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Demonstrate knowledge of diseases and disorders in the human

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Demonstrate knowledge of diseases and disorders in the human body

Level                             4

Credits                           9

Purpose       People credited with this unit standard are able to demonstrate knowledge of
              terminology and conditions associated with disease of cells and tissues, and
              the common diseases and disorders associated with the major systems of
              the human body.


Subfield                          Health Studies

Domain                            Core Health

Status                            Expiring

Status date                       20 March 2008

Date version published            20 March 2008

This unit standard is expiring. Assessment against the standard must take place
before the expiry date set out below.

Expiry date                       31 December 2012

Entry information                 Open.

Accreditation                     Evaluation of documentation by NZQA and industry.

Standard setting body (SSB)       NZQA Health - Core

Accreditation and Moderation Action Plan (AMAP) reference                  0104
This AMAP can be accessed at http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/framework/search/index.do.

Special notes

1   As the content of this unit standard is largely informational, performance criteria
    assume that knowledge will be acquired from reference texts, models, and other
    information-bearing media.

2   This unit standard is intended for those people requiring an introductory level of
    knowledge in the study of pathology.




                                                               New Zealand Qualifications Authority 2011
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3     The application of these performance criteria is likely to occur in a wide variety of
      settings and may involve higher level complex skills and responsibilities associated
      with the activity or occupational environment where the application occurs.

4     In the context of this unit standard pathology refers to the study of disease and
      disorders of the human body, and includes signs and symptoms, causes (if known)
      and factors influencing the development of the disease according to western medical
      science.

5     Disease refers to the effect of injury and the reactions of the body, mind and/or spirit
      to the injury. Injury may be due to adverse physical, psycho-social or spiritual
      environment, or genetic abnormality.

6     Disorder refers to abnormality in human structure and function, that is where these
      differ in some way from a normal or healthy state.

Elements and performance criteria

Element 1

Demonstrate knowledge of terminology and conditions associated with disease of cells
and tissues.

Performance criteria

1.1        The common terms associated with cells and tissues are identified and defined.

           Range         cytology, biopsy, histology, benign, malignant, metastatic.

1.2        The forms of injury that may cause disease are defined according to the
           damage that may occur to cells and tissues.

           Range         physical, chemical, bacterial, viral, parasitic, genetic.

1.3        The common medical conditions associated with cells and tissues are identified
           and defined according to the constructs of pathology.

           Range         bruise, haematoma, sprain, strain, neoplasm, ischaemia, cyanosis,
                         oedema, adhesions, tissue repair, scar tissue.




                                                                   New Zealand Qualifications Authority 2011
                                                                              14785 version 3
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Element 2

Demonstrate knowledge of the common diseases and disorders associated with the major
systems of the human body.

Performance criteria

2.1      The common diseases and disorders of the skeletal system are defined and
         described according to the terms and constructs of pathology.

         Range         includes but is not limited to – scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis,
                       ankylosing spondylitis, herniated disc, spina bifida, osteoporosis,
                       osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Paget’s disease, osteomyelitis,
                       rickets, neoplasm;
                       evidence is required for a minimum of five.

2.2      The common diseases and disorders of the muscular system are defined and
         described according to the terms and constructs of pathology.

         Range         includes but is not limited to – tenosynovitis, hypotonia,
                       hypertonia, muscular atrophy, repetitive stress injury or strain, shin
                       splint syndrome, torticollis, fibromyalgia, muscular dystrophy,
                       myasthenia gravis, tout, neoplasm;
                       evidence is required for a minimum of five.

2.3      The common diseases and disorders of the cardiovascular system are defined
         and described according to the terms and constructs of pathology.

         Range         includes but is not limited to – thrombus, embolus, coronary artery
                       disease, haemorrhage, thrombosis, anaemia, septicaemia,
                       leukemia, pericarditis, endocarditis, angina, myocardial infarction,
                       rheumatic fever, congestive heart failure, valve disease,
                       artheriosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, arrhythmia, syncope (faint),
                       hypertension, hypotension, aneurysm, hypothermia, varicose
                       veins, haemorrhoids, phlebitis, Raynaud’s disease, chilblains,
                       vasospasm, polycythaemia;
                       evidence is required for a minimum of five.

2.4      The common diseases and disorders of the respiratory system are defined and
         described according to the terms and constructs of pathology.

         Range         includes but is not limited to – dyspnoea, hypoxaemia,
                       tachypnoea, asthma, hay fever, bronchitis, croup, emphysema,
                       laryngitis, pleurisy, pneumothorax, tuberculosis, pulmonary
                       embolism, cystic fibrosis, asphyxia, chronic obstructive respiratory
                       disease, neoplasm;
                       evidence is required for a minimum of five.




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2.5   The common diseases and disorders of the digestive system are defined and
      described according to the terms and constructs of pathology.

      Range       includes but is not limited to – dental caries, periodontal disease,
                  parotitis, gastroenteritis, jaundice, peritonitis, hiatus, hernia, peptic
                  ulcer, oesophageal varices, appendicitis, pancreatitis, diverticulitis,
                  ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, hepatitis, cirrhosis, gallstones,
                  irritable bowel syndrome, haemorrhoids, anorexia, neoplasm;
                  evidence is required for a minimum of five.

2.6   The common diseases and disorders of the urinary system are defined and
      described according to the terms and constructs of pathology.

      Range       includes but is not limited to – urinary tract infection, polycystic
                  disease, diabetes insipidis, incontinence, renal calculi,
                  glomerulonephritis, acute renal failure, chronic renal failure,
                  nephrotic syndrome, prostatitis, neoplasm, benign prostatic
                  hypertrophy;
                  evidence is required for a minimum of five.

2.7   The common diseases and disorders of the lymphatic and immune systems are
      defined and described according to the terms and constructs of pathology.

      Range       includes but is not limited to – metastases, acquired immune
                  deficiency syndrome (AIDS), human immunodeficiency virus
                  (HIV), infectious mononucleosis, chronic fatigue syndrome,
                  hypersensitivity (allergy), Hodgkin’s disease, anaphylactic shock,
                  lymphoma, lymphoedema, cadidiasis;
                  evidence is required for a minimum of five.

2.8   The common diseases and disorders of the endocrine system are defined and
      described according to the terms and constructs of pathology.

      Range       includes but is not limited to – acromegaly, dwarfism, gigantism,
                  cretinism, myxoedema, Grave’s disease, hyperthyroidism,
                  hypothyroidism, goitre, Addison’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome,
                  adrenogenital syndrome, aldosteronism, diabetes mellitus,
                  diabetes insipidus, neoplasm;
                  evidence is required for a minimum of five.

2.9   The common diseases and disorders of the nervous system are defined and
      described according to the terms and constructs of pathology.

      Range       includes but is not limited to – concussion, open and closed head
                  injury, cerebro vascular accident (CVA), extra-dural and sub-dural
                  haemorrhage, Alzheimer’s disease, brain tumour, cerebral palsy,
                  Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease,
                  Bell’s palsy, neuralgia, sciatica, headache, dyslexia, epilepsy,
                  shingles, poliomyelitis, meningitis, encephalitis, tetany, spina
                  bifida, hydrocephalus, spinal shock;
                  evidence is required for a minimum of five.




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2.10      The common diseases and disorders of the sensory nervous system are
          defined and described according to the terms and constructs of pathology.

          Range         includes but is not limited to – glaucoma, cataract, retinopathy,
                        strabismus, ptosis, myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, astigmatism,
                        blepharitis, conjunctivitis, otitis media, impacted cerumen,
                        Meniere’s syndrome, tinnitus, vertigo, loss of skin sensation, pain,
                        referred pain, agnosia, sinusitis, epistaxis;
                        evidence is required for a minimum of five.

2.11      The common diseases and disorders of the integumentary system are defined
          and described according to the terms and constructs of pathology.

          Range         includes but is not limited to – eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, hives,
                        erythema nodosum, skin cancer, acne, fungal infection, bacterial
                        infection, pruritus, rosacea, keratosis, lentigines, verrucae,
                        abscess, ulcer, scabies, impetigo, rashes of childhood, infectious
                        diseases;
                        evidence is required for a minimum of five.

2.12      The common diseases and disorders of the sexual and reproductive system are
          defined and described according to the terms and constructs of pathology.

          Range         includes but is not limited to – ectopic pregnancy, fibroids, polyps,
                        endometriosis, vaginitis, emenorrhoea, menorrhagia,
                        dysmenorrhoea, pre-menstrual syndrome, infertility, pelvic
                        inflammatory disease, prostatitis, epididymitis, benign prostatic
                        hyperplasis, cryptorchidism, azoospermia, oligospermia, non-
                        ejaculation, impotence, cancer of reproductive system, breast
                        infection, mastitis, breast abscess, non-malignant breast lump,
                        sexually transmitted diseases;
                        evidence is required for a minimum of five.

Please note

Providers must be accredited by NZQA, or an inter-institutional body with delegated
authority for quality assurance, before they can report credits from assessment against
unit standards or deliver courses of study leading to that assessment.

Industry Training Organisations must be accredited by NZQA before they can register
credits from assessment against unit standards.

Accredited providers and Industry Training Organisations assessing against unit standards
must engage with the moderation system that applies to those standards.

Accreditation requirements and an outline of the moderation system that applies to this
standard are outlined in the Accreditation and Moderation Action Plan (AMAP). The
AMAP also includes useful information about special requirements for organisations
wishing to develop education and training programmes, such as minimum qualifications for
tutors and assessors, and special resource requirements.




                                                                New Zealand Qualifications Authority 2011

				
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