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Mario Guerrero Department of Political Science UC

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 26

									KELLSTEDT                         ONLINE
          ABSTRACTS   LECTURES              WILD CARD
& WHITTEN                        READINGS



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  WHAT IS AN INDEPENDENT AND
     WHAT IS A DEPENDENT
           VARIABLE?

INDEPENDENT: VARIABLE AFFECTING THE OUTCOME; CAUSE
       DEPENDENT: OUTCOME VARIABLE; EFFECT




KELLSTADT & WHITTEN $100
  NAME AT LEAST THREE OF THE
   FOUR TESTS OF CAUSALITY.



  1. A CAUSAL MECHANISM NEEDS TO CONNECT X AND Y.
              2. Y SHOULD NOT CAUSE X.
  3. THERE SHOULD BE COVARIATION BETWEEN X AND Y.
4. THERE IS NO CONFOUNDING VARIABLE THAT MAKES THE
                 RELATIONSHIP SPURIOUS.




KELLSTADT & WHITTEN $200
 THE DEGREE IN WHICH WE CAN
   BE CONFIDENT THAT THE
  RESULTS OF OUR ANALYSIS
   APPLY NOT ONLY TO THE
POPULATION UNDER STUDY, BUT
ALSO THE BROADER POPULATION
        IS KNOWN AS…

                  EXTERNAL VALIDITY




KELLSTADT & WHITTEN $300
   WHAT IS A CROSS-SECTIONAL
  STUDY? WHAT IS A TIME-SERIES
             STUDY?

 CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES FOLLOW SEVERAL UNITS AT ONE
POINT IN TIME; TIME-SERIES STUDIES FOLLOW ONE UNIT OVER
                           TIME




KELLSTADT & WHITTEN $400
   WHAT IS CONTENT VALIDITY?




CONTENT VALIDITY DEFINES ALL THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS
    OF A CONCEPT. IT IS A PROCESS THAT FORCES THE
RESEARCHER TO COME UP WITH A LIST OF ALL THE ELEMTNS
    THAT DEFINE TO CONCEPT WE WISH TO MEASURE>




KELLSTADT & WHITTEN $500
   READ THIS ABSTRACT. WHAT IS THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE?

  Drawing on research in public opinion and political communication,
   this research examines a highly pervasive form of communication
  that has often overt political content, yet one that has been largely
overlooked by scholars: music. While the macro-level relationship has
  been broadly discussed and supported, the micro-level relationship
 remains relatively unexplored. This project helps to identify where it
        is possible to predict political attitudes based on musical
     preferences. I explore and advance a theory which links music
 preferences and political attitudes through a model I term selective
group feedback. My findings show associations between key political
 attitudes and certain music preferences, namely Country, R&B, Rap,
     and Hip-Hop. These findings suggest that not only is music an
effective and influential form of political communication, but also that
   particular political norms are constructed and encouraged among
                   particular political genres of music.


                    “MUSICAL PREFERENCES”



ABSTRACTS $100
    READ THIS ABSTRACT. WHAT IS THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE?

       Every dictator dislikes free media. Yet, many nondemocratic
  countries have partially free or almost free media. In this article, we
     develop a theory of media freedom in dictatorships and provide
systematic statistical evidence in support of this theory. In our model,
  free media allow a dictator to provide incentives to bureaucrats and
   therefore to improve the quality of government. The importance of
this benefit varies with the natural resource endowment. In resource-
    rich countries, bureaucratic incentives are less important for the
  dictator; hence, media freedom is less likely to emerge. Using panel
   data, we show that controlling for country fixed effects, media are
 less free in oil-rich economies, with the effect especially pronounced
      in nondemocratic regimes. These results are robust to model
specification and the inclusion of various controls, including the level
       of economic development, democracy, country size, size of
                          government, and others.


                        “MEDIA FREEDOM”




ABSTRACTS $200
READ THIS ABSTRACT. WHAT ARE THREE WAYS TO OPERATIONALIZE
                    ATTITUDE STRENGTH?

   Attitude strength is defined as the extent to which an attitude is
   stable, resistant to change, impacts information processing, and
guides behavior. Accessibility, ambivalence and importance relate to
     the broader concept of strength. For many years, both social
psychology and political science ignored the differences across these
   various concepts, though in different ways. Social psychologists
  treated them as interchangeable as indicators of the same latent
concept. Political scientists treated them in isolation focusing on one
    type of strength and ignoring the other possibly relevant types.
Recent research in both fields, however challenges these approaches.
    Indicators of attitude strength are distinct concepts and these
differences are important empirically and theoretically. In this essay,
       we review the developments in both disciplines and make
  suggestions for how scholars should use and operationalize these

                              concepts.

       ACCESSIBILITY, AMBIVALENCE, IMPORTANCE


ABSTRACTS $300
 READ THIS ABSTRACT. WHAT ARE THE INDEPENDENT, DEPENDENT,
               AND CONFOUNDING VARIABLES?

    This article argues that the link between income inequality and
  violent property crime might be spurious, complementing a similar
    argument in prior analysis by the author on the determinants of
 homicide. In contrast, Fajnzylber, Lederman & Loayza (1998; 2002a,
    b) provide seemingly strong and robust evidence that inequality
 causes a higher rate of both homicide and robbery/violent theft even
after controlling for country-specific fixed effects. Our results suggest
  that inequality is not a statistically significant determinant, unless
either country- specific effects are not controlled for or the sample is
artificially restricted to a small number of countries. The reason why
    the link between inequality and violent property crime might be
 spurious is that income inequality is likely to be strongly correlated
  with country- specific fixed effects such as cultural differences. A
     high degree of inequality might be socially undesirable for any
number of reasons, but that it causes violent crime is far from proven.


           INDEPENDENT: INCOME INEQUALITY
         DEPENDENT: VIOLENT PROPERTY CRIME
    CONFOUNDING: COUNTRY-SPECIFIC FIXED EFFECTS
ABSTRACTS $400 (CULTURAL DIFFERENCES)
 READ THIS ABSTRACT. WHAT IS THE CONCEPT AND WHAT IS THE
  VARIABLE USED TO MEASURE THAT CONCEPT IN THIS STUDY?

 The "level of conceptualization" index, introduced by Campbell et al.
   (1960), is commonly used to measure ideological awareness and
 sophistication among the electorate. Unfortunately, the validity and
 reliability of the original measure were never sufficiently examined.
   This article examines the level of conceptualization measures of
    Field and Anderson (1969) and Nie, Verbaand Petrocik (1976). It
 reaches two major conclusions: (1) the measures under examination
          are neither reliable nor valid measures of the level of
conceptualization construct; and (2) the measures reflect the rhetoric
of contemporary political discourse rather than the actual process of
political evaluation. These conclusions call into doubt the validity and
       reliability of the original measure of The American Voter.
 CONCEPT: IDEOLOGICAL AWARENESS & SOPHISTICATION
 MEASUREMENT: “LEVEL OF CONCEPTUALIZATION” INDEX




ABSTRACTS $500
A SURVEY ASKS YOU TO REPORT
YOUR INCOME, ROUNDED TO THE
 NEAREST THOUSAND DOLLARS.
WHAT LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT
          IS THIS?
  INTERVAL/SCALE/CONTINUOUS: WE CAN MEASURE THE
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE CATEGORIES OF INCOME AND
 THOSE DIFFERENCES ARE MEASURABLE BY A THOUSAND
                     DOLLARS.




LECTURES $100
    IF WE REJECT THE NULL
  HYPOTHESIS, WHAT DOES THIS
            MEAN?

THE NULL HYPOTHESIS IS THE OPPOSITE OF THE RESEARCH
 HYPOTHESIS WE PROPOSE. IF WE REJECT THE NULL, THIS
  MEANS THAT OUR RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS IS TRUE AND
THERE IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE VARIABLES. IF WE
     ACCEPT THE NULL, THERE IS NO RELATIONSHIP.




LECTURES $200
      WHAT ARE THE TWO
 REQUIREMENTS FOR A SAMPLE
 TO BE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE
    NATIONAL POPULATION?

                    IT HAS TO BE:

           1) A RANDOMLY SELECTED SAMPLE
          2) AT LEAST OR AROUND 1000 PEOPLE




LECTURES $300
   WHAT IS INTERNAL VALIDITY?
   WHAT IS EXTERNAL VALIDITY?



INTERNAL VALIDITY: THE RESEARCH DESIGN PRESENTS HIGH
   LEVELS OF CONFIDENCE IN THE CONCLUSIONS ABOUT
                      CAUSALITY
    EXTERNAL VALIDITY: DEGREE TO WHICH WE CAN BE
 CONFIDENT THAT THE RESULTS CAN BE GENERALIZED TO A
                    BROADER STUDY



LECTURES $400
  WHAT ARE THREE OF THE FOUR
 THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY
      IN AN EXPERIMENT?


 HISTORY: SOMETHING OCCURS BETWEEN TREATMENT THAT
                 CHANGES THE RESULTS
    MATURATION: THE SUBJECTS CHANGE FROM T1 TO T2
TESTING: THE EXPERIMENT ITSELF MIGHT CHANGE BEHAVIOR
DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS: THE SUBJECTS LEARN OR GUESS
          ABOUT THE NATURE OF THE EXPERIMENT



LECTURES $500
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH THE
  TERM “ACTIVIST JUDGES”?

          DAILY
         DOUBLE
      IT IS POORLY OPERATIONALIZED OR DEFINED.




ONLINE READINGS $100
    WHAT IS AND WHAT IS THE
 CONNECTION BETWEEN THEORY,
  CONCEPTS, AND VARIABLES BY
      GIVING AN EXAMPLE.

A THEORY IS A TENTATIVE CONJECTURE ABOUT THE CAUSES
  OF SOME PHENOMENON OF INTEREST. A CONCEPT IS THE
   IDEA THAT WE ARE INTERESTED IN, WHETHER IT IS THE
CAUSE OR EFFECT. A VARIABLE IS A MEASUREMENT OF THAT
                         IDEA.

EXAMPLE: I BELIEVE THAT WEALTH INCREASES LIKELIHOOD
OF PARTICIPATION. “WEALTH” AND “PARTICIPATION” ARE MY
    CONCEPTS. “INCOME” AND “VOTED IN 2008” ARE MY
ONLINE READINGS $200 VARIABLES.
   WHAT IS RELIABLITY? WHAT IS
            VALIDITY?


RELIABILITY IS CONSISTENCY: YOUR MEASURE WILL GET THE
RESULT WHEN IT’S TESTED OVER AND OVER AGAIN; YOU TEST
THE RELIABILITY OF A SCALE WHEN YOU STEP OFF AND STEP
                       ON AGAIN

VALIDITY IS ACCURACY: YOU’RE PURPORTING YOUR MEASURE
 (YOUR VARIABLE) IS WHAT YOU WANT TO MEASURE (GIVEN
                    YOUR CONCEPT).


ONLINE READINGS $300
   DESCRIBE NONRANDOM AND
  RANDOM ERROR AND HOW THEY
    RELATE TO RELIABLITY AND
            VALIDITY.
NON RANDOM ERROR RELATES BACK TO VALIDITY (ACCURACY
 OF YOUR MEASURE). NON RANDOM ERROR IS A SYSTEMATIC
      ERROR USUALLY FROM USING COMING FROM THE
                 INSTRUMENT ITSELF.

RANDOM ERROR RELATES BACK TO RELIABLITY (CONSISTENCY
 OF YOUR MEASURE). RANDOM ERROR USUALLY PARALLELS
THE TRUE RELATIONSHIP, BUT IS OFF DUE TO INCONSISTENCY
                  IN THE MEASURE.
ONLINE READINGS $400
  WHAT ARE 2 OF THE 3 WAYS TO
   IMPROVE THE PROBLEM OF A
    SMALL-N IN COMPARATIVE
          RESEARCH?
         1. INCREASE THE NUMBER OF CASES
   2. CHOOSE THE MOST SIMILAR/COMPARABLE CASES
        3. REDUCE THE NUMBER OF VARIABLES




ONLINE READINGS $500
 WHAT IS A GOOD DEFINITION OF
     A MISSING NUMBER?



    A MISSING NUMBER IS A STATISTIC THAT CONTAINS
   RELEVANT INFORMATION THAT IS OMITTED IN ORDER
      TO EXAGGERATE THAT STATISTIC IN SOME WAY.




WILD CARD $100
  WHY DOES THIS QUALIFY AS A
         MISSING NUMBER?
  “Suppose that in 1950 only one
  child in America was shot dead,
   then doubling this number 45
 times, you would reach a number
of 35 trillion children gunned down
               in 1995.”
THE DIFFERENCES IN POPULATION FROM 1950 AND 1995 ARE
    MISSING THAT WOULD GIVE A GREATER SENSE OF
   PROPORTIONALITY BETWEEN THESE TWO FIGURES.


WILD CARD $200
  READ THIS ABSTRACT. WHAT LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT IS THE
                   INCOME VARIABLE?

   The income of the median voter has been measured by median
  income. This measure fails to consider the income distribution of




           DAILY
both voters and number of adults per family. Proper measures of the
income of the median voter change standard results. This income is
 no longer less than mean income; its ratio to mean income is only
   slightly related to the ratio of median to mean income. We thus,
   measure income in intervals of $10,000 while standardizing the
    measurement given the number of adults in a family. This new



          DOUBLE
   measurement of income shows us a different perspective of the
                              median voter.


     SCALE/CONTINUOUS/INTERVAL. WE CAN TELL THE
      DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORDERED CATEGORIES.




WILD CARD $300
  IF I AM DOING RECREATIONAL,
   NONEMPIRICAL RESEARCH…
  WHAT TYPE OF RESEARCH AM I
          CONDUCTING?
FORMAL THEORY – RESEARCH FOR THE SAKE OF RESEARCH
            BY BUILDING ON OLD FACTS




WILD CARD $400
 WHAT ARE FOUR REQUIREMENTS
  OF A GOOD CAUSAL THEORY?



                      1. IT IS CAUSAL
           2. IT IS TESTABLE USING NEW DATA
                     3. IT IS GENERAL
                  4. IT IS PARSIMONIOUS
                        5. IT IS NEW
                   6. IT IS NOT OBVIOUS




WILD CARD $500

								
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