Design for Engineering Unit 3 Engineering Communication Annette Beattie June 9, 2006 Engineering Communication ETP 2006 – Annette Beattie This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0402616. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Engineering Communication Communicate - to send information so that it is satisfactorily received or understood. Here is a recording from a training tape on how guided missiles locate themselves and get to the target. Listen to see if this information is communicated as well as it could be. Engineering Communication Engineers need to be able to communicate thoughts, ideas, and plans to many other specialists in many different fields. Engineers work in teams with people from different backgrounds. Therefore, it is necessary to have a variety of communication skills. (VCSU, 2006) Communication Skills Interpersonal - Do you picture the engineer as the nerd in the corner with the pocket protector? Those days have passed. Engineering today means teamwork. The Thomas Edison mythology would not work on problems like the Manhattan Project. (VCSU, 2006) Communication Skills Written It may seem that engineering projects would be too technical to have much use for composition skills. However, in a survey of over 4000 practicing engineers, 99% listed composition courses as important for future engineers. (VCSU, 2006) Communication Skills Why? Engineers write proposals. They need to convince people to spend money on their projects. These “shopping lists” may be read by their immediate boss, the president of the company, a US Senator, the DOD (Department of Defense), etc. Engineers also write reports when a design change is needed or to explain a failure. (VCSU, 2006) Communication Skills Oral and Electronic Presentation - For the same reasons as listed for written skills, oral and electronic presentation skills are needed. The use of presentation software and hardware can vastly improve the effectiveness of an engineer’s report. This is especially important with regard to concurrent engineering. (VCSU, 2006) Concurrent Engineering Concurrent means occurring at the same time. Concurrent engineering is the process in which all aspects of the design process happen at the same time. Effective communication is critical. All aspects of design, manufacturing and support have to be coordinated. (VCSU, 2006) Concurrent Engineering Development teams are used to complete projects. The team effort: Reduces development time Produces a faster time to market which equals increased market share Increases quality Increases productivity Eliminates costly and timely re-designs Lowers implementation risks (Berkeley, 1997) (VCSU, 2006) Mathematical Expression Recall from Unit 1 the math requirements for an engineering major. Math is an important tool that engineers use to determine design solutions. Math is also a method to express design solutions. (VCSU, 2006) Mathematical Expression A mathematical expression can be written in the form of a statement that can be translated into a formula and then tested. A simple example: d = distance, v = velocity, t = time v=d/t A train travels 50 miles in 30 minutes. What is the velocity of the train? (VCSU, 2006) Mathematical Expression “A picture is worth a thousand words” Which is easier to interpret? The following table or graph? 8:00 1.031 9:00 1.032 10:00 1.086 11:00 1.043 12:00 1.041 1:00 1.030 2:00 1.089 3:00 1.042 4:00 1.028 Mathematical Expression Hourly Measurements 1.1 1.09 1.08 1.07 Measurement 1.06 1.05 Se rie s1 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.01 1 0.99 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 :0 :0 :0 8: 9: 1: 2: 3: 4: 10 11 12 Time Mathematical Expression The information is the same in both the table and the chart. The chart clearly shows that during 10:00 and 2:00 the measurements increase. This is a replica of a situation in which the machine operator was leaning against his CNC machine during coffee break throwing his machining out of tolerance. The change in measurements were not associated with the change in time until it was put into chart format. Mathematical Expression As an engineer, it is critical to use the best expression of mathematics to clearly communicate with others. 2-Dimensional Drafting & Sketching Formerly referred to as drafting or engineering drafting (VCSU, 2006) (OCIW, 2003) 2-Dimensional Drafting & Sketching This form of communication has been an area of skill to engineers and architects for hundreds of years. (VCSU, 2006) 2-Dimensional Drafting & Sketching A drafting course would teach students to: Print clearly and uniformly Create accurate and uniform dimensions Make object lines of uniform thickness to make center lines, dimension lines, hidden lines, etc. distinguishable. (VCSU, 2006) 2-Dimensional Drafting & Sketching The next objective was to represent objects with top, front, and side views. This is called orthographic projection. (VCSU, 2006) 2-Dimensional Drafting & Sketching The next step was to teach isometric projection. Perspective Drawing 1 point perspective 2 point perspective 3 point perspective (Anime-by-Example,1998). 2 Point Perspective (Anime-by-Example,1998). 3 Point Perspective (Anime-by-Example,1998). 2-Dimensional Drafting & Sketching The idea behind teaching these skills (that is still valid today) is that many great inventions and products are first put down on paper on a napkin or the back of an envelope. Engineers are required to keep dated logbooks, including sketches to document who created an invention first. The award of patents are often dependant on these logs. (VCSU, 2006). 2-Dimensional Drafting & Sketching Even in 1987, engineering students at NDSU had to take a minimum of 2 quarters of engineering drafting producing drawings like the ones just shown with front, top, side and isometric views. The drafting course was one of the most challenging and often seen as a test of engineering determination - referred to as the “weed out” class. (VCSU, 2006). 3 Dimensional Modeling Today (2006) the class offered at NDSU is: Fundamentals of Visual Communications for Engineers A visual communications for design and manufacturing, computer- aided drawing and design, three- dimensional modeling and orthographic projections, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing… (NDSU, n.d.) 3 Dimensional Modeling 3-D modeling software is more productive at communicating a design concept. Technology has drastically changed the way we can communicate design ideas. Not everyone that engineers are selling their idea to can read a mechanical drawing. (VCSU, 2006). 3 Dimensional Modeling Characteristics Modeling provides a means of visually and virtually representing ideas. The term computer model describes a computer-generated perspective drawing. They are not physical models, but their realism allows them to play similar roles. (VCSU, 2006). 3 Dimensional Modeling Characteristics Model building is a skill and process to translate designs into a visual form to be used for discussion, analysis, development, and testing. (VCSU, 2006). 3 Dimensional Modeling Characteristics By creating a model on the computer, companies can save a great amount of time and money in development and redesign phases. The model can be designed, modeled, and tested on the computer before the first one is manufactured. This speeds up production. (VCSU, 2006). 3 Dimensional Modeling Characteristics After a model is created virtually, an actual physical model can be made through a computer controlled process called stereolithography. This uses lasers to “trace” out a part from a liquid polymer. Where the lasers intersect, the polymer hardens and forms the solid part of the model. Another process that sprays on layers of polymer is called Rapid Deposition Modeling (RDM). (VCSU, 2006). Activity Sample Hand out Unit 3 Activity For your assignment, you will be in teams of two. Put together a power point presentation that you will give to the class per the handout provided. A sample of what you will put together is as follows: Activity Sample 1 point perspective Perspective is the geometrical technique in drawing that creates the illusion of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional plane (your paper). It is a technique that uses overlapping, objects receding in space, horizon lines and vanishing points to create a feeling of depth. Activity Sample 1 point perspective There is 1 point perspective, 2 point, 3 point, multi point, and no point. 1 point perspective has all lines converging on one vanishing point. Activity Sample 1 point perspective The following is an example of an artists drawing from one point perspective that gives the feeling of looking into another room. It was painted by Santa Maria Novella circa 1428 and titled Trinity. Sources Anime-by-Example. (1998). Retrieved June 9, 2006 from the website: http://www.geocities.com/hamchoba/animex/3d.htm#3-Point%20Perspective Berkeley. (1997). Retrieved June 9, 2006 from the website: http://best.me.berkeley.edu/~pps/pps/ce_be.html North Dakota State University. (n.d.). Retrieved June 9, 2006 from the website: http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. (2003). Retrieved June 9, 2006 from the website: http://www.ociw.edu/instrumentation/ccd/imacs/images/SITE_MECH.JPG Valley City State University. (2006). Technology education 660 design for engineering unit 3 reading assignment. Retrieved April 15, 2006 from the website: http://www.vcsu.edu Standards Standard #8: Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design. [8.H] The design process includes defining a problem, brainstorming, researching and generating ideas, identifying criteria and specifying constraints, exploring possibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, making a model or prototype, testing and evaluating the design using specifications, refining the design, creating or making it, and communicating processes and results. Standard #12: Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use information and communication technologies. [12.L] Document processes and procedures and communicate them to different audiences using appropriate oral and written techniques. [12.P] Use computers and calculators to access, retrieve, organize, process, maintain, interpret, and evaluate date and information in order to communicate. Standard #17: Students will develop abilities to use and maintain technological products and systems. [17.P] There are many ways to communicate information, such as graphic and electronic means.
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