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					     B2: The components of life                                                                                                         Page 1 of 22

                                                                  Topic 1: The building blocks of cells
     Lesson         Specification learning outcomes                    Prior learning from KS3                         HSW statements          BTEC Links

Lesson B2.1        1.2 Describe the function of the         Year 9 Explain, using a range of models and          N/A                          To follow
                   components of a plant cell including     analogies, how the specialised cells and tissues
Plant and animal
                   chloroplast, large vacuole, cell wall,   involved in movement and support are adapted
cells
                   cell membrane, mitochondria,             to their function, e.g. muscle cells, ciliated
                   cytoplasm and nucleus                    epithelial cells, flagella, plant cells, root hair
                                                            cells
                                                            Year 9 Explain, using models and analogies,
                                                            how the structures of the main organs, tissues
                                                            and cells in the digestive system, and those that
                                                            contribute to photosynthesis, are adapted to
                                                            their function, e.g. surface area in the villi and
                                                            root hairs

                   1.3 Describe the function of the         Year 9 Explain, using a range of models and          N/A
                   components of an animal cell including   analogies, how the specialised cells and tissues
                   cell membrane, mitochondria,             involved in movement and support are adapted
                   cytoplasm and nucleus                    to their function, e.g. muscle cells, ciliated
                                                            epithelial cells, flagella, plant cells, root hair
                                                            cells
                                                            Year 9 Explain, using models and analogies,
                                                            how different organs, tissues and cells in the
                                                            reproductive system are adapted to carry out
                                                            their function, e.g. fallopian tube, uterus, egg
                                                            and sperm cells, pollen grains, umbilical cord,
                                                            amniotic sac
                                                            Year 9 Explain, using models and analogies,
                                                            how the specialised sensory cells and tissues are
                                                            adapted to their function, e.g. nerve cells,
                                                            taste buds, hinge in Venus fly trap

                   1.4 Describe how plant and animal        N/A                                                  N/A
                   cells can be studied in greater detail
                   with a light microscope
      B2: The components of life                                                                                                                                    Page 2 of 22


Lesson B2.2        1.1 Describe the function of the           Year 9 Explain, using a range of models and          N/A
                   components of a bacterial cell             analogies, how the specialised cells and tissues
Inside bacteria
                   including chromosomal DNA, plasmid         involved in movement and support are adapted
                   DNA, flagella and cell wall                to their function, e.g. muscle cells, ciliated
                                                              epithelial cells, flagella, plant cells, root hair
                                                              cells

                   1.5 Demonstrate an understanding of        N/A                                                  HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and
                   how changes in microscope technology                                                            technological developments and their benefits,
                   have enabled us to see cells with more                                                          drawbacks and risks
                   clarity and detail than in the past,
                                                                                                                   HSW 14 How uncertainties in scientific knowledge
                   including simple magnification
                                                                                                                   and scientific ideas change over time and the role of
                   calculations
                                                                                                                   the scientific community in validating these changes

Lesson B2.3        1.6 Recall that a gene is a section of a   N/A                                                  N/A                                                     Unit 3 D1
                   molecule of DNA and that it codes for a
DNA
                   specific protein

                   1.7 Describe a DNA molecule as:            N/A                                                  N/A                                                     Unit 3 D1
                   a) two strands coiled to form a double
                   helix
                   b) the strands are linked by a series of
                   complementary base pairs joined
                   together by weak hydrogen bonds:
                   - adenine (A) with thymine (T)
                   - cytosine (C) with guanine (G)
     B2: The components of life                                                                                    Page 3 of 22

Lesson B2.4       1.8 Investigate how to extract DNA       N/A   HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data
                  from cells
DNA practical                                                    HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a
                                                                 scientific question, or solve a scientific problem
                                                                 HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary
                                                                 sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools
                                                                 HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually
                                                                 and with others, when collecting first-hand data
                                                                 HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and
                                                                 considering their validity and reliability as evidence
                                                                 HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative
                                                                 approaches
                                                                 HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                                                                 argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
                                                                 technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                                 and symbols and ICT tools

Lesson B2.5       1.9 Explain how the structure of DNA     N/A   HSW 2 The interpretation of data, using creative
                  was discovered, including the roles of         thought, to provide evidence for testing ideas and
DNA discovery
                  the scientists Watson, Crick, Franklin         developing theories
                  and Wilkins
                                                                 HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                                                                 developing and using scientific theories, models and
                                                                 ideas
                                                                 HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                                                                 argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
                                                                 technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                                 and symbols and ICT tools
                                                                 HSW 14 How uncertainties in scientific knowledge
                                                                 and scientific ideas change over time and the role of
                                                                 the scientific community in validating these changes
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                                    Page 4 of 22

                  H 1.10 Demonstrate an understanding        N/A                                                  HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data   (Unit 6 P6)
                  of the implications of sequencing the                                                           HSW 4 There are some questions that science
                  human genome (Human Genome                                                                      cannot currently answer and some that science
                  Project) and of the collaboration that                                                          cannot
                  took place within this project
                                                                                                                  HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and
                                                                                                                  technological developments and their benefits,
                                                                                                                  drawbacks and risks
                                                                                                                  HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and
                                                                                                                  technology are made, including those that raise
                                                                                                                  ethical issues, and about the social, economic and
                                                                                                                  environmental effects of such decisions

Lesson B2.6       1.11 Demonstrate an understanding of       Year 9 Describe ways to induce variation             N/A
                  the process of genetic engineering         artificially, e.g. selective breeding, cloning and
Genetic
                  including the removal of a gene from       genetic engineering, and explore related issues
engineering
                  the DNA of one organism and the
                  insertion of that gene into the DNA of
                  another organism

                  1.12 Discuss the advantages and            Year 9 Describe ways to induce variation             HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and
                  disadvantages of genetic engineering       artificially, e.g. selective breeding, cloning and   technological developments and their benefits,
                  to produce GM organisms, including:        genetic engineering, and explore related issues      drawbacks and risks
                  a) beta-carotene in golden rice to                                                              HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and
                  reduce vitamin A deficiency in humans                                                           technology are made, including those that raise
                                                                                                                  ethical issues, and about the social, economic and
                  b) the production of human insulin by
                                                                                                                  environmental effects of such decisions
                  genetically modified bacteria
                  c) the production of herbicide-resistant
                  crop plants
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                                   Page 5 of 22


Lesson B2.7       1.13 Describe the division of a cell by     N/A                                                 HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                  mitosis as the production of two                                                                developing and using scientific theories, models and
Mitosis and
                  daughter cells, each with identical sets                                                        ideas
meiosis
                  of chromosomes in the nucleus to the
                  parent cell, and that this results in the
                  formation of two genetically identical
                  diploid body cells

                  1.14 Recall that mitosis occurs during      Year 9 Explain, using different models and          N/A
                  growth, repair and asexual                  analogies, the process of growth as a result of
                  reproduction                                cell division and an increase in size

                  1.15 Recall that, at fertilisation,         Year 7 Describe and compare, in simple terms,       N/A
                  haploid gametes combine to form a           the processes of pollination, fertilisation, seed
                  diploid zygote                              dispersal and germination

                  1.16 Describe the division of a cell by     N/A                                                 HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                  meiosis as the production of four                                                               developing and using scientific theories, models and
                  daughter cells, each with half the                                                              ideas
                  number of chromosomes, and that this
                  results in the formation of genetically
                  different haploid gametes
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                                    Page 6 of 22

Lesson B2.8       1.17 Recall that cloning is an example     Year 9 Link scientific understanding and             HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                  of asexual reproduction that produces      evidence to compare the advantages and               developing and using scientific theories, models and
Clones
                  genetically identical copies               disadvantages of sexual and asexual                  ideas
                                                             reproduction

                  H 1.18 Demonstrate an understanding        N/A                                                  HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and
                  of the stages in the production of                                                              technological developments and their benefits,
                  cloned mammals, including:                                                                      drawbacks and risks
                  a) removal of diploid nucleus from a
                  body cell
                  b) enucleation of egg cell
                  c) insertion of diploid nucleus into
                  enucleated egg cell
                  d) stimulation of the diploid nucleus to
                  divide by mitosis
                  e) implantation into surrogate
                  mammals

                  1.19 Demonstrate an understanding of       Year 9 Describe ways to induce variation             HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and             Unit 6 D3
                  the advantages, disadvantages and          artificially, e.g. selective breeding, cloning and   technological developments and their benefits,
                  risks of cloning mammals                   genetic engineering, and explore related issues      drawbacks and risks
                                                                                                                  HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and
                                                                                                                  technology are made, including those that raise
                                                                                                                  ethical issues, and about the social, economic and
                                                                                                                  environmental effects of such decisions
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                                    Page 7 of 22

Lesson B2.9       1.19 Demonstrate an understanding of       Year 9 Describe ways to induce variation             HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and             Unit 6 D3
                  the advantages, disadvantages and          artificially, e.g. selective breeding, cloning and   technological developments and their benefits,
Stem cells
                  risks of cloning mammals                   genetic engineering, and explore related issues      drawbacks and risks
                                                                                                                  HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and
                                                                                                                  technology are made, including those that raise
                                                                                                                  ethical issues, and about the social, economic and
                                                                                                                  environmental effects of such decisions

                  1.20 Recall that stem cells in the         N/A                                                  N/A                                                    Unit 6 D3
                  embryo can differentiate into all other
                  types of cells, but that cells lose this
                  ability as the animal matures

                  1.21 Demonstrate an understanding of       N/A                                                  HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and             Unit 3 D1
                  the advantages, disadvantages and                                                               technological developments and their benefits,
                  risks arising from adult and embryonic                                                          drawbacks and risks
                  stem cell research
                                                                                                                  HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and
                                                                                                                  technology are made, including those that raise
                                                                                                                  ethical issues, and about the social, economic and
                                                                                                                  environmental effects of such decisions

Lesson B2.10      1.22 Describe how the order of bases       N/A                                                  N/A                                                    Unit 3 D1
                  in a section of DNA decides the order
Protein
                  of amino acids in the protein
manufacture
                  H 1.23 Demonstrate an understanding        N/A                                                  HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by               Unit 3 D1
                  of the stages of protein synthesis,                                                             developing and using scientific theories, models and
                  including transcription and translation:                                                        ideas
                  a) production of complementary mRNA
                  strand in the nucleus
                  b) the attachment of the mRNA to the
                  ribosome
                  c) the coding by triplets of bases
                  (codons) in the mRNA for specific
                  amino acids
                  d) the transfer of amino acids to the
                  ribosome by tRNA
                  e) the linking of amino acids to form
                  polypeptides
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                                   Page 8 of 22

Lesson B2.11        1.24 Describe each protein as having      N/A                                               N/A                                                      (Unit 3 D1)
                    its own specific number and sequence
Mutations
                    of amino acids, resulting in different-
                    shaped molecules that have different
                    functions, including enzymes

                    1.25 Demonstrate an understanding of      N/A                                               HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by                 (Unit 3 D1)
                    how gene mutations change the DNA                                                           developing and using scientific theories, models and
                    base sequence and that mutations can                                                        ideas
                    be harmful, beneficial or neither

Lesson B2.12        1.26 Describe enzymes as biological       N/A                                               N/A
                    catalysts
Enzymes
                    1.27 Demonstrate an understanding         Year 9 Explain the similarities and differences   HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                    that enzymes catalyse chemical            between mechanical digestion, chemical            developing and using scientific theories, models and
                    reactions occurring inside and outside    digestion and absorption                          ideas
                    living cells, including:
                    a) DNA replication
                    b) protein synthesis
                    c) digestion

Lesson B2.13        1.32 Investigate the factors that         N/A                                               HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data
                    affect enzyme activity
Enzymes practical                                                                                               HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a
                                                                                                                scientific question, or solve a scientific problem
                                                                                                                HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary
                                                                                                                sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools
                                                                                                                HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually
                                                                                                                and with others, when collecting first-hand data
                                                                                                                HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and
                                                                                                                considering their validity and reliability as evidence
                                                                                                                HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative
                                                                                                                approaches
                                                                                                                HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                                                                                                                argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
                                                                                                                technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                                                                                and symbols and ICT tools
     B2: The components of life                                                                                  Page 9 of 22

Lesson B2.14      1.28 Describe the factors affecting     N/A   HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative
                  enzyme action, including:                     approaches
Enzyme action
                  a) temperature                                HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                                                                argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
                  b) substrate concentration
                                                                technical and mathematical language, conventions
                  c) pH                                         and symbols and ICT tools

                  1.29 Recall that enzymes are highly     N/A   N/A
                  specific for their substrate

                  1.30 Demonstrate an understanding of    N/A   HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                  the action of enzymes in terms of the         developing and using scientific theories, models and
                  ‘lock-and-key’ hypothesis                     ideas

                  1.31 Describe how enzymes can be        N/A   HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                  denatured due to changes in the shape         developing and using scientific theories, models and
                  of the active site                            ideas
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                                 Page 10 of 22



                                                                    Topic 2: Organisms and energy
     Lesson        Specification learning outcomes                     Prior learning from KS3                                    HSW statements                         BTEC links

Lesson B2.15      2.1 Recall that respiration is a process   Year 7 Describe the purpose of respiration and      N/A                                                    (Unit 6 M1)
                  used by all living organisms that          circulation in different animals and plants
Aerobic
                  releases the energy in organic
respiration
                  molecules

                  2.2 Explain how the human circulatory      Year 8 Explain the major functions of the           N/A
                  system facilitates respiration,            respiratory and circulatory organs and tissues in
                  including;                                 plants and animals, e.g. trachea, bronchi,
                                                             arteries, stomata, phloem, xylem
                  a) glucose and oxygen diffuses from
                  capillaries into respiring cells
                  b) carbon dioxide diffuses from
                  respiring cells into capillaries

                  2.3 Define diffusion as the movement       N/A                                                 N/A
                  of particles from an area of high
                  concentration to an area of lower
                  concentration

                  2.4 Demonstrate an understanding of        Year 9 Link scientific understanding and            HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                  how aerobic respiration uses oxygen to     evidence to explain and account for the             developing and using scientific theories, models and
                  release energy from glucose and how        differences between inhaled and exhaled air,        ideas
                  this process can be modelled using the     leading to an explanation of respiration as a
                  word equation for aerobic respiration      word equation
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                              Page 11 of 22

Lesson B2.16      2.5 Investigate the effect of exercise    N/A                                             HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data     (Unit 6 M1)
                  on breathing rate and heart rate
Aerobic                                                                                                     HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a
respiration                                                                                                 scientific question, or solve a scientific problem
practical
                                                                                                            HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary
                                                                                                            sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools
                                                                                                            HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually
                                                                                                            and with others, when collecting first-hand data
                                                                                                            HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and
                                                                                                            considering their validity and reliability as evidence
                                                                                                            HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative
                                                                                                            approaches
                                                                                                            HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                                                                                                            argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
                                                                                                            technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                                                                            and symbols and ICT tools

Lesson B2.17      2.6 Explain why heart rate and            N/A                                             HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by                 (Unit 6 M1)
                  breathing rate increase with exercise                                                     developing and using scientific theories, models and
Anaerobic
                                                                                                            ideas
respiration
                                                                                                            HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                                                                                                            argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
                                                                                                            technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                                                                            and symbols and ICT tools

                  2.7 Calculate heart rate, stroke                                                          N/A
                  volume and cardiac output, using the
                  equation cardiac output = stroke
                  volume  heart rate

                  2.8 Demonstrate an understanding of       Year 9 Link scientific understanding and        N/A
                  why, during vigorous exercise, muscle     evidence to explain and account for the
                  cells may not receive sufficient oxygen   differences between inhaled and exhaled air,
                  for their energy requirements and so      leading to an explanation of respiration as a
                  start to respire anaerobically            word equation
B2: The components of life                                                                                                                               Page 12 of 22

             2.9 Demonstrate an understanding of      N/A                                                 HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
             how anaerobic respiration releases                                                           developing and using scientific theories, models and
             energy from glucose and how this                                                             ideas
             process can be modelled using the
             word equation for anaerobic
             respiration

             2.10 Recall that the process of          N/A                                                 N/A
             anaerobic respiration releases less
             energy than aerobic respiration

             2.11 Describe how a build-up of lactic   N/A                                                 HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
             acid requires extra oxygen to break it                                                       argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
             down. This is called excess post-                                                            technical and mathematical language, conventions
             exercise oxygen consumption or EPOC                                                          and symbols and ICT tools
             (formerly known as oxygen debt)

             2.12 Explain why heart rate and          Year 7 Describe the purpose of respiration and      HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
             breathing rate remain high after         circulation in different animals and plants         argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
             exercise                                                                                     technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                      Year 8 Explain the major functions of the
                                                                                                          and symbols and ICT tools
                                                      respiratory and circulatory organs and tissues in
                                                      plants and animals, e.g. trachea, bronchi,
                                                      arteries, stomata, phloem, xylem
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                                Page 13 of 22

Lesson B2.18      2.13 Describe how the structure of a     Year 8 Explain the function of the different         HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                  leaf is adapted for photosynthesis,      digestive organs, the main food groups and the       developing and using scientific theories, models and
Photosynthesis
                  including:                               organs that contribute to photosynthesis             ideas
                  a) large surface area                    Year 8 Explain, using models and analogies,
                                                           how the heart and lungs are adapted to their
                  b) contain chlorophyll in chloroplasts
                                                           function in animals and the leaf in plants
                  to absorb light
                                                           Year 9 Explain, using models where
                  c) stomata for gas exchange (carbon
                                                           appropriate, how specialised cells and tissues
                  dioxide, oxygen and water vapour)
                                                           are adapted to their function, including ideas
                                                           about surface area, e.g. the leaf, blood
                                                           capillaries, lungs, skin, sweat glands, alveoli,
                                                           stomata
                                                           Year 9 Explain, using models and analogies,
                                                           how the structures of the main organs, tissues
                                                           and cells in the digestive system, and those that
                                                           contribute to photosynthesis, are adapted to
                                                           their function, e.g. surface area in the villi and
                                                           root hairs

                  2.14 Demonstrate an understanding of     N/A                                                  HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                  how photosynthesis uses light energy                                                          developing and using scientific theories, models and
                  to produce glucose and how this                                                               ideas
                  process can be modelled using the
                  word equation for photosynthesis
     B2: The components of life                                                                                     Page 14 of 22

Lesson B2.19       2.16 Investigate how factors, including   N/A   HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data
                   the effect of light intensity, CO2
Photosynthesis                                                     HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a
                   concentration or temperature, affect
practical                                                          scientific question, or solve a scientific problem
                   the rate of photosynthesis
                                                                   HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary
                                                                   sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools
                                                                   HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually
                                                                   and with others, when collecting first-hand data
                                                                   HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and
                                                                   considering their validity and reliability as evidence
                                                                   HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative
                                                                   approaches
                                                                   HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                                                                   argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
                                                                   technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                                   and symbols and ICT tools

Lesson B2.20       2.15 Demonstrate an understanding of      N/A   HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                   how limiting factors affect the rate of         argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
Limiting factors
                   photosynthesis, including:                      technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                                   and symbols and ICT tools
                   a) light intensity
                   b) CO2 concentration
                   c) temperature
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                                 Page 15 of 22

Lesson B2.21      2.17 Explain how the loss of water        N/A                                                  HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                  vapour from leaves drives transpiration                                                        developing and using scientific theories, models and
Water transport
                                                                                                                 ideas

                  2.18 Explain how water, glucose and       Year 7 Describe the purpose of respiration and       N/A
                  mineral salts are transported through a   circulation in different animals and plants
                  plant, including:
                                                            Year 8 Explain the major functions of the
                  a) mineral uptake in roots by active      respiratory and circulatory organs and tissues in
                  transport                                 plants and animals, e.g. trachea, bronchi,
                                                            arteries, stomata, phloem, xylem
                  b) the role of the xylem and phloem
                  vessels

                  2.19 Describe how root hair cells are     Year 9 Explain, using a range of models and          N/A
                  adapted to take up water by osmosis       analogies, how the specialised cells and tissues
                                                            involved in movement and support are adapted
                                                            to their function, e.g. muscle cells, ciliated
                                                            epithelial cells, flagella, plant cells, root hair
                                                            cells

                  2.20 Define osmosis as the movement       N/A                                                  HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                  of water molecules from an area of                                                             developing and using scientific theories, models and
                  higher concentration of water to an                                                            ideas
                  area of lower concentration of water
                  through a partially permeable
                  membrane
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                            Page 16 of 22

Lesson B2.22        2.21 Investigate osmosis            N/A                                               HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data
Osmosis practical                                                                                         HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a
                                                                                                          scientific question, or solve a scientific problem
                                                                                                          HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary
                                                                                                          sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools
                                                                                                          HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually
                                                                                                          and with others, when collecting first-hand data
                                                                                                          HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and
                                                                                                          considering their validity and reliability as evidence
                                                                                                          HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative
                                                                                                          approaches
                                                                                                          HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                                                                                                          argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
                                                                                                          technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                                                                          and symbols and ICT tools

Lesson B2.23        2.22 Investigate the relationship   Year 8 Describe differences in organisms of the   HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data
                    between organisms and their         same species and attribute these either to
Organisms and                                                                                             HSW 2 The interpretation of data, using creative
                    environment using fieldwork         environmental or to inherited factors
their                                                                                                     thought, to provide evidence for testing ideas and
                    techniques
environments                                            Year 8 Describe and explain examples of simple    developing theories
                                                        adaptations of plants and animals to different
                                                                                                          HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a
                                                        environments, and how they increase survival
                                                                                                          scientific question, or solve a scientific problem
                                                        Year 9 Use a range of examples to explore the
                                                                                                          HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary
                                                        impact of external and internal factors on the
                                                                                                          sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools
                                                        interdependence of organisms, e.g. poisons,
                                                        disease, food shortages                           HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually
                                                                                                          and with others, when collecting first-hand data
                                                                                                          HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and
                                                                                                          considering their validity and reliability as evidence
                                                                                                          HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative
                                                                                                          approaches
                                                                                                          HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                                                                                                          argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
                                                                                                          technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                                                                          and symbols and ICT tools
     B2: The components of life                                                                                 Page 17 of 22

                  2.23 Investigate the distribution of   N/A   HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data
                  organisms in an ecosystem, using
                                                               HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a
                  sampling techniques including:
                                                               scientific question, or solve a scientific problem
                  a) pooters
                                                               HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary
                  b) sweep nets/pond nets                      sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools
                  c) pitfall traps                             HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually
                                                               and with others, when collecting first-hand data
                  d) quadrats
                                                               HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and
                  and measure environmental factors,
                                                               considering their validity and reliability as evidence
                  including:
                                                               HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative
                  e) temperature
                                                               approaches
                  f) light intensity
                                                               HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                  g) pH                                        argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
                                                               technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                               and symbols and ICT tools

Lesson B2.24      2.23 Investigate the distribution of   N/A   HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data
                  organisms in an ecosystem, using
Populations and                                                HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a
                  sampling techniques including:
distributions                                                  scientific question, or solve a scientific problem
practical         a) pooters
                                                               HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary
                  b) sweep nets/pond nets                      sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools
                  c) pitfall traps                             HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually
                                                               and with others, when collecting first-hand data
                  d) quadrats
                                                               HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and
                  and measure environmental factors,
                                                               considering their validity and reliability as evidence
                  including:
                                                               HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative
                  e) temperature
                                                               approaches
                  f) light intensity
                                                               HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                  g) pH                                        argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
                                                               technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                               and symbols and ICT tools
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                              Page 18 of 22



                                                                    Topic 3: Common systems
     Lesson        Specification learning outcomes                  Prior learning from KS3                                  HSW statements                          BTEC Links

Lesson B2.25      3.1 Evaluate the evidence for           N/A                                               HSW 2 The interpretation of data, using creative
                  evolution, based on the fossil record                                                     thought, to provide evidence for testing ideas and
Fossils and
                                                                                                            developing theories
evolution
                                                                                                            HSW 12 The use of contemporary science and
                                                                                                            technological developments and their benefits,
                                                                                                            drawbacks and risks

                  3.2 Explain why there are gaps in the   N/A                                               N/A
                  fossil record, including:
                  a) because fossils do not always form
                  b) because soft tissue decays
                  c) because many fossils are yet to be
                  found

                  H 3.3 Explain how the anatomy of the    N/A                                               HSW 2 The interpretation of data, using creative
                  pentadactyl limb provides scientists                                                      thought, to provide evidence for testing ideas and
                  with evidence for evolution                                                               developing theories

Lesson B2.26      3.4 Describe growth in terms of         Year 7 Recognise that growth is more than an      HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative
                  increase in size, length and mass       increase in size and describe some factors that   approaches
Growth
                                                          affect growth
                                                          Year 8 Recognise that organisms grow at
                                                          different rates and there is a maximum size to
                                                          which organs and tissues can grow, e.g. skin,
                                                          heart, roots, leaves

                  3.5 Interpret growth data in terms of   N/A                                               HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative
                  percentile charts                                                                         approaches

                  3.6 Explain how cell division,          Year 9 Explain, using different models and        N/A
                  elongation and differentiation          analogies, the process of growth as a result of
                  contribute to the growth and            cell division and an increase in size
                  development of a plant
        B2: The components of life                                                                                        Page 19 of 22

                     3.7 Explain how cell division and          Year 9 Explain, using models and analogies,         N/A
                     differentiation contribute to the          how and why some cells are specialised and
                     growth and development of an animal        grow fast, while others cannot grow and need
                                                                to be replaced, e.g. muscle cells, red blood
                                                                cells, nerve cells

Lesson B2.27         3.8 Recall the structure and function      Year 9 Explain, using models and analogies,         N/A          Unit 6 P3, M2
                     of the following parts of the blood,       how the specialised cells and tissues involved in
Blood
                     including:                                 respiration and circulation are adapted to their
                                                                function, e.g. alveoli, capillaries, heart muscle
                     a) red blood cells
                                                                cells, including ideas about surface area and
                     b) white blood cells                       components of the blood
                     c) plasma
                     d) platelets

Lesson B2.28         3.9 Describe the grouping of cells into    N/A                                                 N/A
                     tissues, tissues into organs, and organs
Heart
                     into organ systems

                     3.10 Explain how the structure of the      Year 7 Use scientific terminology to describe       N/A
                     heart is related to its function,          the main organs in the respiratory and
                     including:                                 circulatory systems of plants and animals, and
                                                                describe their location
                     a) the four major blood vessels
                     associated with the heart (pulmonary       Year 8 Explain the major functions of the
                     artery, pulmonary vein, aorta, vena        respiratory and circulatory organs and tissues in
                     cava)                                      plants and animals, e.g. trachea, bronchi,
                                                                arteries, stomata, phloem, xylem
                     b) left atria and ventricle to pump
                     oxygenated blood
                     c) right atria and ventricle to pump
                     deoxygenated blood
                     d) valves to prevent backflow (names
                     not required)
                     e) left ventricle has a thicker muscle
                     wall than the right ventricle
                     f) the direction of blood flow through
                     the heart
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                                    Page 20 of 22

Lesson B2.29         3.9 Describe the grouping of cells into    N/A                                                 N/A
                     tissues, tissues into organs, and organs
Circulatory system
                     into organ systems

                     3.11 Describe how the circulatory          Year 8 Explain the major functions of the           HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                     system transports substances around        respiratory and circulatory organs and tissues in   developing and using scientific theories, models and
                     the body, including:                       plants and animals, e.g. trachea, bronchi,          ideas
                                                                arteries, stomata, phloem, xylem
                     a) arteries transport blood away from
                     the heart                                  Year 8 Explain, using models and analogies,
                                                                how the heart and lungs are adapted to their
                     b) veins transport blood to the heart
                                                                function in animals and the leaf in plants
                     c) capillaries exchange materials with
                                                                Year 9 Explain, using models and analogies,
                     tissues
                                                                how the specialised cells and tissues involved in
                                                                respiration and circulation are adapted to their
                                                                function, e.g. alveoli, capillaries, heart muscle
                                                                cells, including ideas about surface area and
                                                                components of the blood
                                                                Year 9 Use secondary sources, linking ideas and
                                                                evidence, to explain how ideas of the heart and
                                                                circulation developed and changed over time

Lesson B2.30         3.12 Describe the functions of the         Year 7 Use scientific terminology to describe       N/A
                     parts of the digestive system,             the main organs in the digestive system, and
Digestive system
                     including:                                 food groups
                     a) mouth                                   Year 8 Explain the function of the different
                                                                digestive organs, the main food groups and the
                     b) oesophagus
                                                                organs that contribute to photosynthesis
                     c) stomach
                     d) small and large intestines
                     e) pancreas
                     f) liver
                     H g) gall bladder

                     3.13 Explain the role of the muscular      Year 9 Explain the similarities and differences     N/A
                     wall of the alimentary canal in            between mechanical digestion, chemical
                     peristalsis                                digestion and absorption
        B2: The components of life                                                                                                                                    Page 21 of 22

Lesson B2.31         3.14 Explain the role of digestive           Year 9 Explain the similarities and differences      HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                     enzymes, including:                          between mechanical digestion, chemical               developing and using scientific theories, models and
Breaking down
                                                                  digestion and absorption                             ideas
food                 a) carbohydrases, including amylase,
                     which digest starch to simple sugars
                     b) proteases, including pepsin, which
                     digest proteins to amino acids
                     c) lipase which digests fats to fatty
                     acids and glycerol

                     H 3.15 Explain the role of bile in           N/A                                                  HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                     neutralising stomach acid and                                                                     developing and using scientific theories, models and
                     emulsifying fats                                                                                  ideas

Lesson B2.32         H 3.16 Explain how the structure of          Year 9 Explain, using models and analogies,          HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                     villi (large surface area, single layer of   how the structures of the main organs, tissues       developing and using scientific theories, models and
Villi
                     cells and capillary network) allows          and cells in the digestive system, and those that    ideas
                     efficient absorption of the soluble          contribute to photosynthesis, are adapted to
                     products of digestion                        their function, e.g. surface area in the villi and
                                                                  root hairs
     B2: The components of life                                                                                                                                Page 22 of 22

Lesson B2.33        3.17 Investigate the effect of            N/A                                             HSW 1 The collection and analysis of scientific data
                    different concentrations of digestive
Digestive enzymes                                                                                             HSW 3 Many phenomena can be explained by
                    enzymes, using and evaluating models
practical                                                                                                     developing and using scientific theories, models and
                    of the alimentary canal
                                                                                                              ideas
                                                                                                              HSW 5 Planning to test a scientific idea, answer a
                                                                                                              scientific question, or solve a scientific problem
                                                                                                              HSW 6 Collecting data from primary or secondary
                                                                                                              sources, including the use of ICT sources and tools
                                                                                                              HSW 7 Working accurately and safely, individually
                                                                                                              and with others, when collecting first-hand data
                                                                                                              HSW 8 Evaluating methods of data collection and
                                                                                                              considering their validity and reliability as evidence
                                                                                                              HSW 10 Using both qualitative and quantitative
                                                                                                              approaches
                                                                                                              HSW 11 Presenting information, developing an
                                                                                                              argument and drawing a conclusion, using scientific,
                                                                                                              technical and mathematical language, conventions
                                                                                                              and symbols and ICT tools

Lesson B2.34        3.18 Evaluate the evidence for the        Year 8 Explain how microorganisms can be used   HSW 4 There are some questions that science
                    claimed benefits of the use of            to produce a range of useful products, e.g.     cannot currently answer and some that science
Pro- and pre-
                    functional foods as part of a healthy     vinegar, yoghurt                                cannot address
biotics
                    diet, including:
                                                                                                              HSW 13 How and why decisions about science and
                    a) probiotics containing Bifidobacteria                                                   technology are made, including those that raise
                    and lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus                                                    ethical issues, and about the social, economic and
                                                                                                              environmental effects of such decisions
                    b) prebiotic oligosaccharides
                    c) plant stanol esters

				
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