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					Electronics Merit Badge
         Class 2
          Staff

           Name ____________________


                                   11/3/05
          Electronics Merit Badge

Class 1   AC Power Sources
          DC Power Sources
          Voltage, Current and Resistance
          Build Circuit with Light, Buzzer and Switch

Class 2   Components - Passive and Active
          Ohms Law
          Ohms Law Tool Kit
          Transistor Logic
          IC Logic

Class 3   Binary Logic
          Binary / Hex Tool Kit
          LED Circuit Design

Class 4   Solder Theory
          Solder Practice
          Build LED Kit

                                                        Pg 2
                             Electronic Components


         Batteries                                                  Microphone
                                 Resistor     Inductor or Coil       Outputs
          In volts                               In henries
                                 In Ohms                              voltage
                +


         Power Supply
         Outputs Volts
 120V                         Potentiometer     Transformer            Speaker
                     DC
 AC In                           Variable       Input voltage        Input voltage
                     volts
                     Out         Resistor
                                                         Isolated
         Capacitors
          In Farads                                      Step
                                                         Down
                +
                                                          Step
2m                                                        Up
2m
                                                                                     Pg 3
                       Electronic Components

                                                  Diode
     Switch                 Transistor
Normally Open n.o.          Electronic
Normally Closed n.c.          Switch


     n.o.   n.c.
                                 PNP           LED
                                               Light
                                               Emitting
      Slide Switch                             Diode


                                               Meters
                                               Current Meter
                                  NPN          Voltage Meter
                                               Resistance Meter
2m
4m                                                                Pg 4
                                  Electronic Circuit
                                     Ohms Law
                                                                                Use Meter Demo
    Water Flow                           Current Flow
                                                                       Current Meter
   Bucket Stores Water
                               Battery Stores                          measures Amps
       Bucket                      Energy

                  1 Gallon                                             Switch
                               Volt Meter
                               Measures               Current               Resistor
Valve restricts                1.5 Volts              = 1 amp               restricts current flow
flow of water                                                               Light dimmer

 Flow Meter                                 Ground or 0 volts
 Water Wheel
 Gallons/hour                        Voltage measured in volts (Symbol = V)
                                     Current measured in Amps (Symbol = I)
                                     Resistance measured in Ohms (Symbol = Ω )
  Valve restricts water flow
                                 Formula

                                 Resistance = Voltage           Voltage = Resistance X Current
                                              Current
  5m
                                                                Current = Voltage
  9m                                                                      Resistance             Pg 5
                               Electronic Components
                                 Voltage Storage Devices
                                                                 Capacitors
      Bucket                       Batteries
                                                            Stores small amounts
                                  Sold already
                                                              of Voltage charge
                              charged. Some may
                                                             Measured in farads
                                 be recharged
 Different size buckets of
 water with the same                     +
 height and with a 1/4 inch                                Un-Polorized     Polorized
 hole will take different                                  1 f = 1.0 farad
 amounts of time to empty       Most batteries are         10 mf = .01 Farad
 1 gallon = 1 hours             1.5 Volts per cell.        1,000uf = .001 Farad
 2 gallon = 2 hours                                        100uf = .0001 Farad
 5 gallon = 5 hour              Typical ratings            10uf = .00001Farad
 10 gallon = 10 hour            AAA = .2 amp hours         1 uf = .000001Farad
                                AA = .5 amp hours          .1 uf = .0000001
                                C     = 1 amp hour         .01 uf = .00000001
                                D     = 4 amp hour         .001 uf = .000000001
                                                           100 pf = .0000000001
                                                           10 pf = .00000000001
2m                                                         1 pf = .000000000001
11m
                                                                                        Pg 6
                            Electronic Components
                                   Resistors
      Pipe                                           Resistor

              1” Pipe   Smaller pipe                           Resistor restricts
                                                               flow of current.
              1/2” Pipe restricts
                        flow of fluids                         Resistors are made of
                                                               carbon or wire.

      Valve
                                                                    Variable
                 Valve restricts                                   Resistor is a
                 flow of fluids                                   Potentiometer
                                                This could be used to control volume in a radio
                                          Resistance measured in Ohms (Symbol = Ω)
                                                                    1 ohm
      2 inch pipe The smaller the         The larger the           10 ohm
      1 inch pipe pipe the more           resistor value          100 ohm
      3/4 inch pipe restriction of flow   the more              1,000 ohm =   1K ohm
      1/2 inch pipe                       restriction          10,000 ohm = 10 K ohm
      1/4 inch pipe                       to current flow     100,000 ohm = 100 K ohm
                                                            1,000,000 ohm = 1 M ohm
2m
13m                                                                                         Pg 7
                                Electronic Components
      Resistor Color Rings             Resistors
              A Resistor Value is determined
              by its color band and is measured in ohms

              First Ring is First number / Closest to edge of resistor
              Second Ring is second number
              Third Ring is number of zero’s
              Fourth Ring is tolerance 1% or 5% or 10% etc.

                               Resistor Color Code Values


         First Ring     Second Ring       Third Ring Multiplier           Fourth Ring
         Black = 0      Black = 0         Silver =      X           .01   Brown = +/- 1%
         Brown = 1      Brown = 1         Gold =        X          .1     Red = +/- 2%
         Red      =2    Red    =2         Black =       X         1       Gold = +/- 5%
         Orange = 3     Orange = 3        Brown =       X        10       Silver = +/- 10%
         Yellow = 4     Yellow = 4        Red     =2= X         100       None = +/- 20%
         Green = 5      Green = 5         Orange = 3 = X       1000
         Blue    =6     Blue   =6         Yellow = 4 = X     10,000
         Violet = 7     Violet = 7        Green = 5 = X 100,000
         Gray = 8       Gray   =8         Blue     = 6 = X 1000,000
1m
14m
         White = 9      White = 9         Violet = 7 = X 10,000,000
                                                                                             Pg 8
                                                                       Ring
                  Electronic Components                                Black = 0
                         Resistors                                     Brown = 1
                                                                       Red    =2
                                                                       Orange = 3
                                                                       Yellow = 4
      First Ring is units                                              Green = 5
      Second Ring is Ten                                               Blue   =6
      Third Ring is number of zero’s                                   Violet = 7
                                                                       Gray = 8
                        Example of Color Rings                         White = 9

            First Ring        Second Ring       Third Ring
            Red      =2       Red = 2           Red      = X 100      = 2200 ohms
            Black    =0       Red = 2           Brown = X 10          = 020 ohms



                        Test of Color Rings

      First Ring            Second Ring           Third Ring
      Brown = ____          Green = ____          Brown = _____      = ______ ohms

      Green   = ____        Red        = ____     Yellow   = _____   = ______ ohms


3m
14m                                                                            Pg 9
                                                                        Ring
                  Electronic Components                                 Black = 0
                         Resistors                                      Brown = 1
                                                                        Red    =2
                                                                        Orange = 3
                                                                        Yellow = 4
      First Ring is units                                               Green = 5
      Second Ring is Ten                                                Blue   =6
      Third Ring is number of zero’s                                    Violet = 7
                                                                        Gray = 8
                        Example of Color Rings                          White = 9

            First Ring        Second Ring        Third Ring
            Red      =2       Red = 2            Red      = X 100      = 2200 ohms
            Black    =0       Red = 2            Brown = X 10          = 020 ohms



                        Test of Color Rings

      First Ring            Second Ring           Third Ring
      Brown = __1__         Green = __5__         Brown = __0__       = _150_ ohms

      Green   = __5__       Red        = __2__    Yellow   = _0000_   = _520K_ ohms


1m
15m                                                                             Pg 10
 Transformer
                                   Resistor Box
                         + 15 volts
120
VAC           + 15                                         .5
                                                      .4        .6 .8
                                                 .2
 In           DC Out                         0                          1


                                   Current                 mA
                                    Meter
Measure Voltage Plug                                                                  . . . .750.200200u
                                                                                    1000 OFF

Across resistor              R1                                                  20
                                                                                   200
                                                                                    .              .
R3 and Calculate
                                                                             2000m.       20
                                                                             200m.
                                                                                         20
Resistor value.
                             R2                       5         10
Use current measured               Voltage   0                          15
                                                                                                ADC
on current meter                    Meter                  V                                    V
Read color rings on          R3                                                                COM
Resistors to determine
The resistor values
                          Ground

    Resistance = Voltage           = _______     = _________ ohms
                Current                1 ma = .001 amps
 10m   Look at Color Rings of R3 ____ _____ _____ = ______                   Instructor _______
 25m                                                                                                  Pg 11
                                 red   red   red
 Transformer
                                  Resistor Box
                   + 15 volts
120
VAC           + 15                                         .5
                                                      .4        .6 .8
                                                 .2
 In           DC Out                         0                          1


                                   Current                 mA
                                    Meter
Measure Voltage Plug                                                                  . . . .750.200200u
                                                                                    1000 OFF

Across resistor              R1                                                  20
                                                                                   200
                                                                                    .              .
R3 and Calculate
                                                                             2000m.       20
                                                                             200m.
                                                                                         20
Resistor value.
                            R2                        5         10
Use current measured               Voltage   0                          15
                                                                                                ADC
on current meter                    Meter                  V                                    V
Read color rings on         R3                                                                 COM
Resistors to determine
The resistor values
                         Ground

    Resistance = Voltage          = __2.18___       = ___2180__ ohms
                Current                 1 ma = .001
 2m    Look at Color Rings of R3 __2__ _2__ __00___ = _2200_ Instructor _______
 27m                                                                          Pg 12
                                 RED RED RED
 Transformer
                                  Resistor Box
120
                   + 15 volts
VAC           + 15                                        .5
                                                     .4        .6 .8
                                                .2
 In           DC Out                        0                          1


                                  Current                 mA
Measure Voltage Plug               Meter
                                                                                     . .
                                                                                      . OFF .750.200
                                                                                   1000
                                                                                  200
Across resistor             R1                                                  20 .               .200u
                                                                            2000m.       20
R3 and Calculate                                                            200m.
                                                                                       20
Resistor value.
                           R2                        5         10
Use current measured              Voltage   0                          15
                                                                                               ADC
on current meter                   Meter                  V                                     V

Read color rings on        R3                                                                 COM
Resistors to determine
The resistor values
                         Ground

    Resistance = Voltage          = _______    = _________ ohms
                Current                 1 ma = .001 amps
 10m   Look at Color Rings of R1 ____ _____ _____ = _____                   Instructor _______
 37m                                                                                                  Pg 13
                                orange white red
 Transformer
                                  Resistor Box
120
                   + 15 volts
VAC           + 15                                         .5
                                                      .4        .6 .8
                                                 .2
 In           DC Out                         0                          1


                                   Current                 mA
Measure Voltage Plug                Meter
                                                                                      . .
                                                                                       . OFF .750.200
                                                                                    1000
                                                                                   200
Across resistor             R1                                                   20 .               .200u
                                                                             2000m.       20
R3 and Calculate                                                             200m.
                                                                                        20
Resistor value.
                            R2                        5         10
Use current measured               Voltage   0                          15
                                                                                                ADC
on current meter                    Meter                  V                                     V

Read color rings on         R3                                                                 COM
Resistors to determine
The resistor values
                         Ground

    Resistance = Voltage          = ___4.1__    = __4100___ ohms
                Current                1 ma = .001
 2m    Look at Color Rings of R1 _3__ __9___ __00__ = _3900_ Instructor _______
 39m                                                                          Pg                            14
                                orange white red
                              Transistors                          Use X10 Demo

                     A Transistor is an Electronic Switch
                                                           Transistor come in
                                              Transistor   different sizes depending
                 Switch
                                              NPN          on the amount of current
                                                           and voltage required


  Mechanical Switch Circuit                 Transistor Switch Circuit

                                                                    Light
12 Volt           Switch open     12 Volt
Battery           Light off = 0   Battery                         NPN Transistor

                  Switch close
                  Light on = 1                                         Truth Table
                                                                         Input = 0
                                                                         Light off
                                       Computer can
                                       send a signal to turn
                                                                          Input = 1
                                       on the transistor which
                                                                          Light on
2m                                     then turns on the light
41m                                                                                    Pg 15
                                 Transistors
                         A Transistor is an Electronic Switch           Use X10 Demo

                                                      Transistor come in
                                       Transistor     different sizes depending
                                       NPN            on the amount of current
                                                      and voltage required



                                              Transistor Switch Circuit
  Computer transmits
  Through the wireless                Wireless
  controller                          Controller                    Light          House
                                                                                   Power
                                              Relay                               120 VAC
                                     Micro
                                    Control
                                                                            Relay used
                                                    NPN                     To Switch
                                                    Transistor              120 VAC
                  Wireless
                                                    Turns Relay On
                  Controller

2m
43m                                                                                         Pg 16
                           Electronic Components
                                IC Integrated Circuits

  An integrated circuit (IC) consists of many transistors. The number of transistors
  can vary from just a few (circuits shown below), to several million that are in a
  (Pentium microprocessor).
                           This IC has 6 inverters
 6 Transistors in one IC   An inverter contains                Functions
                           6 Transistors = 36 total            Inverters
                                                               Gates
                                                               Flip flops
                                                               Counters
                                                               Memory
                                                               Micro Processor (MPU)
                                                               Watch IC’s
                                                               Calculators IC’s
                                                               Microwave Timer IC’s
                                                               Radio IC’s
                                                               Dialer IC’s
                                                               Car Controller IC’s
1m
44m                                                                                Pg 17
                                    Microprocessor Road Map
       Transistors
       Capacity
                                                                               PowerPC/Pentium
  1000M
                                                                    PowerPC/Pentium
      100M
                                                        PowerPC/Pentium
                             Motorola / Intel
       10M
                                                        68040/80486

        1M                                 68030/80386                        Every 18 months CPU’s
                                                                              double in density and
                                  68020/80286                                 performance, while still
      100K
                                                                              holding prices the same
                     68000/80186
       10K
                6800/8080                                                               Power
                              Apple IIE                Mac                                           iMac
                                                                                         Mac
        1K

                                           IBM/Intel                IBM       IBM      IBM/Intel
                                           8080                      386       486     Pentium
             1970     1975          1980        1985         1990      1995          2000     2005     2010

                                                   Year of Introduction
1m
45m                                                                                                           Pg 18
      Microprocessor Integrated Circuit

             60,000 Transistors




1m
46m                                       Pg 19

				
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