Tourism Review Online Magazine - Destination Bavaria by milada


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Bavaria: Castles, Mountains and MuCh More

                           Beautiful castles, gardens,
                           parks, mountains – Bavaria in
                           Germany has it all. Discover the
                           Renaissance heritage of Augs-
                           burg, Regensburg’s Italian heart
                           and Dachau’s royal history.
                                                    DESTINATION   Bava r i a : C a s t l e s , mo u n t a i n s a n d m u c h mo r e

       experienCe BAvAriA And iTs world
              fAmous lAndmArks
Cities, culture, sports and leisure, holidays
with the whole family and much more – there
are many reasons to spend your holiday in

        hi-TeCh And TrAdiTions
  Laptop and lederhosen – this expression has
become very popular and refers to the suc-
cessful coexistence of the high-tech industry
alongside old Bavarian traditions and customs.
  Munich is the capital city of publishing houses
and other industries, like biotechnology, auto-
mobile industry, air and space travel (oberp-
faffenhofen) and is also home to renowned
universities – Bavaria holds a leading position
in many areas of business and education.
  For tourists from all over the world Bavaria is
the most popular destination in Germany. This
is due to its many attractions: world-famous
buildings like Neuschwanstein Castle, the
famous beer festival, the oktoberfest, and the
Hofbräuhaus in Munich, to mention but a few.
And also amongst German travelers Bavaria is
the most popular destination!

         CAsTles And pAlACes
  In Bavaria you will find the most impressive
castles, palaces and gardens of Germany. The

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                                                                         DESTINATION         Bava r i a : C a s t l e s , mo u n t a i n s a n d m u c h mo r e
                                                       When the Electorate Bavaria was appointed
                                                     kingdom of Bavaria in 1806, Bavaria started its
                                                     long journey into modern times. The success
                                                     of this journey is – among other reasons – the
                                                     result of the systematic support of science and
                                                     arts by king Ludwig I (1825-1848) and king
                                                     Maximilian II. (1848-1864). They invited art-
                                                     ists and scientists from all over Germany to
                                                     Bavaria, thus turning it into a center of culture
                                                     and science.
                                                       up to the second half of the 20th century,
                                                     Bavaria was an agricultural county. But even
                                                     in the 19th century the kings of Bavaria sup-
                                                     ported trade, craft and industry. Franconia was
                                                     the driving force of the industrialization and
most famous include the three royal castles          the first train in Germany went from Nurem-          Prizes, which have been awarded to Bavarian
of king Ludwig II, Neuschwanstein Castle, the        berg to Fürth in 1835. The first German hydro-       scientists, also proof this point.
palaces of Linderhof and Herrenchiemsee              power plant, built at the Walchensee in 1924,          Bavaria is also a country of culture. This is
(New Palace), the kaiserburg (Imperial Cas-          and the first research reactor, built in Garch-      stated in the Bavarian constitution and the Gov-
tle) Nuremberg and the Royal Residences in           ing (near Munich) in 1957, mark milestones on        ernment takes this task very seriously. opera
Munich and Wurzburg.                                 Bavaria’s way to a modern high-tech country          houses, theatres and museums are strongly
  The Prince Electors and kings of Bavaria have      with a massive export rate.                          supported and are internationally renowned.
built more than 45 castles, palaces and royal                                                               The Bavarian people can be proud of the
residences. The historic heritage also includes                    modern sTATe                           development of their country, which has seen
lavish royal gardens, palace gardens, parks and                                                           high achievements, ideas and commitment.
lakes. These unique examples of European               Today, the Free State of Bavaria is a prime        They can be proud of one of the most beauti-
architecture combined with decorative works          location for economy, science and technology,        ful holiday destinations in the world.
of art attract five million visitors per year from   and takes a leading position amongst Euro-
all over the world.                                  pean and global competitors. Several Nobel 

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                                                                      DESTINATION        Bava r i a : C a s t l e s , mo u n t a i n s a n d m u c h mo r e

    fAiry TAle CAsTles And pAlACes for
             kinGs And Queens
                                                                                                        known for its world renowned manufactur-
                                                                                                      ing (MAN, BMW, Audi, Siemens etc), Bavaria is
                                                                                                      also Germany’s leading tourism magnet, pulled
                                                                                                      off by great sceneries and historic monuments.
                                                                                                      Amongst them are 45 major castles, palaces,
                                                                                                      fortresses and residences standing against
                                                                                                      an Alpine background or being embedded by
                                                                                                      marvelous gardens, lakes and woodlands.
                                                                                                        At the southern terminus of the Romantic
                                                                                                      Road towers up Neuschwanstein castle. Ger-
                                                                                                      many’s leading landmark, standing next to
                                                                                                      Alpine lakes and Hohenschwangau castle, is
                                                                                                      the romantic interpretation of a fairy-tale like
                                                                                                      middle-age knight’s castle that was copied
                                                                                                      for Disneyland’s Sleeping Beauty Castle. Built
                                                                                                      by unfortunate king Ludwig II (1845-1886) at
                                                                                                      the foothill of southern Bavaria’s border with
                                                                                                      Austria in mid 19th century, the castle turned
                                                                                                      out just as a tourism hotspot immediately after
                                                                                                      the king’s mysterious death. Today, an annual
                                                                                                      stream of 1.3 million visitors pours in to get
                                                                                                      a glimpse of some few exotically decorated
  Neuschwanstein Castle
                                                                                                      rooms (Throne Room, Royal Suite, Singers'
                                                                                                      Hall, Grotto) and paintings paying homage to
                                                                                                      Richard Wagner.
The Free State of Bavaria is not only the larg-     tory. This has doubled since 1806, when the
est federal state of Germany (70,548 km2, 12.5      Holy Roman Empire ended and the regions of          Another royal castle is the secluded rococo
million inhabitants) and one of the oldest states   Franconia and Swabia were integrated. Since       villa Linderhof (1870-1874). Cloistered within
in Europe (history from a 6th century duchy to      then Bavaria extends from the Alps to the         prealpine mountains and wooded hunting
19th/20th century kingdom), but it is also the      river Main as a link between northwestern and     grounds, a peaceful garden delights with trick
most prosperous and attractive German terri-        southeastern Europe.                              fountains, grottoes and Moorish pavilions.

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                                                                        DESTINATION        Bava r i a : C a s t l e s , mo u n t a i n s a n d m u c h mo r e

  Further east, on a Chiemsee island contrasts
the impressive Herrenchiemsee castle. Lud-
wig II named his royal palace built in 1878 the
“Temple of Fame”, whose broad state staircase
leads up to the Great Hall of Mirrors and large
staterooms. outside, the castle opens to a
grandiose court garden that demonstrates the
absolute power of the monarch – a true “New
Versailles” after the example of the French
king Louis xIV.
  A lot more modest, but not less flamboyant,
appears the Royal Villa königshaus am Sch-
achen south of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, the
king’s hunting castle and mountain refuge. The
Swiss-style chalet 1866 m high, enchanted by
the Alpine backdrop, saw the eccentric king
attracted by the illusion of a far-away orient, as
he would dress up in Turkish costumes and lay
down on carpets and pillows, while smoking
water pipe and sipping on Mocha coffee with
his servants disguised as Muslims.
  Bavarian rulers have lived and reigned in the        Nymphenburg Castle
centrally located city castle of Munich. Today
the Münchner Residenz (“residence”) at the
end of the old town’s pedestrian zone is a             At the outskirts of old Munich flashes the       rock in Franconia. The striking landmark tow-
complex of six courtyards and museum with            amazing Nymphenburg castle, a royal summer         ers above Nürnberg, the modern center of
130 rooms. once in 14th century just a small         and later subsidiary residence. Built between      Middle-Franconia and medieval melting pot of
moated castle, it became in 1506 home of the         17th and 19th century in Italian baroque style     craftsmen, traders and inventors. The Imperial
Wittelsbach dynasty until the end of their reign     (Agostino Barelli) it has been surrounded by       Castle has been entirely preserved, including
in 1918.                                             a captivating French style park with artificial    the residential and state rooms in the Palas,
  In walking distance next to the famous Hof-        canals and spring fountains. Highlights are        the Sinwell (“round”) Tower, and the 14th cen-
bräuhaus (state-court brewery) one arrives at        therefore not only the massive Rococo-deco-        tury 47 m Deep Well, which in times of siege
the 750 years old former Imperial castle (alte       rated Great Hall ("Steinerner Saal"), but also     was the most important source of water for
Hofburg). It is one of Munich’s oldest architec-     the small park castles hidden in wild forests.     the castle.
tural monuments, where the house of Wittel-            outside pre-Napeolonian Bavaria, Emperor           Two other outstanding castles mark the cen-
sbach resided before their removal to the new        Frederic Barbarossa (122-1190) built an            ter of Lower-Franconia, the former bishop-
residence on the nearby more open ground.            impressive castle on an isolated sandstone         ric town of Würzburg and northern terminus

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                                                                            DESTINATION            Bava r i a : C a s t l e s , mo u n t a i n s a n d m u c h mo r e

                                                     most important baroque palaces in Europe
                                                     (uNESCo World Heritage). It was equipped with
                                                     an astounding staircase in the main entrance
                                                     hall that shows gigantic frescoes (1752/53)
                                                     by famous Venetian painter G. B. Tiepolo (the
                                                     “four continents”). other outstanding features
                                                     are the Court Chapel, the State Gallery with
                                                     Venetian art, and the Court Garden, one of the
                                                     finest for nature lovers.
                                                       At the Austrian border of southeastern
                                                     Bavaria there towers above the old town of
                                                     Burghausen (historic landing site of salt boats
                                                     arriving downstream the River Salzach from the
                                                     Austrian Alps) one of the largest castle com-
                                                     plexes in the world: the 1000 m long Burghau-
                                                     sen Castle, built in 1025 by the Wittelsbach rul-
                                                     ers on a rocky promontory. Modernized during
                                                     the 16th century threat of Turkish ottoman
                                                     Empire, the mighty gothic fortress with a defi-
                                                     ant Palas (ducal private rooms, chapel, knight’s
                                                     hall) and six courtyards (stables, brewery, bak-
                                                     ery, arsenal, Gunsmith Tower, Grain Tower,
                                                     St. Hedwig Chapel, buildings for officials and
                                                     craftsmen) was badly damaged during Napo-
                                                     leon wars. With them had come the end of a
                                                     unique fortress that once served as Bavaria’s
Herrenchiemsee Castle
                                                     second capital and bursary (1504-1802) living
                                                     from 12 market towns, 17 monasteries, 107
of the Romantic Road. on the site of a for-          parishes, 252 castles, 1920 villages, 4509 soli-
mer Celtic refuge (ca 1000 BC), Franconian-          tude farms … and thousands of craftsmen, who
Thuringian dukes had built a fortress (Festung)      deserve the great honor of builders of all castle
above the Main River in 8th century. 500 years       monuments we admire so much.
later it was turned into a fortified refuge castle
and in 17th century encircled with massive           By Dr. Engelbert Altenburger
bastions.                                            I-Shou University, ass. prof. at the Faculty of Interna-
  The habitual historic residence of the prince-     tional Business, Kaohsiung, Taiwan,
bishop across the river (Residenz) is one of the

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                                                                        DESTINATION        Bava r i a : C a s t l e s , mo u n t a i n s a n d m u c h mo r e

     dAChAu: The CiTy of BAvAriAn kinGs
Dachau is known around the world as a learn-
ing and memorial site, the city aims to coun-
teract its past falling into oblivion. At the same
time, the more than 1200 years old town is
famous for its amazingly diverse arts and cul-
tural scene, even beyond the region.
  on 15 August 805 the noble lady Erchana
from the comital family of the Aribones
donated her estate in (then so-called)
“Dahauua” to the diocese Freising. With the
deed of donation Dachau was mentioned
for the first time. It emerged at the crossway
between a wide swampland and wooded hill
country and was named “market” already in
1270. The advantageous location at the con-
necting from Munich to Augsburg brought
Dachau not only liberties and gains but also
war and misery. one of the worst periods for
the people of Dachau came during the Thirty
year’s War, when the market was sieged and
plundered by the Swedes.
  Towards the 19th century Dachau was dis-
covered by painters. They found many attrac-                                                                  Dachau traditional country-fair every August
tive natural motives in the marsh and swamp-
lands and by the beginning of the 20th century
Dachau was among the most famous artists’            nies, since they were not admitted at the State    tion camp in 1933 the reputable artist’s town
colonies besides Worpswede. The names of             Academy in Munich before 1926. Their works         became the epitome of the inhuman NS terror.
many famous artists are connected with the           are still on display today at Dachau’s Art Gal-    Today it is the town’s highest maxim to keep
town to this day, among them Carl Spitzweg,          lery and the town of Dachau is an actively par-    the memory of the events alive. The concen-
Max Liebermann, and Lovis Corinth.                   ticipating member of the association of Euro-      tration camp memorial site with museum and
  Particularly women increasingly discovered         pean artist colonies, EuroArt.                     archive contribute to this considerably, as do
the art of painting and participated in private        During World War I Dachau impoverished           the dialogues with contemporary witnesses,
painting classes offered by the artist’s colo-       and with the institution of the concentra-         the international youth meetings, an annual

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                                                                         DESTINATION          Bava r i a : C a s t l e s , mo u n t a i n s a n d m u c h mo r e

Dachau castle                                       View of Dachau’s Old Town and Town Hall situated on
                                                    the so called Karlsberg

symposium on contemporary history and               enced at the so called “Dachauer Volksfest”,
much more.                                          a traditional folk festival in August, renowned
  After World War II expellees from the eastern     not only for its low beer price.
provinces of Germany found a new home in              In recent years Dachau has been focus-
Dachau. Nowadays the greater district town of       ing increasingly on top range open-air events
Dachau counts more than 42 000 inhabitants.         during the annual “Dachauer Musiksommer“
It is not only a central European place of learn-   (June/July)."Jazz in allen Gassen"(jazz in all
ing and commemorating but also an important         alleys) or the famous “Baroque picnic” held
art – and cultural center in the metropolitan       in the courtyard of Dachau castle are fix high-
Munich area.                                        lights in Dachau's annual events calendar.
  Today Dachau, the former city of the Bavarian     Famous far beyond the city limits are also the
kings, beckons visitors to get to know the town     series of classical Dachau palace concerts each
with all its diversity: the summer residence of     year, with 6 concerts scheduled throughout
the House of Wittelsbach as well as the impor-      the year featuring world renowned orchestras
tant European artists’ colony at the turn of        and solo artists.
the 19th to the 20th century. Worth seeing            Dachau is conveniently reached by train or by
are the picturesque old Town with Art Gallery,      car from Munich within just 20 minutes. That
St. Jakob parish church and District Museum,        makes it an attractive day excursion as well.
among others. During the summertime, the
typical Bavarian atmosphere can be experi-

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                                                                         DESTINATION         Bava r i a : C a s t l e s , mo u n t a i n s a n d m u c h mo r e

           reGensBurG: younG, iTAliAn, And
             riGhT in The heArT of europe
It does lie a bit off the beaten track, it’s true.
yet, the city that was still “at the back of
beyond” until the 1980s is now right in the
heart of Europe. And a visit to the city that calls
itself Regensburg is certainly well worthwhile,
in particular because it lies in the centre of a
triangle that has Frankfurt, Munich and Prague
at its corners.
  Some people call Regensburg “Italy’s north-
ernmost city”, for others it is “Germany’s medi-
aeval miracle”. Both groups are right. It’s not
only the style of building that makes visitors
feel that they are in an almost Italian atmo-
sphere: the style of life enjoyed by the people
of Regensburg in the summer is also reminis-
cent of life in southern Europe.
  People here take every opportunity to orga-
nize a street festival, whether it features jazz or
the arts, a jubilee or local traditions. And the      a sleepy historical backwater today. In fact, it    old restaurant that stands beside the bridge, is
fact that Regensburg has more pubs per square         has 150,000 inhabitants and is now the fifth        the real symbol of Regensburg. The “Sausage
meter than any other town is easy to verify at        largest city in Bavaria. It not only has a young    kitchen’s” characteristic little sausages are
every turn – in the pavement cafés, pubs, res-        university with roughly 25,000 students but         reputed to have been served here with home-
taurants and the many shady beer-gardens.             is also an expanding economic centre provid-        made sauerkraut and sweet mustard for more
  Regensburg – which survived the Second              ing work for about 100,000 people each day,         than 850 years.
World War almost unharmed – presents itself           largely in very modern high-tech enterprises.         Regensburg’s Domspatzen, the world’s old-
to visitors today as the only almost intact           And which other city can offer a 330-meter-         est boys’ choir, are also frequently regarded as
mediaeval city in Germany, a place that once          long “icon”: the Romanesque stone bridge            being synonymous with the city. Georg Ratz-
counted among the greatest and richest urban          over the Danube?                                    inger, the brother of the present Pope, Bene-
centers in Europe. yet, despite its great past,         The locals, admittedly, would probably main-      dict xVI, was the director of the “Cathedral
2000-year-old Regensburg is by no means just          tain that the Historische Wurstkuchl, the little    Sparrows” for many years. The Pope himself

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                                                                        DESTINATION         Bava r i a : C a s t l e s , mo u n t a i n s a n d m u c h mo r e

has close connections with Regensburg. After
all, he was a professor at the university here
in the early days of his career and he still has
his private residence in a village on the edge of
  The best way of discovering the heart and soul
of Regensburg is to take part in a guided tour.
In the course of an entertaining, roughly two-
hour walk, visitors can become acquainted with
old buildings and historic events, dramatic inci-
dents and amusing anecdotes, hidden court-
yards, narrow alleyways. This is the best way
to begin to get to know the young and dynamic
city behind the ancient walls before taking the
initiative and – independently and brimming
with ideas – experiencing Regensburg more
intensively. A guided tour is, however, also the
ideal way to begin to find out what makes the
ancient place so youthful, and how the old and
new citizens of Regensburg enjoy their city and
the way of life here.
  yet Regensburg offers more than urban life,
since its attractions do not end at the city’s
boundaries. Being situated near the conflu-
ence of the rivers Regen, Naab and Laaber
with the river Danube, the cathedral city offers
not only the cultural amenities and hospitality       For the cyclist, particularly, there is lots to    ferred, through countryside that will challenge
to be found in a large urban centre, but also       choose from: apart from the famous Danube            even the fit sportsman. And only a relatively
opportunities for recreation and relaxation in      Cycle Path leading from the river’s source to        short distance from Regensburg, you can visit
the varied countryside of these river valleys.      far beyond Vienna, Regensburg is also the            the Bavarian Forest Nature Reserve and the
Whether you enjoy hiking or cycling, inline-        starting point for the Regen Valley Path leading     Danube Gorge near kelheim.
skating, mountain-biking, rock-climbing, row-       to the border of the Czech Republic. Alterna-
ing or canoeing, you can practice all these         tively, it’s possible to cycle along the Naab or     Photo credit: Regensburg Tourismus GmbH
sporting activities in the area immediately         the Laaber on a voyage of discovery through a        By Regensburg Tourismus GmbH
around Regensburg.                                  peaceful and picturesque landscape or, if pre-

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                                                                      DESTINATION          Bava r i a : C a s t l e s , mo u n t a i n s a n d m u c h mo r e

AuGsBurG: The CenTer of                                                                                 today its residents pay an annual rent of less
                                                                                                        than a dollar. of Augsburg's numerous glorious
                                                                                                        religious edifices, the Dom (Cathedral) with

 renAissAnCe in BAvAriA
                                                                                                        five windows of the oldest figured stained glass
                                                                                                        in Germany, St. ulrich-Münster and Protestant
                                                                                                        ulrichskirche constitute a splendid architec-
                                                  town. Augsburg's cityscape developed over             tural ensemble.
                                                  two millennia and was shaped by all the great           Concerts in splendid halls, opera and oper-
                                                  stylistic epochs. The Renaissance in particular       etta in open air theaters, art exhibitions, mag-
                                                  flourished here – and Rococo became known             nificent churches, the Fuggerei and the Schae-
                                                  as "the Augsburg style." Great buildings, mon-        zler Palace draw tourists from the entire world.
                                                  umental fountains, lavishly laid-out streets and
                                                  ultramodern architecture attest to the city's               museums And lAndmArks
                                                  cosmopolitan bounty.
                                                                                                          Maximilian Museum – cultural gems of the
                                                    Feel the overwhelming beauty of the Renais-         old trading town date from classical antiq-
                                                  sance, which is still very much alive here in         uity through the 20th century. The Römische
                                                  the majestic architecture of the monumental           Museum exhibits archaeological finds from the
                                                  Rathaus (City Hall), an imposing Renaissance          founding of the city at the time of Christ's birth,
                                                  masterpiece built 1615-20 by Elias Holl as an         and from later centuries when the Roman
                                                  expression of the Free Imperial City's civic          ruled the land.The Deutsche Barock-Galerie
                                                  pride.                                                in the Schaezler Palais, contains works of Ger-
                                                    Adjacent is the Perlachturm, the tower from         man old Masters, among them Hans Holbein
                                                  which one enjoys an impressive panoramic
Two thousand years of glorious history have       view of the city's architectural gems.
sculpted the face of Augsburg, where past eras      The magnificent Augustusbrunnen fountain                  Tourist numbers Growing fast
come alive. Follow the trail of the Romans,       was erected in honor of the Roman Emperor                 Even though the tourist numbers for city tours
whose Emperor Augustus had the city founded       from whom the city derives its name. It is only           in Germany recorded two-digit growth in 2010,
to immortalize his fame. Immerse yourself in      one of many Renaissance fountains which sur-              Augsburg even tops by far the other major cit-
the world of the powerful Fugger and Welser                                                                 ies like Berlin and Munich. The official statistics
                                                  vived intact. Maximilian Street, framed by the            shows an 18.8 % growth in arrivals and even
families, who made medieval Augsburg a            historic façades of stately patrician homes,              23.10 % in overnight stays for Augsburg. In
nexus of the Holy Roman Empire and a home         attests to the city's affluence in the days of the        comparison Berlin recorded growth of 11.7%
to famous artists.                                famous Fugger and Welser merchant dynas-                  respectively 14.2 % and Munich registered
                                                  ties.                                                     11.9% respectively 12.6 %. This massive gain in
            The oldesT CiTy                                                                                 overnight stays is due to two new hotels offer-
                                                    The Fuggerei, built by Jacob Fugger the Rich,           ing in total 400 beds.
  Founded by the Romans in 15 BC it is the old-   banker to kings and emperors, is the world's    
est city in Bavaria and second oldest German      oldest social settlement for the poor. Even

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                                                                     DESTINATION        Bava r i a : C a s t l e s , mo u n t a i n s a n d m u c h mo r e

the Elder, Hans Burgkmair, Lucas Cranach         writer's Augsburg years. The Naturmuseum
and Albrecht Dürer. The Maximilian Museum        exhibits flora and fauna of the Alpine foothills
helps visitors trace the history of Augsburg.    dating back 8-12 million years, while insights
Also featured are numerous exhibits from         into the expanses of the universe are gained in
the era of the city's great silver- and gold-    the Planetarium. The Stadttheater is a mecca
smith masters.                                   for music and theater lovers. Widely acclaimed
  The Leopold Mozart Family Memorial             are performances of opera and operetta in the
reminds us that the great Wolfgang Amadeus       Freilichtbühne (open air theater).
had forefathers from the region. Represent-
ing literature is Bertolt Brecht. The memorial
in his name houses a documentation of the

march, 2011                                                         — 64 —

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