difference is that a triangle formed by The cast shadow of complicated objects is shading gradually changes from light to the direction of the drawn the same way as for simple objects dark. Curved surfaces do not have distinct light source and the described above. edge to separate the value tones of the object. shading. How to draw a cast shadow: First determine the angle of the light source. Draw the triangle from the edges of the object and the light source. Connect the bases of the triangles, and darken Shadows over objects: in the cast shadow area Notice in the following example how the cast shadow appears to be shorter where it Drawing the cast shadow for a simple cube: crosses the smaller cube. This occurs because the triangle crosses the cube higher up so that the base of the triangle is shorter. Light against Dark Good drawing employs the principle of continuous light against dark. Make the distinction between the background and foreground to make a drawing clear. Begin by drawing the dark and then proceed to the lighter shades. 6 of 7 Reflections Special Case #1: An object sitting exactly on a reflective surface Why are they useful? As seen, the reflection begins at the baseline and is a mirror image. • When buildings are located near water • Home & office products contain chrome and shiny surfaces that show reflection • Glass windows and mirrors • Add reality to the drawings • Can show parts of the object not seen without reflection How to draw a reflection? It is a mirror image of the object. Special Case #2: An object is above the reflecting surface Measurements of the reflection are the same as those on the object As seen, the distance between the base of the object and the surface is accounted for as indicated by the dotted line and the arrows. Colors For most architectural and engineering drawings, color is sparingly used Use it only to emphasize key points – use no more than three colors Light colors advance—they punch out. Dark colors recede—they appear to be holes. 7 of 7

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Perspective Drawing, how to, Drawing One Point Perspective, Drawing Perspective, Two Point Perspective, How to Draw, 3-Dimensional Shapes, look good, the box, Three Point Perspective

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posted: | 4/4/2011 |

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