Physiology and Lab in Sport Science

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					Exercise Physiology laboratory

           By: Ali Reza Amnai

        PhD in Exercise Physiology

             UPM Malaysia
Physical Education and Sport Science Faculty                                                 UPM


1-    Introduction ................................................................................................................ 3

2-    Estimating the Maximum Oxygen Uptake (VO2max) By YMCA Protocol .................. 4

      Factors Affecting VO2 Max .................................................................................... 10

      Cooper test ............................................................................................................. 12

      Objective .................................................................................................................. 25

      Required Resources .................................................................................................. 25

      How to conduct the test ............................................................................................. 25

Bruce Treadmill Test ........................................................................................................ 27

      Objective .................................................................................................................. 27

      How to conduct the test ............................................................................................. 28

      Assessment ............................................................................................................... 28

3-    One Repetition Maximum (1RM) ............................................................................. 29

4-    Anaerobic Power (Wingate) and Anaerobic Step Test ............................................... 31

5-    Body Fat Percent (In Body ) ..................................................................................... 39

6-    Body Composition (SomatoType) ............................................................................. 46

      Body Type ................................................................................................................ 46

      Somatotype ............................................................................................................. 48

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

7-        Under Water Weight and Body density and Skin fold Methods ................................. 57

8-        Survey Procedure by Online Tools (Psychology laboratory) ...................................... 63

9-        Sergeant Jump Test ................................................................................................... 63

10-          Maximum Hart Rate ............................................................................................. 65

          % MHR and %VO2 Max .......................................................................................... 66

11-          Energy Expenditure and Basal Metabolism Test .................................................... 66

12-          Online and Computer Base Sport Science Laboratory............................................ 67

      1- Introduction

Persons who are tested in an exercise physiology laboratory are usually there for more than

one reason. They may wish to evaluate:

      -       Their Functional Capacity, whether it is for athletics, recreation, occupation or

              routine daily tasks

      -       Safety of their Exercise and work Roles

      -       The effect of any interventions, such as diet, exercise, and medications.

      -       Their future (prognosis) status with respect to morbidity and mortality

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The exercise laboratory investigators, clinicians and technicians are there to serve the needs

of the participants. But they also gather research that may lead to better understanding of

exercise, which they or other can use to develop more effective health and fitness programs.

Also the laboratory personnel are helpful that the testing will increase the motivation of their

client or participants.

The student in an exercise physiology laboratory class are usually there to enhance their

understanding of the content presented in the exercise physiology lecture class. Students

typically like to apply their learning to their personal lives. Fortunately, a laboratory

experience that complements the classroom topics can be an effective motivational method.

Student maybe doubly motivated if these laboratory experiences include both their acute

effects of exercise and their fitness evaluations.

    2- Estimating the Maximum Oxygen Uptake

        (VO2max) By YMCA Protocol

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

Gas Analayzer / VO2max - UPM


 VO2max or Maximal Oxygen Consumption is most important factor in the Healthy
Researches. That is importance for coach or physical education teachers to know
their students ability for doing exercise in special field of sports. For this approach
we have to know that, what is VO2max and how we can improve it in athletes.

Please let us to define some variables in aerobic area:

 Aerobic activities use the larger muscle groups over an extended time period
where the energy is supplied by the oxygen utilizing process. Sample activities
include walking, jogging, swimming, and cycling.

 Aerobic capacity is the highest amount of oxygen consumed during maximal
exercise in activities that use the large muscle groups in the legs or arms and legs
combined. Aerobic capacity, aerobic power, functional capacity, functional aerobic
capacity, maximal functional capacity, cardio respiratory fitness, cardiovascular

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fitness, maximal oxygen intake, and maximal oxygen uptake are terms that are
often used interchangeably.

 Aerobic conditioning is regular physical training in aerobic activities over an
extended period of time.

  Aerobic fitness is the capacity to exercise in aerobic activities for a prolonged
 period where the amount of activity depends on aerobic capacity and cardio
 respiratory endurance.

VO2max defined

VO2 max is the maximum volume of oxygen that by the body can consume during
intense, whole-body exercise, while breathing air at sea level. This volume is
expressed as a rate, either liters per minute (L/min) or millilitres per kg bodyweight
per minute (ml/kg/min). Because oxygen consumption is linearly related to energy
expenditure, when we measure oxygen consumption, we are indirectly measuring
an individual's maximal capacity to do work aerobically.

Why is his VO2max bigger than mine?

To rephrase, we might start by asking "what are the physiological determinants of
VO2 max?" Every cell consumes oxygen in order to convert food energy to usable
ATP for cellular work. However, it is muscle that has the greatest range in oxygen
consumption. At rest, muscle uses little energy. However, muscle cells that are
contracting have high demands for ATP. So it follows that they will consume more
oxygen during exercise. The sum total of billions of cells throughout the body
consuming oxygen, and generating carbon dioxide, can be measured at the breath
using a combination of ventilation volume-measuring and O2/CO2-sensing
equipment. The Figure 1, borrowed from Prof. Frank Katch, summarizes this

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

process of moving O2 to the muscle and delivering CO2 back to the lungs. So, if we
measure a greater consumption of oxygen during exercise, we know that the
working muscle is working at a higher intensity. To receive this oxygen and use it
to make ATP for muscle contraction, our muscle fibres are absolutely dependent on
2 things: 1) an external delivery system to bring oxygen from the atmosphere to
the working muscle cells, and 2) mitochondria to carry out the process of aerobic
energy transfer.   Endurance athletes are characterized by both a very good
cardiovascular system, and well developed oxidative capacity in their skeletal
muscles. We need a big and efficient pump to deliver oxygen rich blood to the
muscles, and we need mitochondria-rich muscles to use the oxygen and support
high rates of exercise

Figure 1: Pathways by which Oxygne is transported from atmospheric air to the
active mucles

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As exercise intensity increases so does oxygen consumption. However, a point is
reached where exercise intensity can continue to increase without the associated
rise in oxygen consumption. To understand this in more practical terms, take a look
at the diagram below:

Figure 2

The point at which oxygen consumption plateaus defines the VO2 max or an
individual's maximal aerobic capacity. It is generally considered the best
indicator of cardio respiratory endurance and aerobic fitness. However, as
we’ll discuss in a moment, it is more useful as an indicator of a person's
aerobic potential or upper limit than as a predictor of success in endurance

Aerobic power, aerobic capacity and maximal oxygen uptake are all terms
used interchangeably with VO2 max.

VO2 max is usually expressed relative to bodyweight because oxygen and
energy needs differ relative to size. It can also be expressed relative to body

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

surface area and this may be a more accurate when comparing children
and oxygen uptake between sexes.

                                                      One study followed a
                                                      group   of     12-year-old
                                                      boys through to the
                                                      age of 20 - half of
                                                      which were trained, the
                                                      other   half    untrained
                                                      but active. Relative to
                                                      bodyweight             no
                                                      differences in VO2 max
were found between the groups suggesting that training had no influence on
maximal oxygen uptake. However, when VO2 max was expressed relative to
body surface area, there was a significant difference between groups and
maximal oxygen uptake did indeed increase in proportion to training (9).

VO2 max varies greatly between individuals and even between elite athletes that
compete in the same sport. The table below lists normative data for VO2 max in
various population groups:

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Table 1

Factors Affecting VO2 Max

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There are many physiological factors that combine to determine VO2 max but
which of these are most important? Two theories have been proposed:

Utilization Theory

 This theory maintains that aerobic capacity is limited by lack of sufficient oxidative
enzymes within the cell's mitochondria (10). It is the body's ability to utilize the
available oxygen that determines aerobic capacity. Proponents of this theory point
to numerous studies that show oxidative enzymes and the number and size of
mitochondria increase with training. This is coupled with increased differences
between arterial and venous blood oxygen concentrations (a-vO2 difference)
accounting for improved oxygen utilization and hence improved VO2max.

Presentation Theory

  Presentation theory suggests that aerobic capacity is limited not predominantly
by utilization, but by the ability of the cardiovascular system to deliver oxygen to
active tissues. Proponents of this theory maintain that an increase in blood volume,
maximal cardiac output (due to increased stroke volume) and better perfusion of
blood into the muscles account for the changes in VO2max with training.

Measurement Methods

  There are many type of methods for measurement the VO2max. that is
independent to some things such as: what is your purpose? , which facilities you
have?, whose are your subjects? if you are school teacher we maybe you do not
have any facilities in your school. What we should you do?

In order to measurement of VO2max, you can use standard protocols that are with
or without the device and special tools. Beast method in measurement of the
Maximal Oxygen Uptake in the schools and sports clubs is Cooper Test.

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Cooper test

  Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper conducted a study for the United States Air Force in the
late 1960s. One of the results of this was the Cooper test in which the distance
covered running in 12 minutes is measured. An approximate estimate for VO2 max
(in ml/min/kg) is:

Where d12 is distance (in meters) covered in 12 minutes. There are several other
reliable tests and VO2 max calculators to estimate VO2 max.

Figure 3

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

Bruce Protocol ( this protocol is semple method without the Gas

One of the beast method to measurement Maximul Oxygen Uptake is Bruce
protocol. This protocol that is tenuous test for this purpose. For using this test
coach need to some devic such as Gas Analayses and treadmin.

The Bruce treadmill test protocol was designed in 1963 by Robert. A. Bruce, MD, as
non-invasive test to assess patients with suspected heart disease. In a clinical
setting, the Bruce treadmill test is sometimes called a stress test or exercise
tolerance test.

Today, the Bruce Protocol is also one common method for estimating VO2 max in

The Bruce Treadmill Test is an indirect test that estimates VO2 max using a formula
rather than       using direct measurements       that require the collection   and
measurement of the volume and oxygen concentration of inhaled and exhaled air.
This determines how much oxygen the athlete is using.

The Bruce Protocol is a maximal exercise test where the athlete works to complete
exhaustion as the treadmill speed and incline is increased every three minutes (See
chart). The length of time on the treadmill is the test score and can be used to
estimate the VO2 max value. During the test, heart rate, blood pressure and ratings
of perceived exertion are often also collected.

Bruce Treadmill Test Stages

Stage 1 = 1.7 mph at 10% Grade
Stage 2 = 2.5 mph at 12% Grade
Stage 3 = 3.4 mph at 14% Grade
Stage 4 = 4.2 mph at 16% Grade
Stage 5 = 5.0 mph at 18% Grade

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Stage 6 = 5.5 mph at 20% Grade
Stage 7 = 6.0 mph at 22% Grade
Stage 8 = 6.5 mph at 24% Grade
Stage 9 = 7.0 mph at 26% Grade

The Bruce Protocol Formula for Estimating VO2 Max

      For Men VO2 max = 14.8 - (1.379 x T) + (0.451 x T²) - (0.012 x T³)
      For Women VO2 max = 4.38 x T - 3.9
      T = Total time on the treadmill measured as a fraction of a minute (ie: A
       test time of 9 minutes 30 seconds would be written as T=9.5).

Because this is a maximal exercise test, it should not be performed without a
physician's     approval   and without reasonable safety          accommodations   and

Bruce Protocol Norms for Men

              VO2 Max Norms for Men - Measured in ml/kg/min

              Age            Poor    Fair        Good    Excellent     Superior

              13-            35.0-   38.4-       45.2-   51.0-
                    <35.0                                              >55.9
              19             38.3    45.1        50.9    55.9

              20-            33.0-   36.5-       42.5-   46.5-
                    <33.0                                              >52.4
              29             36.4    42.4        46.4    52.4

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         30-              31.5-   35.5-       41.0-   45.0-
                <31.5                                         >49.4
         39               35.4    40.9        44.9    49.4

         40-              30.2-   33.6-       39.0-   43.8-
                <30.2                                         >48.0
         49               33.5    38.9        43.7    48.0

         50-              26.1-   31.0-       35.8-   41.0-
                <26.1                                         >45.3
         59               30.9    35.7        40.9    45.3

                          20.5-   26.1-       32.3-   36.5-
         60+    <20.5                                         >44.2
                          26.0    32.2        36.4    44.2

         Table 2

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Gas Analayser and Treadmil Device:

For doing this research we have to use some devic. Devices for estimated the
VO2max are include the Treadmil that is connected to central PC and PC that is
connected to Gas analyzer soft and hardware. There is special mask for
determining the inhaled and exhaled. And also there is some additional device that
can help to researcher to estimating some variable such as hearth rate in remote.
Please attention to below figure that are these devices.

Bruce Protocol with Gas Analyzer Device:

 For doing research with Gas Analyzer, treadmill, Special Hardware and software
we can use the corrected Bruce protocol.

In this step we explain we can handle this test

Step1: Configuration and Calibration of device:

For doing this purpose we have to turn on the Pc and Gas Analyzer device. After
running the GAS Analyzer software in this step researcher should connect the
compressed gas cylinder to the Gas Analyzer device and after that Play program in

The device will have sophisticated breathing and graph will be appearing in the PC
monitor. This graph should be standard according the chart that is in the program.

When that you calibrated this device you researcher ask their subject to warm up
and for 5 minute.

Before going to treadmill you have to submitted your subject information such as
Weight, high, age and sex on the program

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Step2: after warm up your subject will be stand on the treadmill and out the mask
on their face. After this you should stand closed your device and ask you're subject
to start walking with starting the treadmill. You can turn on your treadmill Now!


Your device setting is base on the Bruce protocol. Please attention the following


Stage 1 = 1.7 mph at 10% Grade
Stage 2 = 2.5 mph at 12% Grade


Stage 3 = 3.4 mph at 14% Grade
Stage 4 = 4.2 mph at 16% Grade


Stage 5 = 5.0 mph at 18% Grade
Stage 6 = 5.5 mph at 20% Grade
Stage 7 = 6.0 mph at 22% Grade


00-02 min 2.5 Speed slope 12

Note: Your Subject can stop their test every time that the received to exhaustion or
they can not continue for every reason such as hearth disease.

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When you subject sing to you for stopping protocol you have to click Recovery
Menu on the PC program.

Step 4:

In the recovery phase your subject should continue their walking on the treadmill
for 2 minute and after that device will be stop automatically.

Your test is finished and you can see your result in this test. You can see some
factors that are importance in healthy level in output of program (Table and Graph)

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

     Instructions for Administrating the YMCA Submax Cycle Protocol Pretest
         1.   Pre Test
         a.     Write down 85% of max heart rate on test form
         b.     Take weight, Take height
         c.     Resting blood pressure, Resting heart rate
         d.     Adjust seat height and record for future tests
         e.     Set metronome at 50 bpm, Subject practices pace during warm-up

         2.     Test
         a. Record blood pressure, RPE and workload for each stage. Palpate heart
        rates each minute.
         b. If the last two heart rates are greater than 6 bpm apart the stage should be
        continued and the heart rate taken at the end of each minute until a steady
        state is achieved. Then proceed to the next stage.

         3.     Post test
         a.     Cool down at work rate equivalent to first stage (0.5 kp) or lower

b.     Test administrator continues to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, signs and

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For Women and Men in normal

For Very Fit men and women

Exercise Physiology laboratory

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Exercise Physiology laboratory

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The Astrand 6 minute Cycle Test was devised by P.O. Astrand in 1956.


The objective of this test is to monitor the athlete's VO2max.

Required Resources

To undertake this test you will require:

      Cycle ergometer
      Heart rate monitor
      Weighing Scales
      Stopwatch
      Assistant

How to conduct the test

      The assistant weighs and records the athlete's weight
      The athlete warms up for 10 minutes
      The assistant sets the initial cycle work rate as follows:
           o Male under 35 – 125w
           o Male 35-55 – 115w
           o Male over 55 – 85w
           o Female under 35 – 115w
           o Female 35-55 – 85w
           o Female over 55 – 60w
      This setting should raise the athlete’s heart rate to 130-160bpm after 2 minutes
       cycling at 60rpm
      The assistant gives the command “GO” and starts the stopwatch
      The athlete pedals at 60rpm for 6 minutes whilst maintaining their heart rate
       between 130-160bpm
      The assistant records the athlete’s heart rate each minute
      After 2 minutes - if the athlete’s heart rate is not in the target range of 130-160bpm
       then the assistant adjusts the work rate wattage accordingly
      The assistant stops the test after 6 minutes and records the final work rate wattage

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 Exercise Physiology laboratory

                           Bruce Treadmill Test


The objective of the Bruce Test [BRUCE, R.A.: Multi-stage treadmill test of
maximal and sub maximal exercise. In: AHA: Exercise Testing and Training of
apparently Health Individuals: A handbook for physicians, New York 1972] is to
monitor the development of the athlete's general endurance (VO2max).

This test requires the athlete to run for as long as possible on a treadmill whose
speed and slope increments at timed intervals.

      The athlete warms up for 10 minutes
      The assistant sets the treadmill up with a speed of 2.74 km/hr. and an incline of
       10% (Stage 1)
      The assistant gives the command “GO”, starts the stopwatch and the athlete
       commences the test
      The assistant, at the appropriate times during the test, adjusts the treadmill's speed
       and slope as per the table (e.g. after 3 minutes the speed is adjusted to 4.02 km/hr
       and the slope to 12% and so on)
      The assistant stops the stopwatch when the athlete is unable to continue and records
       the time (T).

Active and sedentary men - Foster et al. 1984

From the total walk/run time an estimate of the athlete's VO2max can be calculated
as follows:

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      VO2max=14.8 - (1.379 × T) + (0.451 × T²) - (0.012 × T³)

"T" is the total time of the test expressed in minutes and fractions of a minute e.g. 13
minutes 15 seconds=13.25 minutes

Active and sedentary women - Pollock et al. 1982

From the total walk/run time an estimate of the athlete's VO2max can be calculated
as follows:

      VO2max=4.38 × T - 3.9

"T" is the total time of the test expressed in minutes and fractions of a minute.

How to conduct the test

This test requires the athlete to step up and down off a gym bench for
5 minutes at a rate 30 steps/minute

      The athlete warms up for 10 minutes
      The assistant gives the command "GO" and starts the stopwatch
      The athlete steps up and down onto a standard gym bench once
       every two seconds for five minutes (150 steps)
      The assistant stops the test after 5 minutes
      The assistant measures the athlete's heart rate (bpm) one minute
       after finishing the test - Pulse1
      The assistant measures the athlete's heart rate (bpm) two minutes
       after finishing the test - Pulse2
      The assistant measures the athlete's heart rate (bpm) three minutes
       after finishing the test - Pulse3


Using the three pulse rates (bpm) an estimate of your level of fitness can be
determined as follows:

      Result = 30000 ÷ (pulse1 + pulse2 + pulse3)

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   3- One Repetition Maximum (1RM)
One rep maximum (one repetition maximum or 1RM) in weight training is the
maximum amount of weight one can lift in a single repetition for a given exercise.
One repetition maximum can be used for determining an individual's maximum
strength and is the method for determining the winner in events such as powerlifting
and weightlifting competitions. One repetition maximum can also be used as an
upper limit, in order to determine the desired "load" for an exercise (as a percentage
of the 1RM).

Various weight training protocols call for lifting some percentage of the lifter's
1RM. However, many consider the risk of injury when attempting a 1RM to be
higher than when performing multiple rep sets. Therefore, there have been various
proposals for ways to calculate an approximation of the 1RM.

There are two common formulas used to calculate the one rep maximum. If r is the
number of repetitions performed and w is the amount of weight used, then

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Formula 1 and formula 2 return identical results for 10 repetitions. However, for less
than 10 reps, formula 1 returns a slightly higher estimated maximum. For example,
if a person can lift 100 pounds on a given exercise for 10 reps, the estimated one rep
max would be 133 pounds for both formulae. However, if the person were to
complete only 6 reps, then formula 1 would estimate a one rep maximum of
approximately 120 pounds, while formula 2 would return an estimate of
approximately 116 pounds.

These types of calculations may not always produce accurate results, but can be used
as starting points. The weight can then be changed as needed to perform the number
of reps called for by the training protocol.

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

   4- Anaerobic Power (Wingate) and Anaerobic Step


Anaerobic power, as we've already established is the power produced without the

requirement for oxygen to be present. Sprinting, at the end of a race, is

predominantly an anaerobic activity. And as you all know power at these intensities

can only be sustained for a short period of time.

The Wingate test, also known as the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WANT), was
developed at the Wingate Institute, in Israel, during the 1970s.

It is perhaps the most popular assessment for peak anaerobic power, anaerobic
fatigue and total anaerobic capacity.

Before we look at the Wingate test in a little more detail, what exactly is anaerobic

Anaerobic power reflects the ability of the adenosine triphosphate and
phosphocreatine (ATP-PCr) energy pathways to produce energy.

In short... adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is created and stored in muscle cells. These
muscle cells then generate mechanical work (i.e. running) from the energy produced
in a naturally occurring chemical reaction that converts ATP into adenosine
diphosphate (ADP) and a phosphate (P)...

ATP is stored in limited supplies that are quickly consumed by muscle cells during

So... the body uses an organic compound found in muscle tissue called
phosphocreatine and the resulting ADP to re-synthesize ATP.

The ATP-PC energy pathway defines the energy created by a breakdown of PCr to a
re-synthesized ATP.

      Peak anaerobic power represents the highest mechanical power generated
       during any 3-5 second interval of the test (see below).

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       Anaerobic capacity in the Wingate test is the total amount of work
        accomplished over a 30-second bout. Finally...
       Anaerobic fatigue is the percentage decline in power compared with the
        peak power output.

The Wingate protocol

The Wingate Protocol typically consists of three parts: the warm-up: cycling at a

comfortable pace for a freely programmable number of minutes the Wingate test: "all-out"

cycling for 30 seconds, while the braking force is set at its full intensity right from the start

(default: 0.7 x body weight in Nm) the recovery: once the Wingate test is completed,

resistance is set for example to 100W (freely programmable); the subject keeps pedaling for

as long as desired. The Wingate software offers possibilities for programming of various

protocols containing a Wingate test. However, only the data obtained in the Wingate part

of a protocol are analysed with the help of the software.

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

Anaerobic Capacity &Monark Anaerobic Test


The words aerobic and anaerobic refer to energy pathways that are utilized
during exercise. Aerobic means "with oxygen" and anaerobic means "without

Fat needs oxygen to burn completely so in order to burn fat during an exercise
we need to move slowly and smoothly. This enables muscle cells to be supplied
with enough oxygen to continue with its aerobic capacity and utilize fat as the
main energy source.

Anaerobic exercise requires moving at an increased pace or with greater effort.
Exercising this way burns more calories but results in a greater demand
for oxygen which cannot be delivered in sufficient quantities to allow
cells to continue burning fat. When we breathe heavy we start to develop an
oxygen debt and muscle cells switch to burning mainly carbohydrates, this fuel
burns quickly and does not require oxygen. (13)

Please let us to define two important terms that are effective in anaerobic system:

Anaerobic exercise is intense activity requiring energy production without using
oxygen. Anaerobic means in the absence of oxygen.

Anaerobic threshold defines the upper limit of exercise intensity that can be
sustained aerobically. The anaerobic threshold is attained during more intense
exercise where anaerobic metabolism represents a significant proportion of the
required energy supply. The onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), aerobic-
anaerobic threshold, individual anaerobic threshold, point of metabolic acidosis, and
lactate threshold essentially mean the same thing.

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Measurement Methods
There are some method and apparatus for estimated anaerobic capacity in human
and athletes. We can use these tests and methods according your facility. Some of
these tests and methods do not need any apparatus and device but some of these
tests need high quality of device involve the soft and hardware. In the anaerobic
are there are some procedures that researcher and coach they use these. You can
find protocols that are according the following tests:

   1- Anaerobic Cycling test
   2- Wingate arm ergometer test
   3- Horizontal – power " sprinting"
   4- Vertical power –" Jumping"
   5- Anaerobic stepping

However, a great number of these protocols need expensive equipment and
present specific application limitations in field evaluations, especially with
respect to racket sports.

One of the popular procedure tests in the anaerobic area is Wingate Cycling test.

Device and tools

Wingate protocol is the most popular test in anaerobic power and anaerobic
capacity that need some application such as Monark cycle, software that is install
in Computer and Printer .

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Wingate Anaerobic protocol

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Purpose of the Monark test:

The purpose of the Test is to evaluate the anaerobic Capacity of person. The test is
performed on an ergometer , Equipped with a mechanical brak.

At the first for doing this test please attention the following information:

Warning (14)
This is an extreme test of your physiological capabilities and places an enormous
strain on your body. It is vitally important to make sure you:

▼ are fully rested
▼ are fully hydrated
▼ have had no hard rides for at least three days previous
▼ have not eaten for at least two hours previous
▼ have been of good health for at least four weeks

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

▼ have good motivation and morale
▼ are mentally prepared for the sustained effort required

The Test
A Wingate test is not pleasant but the result it provides give an excellent indicator
to the capacity and output of an athlete's anaerobic energy systems.


Step by step you can do this protocol in your subjects. please go ahead and follow
below steps:


Supervisor asks the subject to warm-up his/her body. This step last to 8 minutes.
When your subject is warm-upping , researcher have to check device and cable
connection between the devices.

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Subject has to fill out some information in the program in PC. This information is
such as: weight. High, sex, age and also in this step supervisor should select the
break weight that is by default 7.5% of body weight. You can change the default
break weight according experience on your subject and you can reduce or increase
it. In this step also researcher should determine the test period. The test period can
be in 5 to 300 seconds. In usually supervisors are using thirty seconds for this
protocol. Researcher and also can change the seat high but we have to attend this
when we need the test for comparison among the persons or group that is better
to have same seat high for all subjects.


Actually this step is starting the exercise step in this protocol. Subject is ready for
starting the test. With click on start in Monark program, subject has to pedaling to
receiving to high acceleration. Usually this step will be for 30 second. When the
subject receives the pack of acceleration, supervisor released the break weight and
also clicks to start timer on the program (some time we can set device to
automatically start the timer after release the break weight). Subject wills effort to
his/her test. After finishing the test period (30seconds), Timer and program has
been stopped by automatically.


Supervisor asks the subject to warm-down her/his body in this step. This can be
continuing to 8 minutes.

You can save the result and printing after finishing the test. and also you can
comparison the results among the person or groups.

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

Test Scores
Calculated measures from the Wingate test include:

1. Peak Power (PP)
Peak power is ideally measured in first 5-second interval of the Wingate test and is
expressed as follows:

       Force x Total Distance (Time in minutes)

       Force is the amount of resistance (kg) added to the flywheel. Total distance
       is the number of revolutions x the distance per revolution. Time is 5
       seconds or 0.0833 minutes. The result for peak power is expressed in watts

2. Relative Peak Power (RPP)
Relative peak power is determined simply by dividing peak power by body mass
and is expressed as W/kg

3. Anaerobic Fatigue (AF)
Anaerobic fatigue is calculated as follows:

       Highest 5-second peak power output - Lowest 5-second peak power output
       ( Highest 5-second peak power output. Then multiply by 100 to get the
       percentage decline.

4. Anaerobic Capacity (AC)
Anaerobic capacity is expressed as kilogram-Joules (1 kg-m = 9.804 J) and is
calculated by adding together each 5-second peak power output over the 30

   5- Body Fat Percent (In Body )

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                             Body Composition Analyzer


 Body composition is an essential measure of health and fitness for both athletes
and the general population. What is body composition, and why is it important?
Your body is made up of water, fat, protein, carbohydrate and various vitamins and
minerals. If you have too much fat — especially if a lot of it is at your waist —
you're at higher risk for such health problems as high blood pressure, high blood
cholesterol and diabetes (di"ah-BE'teez or di"ah-BE'tis). That increases your risk
for heart.

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

In the body mass index area we have some factors that are important. These
factors are the following:

Body fat percent, Body mass index, somato type, girth measurement and
measurement the limbs length is most important

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Body fat Percent(BFP)

Body Fat Guidelines from American Council on Exercise

Classification       Women (% Fat)                    Men (% Fat)

Essential Fat        10-12 percent                    2-4 percent

Athletes             14-20 percent                    6-13 percent

Fitness              21-24 percent                    14-17 percent

Acceptable           25-31 percent                    18-25 percent

There are some difference standard for BFP table that are effected in some variables

What is the Body Fat Percent?

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

 Human body's for livening need the energy. There are tree major foods that are
source of the energy. These foods usually are combining the Carbohydrate, Protein
and Fats. These foods after using and Digestion will provide the ATP or other hand
Energy in the body. Inputs of Energy in the body are using to provide basal
function in cells and daily activity in humans.    Energy that we used in these
activities we call Output of energy. Whenever that we have unbalancing in the
input and output of your energy, have been seen overweight or low weight.
Actually more extra of energy will change to fat cells in the body and will store in
some area such as abdominal muscle. Body fat Percent shown this fat in skin fold.
Actually rang of body fat have difference rate in human. Some factors such as sex,
age, activity type and race are effective factors in standard of body fat percent
(BFP). Body fat is an important element in successful weight control and also BFP is
essential factors in competitions usefully.

How we can determine the BFP?

There are two major methods that can help us to measurement the BFP. The first
method is directly procedure and second method is not directly.

Body mass index

Body mass index, or BMI, is a new term to most people. However, it is the
measurement of choice for many physicians and researchers studying obesity. BMI
uses a mathematical formula that takes into account both a person's height and
weight. BMI equals a person's weight in kilograms divided by height in meters
squared. (BMI=kg/m2).

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            Risk of Associated Disease According to BMI and Waist Size

                                              Waist less than or   Waist greater than

                                                  equal to             40 in. (men) or
                                               40 in. (men) or         35 in. (women)

                                               35 in. (women)

      18.5 or less       Underweight                  --                    N/A

       18.5 - 24.9          Normal                    --                    N/A

       25.0 - 29.9        Overweight              Increased                 High

       30.0 - 34.9          Obese                   High                 Very High

       35.0 - 39.9          Obese                 Very High              Very High

      40 or greater    Extremely Obese         Extremely High          Extremely High

Exercise Physiology laboratory

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   6- Body Composition (SomatoType)

   Somatotype :

  In the 1940s, Sheldon developed a theory that there are three basic body types,
or somatotypes (based on the three tissue layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and
ectoderm), each associated with personality characteristics, representing a
correlation between physique and temperament. Somatotype is one of the major
factors in talent and sport. Sport are difference with together and there for they
need special trait for successfully. For example in the gymnastic coach need the
athletes with Ectomorph trait but in the football mesomorph anthropometry has
importance roll in successfully. That is important for sport scientict to determining
the athlete somatotyp that when they know this, talent identification will be easier.
Please attention to the following term that are important in somatotype area

Body Type

There are three extremes of body types.

Exercise Physiology laboratory

                                 Endomorph (711)

                                            A pear shaped body
                                            A rounded head
                                            Wide hips and shoulders
                                            Wider front to back rather
                                             than side to side.
                                            A lot of fat on the body, upper
                                             arms and thighs

                                 Mesomorph (171)

                                            A wedge shaped body
                                            A cubical head
                                            Wide broad shoulders
                                            Muscled arms and legs
                                            Narrow hips
                                            Narrow from front to back
                                             rather than side to side.
                                            A minimum amount of fat

                                 Ectomorph (117)

                                            A high forehead
                                            Receding chin
                                            Narrow shoulders and hips
                                            A narrow chest and abdomen
                                            Thin arms and legs
                                            Little muscle and fat

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All athletes are made up of the three extreme body types so we are all part
endomorph, part mesomorph and part ectomorph. Using a score of one to
seven, we can grade our bodies on each of the extreme body types. e.g.
two, six, three means: two (low endomorphy); six (high mesomorphy);
three (low ectomorphy). In this way, we can compare our body type with
that of other athletes. This method of body typing is known as
somatotyping. Height is not taken into consideration when working out our
body type.

The "perfect" bodybuilder would perhaps be a 173, while 475 might be better
suited for football, and a basketball player would optimally be a 147. Having scores
in multiple body types, for instance the football player's 475, does not mean he has
all of the traits of each body type mixed together. It may mean he has the heavy

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

thick build of the Endomorph combined with superior musculature and strength of
the Mesomorph, with the above average height of the Ectomorph.(15,16)

Greek researchers evaluated 518 elite Greek basketball, volleyball and handball
players [J Strength Cond Res 2006 Nov; 20(4):740-4]. Their results indicated the
following somatotypes (endomorph, mesomorph & ectomorph) for each sport:

                                  Endomorph     mesomorph   Ectomorph

            Volleyball players       3.4           2.7         2.9

            Basketball players       3.7           2.7         2.9

            Handball players         4.2           4.7         1.8

   How we can determine somatotype in athletes?

   There are many type of method to determining the somatotype in human body.
   Some of these procedures are useful in psychology and some of these methods
   are using in sport science investigations. The most useful method that we use in
   sport science is heath and carter procedure.

   Heath and Carter manual:


           1- Scale for weight measurement
           2- Stadiometer
           3- Caliper(skinfold)

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           4- Fiberglass measure
           5- Engineers venire caliper (epicondyars breadths)

   Measurement techniques

    Ten anthropometric dimensions are needed to calculate the anthropometric
   somatotype: stretch stature, body mass, four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular,
   supraspinale, medial calf), two bone breadths (biepicondylar humerus and
   femur), and two limb girths (arm flexed and tensed, calf). The following
   descriptions are adapted from Carter and Heath (1990).

   Stature (height). Taken against a height scale or stadiometer. Take height with
   the subject standing straight, against an upright wall or stadiometer, touching
   the wall with heels, buttocks and back. Orient the head in the Frankfort plane
   (the upper border of the ear opening and the lower border of the

   eye socket on a horizontal line), and the heels together. Instruct the subject to
   stretch upward and to take and hold a full breath. Lower the headboard until it
   firmly touches the vertex.

   Body mass (weight). The subject, wearing minimal clothing, stands in the center
   of the scale platform. Record weight to the nearest tenth of a kilogram. A
   correction is made for clothing so that nude weight is used in subsequent

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 Skinfolds. Raise a fold of skin and subcutaneous tissue firmly between thumb
 and forefinger of the left hand and away from the underlying muscle at the
 marked site.. Take all skinfolds on the right side of the body. The subject stands
 relaxed, except for the calf skinfold, which is taken with the subject seated.

 Triceps skinfold. With the subject's arm hanging loosely in the anatomical
 position, raise a fold

 at the back of the arm at a level halfway on a line connecting the acromion and
 the olecranon processes.

   Subscapular skinfold. Raise the subscapular skinfold on a line from the inferior
 angle of the scapula in a direction that is obliquely downwards and laterally at
 45 degrees.

   Supraspinale skinfold. Raise the fold 5-7 cm (depending on the size of the
 subject) above the anterior superior iliac spine on a line to the anterior axillary
 border and on a diagonal line going downwards and medially at 45 degrees.
 (This skinfold was formerly called suprailiac, or anterior suprailiac. The name has
 been changed to distinguish it from other skinfolds called "suprailiac", but taken

 at different locations.)

   Medial calf skinfold. Raise a vertical skinfold on the medial side of the leg, at
 the level of the maximum girth of the calf.

   Biepicondylar breadth of the humerus, right. The width between the medial
 and lateral epicondyles of the humerus, with the shoulder and elbow flexed to
 90 degrees. Apply the caliper at an angle approximately bisecting the angle of

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   the elbow. Place firm pressure on the crossbars in order to compress the
   subcutaneous tissue.

    Biepicondylar breadth of the femur, right. Seat the subject with knee bent at a
   right angle. Measure the greatest distance between the lateral and medial
   epicondyles of the femur with firm pressure on the crossbars in order to
   compress the subcutaneous tissue.

   Upper arm girth, elbow flexed and tensed, right. The subject flexes the shoulder
   to 90 degrees and the elbow to 45 degrees, clenches the hand, and maximally
   contracts the elbow flexors and extensors. Take the measurement at the
   greatest girth of the arm.

    Calf girth, right. The subject stands with feet slightly apart. Place the tape
   around the calf and measure the maximum circumference.

    Traditionally, for the anthropometric somatotype, the larger of the right and
   left breadths and girths have been used. When possible this should be done for
   individual assessment. However, in large surveys it is recommended that all
   measures (including skinfolds) be taken on the right side. The anthropometrist
   should mark the sites and repeat the complete sequence a second time. For
   further calculations, the duplicated measurements should be averaged. For more
   reliable values, relatively inexperienced measurers should take triplicate
   measurements and use the median value.

   Calculating the Anthropometric Somatotype

   The Heath-Carter Somatotype Rating Form

Exercise Physiology laboratory

  (1) Record pertinent identification data in top section of rating form.

 Endomorphy rating (steps 2-5)

 (2) Record the measurements for each of the four skinfolds.

 (3) Sum the triceps, subscapular, and supraspinale skinfolds; record the sum in
 the box opposite SUM3 SKINFOLDS. Correct for height by multiplying this sum
 by (170.18/height in cm).

 (4) Circle the closest value in the SUM3 SKINFOLDS table to the right. The table
 is read vertically from low to high in columns and horizontally from left to right
 in rows. "Lower limit" and "upper limit" on the rows provide exact boundaries
 for each column. These values are circled only when SUM3 SKINFOLDS are
 within 1 mm of the limit. In most cases circle the value in the row "midpoint".

 (5) In the row for endomorphy circle the value directly under the column for the
 value circled in number (4) above.

 Mesomorphy rating (steps 6-10)

 (6) Record height and breadths of humerus and femur in the appropriate boxes.
 Make the corrections for skinfolds before recording girths of biceps and calf.
 (Skinfold correction: Convert triceps skinfold to cm by dividing by 10. Subtract
 converted triceps skinfold from the biceps girth. Convert calf skinfold to cm,
 subtract from calf girth.)

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   (7) In the height row directly to the right of the recorded value, circle the height
   value nearest to the measured height of the subject. (Note: Regard the height
   row as a continuous scale.)

   (8) For each bone breadth and girth circle the number nearest the measured
   value in the appropriate row. (Note: Circle the lower value if the measurement
   falls midway between two values. This conservative procedure is used because
   the largest girths and breadths are recorded.)

   (9) Deal only with columns, not numerical values for the two procedures below.
   Find the average deviation of the circled values for breadths and girths from the
   circled value in the height column as follows:

   (a) Column deviations to the right of the height column are positive deviations.
   Deviations to the left are negative deviations. (Circled values directly under the
   height column have deviations of zero and are ignored.)

   (b) Calculate the algebraic sum of the ± deviations (D).        Use this formula:
   mesomorphy = (D/8) + 4.0. Round the obtained value of mesomorphy to the
   nearest one-half (½) rating unit.

   (10) In the row for mesomorphy circle the closest value for mesomorphy
   obtained in number 9 above. (If the point is exactly midway between two rating
   points, circle the value closest to 4 in the row. This conservative regression
   toward 4 guards against spuriously extreme ratings.)

Exercise Physiology laboratory

 Ectomorphy rating (steps 11-14).

  (11) Record weight (kg).

 (12) Obtain height divided by cube root of weight (HWR). Record HWR in the
 appropriate box.

 (13) Circle the closest value in the HWR table to the right. (See note in number
 (4) above.)

 (14) In the row for ectomorphy circle the ectomorphy value directly below the
 circled HWR.

 (15) Move to the bottom section of the rating form. In the row for
 Anthropometric Somatotype, record the circled ratings for Endomorphy,
 Mesomorphy and Ectomorphy.

 (16) Sign your name to the right of the recorded rating.

 Limitations of the rating form

   Although the rating form provides a simple method of calculating the
 anthropometric somatotype, especially in the field, it has some limitations. First,
 the mesomorphy table at the low and high ends does not include some values
 for small subjects, e.g. children, or for large subjects, e.g. heavy weightlifters.
 The mesomorphy table can be extrapolated at the lower and upper ends for

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                            subjects. Second, some rounding errors may occur in calculating the
                            mesomorphy rating, because the subject's height often is not the same as the
                            column height. If the anthropometric somatotype is regarded as an estimate this
                            second limitation is not a serious problem.                                       Nevertheless, the following
                            procedures described in Carter (1980) and Carter and Heath (1990) can correct
                            these problems.

Sub Triceps =                      Upper Limit        10.9    14.9    18.9    22.9    26.9    31.2    35.8    40.7    46.2    52.2    58.7    65.7    73.2    81.2    89.7
Subscapular =
Suprailiac =                       Lower Limit         7       11      15     19      23      27      31.3    35.9    40.8    46.3    52.3    58.8    65.8    73.3    81.3
Total Skinfolds =

Endomorphic Component                                 0.5      1      1.5      2      2.5      3      3.5      4      4.5      5      5.5      6      6.5      7      7.5

Height (cm) =                              139.7 143.5 147.3 151.1 154.9 158.9 162.6 166.4 170.2 174.9 177.9 181.6 185.4 189.6 193.0 196.9
Humerus Bicondyle (cm) =                    5.19 5.34 5.49 5.64 5.78 5.93 6.07 6.22 6.37 6.51 6.65 6.80 6.95 7.09 7.24 7.38
Femur Bicondyle (cm) =                      7.41 7.62 7.83 8.04 8.24 8.45 8.66 8.87 9.08 9.28 9.49 9.70 9.91 10.12 10.33 10.53

Upper Arm Circumference (cm) -                 23.7    24.4    25.0    25.7    26.3    27.0    27.7    28.3    29.0    29.7    30.3    31.0    31.6    32.2    33.0    33.6
Triceps Skin Fold (cm) =

Max. Calf Circumference (cm) -                 27.7    28.5    29.3    30.1    30.8    31.6    32.4    33.2    33.9    34.7    35.5    36.3    37.1    37.8    38.6    39.4
Calf Skin Fold (cm) =

Mesomorphic Component                                 0.5     1.0     1.5     2.0     2.5     3.0     3.5     4.0     4.5     5.0     5.5     6.0     6.5     7.0

Height (cm) =                    Upper Limit                  39.65 40.74 41.43 42.13 42.82 43.48 44.18 44.84 45.53 46.23 46.92 47.58 48.25 48.94
Weight (kg) =
Height / 3√ Weight =             Lower Limit                  less    39.66 40.75 41.44 42.14 42.83 43.49 44.19 44.85 45.54 46.24 46.93 47.59 48.26

Ectomorphic Component                                         0.5     1.0     1.5     2.0     2.5     3.0     3.5     4.0     4.5     5.0     5.5     6.0     6.5     7.0

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

   7- Under Water Weight and Body density and

       Skin fold Methods

Directly methods:

Using Hydrostatic Weighing to Measure Body Fat

Hydrostatic weighing (underwater weighing) is the most accurate way to calculate
body fat - that is, if you can find a hydrostatic weighing tank.

How does hydrostatic weighing calculate body fat? By using Archimedes Principle.
Your examiner first calculates your body density by measuring the amount of water
you displace when you immerse yourself in water. Then a formula is used to
calculate body fat based on your body density. The problem is finding a facility
(University, major gym or fitness center) which has a hydrostatic weighing tank!

Skin fold method for BFP measurements:


The purpose of this laboratory experience is to develop your skill in identifying and
measuring skinfold thickness.


      Plastic or metal skinfold calipers, preferably metal calipers
      Anthropometric measuring tapes
      Surgical marking pens
      Body weight scale
      Stadiometer

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Testing Procedures

   1. Work in groups of three. One student will be measured, the second student
        will be the skinfold technician, and the third student will record the skinfold
        measurements. After completing all measurements, rotate positions until all
        students have had the opportunity to play all roles.
   2. Measure the client's body weight and height.
   3. Follow the standardized testing procedures for skinfold measurements (see
        p. 188). Make certain all skinfolds are measured on right side of body.
   4. Use the standardized anatomical descriptions for skinfold sites (see
        appendixes D.2 and D.3) to locate each site. Mark the eight skinfold sites
        with the surgical marking pen.
   5. Measure the skinfold sites in rotational order. Take as many measurements
        as needed in rotational order to obtain two readings within 10% of each
        other. Average these two measurements.

There are many types of formulas for measurement the BFP via skin fold.

In this procedure researcher need Calipers. For determining the BFP in our
subjects please follow the below Note:

Please attention the some information in the first:

The technician marks the sites to be measured on the right side of
participant's body.

The technician pinches the skinfold , at about 1Cm proximal to the marked
site, using thumb and index finger.

The jaw point of the caliper are pleased on marked site at a depth of about
half the distance between the base of normal skin perimeter and crest of the

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

The technician maintains a firm grip on the skin fold while reading the
gauge of the skin fold caliper within 4s to the closest .5 mm to 1 mm or 1
mmm to 2 mm.

The technician makes three circuits of skinfold measurements and record for
each site during each circuit.

The technician uses the medium value for analytical purpose.

Step 2:

After select the formulas you can start the evaluation. For doing this step
that is importance to know that what is our procedure in this aim. We select
two major methods for estimate the BFP that is used among researchers.

Why we use two methods for doing this purpose? Actually we have to know
that there are difference in anthropometrical and some another factors
among the men and women. There for we have to use differences
procedure for estimating the BFP.


BFP in men and women with skinfold procedure will be estimated according
the following formulae.

First, calculate your body density (Db) with the following equation (Jackson
& Pollock, 1985)

For men, use the following equation:

Db = 1.112 - (.00043499) (sum of 7 skin folds) + (.00000055) (sum of
seven skin folds squared) - (.00028826) (age)

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For females, use the following equation:

Db = 1.097 – (.00046971) (sum of 7 skin folds) + (.00000056) (sum of
seven skin folds squared) – (.00012828) (age)

Once you have the body density, plug this into the following formula for
your body fat percentage (Siri, 1961):

Body fat %=[(4.95/Db) – 4.5] x 100


Suppose a 25 year old male, has 7 measurements, all 5 mm in girth. He
would simply plug this into the Db equation as such:

Db = 1.112 - (.00043499) (35) + (.00000055) (35 ) - (.00028826) (25)


He would then plug in his body density into the body fat percentage
equation as such:

Body fat %= [(4.95/1.090242601225) – 4.5] x 100

Body fat %= 4.03 %

Where is the skinfold site ?

Note, when taking these measurements, the individual should be in a
relaxed position.

The 7 sites are as follows (see figure 2) (Fleck, 1981; Plowman & Smith,

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

1. Triceps – grasp a vertical fold of skin, on the posterior side of your arm
(your triceps) at the midline. The measurement should simply be at the
halfway mark between your shoulder and elbow.

2. Abdominal – Take another vertical skin fold one inch to the right of the
umbilical cord (belly button).

3. Chest – this time, take a diagonal fold, with the long axis of the caliper
directed towards the nipple of the chest. It should be measured mid-way
between the anterior axillary fold (underarm) and nipple.

4. Thigh – take a vertical measurement at about the midline of the thigh;
approximately half way the distance from the patella (knee cap) to the hip.

5. Suprailiac (iliac crest) – take an oblique measurement slightly above the
hip bone, along the natural diagonal curve of the structure, where the
oblique muscle is.

6. Midaxillary – grasp a vertical fold of skin, directly under the arm pit.

7. Subscapular – take an oblique measurement right below the inferior
(bottom) edge of the scapula (the shoulder blade).

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 Exercise Physiology laboratory

   8- Survey Procedure by Online Tools (Psychology


You have to use Lime survey or Survey Monkey for This type of studies.

   9-      Sergeant Jump Test

Vertical jump "Sargent Test"


A test of muscular power, often used in fitness testing. The Sargent jump test
consists of measuring the difference between a person's maximum vertical reach
before jumping and at the highest point during a jump (figure below). Typically, the
person swings his or her arms downwards and backwards, assumes a crouching
position, pauses momentarily to get balance, and then leaps as high as possible,
swinging the arms forcefully forwards and upwards. Usually, the fingers are
covered in chalk so that a mark can be made on a board to record the heights
reached before and after jumping.

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Vertical Jump board or chalk, a meter ruler, weights scales (optional).

Target Population: All athletes/sportspeople.

Advantages: A simple test to administer, little equipment required. Takes into
account height. Lewis Nomogram takes into account height and weight.

Disadvantages: Jumping practice has an effect on the scores by improving
technique and timing. Needs to be measured accurately for valid results.

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

Procedure: The vertical jump known as the Sargent jump is used to measure leg
power. This test can be done using a 'vertical jump board' or chalk held in the hand
against a wall.

The subject marks the full extent of his/her one-handed (overhead) reach up the
wall with the jump board or a chalk mark (initial mark).

Bending at the knees, taking off from both feet using a counter swing movement of
the arms the subject aims to touch or make a mark up the wall as high as possible
with one hand. The maximum height above the initial mark is recorded.

Harman Formula

Harman et al. (1991) established equations for peak and average power.

       Peak power (W) = 61.9 x VJ (cm) + 36.0 x mass (kg) + 1822
       Average power (W) = 21.2 x VJ (cm) + 23.0 x mass (kg) – 1393

    10-           Maximum Hart Rate

Maximum Heart Rate (Max HR) is the highest number of times your heart can contract in

one minute. Max HR is the most useful tool to be used in determining training intensities,

because it can be individually measured or predicted.

Miller, Londeree and Moeschberger

To determine your maximum heart rate you could use the following, which
combines the Miller formula with the research from Londeree and Moeschberger.

       Use the Miller formula of MHR=217 - (0.85 × age) to calculate MHR
       Subtract 3 beats for elite athletes under 30
       Add 2 beats for 50 year old elite athletes
       Add 4 beats for 55+ year old elite athletes
       Use this MHR value for running training
       Subtract 3 beats for rowing training
       Subtract 5 beats for bicycle training

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% MHR and %VO2 Max

It is possible to estimate your exercise intensity as a percentage of VO2 Max from
your training heart rate. David Swain (1994) and his US based research team using
statistical procedures examined the relationship between %MHR and %VO2 Max.
Their results led to the following regression equation:

       %MHR = 0.64 × %VO2 Max + 37

The relationship has been shown to hold true across sex, age and activity.

    11-         Energy Expenditure and Basal Metabolism


The BMR formula uses the variables of height, weight, age and gender to calculate the

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). This is more accurate than calculating calorie needs based on

body weight alone. The only factor it omits is lean body mass and thus the ratio of muscle-

to-fat a body has. Remember, leaner bodies need more calories than less leaner ones.

Therefore, this equation will be very accurate in all but the very muscular (will

underestimate calorie needs) and the very fat (will over-estimate calorie needs).

 Exercise Physiology laboratory

Metric BMR Formula Women: BMR = 655 + ( 9.6 x weight in kilos ) + ( 1.8 x height in

cm ) - ( 4.7 x age in years )

Men: BMR = 66 + ( 13.7 x weight in kilos ) + ( 5 x height in cm ) - ( 6.8 x age in years )

    12-          Online and Computer Base Sport Science

We will Teach you Shomal Physical Fitness Academy System.

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Description: The Sport Science labratoray is very usefull for any researcher and sport traniers coach. This document help you to estimate some importante factors on Sport Science.