Theory of Access

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					Theory of Access
• Introduction
• Property, Tenure and Access
• Access Analysis
• Property rights and resource degradation
• Operational and collective-choice levels of
  action (bundle of rights):
  – Operational: access and withdrawal
  – Collective: management, exclusion and alienation
Access: the right to enter a defined physical property
Withdrawal: the right to obtain the ‘products’ of a resource
Management: the right to regulate internal use patterns and
   transform the resource by making improvement
Exclusion: the right to determine who will have an access
   right, and how that right may be transferred
Alienation: the right to sell or lease either or both of the
   above collective-choice rights
• Authorized user: individuals holding operational-level
  rights of access and withdrawal.
• Claimants: individuals who possess the same rights
  as authorized user plus the collective-choice right of
• Proprietors: individuals who possess collective-
  choice right to participate in management and
• Owner: plus alienation
• Who make long-term investment? (see Perkins and
  Heynen’s article)
           Conflicts on Property
• De facto and de jure property rights; tenure
  insecurity; ability to benefit
             Tenure and Property
• Tenure: pengaturan yang terkait dengan akses dan
  kontrol atas SDA
• Aliran-aliran dalam tenure security:
   – Property rights
   – Agrarian structure traditions (ketimpangan struktur
     agraria) => lihat problem akses pasar dll.
   – Common property advocates (advokasi hak property
     masyarakat adat) => hak ulayat
   – Institutionalist => kekuasaan politik dan distribusi kekayaan
     SDA penting; perhatikan siapa yang menang dan kalah
     dalam suatu regim property
          Access and Property
• Having property (the right to benefit) without
  access (the ability to benefit).
            Access and Property
• Access: the ability (akin   • Property: the right to
  to power) to benefit          benefit (appropriation,
  from things.                  accumulation, transfer,
• Focus: who does (not)         distribution) from
  get to use what, in what      things.
  ways and when.              • Bundles of rights.
• Bundles of power.
             Access and Property
• Access Analysis: why some      • Property analysis:
  people or institutions           understanding claims (inc.
  benefit from resources,          moral claims) or rights;
  whether or not they have         through law, customs, or
  rights to them, including        convention.
  property relations; powers        Right to own, inherit, use or
  that enable actors to gain           dispose.
  control and maintain access.
   Components of Access Analysis
1. Identifying and mapping the flow of particular
   benefit of interests.
2. Identifying the mechanism by which different
   actors involved gain, control, and maintain the
   benefit flow and its distribution.
3. Analysis of power relations underlying the
   mechanisms of access involved in instances where
   benefits are derived.
   Components of Access Analysis
• Ad 1.
  Identifying objects of inquiry: particular crop (batang hidup,
    daun mati, buah, getah, dll. = hak untuk memiliki dan
    mewarisi, hak untuk menanam pohon, hak untuk
    memanfaatkan pohon dan produk pohon => lihat Affif) or
    throughout its lifetime trajectories (preparing the fields to
    final consumption = production, extraction, product
    transformation, exchange, transport, distribution and
• Access control: the ability to mediate other’s
  access = claiming of rights => actors who
  control other’s access
• Access maintenance: expending resources or
  power to keep a particular sort of resource
  access open => labour
• Gaining access: by which access is established.
Means, processes and relations.
1. Right-based
2. Structural and relational
           Right-based Access
• Legal access; problems of ambiguity.
• Illegal access => ecological violence and theft.
  Structural and Relational Mechanism of
• Access to technology e.g. fence, modes of extraction
  (tube-wells, pumps), road, weapons
• Access to capital
• Access to markets => candlenut trees in West
• Access to labour and labour opportunities (jobs) =>
  interlocking factor markets
• Access to knowledge, including discourses and
  expert status
  Structural and Relational Mechanism of
• Access to authority
• Access through social identity, e.g. customary
• Access via the negotiation of other social
  relations of friendship, trust, patronage, etc.

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