POLISH BIOGRAPHIC DICTIONARY (From Pniowski, Jan - Potocki, Ignacy) Polish Academy of Sciencies - Ossolinski's National Institute, Institute of History,Volume 27, 1983 PODGORSKA, Wanda - born Turska, pen name Kalina (1859 -1911), writer. Born in Plock province in a landed gentry family. Obtained a very thorough education at home and then completed the Z. Jasinska Boarding School for Girls in Warsaw. In 1878 she married Ignacy Podgorski, a notary, and settled in Warsaw. In 1879 she wrote her first literary work - a comedy "Zona cudzoziemca" (Wife of a foreigner), which was awarded at a literary competition of the Wydzial Krajowy (National Affairs Department) in Lwow and produced on the stage in that city in 1885. She also established cooperation with Warsaw magazines: "Tygodnik Mod i Powiesci" (Fashion and Novels Weekly), "Bluszcz" (Ivy), "Przyjaciel Dzieci" (Children's Friend). In the years 1885 - 1890 she published in these magazines her short stories, comedies and articles on social subjects (for example: women's employment), in which she manifested her great sensitivity and perceptiveness when describing complex social issues. At that time she also became a close friend of Maria Konopnicka and Maria Ilnicka, the editor of "Bluszcz." Podgorska's love for history and her literary talent produced a considerable number of literary works, among others: "Krol Jan III" (King John the Third) - published in Lwow in 1883 - which received a prize of Lwow's Literary Circle; "Dwie Mazurki" (Two Mazurkas) - published in Warsaw in 1885 - a story going back to Boleslaw Krzywousty's period. She also continued writing plays. Two folk plays: "W chacie lesnika" (In the forest ranger's hut) - published in Krakow in 1902 - and "Dziad Obies" (Old Man Obies) - published in Krakow in 1902 - were produced on the stage by non- professional theaters; "Dziad Obies" until 1911. She also tried her talent as a translator. Her translation of Berta Behren's novel "Sieroca dola" (Orphan's Fate) was published in Warsaw in 1885. An adaptation of "Meir Ezofowicz", authorized by Eliza Orzeszkowa, was never published. Podgorska's literary work was interrupted by her forced departure from Warsaw to Moscow (about 1887) for reasons which remain unknown. But even in Moscow, though she concentrated mostly on the upbringing of her children, she managed to establish in her home a center of Polish culture and life. She was a chairman of the Polish Women Association and when a Polish Center (Dom Polski) was established in Moscow, she organized popular lectures, many times being a lecturer herself. She also worked in Moscow in a Charity Association. Podgorska published in Warsaw (1909 - 1910) "Two popular lectures": "Co to jest narod" (What is the nation) and "Historia wloscian" (Hist ory of peasants). Podgorska died in Moscow on October 29, 1911 and was buried there. From her marriage with Ignacy Podgorski she had five sons (one of them Przemyslaw - see reference) and two daughters (one of which - Janina - became the first woman attorney in Poland. PODGORSKA-KOSTECKA, Anna (1885 - 1968), educator, fighter for Polish independence. Born on December 21, 1885 in Zabkowice, county Bedzin; daughter of Kazimierz Kostecki - manager of a department at the Railroad Headquarters in Warsaw - and of Walentyna born Wierzycka. In 1904 she completed her high school education at the Maria Tolwinska School for Girls in Warsaw (which later became the High School named after Maria Konopnicka). In the same year (1904) she married Przemyslaw Podgorski (see reference) and completed Professor Antoni Austen's course of arts and crafts. During the last two years of her high school studies she belonged to the National Youth Organization as well as to "Zet", on behalf of which she co- organized school strikes in Warsaw schools for girls. In 1906 she moved with her husband to Belgium. There, in 1907, she enrolled in the Higher School of Tailoring and Handcrafts in Liege, which she completed with honors in 1910. In 1911 Podgorska went to Moscow to her husband's family. She participated there in the work of the "Zet" Circle. In 1913 she returned to Warsaw and there completed a course for nurses conducted by Doctor Kazimierz Orzel in the Warsaw Children's Hospital. In 1915 she moved with her husband to Lublin. There she was a co-organizer of the Lublin District Women's League for Civil Defense and for some time chaired the League. During that time she was very involved in organizing help for wounded Polish soldiers. In spite of the fact that she had four s mall children, she worked as a nurse in the military hospital in Lublin. In 1916 - together with Waclaw Jasinski (who later became professor of pediatrics at the Vilno University) - Podgorska-Kostecka established Universytet Ludowy (Community College) and courses for illiterates in Lublin and Pulawy. During the entire period of World War I she worked as a teacher and a secretary at the Maria Papiewska's School for Pre - school Teachers in Lublin. In 1918, on behalf of the Committee of the Progressive Women's Association, she led a campaign for women's voting rights to the Sejm Ustawodawczy (Constituent Parliament). In December 1919, after moving to Czestochowa, she reorganized there - together with Lucjan and Wanda Kurpinski - a Center of the "Zet" Organization. In 1920 she organized help for wounded soldiers brought from the battlefield to the local hospitals. She also organized field kitchens at the rail road stations in Poraj and Czestochowa. She cooperated in a campaign to help Upper Silesian Insurgent s (help in the form of collection of weapons, medicines and bandages as well as food and passing them to Silesia). In the years 1921 - 1922 she worked in the office of the Czestochowa power plant. In the years 1923 - 1925 she was a teacher at the State School for Pre-school Teachers in Czestochowa. In 1925 she moved to Warsaw and started work in the office of the Central Union of Agricultural Cooperatives. She also worked at that time as an instructor and inspector for the Circles of Village Housewives. In 1929 she was transferred to work at the merged Central Association of Agricultural Organizations and Cooperatives, where she headed the sections of libraries and community colleges in the Department of Agricultural Education. In the period of time from 1926 until the Second World War she published numerous articles on the subjects of agriculture, tourism and folklore (in such magazines as: "Polski Czerwony Krzyz" (Polish Red Cross) and "Siew" (Sowing)). She also published her memoirs entitled "Struggle for the Polish School, 1903 - 1908" in the magazine "Kobieta Wspolczesna" (Contemporary Woman) - No. 10/1930. In the years 1930 - 1935 she was employed at the Association of Women's Civic Work. In November 1936 she belonged to the co- organizers of the Congress of Members of the Polish Youth National Independence Movement in the 50th anniversary of the "Zet" Organization. She was a member of the Association of Seniors of the Polish National Youth and the Association of Polish Democratic Youth. During the German occupation, in July 1940, Podgorska-Kostecka was arrested and jailed in Pawiak prison until December 1940. After her release from the prison she organized help for hiding Jews and was herself in hiding. During the Warsaw Uprising in 1944 she ran a medical dressing station located in the place most distant from the center of the city. She picked up supplies parachuted by the Allied planes and prepared meals for the soldiers of the Home Army and for the insurgents. After the war Podgorska-Kostecka moved to Zabrze and in the years 1946 - 1948 worked as a teacher. In Zabrze she organized - together with an old member of the "Zet" Organization, Waclaw Stanicki - a Chapter of the Polish Red Cross (PCK). She published articles in the Polish Red Cross publications and in the magazines "Kobieta" (Woman) and "Przyjaciolka" (Friend). After returning to Warsaw in 1948 she worked as an instructor in the Headquarters of the Women's League and then as a clerk for the department of work safety and hygiene in the construction company "KAM". In 1956 she co-organized the Congress of Former Fighters for the Polish School on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the schools strike in Warsaw. She died on September 16, 1968. She was buried at the Powazki Cemetary in the family tomb (quarter 195, row 2, tomb No. 8). She was awarded with the Golden Cross of Independence and the Golden Cross of Merits. She had five children from her marriage with Przemyslaw Podgorski (see the biography of her husband). PODGORSKI, Antoni (1848 - 1912) Priest. Social Activist. Born on March 31, 1848 in Sanok, son of Wojciech - free peasant (villein) - and Agnieszka born Hydzik. In the beginning he studied in Sanok, then in a high school - probably in Lwow - where in 1870 he enrolled in the Theological Seminary. In 1871 he moved to Przemysl, where in 1874 he was ordained as a priest. Afterwards he held the position of curate in the following parishes: Rymanow (until July 1876), Polomia (until April 1877), Czudec (until Novemb er 1877), Sanok (until December 1878). on December 7, 1878 he took over a presbytery in Iwonicz, where he worked for 34 years. In the years 1884 - 1885 he carried out reconstruction and enlargement of the XVth century wooden parish church. The nave was extended and two chapels as well as the steeple were built. Podgorski also developed social and community work. He established an elementary school for girls and at his own expense built a building with living quarters, chapel and two classrooms. On Oct ober 14, 1883 he turned it over to Felician Nuns brought from Krakow. A one-class school at first, it soon became a two-class public school, and in 1903 it became a four-class elementary school. Next to the school he established an orphanage run by the nuns, placed in the existing school and was instrumental in building a new school building. In the years 1890 - 1892 Podgorski built an impressive two- story brick building, to which a neo-gothic church was attached in 1900. This institution, taken over by Caritas in 1950, was transformed into a "Special Institution for Retarded Children.' In 1902 Podgorski erected a new building for a hospital for retarded men. He directed it until his death. In 1905 Podgorski established an Order of "Saint Augustyn Brothers of the Holy Sacrament," who were taking care of the sick (in 1908 this Order was incorporated into the Order of Brothers Augustians in Rome). A small congregation of monks who called themselves Saint Francis Tertiaries was not approved the the diocese and disintegrated after Podgorski's death. The hospital was taken over by the Brothers of the Order of Saint John of God. In 1912 Podgorski began construction of a hospital for the emntally ill but did not finish it. The building was brought to ruin as a result of military operations in 1915. Abandoned for many years it was finally demolished. Funds for these investments were taken from the parish revenue. Podgorski himself drew the plans, manufactured bricks and worked as a laborer. He organized fund collections in the nearby parishes as well as lotteries and theatrical shows to raise money. Podgorski died on September 6, 1912 in Iwonicz and was buried at the local cemetery, where a monument dedicated to him was erected. In 1977 an epitaph dedicated to the Rev. Antoni Podgorski was erected in the local church's vestibule. PODGORSKI (Podgurski), Konstanty, at the monks order Brother Marcin (1796 - 1850). Capuchin, chaplain of the Russian Black Sea Navy, social activist, exile. Born on March 19, 1796 in the village of Samczyce (county Braclaw) in a landed gentry family. Following the steps of his brother Sylvester (1784 - 1833), on October 5, 1811 he entered the order of Capuchin Brothers in the Russian province of Kuna. He took the simple vows on November 24, 1812 in Kuna and the ceremonial vows on March 19, 1814 in Winnica. Having completed his studies at the Philosophy and Theology College in Winnica he was ordained a priest. in 1820 he worked as a preacher in the monastery in Stary Konstantynow. Undoubtedly in the years 1820 -1822 he conducted theological studies as a lecturer in Winnica. In the years 1824 - 1825 he was a parish priest in the Roman Catholic parish in Nikolajew (Mikolajow) near the estuary of the Boh River (Black Sea). In the years 1827 - 1833 he was a chaplain in the Russian Black Sea Navy. In the years 1834 - 1835 he was outside of the monastery but without a definite allocation. In the Main Archives of the Capuchin Order in Rome (G 100 XIII) the following note has been preserved: "Aufugit ante cassationem (conventum Capuccinorum) versus Occidentem, quia pertinebat ad revolutionem." However Podgorski did not flee anywhere, also his participation in the November Uprising has not been documented. There is however a reli able record of his missionary and charitable work among sailors, the local population and the Russian intelligencia. Because of his work he became more and more known and popular. He also attracted the attention of the Russian Orthodox Church clergy and the Russian authorities. As a punishment he was interned in the Orthodox Church monastery in Temnikow (province of Tambovsk). Since even there he influenced people that came in contact with him, he was put in a prison in Tambov. While in prison he became very ill and a Russian gendarmerie colonel turned him over to the care of the exiled Adolf Pilichowski. After recovery, on the request of the Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church in Petersburg, he was exiled to Archangielsk and he was later to continue missionay work at the Kola Peninsula. He died probably on February 16, 1850 in Szenkursk. PODGORSKI, Przemyslaw (1879 - 1953), electrical engineer, fighter for Polish independence. Born on April 10, 1879 in Warsaw, the son of Ignacy, a notary, and Wanda born Turska (see reference for Podgorski, Wanda). He completed high school in Moscow in 1898. He then enrolled in the Higher Technical School in Moscow. At that time he was admitted to the "Zet" Friends Group and later to the "Zet" Fraternity Circle. In 1900 he transferred to the Polytechnical Institute - Department of Mechanical Engineering. At that time he was involved in the work of the Association named after Jan Kilinski, which from 1901 was active among the workers and craftsmen, and which was a branch of the National League. Podgorski led this Association for some time as its chairman. At the same time he was a member of the Warsaw Technical University Students Association. In 1901 he was an emissary of the Association of Polish Youth to the Podlasie and Polesie regions with the objective to instagate high school students to demand reinstatement of teaching religion classes in Polish, and in 1902 he participated in the protest actions of the local high school students. In the latter part of his studies he participated in the organization of the Warsaw Technical University students' strike in 1905 and (because of this) he did not obtain a diploma. In the years 1903 - 1906 he carried on a practical training in various construction, sewer and electrical companies and during his practical training at the Warsaw- Vienna Railroad he saved a train which was running without an engineer. For this Podgorski was awarded. At the time he was an active member of the National Association of Workers (NZR) established by the National League in 1905. Though he was not a member of the NZR Executive Committee, he worked closely with them and regularly attended their meetings. In 1906 Podgorski went to study in Belgium and in 1911 obtained an electrical enginee r diploma at the Liege Electrotechnical Institute named after Montefiore. During his studies there he was appointed a member and later chairman of the "Zet" Committee Abroad, which was active on the entire territory of Western Europe where "Zet" groups existed. In 1909 he participated in the students' congress in Zakopane. Temporarily, from the end of 1909 to June 1910, he was a member of the "Zet" Central Committee (Centralizacja). In Liege he met Zygmunt Milkowski -Jez and on his behalf he became one of the three administrators of the National Treasury, representing territories under Russian occupation. In Belgium he was carrying out military training, at first with the local "Sokol" (Falcon) and later with the Riffle Association "Strzelec" (Shooter), in which organization he was a commander in Liege. In 1912 he returned to Poland. Podgorski reestablished former contacts with the leadership of the NZR and belonged to a small group of intelligentsia activists which directed the work of the Association. In the years 1912 - 1914 Podgorski travelled together with bishop Wladyslaw Bandurski to the Chelmszczyzna region to help members of the Uniate Church persecuted there by the Tsar's administration. He started to work for the Warsaw Power Authority and obtained the rights to sign all projects for the Power Authority. He also established a joint stock company called: "Koneczny, Podgorski - Electrical Engineers, Electrical Company in Warsaw, Zorawia 24." He ran this company until 1914; that is, until he moved to Lublin. In Lublin he established an electrical company called: "P. Podgorski, H. Jaworski, Electrical Engineers," which he ran on his own from November 1915. He took on lease a small local power station in the center of Lublin and extended its services for the entire center of the city. He then took on lease a second local power station in Piaski and on Bychowska Street and wanted to connect these power stations into one power supply network. In 1918 Podgorski established a joint stock company to build and operate a district power station in Pulawy, based on peat and coal transported on the Vistula (Wisla) River. At the beginning of World War I (1914) he was active in the Secret Committee for Independence and, after the Russians left Lublin, he established - together with Wladyslaw Kunicki and Edward Suprunowicz - a by then legal institution called the Lublin National Bureau (Wydzial Narodowy Lubelski) which he led together with Juliusz Poniatowski. The Lublin National Bureau was recruiting soldiers to Polish Legions and organized in Lublin auxiliary services such as: tailoring shops to sew uniforms and napsacks, a kitchen for legionists and a hospital. Podgorski represented the Lublin National Bureau - the most active organization of that type in Krolestwo - at the Constituent Congress of the National Council (Rada Narodowa) in Warsaw on November 6 - 7, 1915, where he strongly criticized the work of the Chief National Committee's Military Department. He was specifically against further recruitment to the Legions in accordance with the then accepted tactics of the independence faction. Podgorski became a member of the Central National Committee established at the Congress of the NZR in Warsaw on December 18 - 19, 1915 as the highest administrative organ for the existing district organizations (Polish Socialist Party, NZR, Polish Peasants Party, Association of Intelligentsia Struggling for Independence, Association of Patriots), with the basic program to rebuild an independent Polish State. After the so-called "Act of November 5th" proclaimed by the Central Powers, in the newspaper "Glos Lubleski" dated November 24, 1916, a declaration was published, demanding from the occupying authorities "a legally elected representation (parliament) and a duly commissioned government." On behalf of the Lublin National Bureau this declaration was signed by P. Podgorski. In the years 1916 - 1918 he was a member of the Polish Military Organization (POW) in Lublin, leading this organization with Jan Zdanowicz-Opielinski. In November 1918 he became a special commissioner for the railroads in Ignacy Daszynski's Temporary Lublin Government. He belonged to the Polish Peasants' Party "Wyzwolenie" and worked closely with Stanislaw Thugutt. After the death of his son Jan, Podgorski had a nervous breakdown. He liquidated all business matters, turned them over to his employees - with a significant loss for himself - and moved to Czestochowa. In 1920 he became a labor inspector there. He taught electronics in a local school. After transfer of this school to Warsaw he continued to teach there. In 1929 he was a chairman of the Committee to Commemorate the 25th Anniversary of the Struggle for the Polish School. He published reminiscences: "Zet and the struggle for the Polish school" (published in "Brzask" (Dawn) 1930 No. 2- 3) and "Association of the students of the Warsaw Technical University (1898-1906)" (in: "Our struggle for the Polish school 1901-1917, published in 1932). In the years 1932 - 1935 he was one of the initiators and activists who were against the Harriman's Concern, which made a bid for electrification (based on foreign funds) of a large part of Poland. This activity caused rejection of the bid . Soon after Podgorski established an Association of Friends for the Electrification of Poland named after Gabriel Narutowicz. He succeeded to attract Aleksander Lednicki's interest in this matter. Lednicki became a president of the Association and with his connections as a president of the Polish-American Bank he established the Polish-American Joint Stock Company for the Electrification of Poland in which Polish and American funds were invested. Lednicki's death terminated this work. In 1935 Podgorski, using his connections with American capital, made - on behalf of the Association of Friends for the Electrification of Poland - an offer to the Municipal Authorities in Warsaw to build subway lines from Mlociny to Wilanow and from Okecie to Wawer, based on a concession for 10 years with the city's right to buy it earlier. Because of the delay in making the decision by the Municipal Authorities the American capital - after 6 months of waiting - was withdrawn. Podgorski also submitted a project of the Vistula River regulation and the building of the stage of a fall in Wloclawek was even started. From 1935 Podgorski was a manager of the work safety department in the Polish Sugar Mills Association. He held this position until 1942; that is, until the Germans dismissed him. Until 1935 he was also a labor inspector in the Ministry of Labor. He was active in the circle of Work Safety Engineers (as Vice-President) at the Association of Polish Technicians in Warsaw. In 1936 he was a member of the Honorary Committee of the "Zet" Congress on the 50th anniversary of its establishment. At the Congress Podgorski made a lengthy speech containing his ideological program beliefs. He was a member of the Association of seniors of the Polish National Youth Organization and the Association of Polish Democratic Youth. He worked continuously in vocational education teaching electrotechnics in Warsaw. He prepared a textbook on this subject but the book was not published because of the outbreak of the war in 1939. In the years 1942 - 1944 Podgorski organized and ran a factory manufacturing and repairing weighing scales, called "Dybiec and Company," which was destroyed during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944. He participated in the conspiracy movement, helping in the production of various components of weapons. From May 1, 1948 he was employed part-time in the Polish Standardizing Committee in the work safety and standardization departments. Podgorski was one of the pioneers of sailing in Poland and a long-time active member of "Ogniwo." In spite of his old age he spent every free minute with the young sailors, serving them with advice and sharing his rich experience. Podgorski died in Warsaw on September 21, 1953. He was buried at the Powazki Cemetary - quarter No. 195. Podgorski was awarded with a Cross of Independence with Swords, a POW Cross and the Cross of Merit Polonia Restituta. In his marriage with Anna born Kostecka (see reference: Podgorska-Kostecka, Anna) he had five children - daughters: Maria (who died in 1980) - a chemist and leader of the Polish Scouts, married to Tomasz Piskorowski (see reference); Krystyna Paszkowska-Swiesciak - a librarian; and sons: Witold - a veterinary surgeon, Jerzy who was killed in Majdanek in 1943 and Jan, who died as a child in 1919. PODGORSKI (PODGURSKI), Samuel Jan (died in 1712), professor at the Krakow Academy, canon of the Sandomierz collegiate church. His father's name was Jan; he was from the "Ruski" province (county Lwow), probably of a burgher family. He enrolled in the Krakow University probably around 1683 since in the fall of 1685 he obtained a Bachelor's Degree and 3 years later (on July 8, 1688) a Master's Degree in Liberal Arts. During his university studies he lived in the Starnigelska Dormitory and there, probably in 1687, still as a Bachelor of Arts, he wrote his first printed work, a speech in honor of the Blessed Izajasz Boner, entitled: "Leo liliatus." After obtaining a Master of Arts Degree he lectured as a doce nt extraneus (associate professor) at the Faculty of Philosophy in the years 1688/89 - 1690, 1692- 1694 and in addition to that for four semesters (1691 - 1691/92, 1695 - 1695/96) he taught dialectics in the Nowodworskie Schools, pursuing at the same time panegyrical works, in which diligently though without any prominent talent he added splendor to the sm all and big affairs of university life. From 1691 "Apostolic Notary," in 1694 he presumably published epitalamium (poem celebrating a wedding) whose title is not known (possibly this was the anonymous work "Leo clupeatus" "solenni voto Polonae Juventutis i n Collegio Novodvorsciano") written on the occasion of the wedding of Maximillian Emanuel of Bavaria with Maria Teresa, daughter of King Jan III Sobieski. Podgorski dedicated to the Vienna battle winner (King Jan III Sobieski) a dramatized political panegyric "Controversia temporum," produced on stage on October 20, 1695 by students of dialectics at the Nowodworskie Schools. Undoubtedly for this work he was granted the title of King's Secretary in 1698. A year later (on 5/5/1696) he produced on stage a second play "Discordia consors Martis et Palladis" dedicated to Alexander Dominik Lubomirski. On February 12, 1694 he was admitted to the Collegium Minor in which he consequently held chairs: Andrzej Rudowski's Foundation (1695), Gabriel Wladyslawski's and Tomasz Nowka's (1698-99); in the years 1700 - 1703 Wojciech Jastrzebiec's collegiate ("Professio Jastrzembciana"), connected with the "prepozytura" of the Saint Wojciech (St. Adalbert) Church. From 1698 on he was also - upon a recommendation of the University - a penitentiary of the Marcin Radyminski's Foundation in the Saint Mary's Church. He was accepted to the Collegium Major on the basis of his thesis (published in July 1703): "Questio metaphysica de destinctionibus." In the same year he obtained t he position of a canon in the Saint Anna Collegiate Church, in which in the years 1706 and 1710 he performed the duties of a preacher. Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy in the winter semester of 1705/05. Several times during the years of difficulty for the University of the Northern War (among others in 1703, 1706, 1709) he held the position of "prepozytory," doctor and treasurer of the Collegium Major, earnestly - though not always effectively - defending the Collegium's assets against the military contributions. Even though he did not neglect his literary work, commemorating - especially as "orator Tilicianus" - in several panegyrics the memory of his deceased university colleagues (Stanislaw Biezanowski, Jan Grymecki, Jerzy Januszewicz, Sebastian Piskor ski, Mateusz Psojecki, Stanislaw Slowakowic, Kazimierz Waclaw Straszynski, Marcin Winkler, Jozef Wisniowski) and secular dignitaries (Przeclaw Stefan Szembek, castellan of Wojnice) as well as church dignitaries (Piotr Stanislaw Orlowski). Under lofty baroque titles (Apodictica Palladis Jagellonicae, Definitio essentialis, Elixir virtutis et sapientiae, Gradus cognationis proximus, Modus sciendi ignotum etc.) he composed with the craftsman's know-how hardly individualized in their content and form praising pieces on the occasion of promotions, birthdays, new college rectors' inaugurations and first mass celebrated by the university theologians and lawyers (K. Artenski, A. Czyrzykowicz, A. S. Lopacki, B. Olszynski, M. Psojecki, F. Sowinski, K. Witunski, P. Zontakiewicz and others). In all, in the years 1687 - 1712 he published 32 Latin panegyrics of which a small part was dedicated to persons outside of the Academy, among others to the Krakow bishop Kazimierz Lubienski, bishop of Kujawy region and primate Stanislaw Szembek, to the Krakow merchant Jakub Preisz, to Jozef Nielepiec and his wife Katarzyna Malachowska. In spite of the possession of several church benefices, among others: a parish in Osiek (before 1703), canon's positions at Saint Anna (from 1703) and Sandomierz (7/3/1711) and a parish in Smarzowice (1711-12) almost until the end of his life Podgorski taught at the Philosophy Department. Not before 1711, in relation with his efforts to obtain a canon's position at the Saint Florian Collegiate Church, Podgorski was obliged to pass to the Theology Department, where - it seems - a few weeks before his death, he obtained a Bachelor's Degree in Theology. Podgorski died in Krakow, as a censor of books and the Krakow diocese synodal examiner, before Dece mber 13, 1712 because on this day he was buried in the Saint Anna Church. PODGORSKI, Stanislaw Jan (1882 - 1964), painter. Born on December 29, 1882 in Kalusz (county Stanislawow), the son of Jozef and Rozalia born Majchrowicz. After completion of a village school in Kalusz he then attended a secondary school in Stanislawow and Drohobycz. In the years 1901 - 1909 he studied painting at the Academy of Art (ASP) in Krakow under the direction of Florian Cynk, Leon Wyczolkowski and Jan Stanislawski; in the academic year 1908/09 he enrolled in Jozef Pankiewicz's class. However he did not attend his class. Podgorski already distinguished himself during the first year of studies receiving an award and a silver medal for his drawings of heads and nudes. He also received a silver medal in 1903. In the years 1906 - 1908 he studied in Paris as a recipient of an Academy of Art scholarship; he travelled at that time to Brittany. Later he studied in Rome (1911) and broadened his education travelling to Zagreb, Budapest, Vienna and Berlin. In 1902 (according to a personal questionnaire) or in 1903 (according to a report of Emanuel Swieykowski) he made his debut in the Krakow Society of Friends of Fine Arts (TPSP). In 1904 at an exhibition in the TPSP he presented his painting under the title "Oblok" ("Cloud"), which was bought by a known art collector Feliks Jasienski (presently the painting belongs to the National Museum in Krakow). In Podgorski's early paintings there was evident the influence of J. Stanislawsk i. In 1909 Podgorski was admitted to the Polish Artists Association "Sztuka" (Art) and became a member of its executive committee.He exhibited his paintings with the "Sztuka" until the 1930s. In 1911 he participated in organizing the Union of Polish Artists (ZZAP) in Krakow. In the years 1911 - 1912 he was a teacher of landscape in the local School of Fine Arts for Girls. Podgorski had one-man shows in the Warsaw Association of Fine Arts (Zacheta) in 1907 and 1911, in Krakow's TPSP in 1910; he also exhibited his paintings in Vienna in 1908 and 1911, in Lwow in 1910 and in 1911 in Rome, Moscow and the Krakow's Salon Niezaleznych (Salon of Independent Artists); in 1912 in Poznan, in 1913 in Kiev and last of all in Saint Louis in 1904 and 1914. Podgorski's paintings from this period showed his lasting interest in landscapes painted in a realistic way though with clear reminiscence of impressionism and postimpressionism. In the years 1908 to 1914 reproductions of several of Podgorski's paintings ("Z Bretani i" - "From Brittany" ; "Uliczka w Zywcu" - "Street in Zywiec" ; "Snieg" - "Snow" ; "Portret chlopczyka" - "Portrait of a little boy") were published in the magazines "Swiat" (World), "Tygodnik Ilustrowany" (Illustrated Weekly) and "Nasz Kraj" (Our Country) . During World War I Podgorski created many fewer paintings, which undoubtedly resulted from the general situation but also from his family's situation (in 1915 his son Jakub was born). Podgorski revealed the full extent of his creativity and great artistic activity in the period between the two world wars. He participated in about 30 exhibitions in Poland and abroad. In 1921 he received Second Prize at the Winter Salon TZSP (Association "Zacheta"). In 1922 he had a one -man show there. The next one-man show Podgorski had was in the Art Gallery in Lodz (June 1924). In the years 1924 - 1925 he participated in the International Painting Exhibitions in Pittsburgh organized by the Carnegie Institute; Podgorski was appointed a member of the Fine Arts Department at this Institute. In 1926 he was appointed an artistic director of a newly built Center of Arts in Lwow. In June 1928 an exhibition of dozens of Podgorski's paintings opened in Krakow's Association of Friends of Fine Arts. This exhibition was later transferred to the Salon of Fine Arts Association in Poznan, and then to the City Hall in Kalisz and to the City Art Gallery in Lodz. In 1929 Podgorski won a Bronze Medal at the National Public Art Show in Poznan. In 1931 at the Winter Salon at TZSP he was awarded with a Silver Medal. In March of 1933 "The Group of Nine" (established in 1931 upon the initiative of Teodor Grott) had an exhibition with Podgorski's participation. As a member of t he Association "Sztuka" (Art) Podgorski participated in most of its exhibitions in Krakow's Palace of Art in the period between the wars; among them the 100th exhibition on the occasion of the 40th Anniversary of "Sztuka" in 1937. In 1939 he had an exhibition in Zakopane and Poznan. Podgorski's paintings from this period had a character similar to that of the period before World War I. He painted landscapes (quite often mountains), gardens, flowers, clouds, waves of water, seasons of the year and times of the day, less often portraits, in principle being faithful to the Krakow school of landscape from the modernism period. The paintings were characterized by summary treatment of shapes and certain faintness of colors. In the years 1942 - 1948 Podgorski was in the Soviet Union. For Podgorski the consequence of World War II was the loss of all his possessions and that of 6 years of artistic output (about 50 paintings). He returned to Poland in April 1948 and in August of that year he assumed the position of a director of the Public High School of Fine Arts in Wisnicz Nowy and performed these duties until his retirement in 1958. In 1950 he became a member of the Union of Polish Artists and Designers, at first of the Warsaw Division and in 1958 of the Krakow Division. Podgorski's production after World War II, whic h includes paintings of landscapes and portraits and drawings, goes back to his pre-war manner. Podgorski died on August 4, 1964 in Wisnicz Nowy. Towards the end of his life Podgorski was all alone (his wife and son died earlier). Danuta Kociolek - a resident of Wisnicz - took care of him. She inherited his personal belongings. Podgorski's paintings are in the National Museum in Krakow ("Winter landscape", "Fall in Beskidy") and in the National Museum in Warsaw ("Landscape", "Early Spring", "Black Gasienicowy Lake", "Apple Tree" and "Theme from Siberia"). PODGORSKI, Stefan (1884 - 1965) entrepreneur, Deputy Mayor of the City of Wroclaw, social activist. Born on December 26, 1884 in Warsaw. Son of Stanislaw - a notary, insurgent in the January (1863) Uprising - and Karolina born Tomkiel. He attended R. Kowalski's Private School and the special School of Commerce of P. Laskus (later A. Ubysz) in Warsaw, which he completed with honors in 1903. Podgorski studied in the Vienna Commerce Academy and later at the Department of Political Science and Economics of the Gdansk Technical University. At the same time he had his practical training in the Baltic Commission Bank. After two years of residence in Gdansk he was deported by the Prussian authorities for his Polish national activities, among others, for the clandestine teaching of Polish children. In January 1906 he arrived in Krakow, where he became employed by the Association of Agricultural Cooperatives. From January 1907 to December 31, 1909 he worked in the Petroleum Company "Wolski, Korsak, Weydlich and Company" at first in Boryslaw and then in its Headquarters in Lwow. In 1908 he joined the Polish Democratic-Socialist Party of Galicia and Slask (Silesia) Cieszynski in Lwow. In 1910 he began to work in the Commercial Bank in Krakow as a cashier-accountant and later as a procurator. With the outbreak of World War I, in August 1914, he joined the Polish Legions in which he served until May 1915 in the Second Brigade. Then he was a manager of the technical-commercial department in the Coal Industry Company in Krakow, where he worked until 1916. In the same year he opened his own company in Dabrowa Gornicza with a branch in Vienna, which supplied technical equipment for coal mines. In the years 1920 - 1924 he was a president and shareholder of a river transport company "Zegluga Polska S.A." in Krakow, in which he organized a department of commerce and of coal transportation. Afterwards he established in Krakow a new joint stock company under the name "Weglostal" (Coal/Steel), which supplied technical equipment and materials, mainly steel, to coal mines as well as acted as a sales agent for coal mines in the sale of coal. In 1927 he became an owner of this company, limiting its operation to the sale of coal only. During the German occupation Podgorski ran a retail sale of coal. He was arrested by the Gestapo in 1941 for the alleged distribution of illegal leaflets. He was released thanks to his family's efforts. In the years 1942 - 1944 he was a co- organizer of secret concerts. He participated in the actions conducted by RGO (Rada Glowna Wykonawcza - Central Executive Council) to help deportees and imprisoned people. On April 30, 1945 he was appointed Head of the Wroclaw Municipal Government Agency for the recruitment and preparation of teams to govern Wroclaw and Lower Silesia. After arriving in Wroclaw on May 15, 1945 he was appointed Deputy Mayor of that city; he held this position until May 1, 1947. In 1945 he joined the Democratic Party (SD) and he belonged to the co-organizers of this party in Wroclaw. From August 16, 1945 he held a position of a Vice Chairman of the Temporary SD Circle in Wroclaw. Subsequently he was a Vice Chairman of the District Headquarters of the Democratic Party (SD) in Wroclaw until August 1946. As the Deputy Mayor of Wroclaw and the first president of the Lower Silesia Music Association he was a co-originator of the Wroclaw Theater and Opera and the School of Music named after F. Chopin. In 1946 he became the first president of the Association for the Advancement of Economic Sciences in Wroclaw, rendering great services to the establishment of the Higher School of Commerce. From May 1947 he was a member of the management of the Exhibition of the Regained Territories and a director of the Lower Silesia Exhibitions and Fairs Company. In the same year he was arrested on groundless charges. He was released in 1949 upon the verdict of a Special Military Tribunal. However he had difficulties in finding a suitable job, so in the years 1949 - 1950 he was a manager of the General Operation Department of the Ossolinski's National Institute (Ossolineum), and afterwards - until 1955 - he worked in the metal-working craftsman's cooperative. In 1955 he became a teacher of musicology at the Higher Theological Seminary in Wroclaw. Three years later he retired. He was a member of the Association of Friends of Astronomy and the Association of Friends of Wroclaw. He was also active in the United National Front (FJN). Podgorski died on August 22, 1965 in Plonsk. He was buried at the Powazki Cemetery in Warsaw. For his work and achievements Podgorski was awarded with - among other prizes - the Legions Cross, the "Builder of Wroclaw Decoration," and the Cross of Merit Polonia Restituta. Podgorski was married twice: the first time in 1907 with Janina born Cholewicka and the second time in 1923 with Felicja born Mialkowska. From the first marriage he had two sons: Roman (died in 1927) and Stefan (killed in 1939); from the second marriage: a daughter - Zofia Podgorska-Klawe, medical doctor and research worker at the Institute of the History of Science, Education and Technology of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Wroclaw. PODGORSKI, Zygmunt Marian Andrzej (1879 - 1939), teacher, inspector of schools, educational activist. Born on September 28, 1879 in Gaj, county Krakow. Son of Jan - a teacher in a village school in Szczakowa - and Filomena born Pisztek. In the years 1892 - 1900 he studied in a high school in Tarnow. From 1900 on he studied history and geography at the Faculty of Philosophy of the Jagiellonian University (UJ) in Krakow. He graduated in 1904. From the early school years until the end of his life he was active in "Sodalicja Marianska"; during his university studies he belonged to "Eleusis." He began his professional work in the fall of 1904, appointed on September 9 of that year a teacher in the Gimnazjum (High School) in Jaroslaw, where at the same time he was managing a dormitory for boys. In 1908 he passed a state license examination for high school teachers of history and geography. He was active in the Towarzystwo Szkoly Ludowej (Association for Public Schools) and prepared a brochure under the title "Jaroslaw county in regard to culture and education" for the Jaroslaw Circle of the TSL (published in Krakow in 1909). On December 15, 1908 he was transferred to the Nowy Targ High School, where he was officially employed until August 10, 1913. That is when he got a teacher's position in the First Polish High School in Tarnopol. In reality, when he was transferred to Nowy Targ, every year he obtained a leave of absence from Nowy Targ to fulfill the duties of a teacher in the high school established by the TSL in 1908 in Bia la near Bielsko, which in 1909 obtained full public rights and from that year on was called "The Polish Private High School" (Gimnazjum). In Biala Podgorski belonged to the Gimnastics Circle "Sokol" (Falcon) and himself established several new "nests" of "Sokol" in Bielsko and the village. He worked particularly intensely, together with Tadeusz Mikulowski, in the Association for Public Schools (TSL); among other activities he travelled with lectures in order to awaken national awareness; he was "a soul of work among Polish workers and peasants in Bielsko-Biala" (S. Rymar, "Memoirs" part 3, p. 179). Together with T. Mikulowski he also organized agricultural cooperatives. He left Biala in 1913. Before 1914 Podgorski was a member of the National League. During World War I he was recruited for a short period of time into the Austrian army. After being discharged he taught for some time in the Polish School in Olomuniec, established there for Polish youth evacuated from Galicia. In the years 1916/1917 and 1917/1918 he was a high school teacher in Bochnia. Transferred then to the schools' administration he assumed the position of the Chelm District Schools' Superintendent. Afterwards - on June 20, 1921 - he became the Lublin District Schools' Superintendent. In June 1925 he was appointed public schools' inspector for the Warsaw Schools' District, but already on August 17 of that year he became an inspector of the Polesie District Schools' Administration in Brzesc on the Bug River. On October 1, 1928 he assumed a similar position in Lodz in the Lodz District Schools' Administration, in which he stayed until the closing down of that school district in July 1932. On September 1, 1932 he was pensioned off and soon after retired. In 1925 he was a member of the Main Headquarters of the "Polska Macierz Szkolna." During his work in the Lodz District Schools' Administration Podgorski published several works, among others: "Network of schools and realization of public education in the Wielun county" (published in Lodz in 1928); "10th anniversary of the public education in Lodz province" (published in Lodz in 1929). After his retirement Podgorski worked - until the outbreak of World war II - in a private High School for Girls owned by Zofia Petkowska (he was at that time also licensed to teach science and civics). At the same time he was a devoted chairman of the diocesan Catholic Men's Action in Lodz. In May 1934 he was elected to the Lodz City Council; in the Council he chaired the Oboz Narodowy (ON) Faction. On December 20, 1934 he was elected a Deputy Mayor of the city of Lodz. This function as well as the function of the councilman he performed until July 1, 1935 when the City Council was dissolved by the Secretary of Internal Affairs. After Lodz was seized by German troops, on September 6, 1939 the "Citizens of Lodz Committee" was established. Podgorski became its member in the Section of Education and Culture. Arrested on the anniversary of the Polish Independence Day (November 11) together with a group of social and political activists, professional intelligentsia and clergy, he was sent to the concentration camp in Radogoszcz and the next day - November 12, 1939 - was executed (by Germans) in a mass execution in Lucmierskie Forests. Podgorski was married twice. In 1906 with Maria born Pelc (she died in 1912) and in 1917 with Maria born Chadzynska, who at the same time as her husband was a member of the Lodz City Council from the Oboz Narodowy Faction. He had two sons: Zygmunt - an architect, who as an officer in the reserve was killed in the September 1939 campaign - and Kazimierz; as well as two daughters: the older - a nun (in the Zygmunt's Convent) - and Barbara.