Theory of Access Outline • Introduction • Property, Tenure and Access • Access Analysis Introduction • Property rights and resource degradation • Operational and collective-choice levels of action (bundle of rights): – Operational: access and withdrawal – Collective: management, exclusion and alienation Introduction Access: the right to enter a defined physical property Withdrawal: the right to obtain the ‘products’ of a resource Management: the right to regulate internal use patterns and transform the resource by making improvement Exclusion: the right to determine who will have an access right, and how that right may be transferred Alienation: the right to sell or lease either or both of the above collective-choice rights Introduction Introduction • Authorized user: individuals holding operational-level rights of access and withdrawal. • Claimants: individuals who possess the same rights as authorized user plus the collective-choice right of management • Proprietors: individuals who possess collective- choice right to participate in management and exclusion • Owner: plus alienation • Who make long-term investment? (see Perkins and Heynen’s article) Conflicts on Property • De facto and de jure property rights; tenure insecurity; ability to benefit Tenure and Property • Tenure: pengaturan yang terkait dengan akses dan kontrol atas SDA • Aliran-aliran dalam tenure security: – Property rights – Agrarian structure traditions (ketimpangan struktur agraria) => lihat problem akses pasar dll. – Common property advocates (advokasi hak property masyarakat adat) => hak ulayat – Institutionalist => kekuasaan politik dan distribusi kekayaan SDA penting; perhatikan siapa yang menang dan kalah dalam suatu regim property Access and Property • Having property (the right to benefit) without access (the ability to benefit). Access and Property • Access: the ability (akin • Property: the right to to power) to benefit benefit (appropriation, from things. accumulation, transfer, • Focus: who does (not) distribution) from get to use what, in what things. ways and when. • Bundles of rights. • Bundles of power. Access and Property • Access Analysis: why some • Property analysis: people or institutions understanding claims (inc. benefit from resources, moral claims) or rights; whether or not they have through law, customs, or rights to them, including convention. property relations; powers Right to own, inherit, use or that enable actors to gain dispose. control and maintain access. Components of Access Analysis 1. Identifying and mapping the flow of particular benefit of interests. 2. Identifying the mechanism by which different actors involved gain, control, and maintain the benefit flow and its distribution. 3. Analysis of power relations underlying the mechanisms of access involved in instances where benefits are derived. Components of Access Analysis • Ad 1. Identifying objects of inquiry: particular crop (batang hidup, daun mati, buah, getah, dll. = hak untuk memiliki dan mewarisi, hak untuk menanam pohon, hak untuk memanfaatkan pohon dan produk pohon => lihat Affif) or throughout its lifetime trajectories (preparing the fields to final consumption = production, extraction, product transformation, exchange, transport, distribution and consumption. Access • Access control: the ability to mediate other’s access = claiming of rights => actors who control other’s access • Access maintenance: expending resources or power to keep a particular sort of resource access open => labour • Gaining access: by which access is established. Mechanism Means, processes and relations. 1. Right-based 2. Structural and relational Right-based Access • Legal access; problems of ambiguity. • Illegal access => ecological violence and theft. Structural and Relational Mechanism of Access • Access to technology e.g. fence, modes of extraction (tube-wells, pumps), road, weapons • Access to capital • Access to markets => candlenut trees in West Kalimantan • Access to labour and labour opportunities (jobs) => interlocking factor markets • Access to knowledge, including discourses and expert status Structural and Relational Mechanism of Access • Access to authority • Access through social identity, e.g. customary law • Access via the negotiation of other social relations of friendship, trust, patronage, etc.