What is Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance?

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What is Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance? Powered By Docstoc
					                In the Name Of God




Exercise Physiology VO2max and Anaerobic
                    Power




                  Ali Reza Amani
                    PhD Student




              University Putra Malaysia
             Faculty Educational Studies
                 Dep. Sport Science
   Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Contents:

Chapter 1:
Maximal Oxygen Uptake
  -     Introduction                                    ………………………………………………………….                                                       3
  -     Measurement Methods                             ………………………………………………………….                                                       9
  -     Treadmill and Gas Analyses Device .……………………………………………….                                                                      13
  -     Protocol with Gas Analyzer ………………………………………………………….                                                                          14


Chapter2:
Anaerobic Capacity
  -     Introduction                                   ……………………………………………………….                                                    15
  -     Measurement Methods                             ……………………………………………………….                                                    16
  -     Devise and tools                               …………………………………………………………                                                       17
  -     Wingate Anaerobic protocol ………………………………………………………….                                                                          18


Chapter3:
Body Composition
  -     Introduction                                ……………………………………………………….                                                     23
  -     Body fat Percent                               ………………………………………………………….                                                    24
  -     BMI                                           ………………………………………………………….                                                       30
  -     Somatotype                                    ………………………………………………………….                                                      30
  -     Sargent Test                                  ……………………………………………….                                                       40
  -     Strength Test                                  ……………………………………………….                                                       42




   References                                                                                                                       47
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Chapter                1
                                        Maximal Oxygen Consumption




Gas Analayzer / VO2max - UPM


Introduction:
 VO2max or Maximal Oxygen Consumption is most important factor in the Healthy
Researches. That is importance for coach or physical education teachers to know
their students ability for doing exercise in special field of sports. For this approach
we have to know that, what is VO2max and how we can improve it in athletes.
Please let us to define some variables in aerobic area:
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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 Aerobic activities use the larger muscle groups over an extended time period
where the energy is supplied by the oxygen utilizing process. Sample activities
include walking, jogging, swimming, and cycling.


 Aerobic capacity is the highest amount of oxygen consumed during maximal
exercise in activities that use the large muscle groups in the legs or arms and legs
combined. Aerobic capacity, aerobic power, functional capacity, functional aerobic
capacity, maximal functional capacity, cardio respiratory fitness, cardiovascular
fitness, maximal oxygen intake, and maximal oxygen uptake are terms that are often
used interchangeably.


 Aerobic conditioning is regular physical training in aerobic activities over an
extended period of time.


  Aerobic fitness is the capacity to exercise in aerobic activities for a prolonged
 period where the amount of activity depends on aerobic capacity and cardio
 respiratory endurance.


VO2max defined

VO2 max is the maximum volume of oxygen that by the body can consume during
intense, whole-body exercise, while breathing air at sea level. This volume is
expressed as a rate, either liters per minute (L/min) or millilitres per kg bodyweight
per minute (ml/kg/min). Because oxygen consumption is linearly related to energy
expenditure, when we measure oxygen consumption, we are indirectly measuring an
individual's maximal capacity to do work aerobically.




Why is his VO2max bigger than mine?
To rephrase, we might start by asking "what are the physiological determinants of
VO2 max?" Every cell consumes oxygen in order to convert food energy to usable
ATP for cellular work. However, it is muscle that has the greatest range in oxygen
consumption. At rest, muscle uses little energy. However, muscle cells that are
contracting have high demands for ATP. So it follows that they will consume more
oxygen during exercise. The sum total of billions of cells throughout the body
consuming oxygen, and generating carbon dioxide, can be measured at the breath
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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using a combination of ventilation volume-measuring and O2/CO2-sensing equipment.
The Figure 1, borrowed from Prof. Frank Katch, summarizes this process of moving
O2 to the muscle and delivering CO2 back to the lungs. So, if we measure a greater
consumption of oxygen during exercise, we know that the working muscle is working
at a higher intensity. To receive this oxygen and use it to make ATP for muscle
contraction, our muscle fibres are absolutely dependent on 2 things: 1) an external
delivery system to bring oxygen from the atmosphere to the working muscle cells,
and 2) mitochondria to carry out the process of aerobic energy transfer. Endurance
athletes are characterized by both a very good cardiovascular system, and well
developed oxidative capacity in their skeletal muscles. We need a big and efficient
pump to deliver oxygen rich blood to the muscles, and we need mitochondria-rich
muscles to use the oxygen and support high rates of exercise




Figure 1: Pathways by which Oxygne is transported from atmospheric air to the
active mucles
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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As exercise intensity increases so does oxygen consumption. However, a point is
reached where exercise intensity can continue to increase without the associated
rise in oxygen consumption. To understand this in more practical terms, take a look
at the diagram below:




Figure 2

The point at which oxygen consumption plateaus defines the VO2 max or an
individual's maximal aerobic capacity. It is generally considered the best
indicator of cardio respiratory endurance and aerobic fitness. However, as
we’ll discuss in a moment, it is more useful as an indicator of a person's
aerobic potential or upper limit than as a predictor of success in endurance
events.

Aerobic power, aerobic capacity and maximal oxygen uptake are all terms
used interchangeably with VO2 max.

VO2 max is usually expressed relative to bodyweight because oxygen and
energy needs differ relative to size. It can also be expressed relative to body
surface area and this may be a more accurate when comparing children and
oxygen uptake between sexes.
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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                                                                                           One study followed a
                                                                                           group           of       12-year-old
                                                                                           boys through to the age
                                                                                           of 20 - half of which
                                                                                           were trained, the other
                                                                                           half untrained but active.
                                                                                           Relative to bodyweight
                                                                                           no differences in VO2
                                                                                           max were found between
the groups suggesting that training had no influence on maximal oxygen
uptake. However, when VO2 max was expressed relative to body surface
area, there was a significant difference between groups and maximal oxygen
uptake did indeed increase in proportion to training (9).

VO2 max varies greatly between individuals and even between elite athletes
that compete in the same sport. The table below lists normative data for VO2
max in various population groups:
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Table 1




Factors Affecting VO2 Max


There are many physiological factors that combine to determine VO2 max but which
of these are most important? Two theories have been proposed:
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Utilization Theory


 This theory maintains that aerobic capacity is limited by lack of sufficient oxidative
enzymes within the cell's mitochondria (10). It is the body's ability to utilize the
available oxygen that determines aerobic capacity. Proponents of this theory point to
numerous studies that show oxidative enzymes and the number and size of
mitochondria increase with training. This is coupled with increased differences
between arterial and venous blood oxygen concentrations (a-vO2 difference)
accounting for improved oxygen utilization and hence improved VO2max.


Presentation Theory


  Presentation theory suggests that aerobic capacity is limited not predominantly by
utilization, but by the ability of the cardiovascular system to deliver oxygen to active
tissues. Proponents of this theory maintain that an increase in blood volume,
maximal cardiac output (due to increased stroke volume) and better perfusion of
blood into the muscles account for the changes in VO2max with training.




Measurement Methods

  There are many type of methods for measurement the VO2max. that is
independent to some things such as: what is your purpose? , which facilities you
have?, whose are your subjects? if you are school teacher we maybe you do not
have any facilities in your school. What we should you do?


In order to measurement of VO2max, you can use standard protocols that are with
or without the device and special tools. Beast method in measurement of the
Maximal Oxygen Uptake in the schools and sports clubs is Cooper Test.


Cooper test

  Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper conducted a study for the United States Air Force in the
late 1960s. One of the results of this was the Cooper test in which the distance
covered running in 12 minutes is measured. An approximate estimate for VO2 max
(in ml/min/kg) is:
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Where d12 is distance (in meters) covered in 12 minutes. There are several other
reliable tests and VO2 max calculators to estimate VO2 max.




Figure 3


Bruce Protocol ( this protocol is semple method without the Gas
Analayzer)


One of the beast method to measurement Maximul Oxygen Uptake is Bruce protocol.
This protocol that is tenuous test for this purpose. For using this test coach need to
some devic such as Gas Analayses and treadmin.
The Bruce treadmill test protocol was designed in 1963 by Robert. A. Bruce, MD, as
non-invasive test to assess patients with suspected heart disease. In a clinical
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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setting, the Bruce treadmill test is sometimes called a stress test or exercise
tolerance test.


Today, the Bruce Protocol is also one common method for estimating VO2 max in
athletes.


The Bruce Treadmill Test is an indirect test that estimates VO2 max using a formula
rather than using direct measurements that require the collection and measurement
of the volume and oxygen concentration of inhaled and exhaled air. This determines
how much oxygen the athlete is using.


The Bruce Protocol is a maximal exercise test where the athlete works to complete
exhaustion as the treadmill speed and incline is increased every three minutes (See
chart). The length of time on the treadmill is the test score and can be used to
estimate the VO2 max value. During the test, heart rate, blood pressure and ratings
of perceived exertion are often also collected.


Bruce Treadmill Test Stages


Stage 1 = 1.7 mph at 10% Grade
Stage 2 = 2.5 mph at 12% Grade
Stage 3 = 3.4 mph at 14% Grade
Stage 4 = 4.2 mph at 16% Grade
Stage 5 = 5.0 mph at 18% Grade
Stage 6 = 5.5 mph at 20% Grade
Stage 7 = 6.0 mph at 22% Grade
Stage 8 = 6.5 mph at 24% Grade
Stage 9 = 7.0 mph at 26% Grade


The Bruce Protocol Formula for Estimating VO2 Max


         For Men VO2 max = 14.8 - (1.379 x T) + (0.451 x T²) - (0.012 x T³)
         For Women VO2 max = 4.38 x T - 3.9
         T = Total time on the treadmill measured as a fraction of a minute (ie: A test
          time of 9 minutes 30 seconds would be written as T=9.5).
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Because this is a maximal exercise test, it should not be performed without a
physician's approval and without reasonable safety accommodations and supervision.


Bruce Protocol Norms for Men


                 VO2 Max Norms for Men - Measured in ml/kg/min

                            Very
                 Age                       Poor          Fair          Good          Excellent          Superior
                            Poor

                 13-                       35.0-         38.4-         45.2-         51.0-
                            <35.0                                                                       >55.9
                 19                        38.3          45.1          50.9          55.9

                 20-                       33.0-         36.5-         42.5-         46.5-
                            <33.0                                                                       >52.4
                 29                        36.4          42.4          46.4          52.4

                 30-                       31.5-         35.5-         41.0-         45.0-
                            <31.5                                                                       >49.4
                 39                        35.4          40.9          44.9          49.4

                 40-                       30.2-         33.6-         39.0-         43.8-
                            <30.2                                                                       >48.0
                 49                        33.5          38.9          43.7          48.0

                 50-                       26.1-         31.0-         35.8-         41.0-
                            <26.1                                                                       >45.3
                 59                        30.9          35.7          40.9          45.3

                                           20.5-         26.1-         32.3-         36.5-
                 60+        <20.5                                                                       >44.2
                                           26.0          32.2          36.4          44.2

                 Table 2
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Gas Analayser and Treadmil Device:
For doing this research we have to use some devic. Devices for estimated the
VO2max are include the Treadmil that is connected to central PC and PC that is
connected to Gas analyzer soft and hardware. There is special mask for
determining the inhaled and exhaled. And also there is some additional device
that can help to researcher to estimating some variable such as hearth rate in
remote. Please attention to below figure that are these devices.


Bruce Protocol with Gas Analyzer Device:


 For doing research with Gas Analyzer, treadmill, Special Hardware and
software we can use the corrected Bruce protocol.


In this step we explain we can handle this test
Step1: Configuration and Calibration of device:
For doing this purpose we have to turn on the Pc and Gas Analyzer device.
After running the GAS Analyzer software in this step researcher should
connect the compressed gas cylinder to the Gas Analyzer device and after
that Play program in PC.
The device will have sophisticated breathing and graph will be appearing in
the PC monitor. This graph should be standard according the chart that is in
the program.
When that you calibrated this device you researcher ask their subject to warm
up and for 5 minute.
Before going to treadmill you have to submitted your subject information such
as Weight, high, age and sex on the program


Step2: after warm up your subject will be stand on the treadmill and out the mask
on their face. After this you should stand closed your device and ask you're subject
to start walking with starting the treadmill. You can turn on your treadmill Now!
Step3:
Your device setting is base on the Bruce protocol. Please attention the following
table:
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Walk
Stage 1 = 1.7 mph at 10% Grade
Stage 2 = 2.5 mph at 12% Grade


Jog/walk
Stage 3 = 3.4 mph at 14% Grade
Stage 4 = 4.2 mph at 16% Grade




Run:
Stage 5 = 5.0 mph at 18% Grade
Stage 6 = 5.5 mph at 20% Grade
Stage 7 = 6.0 mph at 22% Grade


Recovery:
00-02 min 2.5 Speed slope 12


Note: Your Subject can stop their test every time that the received to exhaustion or
they can not continue for every reason such as hearth disease.
When you subject sing to you for stopping protocol you have to click Recovery Menu
on the PC program.


Step 4:
In the recovery phase your subject should continue their walking on the treadmill for
2 minute and after that device will be stop automatically.
Your test is finished and you can see your result in this test. You can see some
factors that are importance in healthy level in output of program (Table and Graph)
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Chapter                2




Anaerobic Capacity &Monark Anaerobic Test

Introduction
The words aerobic and anaerobic refer to energy pathways that are utilized
during exercise. Aerobic means "with oxygen" and anaerobic means "without
oxygen".


Fat needs oxygen to burn completely so in order to burn fat during an exercise
we need to move slowly and smoothly. This enables muscle cells to be supplied
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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with enough oxygen to continue with its aerobic capacity and utilize fat as the
main energy source.


Anaerobic exercise requires moving at an increased pace or with greater effort.
Exercising this way burns more calories but results in a greater demand
for oxygen which cannot be delivered in sufficient quantities to allow
cells to continue burning fat. When we breathe heavy we start to develop an
oxygen debt and muscle cells switch to burning mainly carbohydrates, this fuel
burns quickly and does not require oxygen. (13)

Please let us to define two important terms that are effective in anaerobic
system:
Anaerobic exercise is intense activity requiring energy production without using
oxygen. Anaerobic means in the absence of oxygen.


Anaerobic threshold defines the upper limit of exercise intensity that can be
sustained aerobically. The anaerobic threshold is attained during more intense
exercise where anaerobic metabolism represents a significant proportion of the
required energy supply. The onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), aerobic-
anaerobic threshold, individual anaerobic threshold, point of metabolic acidosis, and
lactate threshold essentially mean the same thing.




Measurement Methods
There are some method and apparatus for estimated anaerobic capacity in
human and athletes. We can use these tests and methods according your
facility. Some of these tests and methods do not need any apparatus and
device but some of these tests need high quality of device involve the soft
and hardware. In the anaerobic are there are some procedures that
researcher and coach they use these. You can find protocols that are
according the following tests:
    1- Anaerobic Cycling test
    2- Wingate arm ergometer test
    3- Horizontal – power " sprinting"
    4- Vertical power –" Jumping"
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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    5- Anaerobic stepping


However, a great number of these protocols need expensive equipment and
present specific application limitations in field evaluations, especially with respect
to racket sports.



One of the popular procedure tests in the anaerobic area is Wingate Cycling
test.
Device and tools




Wingate protocol is the most popular test in anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity
that need some application such as Monark cycle, software that is install in Computer
and Printer .
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Wingate Anaerobic protocol




Purpose of the Monark test:


The purpose of the Test is to evaluate the anaerobic Capacity of person. The test is
performed on an ergometer , Equipped with a mechanical brak.


At the first for doing this test please attention the following information:


Warning (14)
This is an extreme test of your physiological capabilities and places an enormous
strain on your body. It is vitally important to make sure you:


▼ are fully rested
▼ are fully hydrated
▼ have had no hard rides for at least three days previous
▼ have not eaten for at least two hours previous
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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▼ have been of good health for at least four weeks
▼ have good motivation and morale
▼ are mentally prepared for the sustained effort required




The Test
A Wingate test is not pleasant but the result it provides give an excellent indicator to
the capacity and output of an athlete's anaerobic energy systems.


Procedure:


Step by step you can do this protocol in your subjects. please go ahead and follow
below steps:


Step1:


Supervisor asks the subject to warm-up his/her body. This step last to 8 minutes.
When your subject is warm-upping , researcher have to check device and cable
connection between the devices.
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Step2:


Subject has to fill out some information in the program in PC. This information is
such as: weight. High, sex, age and also in this step supervisor should select the
break weight that is by default 7.5% of body weight. You can change the default
break weight according experience on your subject and you can reduce or increase
it. In this step also researcher should determine the test period. The test period can
be in 5 to 300 seconds. In usually supervisors are using thirty seconds for this
protocol. Researcher and also can change the seat high but we have to attend this
when we need the test for comparison among the persons or group that is better to
have same seat high for all subjects.




Step3:


Actually this step is starting the exercise step in this protocol. Subject is ready for
starting the test. With click on start in Monark program, subject has to pedaling to
receiving to high acceleration. Usually this step will be for 30 second. When the
subject receives the pack of acceleration, supervisor released the break weight and
also clicks to start timer on the program (some time we can set device to
automatically start the timer after release the break weight). Subject wills effort to
his/her test. After finishing the test period (30seconds), Timer and program has been
stopped by automatically.


Step4:


Supervisor asks the subject to warm-down her/his body in this step. This can be
continuing to 8 minutes.


You can save the result and printing after finishing the test. and also you can
comparison the results among the person or groups.




Test Scores
Calculated measures from the Wingate test include:
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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1. Peak Power (PP)
Peak power is ideally measured in first 5-second interval of the Wingate test and is
expressed as follows:


          Force x Total Distance (Time in minutes)


          Force is the amount of resistance (kg) added to the flywheel. Total distance is
          the number of revolutions x the distance per revolution. Time is 5 seconds or
          0.0833 minutes. The result for peak power is expressed in watts (W).


2. Relative Peak Power (RPP)
Relative peak power is determined simply by dividing peak power by body mass and
is expressed as W/kg


3. Anaerobic Fatigue (AF)
Anaerobic fatigue is calculated as follows:


          Highest 5-second peak power output - Lowest 5-second peak power output (
          Highest 5-second peak power output. Then multiply by 100 to get the
          percentage decline.


4. Anaerobic Capacity (AC)
Anaerobic capacity is expressed as kilogram-Joules (1 kg-m = 9.804 J) and is
calculated by adding together each 5-second peak power output over the 30
seconds.
  Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Chapter       3




                                               Body Composition Analyzer




   Introduction
 Body composition is an essential measure of health and fitness for both athletes
and the general population. What is body composition, and why is it important? Your
body is made up of water, fat, protein, carbohydrate and various vitamins and
minerals. If you have too much fat — especially if a lot of it is at your waist — you're
at higher risk for such health problems as high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol
and diabetes (di"ah-BE'teez or di"ah-BE'tis). That increases your risk for heart.


In the body mass index area we have some factors that are important. These factors
are the following:
Body fat percent, Body mass index, somato type, girth measurement and
measurement the limbs length is most important
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Body fat Percent(BFP)

Body Fat Guidelines from American Council on Exercise

Classification              Women (% Fat)                                 Men (% Fat)

Essential Fat               10-12 percent                                 2-4 percent

Athletes                    14-20 percent                                 6-13 percent

Fitness                     21-24 percent                                 14-17 percent

Acceptable                  25-31 percent                                 18-25 percent
There are some difference standard for BFP table that are effected in some variables


What is the Body Fat Percent?
 Human body's for livening need the energy. There are tree major foods that are
source of the energy. These foods usually are combining the Carbohydrate, Protein
and Fats. These foods after using and Digestion will provide the ATP or other hand
Energy in the body. Inputs of Energy in the body are using to provide basal function
in cells and daily activity in humans. Energy that we used in these activities we call
Output of energy. Whenever that we have unbalancing in the input and output of
your energy, have been seen overweight or low weight. Actually more extra of
energy will change to fat cells in the body and will store in some area such as
abdominal muscle. Body fat Percent shown this fat in skin fold. Actually rang of
body fat have difference rate in human. Some factors such as sex, age, activity type
and race are effective factors in standard of body fat percent (BFP). Body fat is an
important element in successful weight control and also BFP is essential factors in
competitions usefully.


How we can determine the BFP?
There are two major methods that can help us to measurement the BFP. The first
method is directly procedure and second method is not directly.


Directly methods:

Using Hydrostatic Weighing to Measure Body Fat


Hydrostatic weighing (underwater weighing) is the most accurate way to calculate
body fat - that is, if you can find a hydrostatic weighing tank.
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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How does hydrostatic weighing calculate body fat? By using Archimedes Principle.
Your examiner first calculates your body density by measuring the amount of water
you displace when you immerse yourself in water. Then a formula is used to
calculate body fat based on your body density. The problem is finding a facility
(University, major gym or fitness center) which has a hydrostatic weighing tank!


Skin fold method for BFP measurements:

Purpose


The purpose of this laboratory experience is to develop your skill in identifying and
measuring skinfold thickness.


Equipment


         Plastic or metal skinfold calipers, preferably metal calipers
         Anthropometric measuring tapes
         Surgical marking pens
         Body weight scale
         Stadiometer


Testing Procedures


    1. Work in groups of three. One student will be measured, the second student
          will be the skinfold technician, and the third student will record the skinfold
          measurements. After completing all measurements, rotate positions until all
          students have had the opportunity to play all roles.
    2. Measure the client's body weight and height.
    3. Follow the standardized testing procedures for skinfold measurements (see p.
          188). Make certain all skinfolds are measured on right side of body.
    4. Use the standardized anatomical descriptions for skinfold sites (see
          appendixes D.2 and D.3) to locate each site. Mark the eight skinfold sites
          with the surgical marking pen.
    5. Measure the skinfold sites in rotational order. Take as many measurements
          as needed in rotational order to obtain two readings within 10% of each
          other. Average these two measurements.
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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There are many types of formulas for measurement the BFP via skin fold.

In this procedure researcher need Calipers. For determining the BFP in our
subjects please follow the below Note:

Please attention the some information in the first:

The technician marks the sites to be measured on the right side of
participant's body.

The technician pinches the skinfold , at about 1Cm proximal to the marked
site, using thumb and index finger.

The jaw point of the caliper are pleased on marked site at a depth of about
half the distance between the base of normal skin perimeter and crest of the
fold.

The technician maintains a firm grip on the skin fold while reading the gauge
of the skin fold caliper within 4s to the closest .5 mm to 1 mm or 1 mmm to 2
mm.

The technician makes three circuits of skinfold measurements and record for
each site during each circuit.

The technician uses the medium value for analytical purpose.

Step 2:

After select the formulas you can start the evaluation. For doing this step
that is importance to know that what is our procedure in this aim. We select
two major methods for estimate the BFP that is used among researchers.
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Why we use two methods for doing this purpose? Actually we have to know
that there are difference in anthropometrical and some another factors
among the men and women. There for we have to use differences procedure
for estimating the BFP.

Formulas:

BFP in men and women with skinfold procedure will be estimated according
the following formulae.

First, calculate your body density (Db) with the following equation (Jackson &
Pollock, 1985)

For men, use the following equation:

Db = 1.112 - (.00043499) (sum of 7 skin folds) + (.00000055) (sum of seven
skin folds squared) - (.00028826) (age)

For females, use the following equation:

Db = 1.097 – (.00046971) (sum of 7 skin folds) + (.00000056) (sum of seven
skin folds squared) – (.00012828) (age)

Once you have the body density, plug this into the following formula for your
body fat percentage (Siri, 1961):

Body fat %=[(4.95/Db) – 4.5] x 100

Examples

Suppose a 25 year old male, has 7 measurements, all 5 mm in girth. He
would simply plug this into the Db equation as such:

Db = 1.112 - (.00043499) (35) + (.00000055) (35 ) - (.00028826) (25)

Db=1.090242601225
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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He would then plug in his body density into the body fat percentage equation
as such:

Body fat %= [(4.95/1.090242601225) – 4.5] x 100

Body fat %= 4.03 %

Where is the skinfold site ?

Note, when taking these measurements, the individual should be in a relaxed
position.

The 7 sites are as follows (see figure 2) (Fleck, 1981; Plowman & Smith,
2003):

1. Triceps – grasp a vertical fold of skin, on the posterior side of your arm
(your triceps) at the midline. The measurement should simply be at the
halfway mark between your shoulder and elbow.

2. Abdominal – Take another vertical skin fold one inch to the right of the
umbilical cord (belly button).

3. Chest – this time, take a diagonal fold, with the long axis of the caliper
directed towards the nipple of the chest. It should be measured mid-way
between the anterior axillary fold (underarm) and nipple.

4. Thigh – take a vertical measurement at about the midline of the thigh;
approximately half way the distance from the patella (knee cap) to the hip.

5. Suprailiac (iliac crest) – take an oblique measurement slightly above the
hip bone, along the natural diagonal curve of the structure, where the oblique
muscle is.

6. Midaxillary – grasp a vertical fold of skin, directly under the arm pit.
   Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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7. Subscapular – take an oblique measurement right below the inferior
(bottom) edge of the scapula (the shoulder blade).
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Body mass index


Body mass index, or BMI, is a new term to most people. However, it is the
measurement of choice for many physicians and researchers studying obesity.
BMI uses a mathematical formula that takes into account both a person's
height and weight. BMI equals a person's weight in kilograms divided by
height in meters squared. (BMI=kg/m2).

                   Risk of Associated Disease According to BMI and Waist Size
                                                                      Waist less than or               Waist greater than
                                                                           equal to                     40 in. (men) or
               BMI
                                                                       40 in. (men) or                  35 in. (women)
                                                                       35 in. (women)
         18.5 or less                    Underweight                              --                              N/A
          18.5 - 24.9                        Normal                               --                              N/A
          25.0 - 29.9                     Overweight                        Increased                            High
          30.0 - 34.9                         Obese                             High                         Very High
          35.0 - 39.9                         Obese                         Very High                        Very High
        40 or greater                 Extremely Obese                   Extremely High                   Extremely High




   Somatotype :

  In the 1940s, Sheldon developed a theory that there are three basic body
types, or somatotypes (based on the three tissue layers: endoderm,
mesoderm, and ectoderm), each associated with personality characteristics,
representing a correlation between physique and temperament. Somatotype
is one of the major factors in talent and sport. Sport are difference with
together and there for they need special trait for successfully. For example in
the gymnastic coach need the athletes with Ectomorph trait but in the football
mesomorph anthropometry has importance roll in successfully. That is
important for sport scientict to determining the athlete somatotyp that when
they know this, talent identification will be easier. Please attention to the
following term that are important in somatotype area researches.
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Body Type

There are three extremes of body types.


                                                         Endomorph (711)

                                                                    A pear shaped body
                                                                    A rounded head
                                                                    Wide hips and shoulders
                                                                    Wider front to back rather
                                                                     than side to side.
                                                                    A lot of fat on the body,
                                                                     upper arms and thighs


                                                         Mesomorph (171)

                                                                    A wedge shaped body
                                                                    A cubical head
                                                                    Wide broad shoulders
                                                                    Muscled arms and legs
                                                                    Narrow hips
                                                                    Narrow from front to back
                                                                     rather than side to side.
                                                                    A minimum amount of fat


                                                         Ectomorph (117)

                                                                    A high forehead
                                                                    Receding chin
                                                                    Narrow shoulders and hips
                                                                    A narrow chest and
                                                                     abdomen
                                                                    Thin arms and legs
                                                                    Little muscle and fat
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Somatotype

All athletes are made up of the three extreme body types so we are all part
endomorph, part mesomorph and part ectomorph. Using a score of one to
seven, we can grade our bodies on each of the extreme body types. e.g. two,
six, three means: two (low endomorphy); six (high mesomorphy); three (low
ectomorphy). In this way, we can compare our body type with that of other
athletes. This method of body typing is known as somatotyping. Height is not
taken into consideration when working out our body type.




The "perfect" bodybuilder would perhaps be a 173, while 475 might be better
suited for football, and a basketball player would optimally be a 147. Having
scores in multiple body types, for instance the football player's 475, does not
mean he has all of the traits of each body type mixed together. It may mean
he has the heavy thick build of the Endomorph combined with superior
musculature and strength of the Mesomorph, with the above average height
of the Ectomorph.(15,16)

Greek researchers evaluated 518 elite Greek basketball, volleyball and
handball players [J Strength Cond Res 2006 Nov; 20(4):740-4]. Their results
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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indicated the following somatotypes (endomorph, mesomorph & ectomorph)
for each sport:


                                      endomorph mesomorph Ectomorph
                   Volleyball players    3.4       2.7       2.9
                   Basketball players    3.7       2.7       2.9
                   Handball players      4.2       4.7       1.8



   How we can determine somatotype in athletes?
   There are many type of method to determining the somatotype in human body.
   Some of these procedures are useful in psychology and some of these methods
   are using in sport science investigations. The most useful method that we use in
   sport science is heath and carter procedure.


   Heath and Carter manual:


   Equipment:
                1- Scale for weight measurement
                2- Stadiometer
                3- Caliper(skinfold)
                4- Fiberglass measure
                5- Engineers venire caliper (epicondyars breadths)


   Measurement techniques


     Ten anthropometric dimensions are needed to calculate the anthropometric
   somatotype: stretch stature, body mass, four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular,
   supraspinale, medial calf), two bone breadths (biepicondylar humerus and femur),
   and two limb girths (arm flexed and tensed, calf). The following descriptions are
   adapted from Carter and Heath (1990).
  Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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 Stature (height). Taken against a height scale or stadiometer. Take height with
 the subject standing straight, against an upright wall or stadiometer, touching the
 wall with heels, buttocks and back. Orient the head in the Frankfort plane (the
 upper border of the ear opening and the lower border of the
 eye socket on a horizontal line), and the heels together. Instruct the subject to
 stretch upward and to take and hold a full breath. Lower the headboard until it
 firmly touches the vertex.


 Body mass (weight). The subject, wearing minimal clothing, stands in the center
 of the scale platform. Record weight to the nearest tenth of a kilogram. A
 correction is made for clothing so that nude weight is used in subsequent
 calculations.


 Skinfolds. Raise a fold of skin and subcutaneous tissue firmly between thumb and
 forefinger of the left hand and away from the underlying muscle at the marked
 site.. Take all skinfolds on the right side of the body. The subject stands relaxed,
 except for the calf skinfold, which is taken with the subject seated.
 Triceps skinfold. With the subject's arm hanging loosely in the anatomical
 position, raise a fold
 at the back of the arm at a level halfway on a line connecting the acromion and
 the olecranon processes.


   Subscapular skinfold. Raise the subscapular skinfold on a line from the inferior
 angle of the scapula in a direction that is obliquely downwards and laterally at 45
 degrees.


   Supraspinale skinfold. Raise the fold 5-7 cm (depending on the size of the
 subject) above the anterior superior iliac spine on a line to the anterior axillary
 border and on a diagonal line going downwards and medially at 45 degrees. (This
 skinfold was formerly called suprailiac, or anterior suprailiac. The name has been
 changed to distinguish it from other skinfolds called "suprailiac", but taken
 at different locations.)


   Medial calf skinfold. Raise a vertical skinfold on the medial side of the leg, at the
 level of the maximum girth of the calf.
  Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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   Biepicondylar breadth of the humerus, right. The width between the medial and
 lateral epicondyles of the humerus, with the shoulder and elbow flexed to 90
 degrees. Apply the caliper at an angle approximately bisecting the angle of the
 elbow. Place firm pressure on the crossbars in order to compress the
 subcutaneous tissue.


   Biepicondylar breadth of the femur, right. Seat the subject with knee bent at a
 right angle. Measure the greatest distance between the lateral and medial
 epicondyles of the femur with firm pressure on the crossbars in order to compress
 the subcutaneous tissue.


 Upper arm girth, elbow flexed and tensed, right. The subject flexes the shoulder
 to 90 degrees and the elbow to 45 degrees, clenches the hand, and maximally
 contracts the elbow flexors and extensors. Take the measurement at the greatest
 girth of the arm.


   Calf girth, right. The subject stands with feet slightly apart. Place the tape
 around the calf and measure the maximum circumference.


   Traditionally, for the anthropometric somatotype, the larger of the right and left
 breadths and girths have been used.                                When possible this should be done for
 individual assessment.                   However, in large surveys it is recommended that all
 measures (including skinfolds) be taken on the right side. The anthropometrist
 should mark the sites and repeat the complete sequence a second time. For
 further calculations, the duplicated measurements should be averaged. For more
 reliable values, relatively inexperienced measurers should take triplicate
 measurements and use the median value.


 Calculating the Anthropometric Somatotype
 The Heath-Carter Somatotype Rating Form
  (1) Record pertinent identification data in top section of rating form.
  Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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 Endomorphy rating (steps 2-5)
 (2) Record the measurements for each of the four skinfolds.


 (3) Sum the triceps, subscapular, and supraspinale skinfolds; record the sum in
 the box opposite SUM3 SKINFOLDS. Correct for height by multiplying this sum by
 (170.18/height in cm).


 (4) Circle the closest value in the SUM3 SKINFOLDS table to the right. The table
 is read vertically from low to high in columns and horizontally from left to right in
 rows. "Lower limit" and "upper limit" on the rows provide exact boundaries for
 each column. These values are circled only when SUM3 SKINFOLDS are within 1
 mm of the limit. In most cases circle the value in the row "midpoint".


 (5) In the row for endomorphy circle the value directly under the column for the
 value circled in number (4) above.


 Mesomorphy rating (steps 6-10)


 (6) Record height and breadths of humerus and femur in the appropriate boxes.
 Make the corrections for skinfolds before recording girths of biceps and calf.
 (Skinfold correction: Convert triceps skinfold to cm by dividing by 10. Subtract
 converted triceps skinfold from the biceps girth. Convert calf skinfold to cm,
 subtract from calf girth.)


 (7) In the height row directly to the right of the recorded value, circle the height
 value nearest to the measured height of the subject. (Note: Regard the height
 row as a continuous scale.)


 (8) For each bone breadth and girth circle the number nearest the measured
 value in the appropriate row. (Note: Circle the lower value if the measurement
 falls midway between two values. This conservative procedure is used because
 the largest girths and breadths are recorded.)
  Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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 (9) Deal only with columns, not numerical values for the two procedures below.
 Find the average deviation of the circled values for breadths and girths from the
 circled value in the height column as follows:


 (a) Column deviations to the right of the height column are positive deviations.
 Deviations to the left are negative deviations. (Circled values directly under the
 height column have deviations of zero and are ignored.)


 (b) Calculate the algebraic sum of the ± deviations (D).                                               Use this formula:
 mesomorphy = (D/8) + 4.0. Round the obtained value of mesomorphy to the
 nearest one-half (½) rating unit.


 (10) In the row for mesomorphy circle the closest value for mesomorphy obtained
 in number 9 above. (If the point is exactly midway between two rating points,
 circle the value closest to 4 in the row. This conservative regression toward 4
 guards against spuriously extreme ratings.)


 Ectomorphy rating (steps 11-14).
  (11) Record weight (kg).
 (12) Obtain height divided by cube root of weight (HWR). Record HWR in the
 appropriate box.


 (13) Circle the closest value in the HWR table to the right. (See note in number
 (4) above.)


 (14) In the row for ectomorphy circle the ectomorphy value directly below the
 circled HWR.


 (15) Move to the bottom section of the rating form. In the row for Anthropometric
 Somatotype, record the circled ratings for Endomorphy, Mesomorphy and
 Ectomorphy.


 (16) Sign your name to the right of the recorded rating.
  Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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 Limitations of the rating form


   Although the rating form provides a simple method of calculating the
 anthropometric somatotype, especially in the field, it has some limitations. First,
 the mesomorphy table at the low and high ends does not include some values for
 small subjects, e.g. children, or for large subjects, e.g. heavy weightlifters. The
 mesomorphy table can be extrapolated at the lower and upper ends for these
 subjects. Second, some rounding errors may occur in calculating the mesomorphy
 rating, because the subject's height often is not the same as the column height. If
 the anthropometric somatotype is regarded as an estimate this second limitation
 is not a serious problem. Nevertheless, the following procedures described in
 Carter (1980) and Carter and Heath (1990) can correct these problems.
   Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

 .......................................................................................................................................


Vertical jump "Sargent Test"


Introduction:

A test of muscular power, often used in fitness testing. The Sargent jump test
consists of measuring the difference between a person's maximum vertical
reach before jumping and at the highest point during a jump (figure below).
Typically, the person swings his or her arms downwards and backwards,
assumes a crouching position, pauses momentarily to get balance, and then
leaps as high as possible, swinging the arms forcefully forwards and upwards.
Usually, the fingers are covered in chalk so that a mark can be made on a
board to record the heights reached before and after jumping.




              VERTICAL JUMP (CM ABOVE STANDING HEIGHT)

RATING                                  MALE                                    FEMALE
excellent                              >60                                      >55
Good                                    50-60                                   45-55
average                                 40-49                                   35-44
fair                                    30-39                                   25-34
poor                                    <30                                     <25




Equipments:
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Vertical Jump board or chalk, a meter ruler, weights scales (optional).




Target Population: All athletes/sportspeople.


Advantages: A simple test to administer, little equipment required. Takes into
account height. Lewis Nomogram takes into account height and weight.


Disadvantages: Jumping practice has an effect on the scores by improving
technique and timing. Needs to be measured accurately for valid results.


Procedure: The vertical jump known as the Sargent jump is used to measure leg
power. This test can be done using a 'vertical jump board' or chalk held in the hand
against a wall.


The subject marks the full extent of his/her one-handed (overhead) reach up the
wall with the jump board or a chalk mark (initial mark).


Bending at the knees, taking off from both feet using a counter swing movement of
the arms the subject aims to touch or make a mark up the wall as high as possible
with one hand. The maximum height above the initial mark is recorded.
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

  .......................................................................................................................................



Strength Testing:

Strength training is an essential element of fitness for virtually every sports
man and woman. The benefits of strength training to athletic performance are
enormous and many.

Body muscle can move in joint and bones. There are three major contraction
to move the joints.

    1- Concentric Contractions
    2- Eccentric Contractions
    3- Isometric Contraction

And also there are three type of the strength that we can measurement in the
humans.

    1- Dynamic Strength
    2- Static strength
    3- Isokinetic Strength

The two major type of exercise are dynamic and static. Dynamic exercise
consists of muscle actions that are concentric or eccentric, depending on
whether the muscles are shortened (Concentric) or lengthened (eccentric).

How we can measurement the Dynamic strength?

One of the most operational ( easily applied ) definitions for dynamic strength
states it is manifested as a persons one repetition maximal, or 1 RM, for a
specific movement.

One Repetition maximum:

A one repetition maximum is the absolute maximum load you can lift in an
exercise only once.
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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This is a theoretical maximum based on a lighter test load and a small
number of repetitions. (This is safer than actually trying to lift a maximum
weight)

Example:
If you can bench press 150lbs only 3 times, then you can press 165 only
once.

You can then use this number to calculate how much weight you should be
using to maximize the effectiveness of an exercise.




Why Use 1RM Testing?


Determining ones maximum load capabilities is important when aiming to:


    1. Establish the load settings for an exercise program.
    2. Determine the progress associated with an exercise program, and the efficacy of that
          program.




Various weight training protocols call for lifting some percentage of 1RM.
However, many consider the risk of injury when attempting a 1RM to be
equal to or higher than when performing multiple rep sets. Therefore, there
have been various proposals for ways to calculate an approximation of the
1RM.




Indirect 1 RM

Fortunately, the 1 RM value may be approximated by knowing any number of
maximal repetition from two to 20 for given weight lifted.
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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There are many formulas used to calculate your one rep maximum. One of
the common formulas is the following:

1RM(Kg) = 80kg / [(1.00 – (10 * 0.02)]




Example:

If a person can lift 100 kg only one time, then the 100kg represents one
repetition maximal, or 1 RM or 100% 1 RM. However, if this person lifts 80kg
10 times, then the 1 RM of 100 KG is derived without directly measuring it by
using equation 4.1 as follows:

1RM (Kg) = 80 Kg / [ 1.00 – (10 * 0.02) ]

                 = 80 Kg / ( 1.00 – 0.20)

                 = 80Kg / 0.80

                  = 100Kg
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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Static Strength Test


Handgrip strength test

The purpose of this test is to measure grip or forearm muscle strength.
Handgrip strength is important for any sport in which the hands are used for
catching, throwing or lifting. Also, as a general rule people with strong hands
tend to be strong elsewhere.

         equipment required: handgrip dynamometer
         description / procedure: The subject to be tested holds the
          dynamometer in the hand to be tested, with the arm at right angles
          and the elbow by the side of the body. The handle of the
          dynamometer is adjusted if required. The base should rest on first
          metacarpal (heel of palm), while the handle should rest on middle of
          four fingers. The subject squeezes the dynamometer with maximum
          isometric effort, which is maintained for about 5 seconds. No other
          body movement is allowed.
         scoring: The best of two trials for each hand is recorded, with at least
          15 seconds recovery between each effort. The values listed below (in
          kilograms) give a guide to expected scores for adults. They are the
          average of the best scores of each hand. Other protocols will just use
          the score from the dominant hand.

The following are national norms for 16 to 19 year olds.
   Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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              Gender              Excellent              Good             Average                Fair           Poor

                Male                  >56                51-56              45-50               39-44           <39

              Female                  >36                31-36              25-30               19-24           <19

                      Table Reference: Davis B. et al; Physical Education and the Study of Sport; 2000



Note:

        validity: The validity of this test as a measure of general strength has
         been questioned, as the strength of the forearm muscles does not
         necessarily represent the strength of other muscle groups.
        advantages: This is a simple and commonly used test of general
         strength level.
        disadvantages: The dynamometer must be adjusted for hand size,
         how successfully this is done will affect the accuracy of the
         measurement.
        comments: It is also useful to record whether the athlete is left or
         right handed, as this may help in the interpretation of results. The non-
         dominant hand usually scores about 10% lower. The forearm muscles
         are easily fatigued, so the best scores are usually achieved in the first
         or second trial.
   Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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References

1. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise
Testing and Prescription (fifth edition). 1995: Williams & Wilkins.

2. ACSM's Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and
Prescription (third edition). 1998: Williams & Wilkins.

3. Casperson CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM. Physical activity exercise and
physical fitness. Public Health Rep. 1985;100:125-131.

4. Howley ET, Franks BD. Health Fitness Instructor’s Handbook (third edition).
1997: Human Kinetics.

5. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference
Statement: Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health. JAMA 1996;
17;276(3):241-246.

6. President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Definitions: health,
fitness, and physical activity. Research Digest. March 2000;Series 3 (9).

7. Shephard RJ. Exercise and lifestyle change. Br. J. Sports Med.
1988:23(1):12.

8 - www.home.hia.no

9 - Sjodin B, Svedenhag J. Oxygen uptake during running as related to body
mass in circumpubertal boys: a longitudinal study. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup
Physiol. 1992;65(2):150-7

10 - Wilmore JH and Costill DL. (2005) Physiology of Sport and Exercise: 3rd
Edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
    Exercise Physiology Laboratory                                                            Sport Science Department          UPM

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11- Wilmore JH and Costill DL. (2005) Physiology of Sport and Exercise: 3rd Edition.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.


12 - Vivian H. Heyward, Advance Fitness Assessment & Exercise Prescription, 3rd
Edition, The Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research, Dallas TX, 1998.

13- www.weightlossforall.com

14 - http://www.flammerouge.je

15- Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, G.J. Tortora et al., ISBN 0 06 046704 5

16- Advanced Studies in Physical Education and Sport, P Beashel et al., ISBN 0 17
4482345

17 - THE HEATH-CARTER ANTHROPOMETRIC SOMATOTYPE manual

18 - www.answers.com

				
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Description: The Aerobic Performance and also anaerobic are very importante in daily works and also in sports fields. This document help you to undrestand both.