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CNS Hemangioma

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1. Classify paediatric brain tumors and describe their imaging features in detail.

2. Classify and enumerate different supratentorial tumours in adults. Describe in detail
the imaging features of Glial tumours.

3. Enumerate posterior fossa tumours occurring in children and in adults. Discuss in
detail the imaging features of infratentorial tumours in paediatric age group.

4. What are the causes of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Discuss the imaging and
management in a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

5. Describe the imaging anatomy of craniovertebral junction. Describe the role of
imaging in craniovertebral junction pathologies.

6. Describe the anatomy of sella and para sellar regions. Enumerate different tumors
in this region and describe in detail imaging features of craniopharyngioma and its
differential diagnosis?

7. What is Phakomatosis? Enumerate the various conditions in this group and
describe the imaging features of Neurofibromatosis.

8. Describe in detail imaging in cranio -cerebral trauma.

9. Describe the vascular territories of brain on cross sectional imaging. Discuss the role
of imaging in ischemic stroke?

10. Describe the development of embryological development of spinal cord. Classify
Congenital anomalies of spine and discuss in detail occult spinal dysraphism?

11. Classify spinal tumours. How will you localize an intra spinal mass on imaging.
Discuss differential diagnosis and imaging features of extradural spinal tumour.

12. Classify various orbital mass lesions. Describe the imaging features of orbital mass

13. Enumerate the causes of non traumatic intra axial hemorrhage. Describe in detail
their CT & MRI imaging features?

14. Discuss the imaging features and diagnosis of inherited white matter diseases
15. Enumerate the causes of acute paraplegia. Discuss the imaging of infections
involving the spine.

16. Discuss differential diagnosis of various space occupying lesions of the CP

17. Describe the differential diagnosis in a patient presenting with unilateral proptosis.

18. Enumerate intraventricular masses in children and discuss their imaging features.

19. Enumerate and discuss the imaging features of intraventricular masses in adults

20. Discuss in detail the imaging of various intracranial vascular malformations.

21. Enumerate and discuss posterior fossa malformations.

22. Classify and describe various intracranial aneurysms.

23. Enumerate major apertures of skull base and discuss their location, transmitted
Structures through them and their connects. Describe the imaging features of various
anterior skull base lesions.

24. How will you differentiate intraaxial from extraaxial mass on imaging. Discuss the
various extraaxial tumours in adults.

26. Discuss the role of imaging in temporal bone pathologies.

27. Describethe role of imaging in seizures in paediatric age group.

28. Discuss imaging anatomy of the sinonasal region. Describe the role of imaging in
    planning endoscopic sinus surgery. Discuss the imaging of fungal sinusitis.

29. Give a schematic overview of the anatomy of visual pathway and the field defects
caused by lesions in varios locations along the pathway. Discuss the various causes of
visual loss resulting from lesions along the visual pathway.

30. Describe in detail the role of imaging in degenerative disease of the spine. Briefly
discuss imaging in post operative spine.

31. Discuss the role of Neurosonography in neonates.

32. Discuss the role of a radiologist in management of carotid and vertebral artery

33. Describe the imaging anatomy of the middle ear with its relations. Elaborate in detail
   the imaging of tinnitus using various imaging modalities.
34. Discuss the role of imaging in thyroid gland disorders.

35. Describe the role of imaging in pineal region tumours.

36. Discuss the imaging approach to various causes of ring enhancing lesions of the

37. Discuss the role of imaging in infections and infestations of the adult brain.

38. Neuroimaging in AIDS


  1. Neurotuberculosis
  2. Neurocysticercosis
  3. Intramedullary tumours of spinal cord
  4. Venous drainage of brain
  5. Multiple sclerosis
  6. Sturge weber syndrome
  7. Tuberous sclerosis
  8. Intradural exramedullary spinal tumours
  9. Craniosynostosis
  10. Raised intracranial tension
  11. Corpus callosum agenesis
  12. Holoprosencepaly
  13. Schizencephaly
  14. When is CT more appropriate than MRI in neuro imaging
  15. Grey Scale ultrasound imaging of posterior segment of eye
  16. Cerebral herniations
  17. Venous Infarct
  18. Cerebral edema
  19. Post meningitis sequelae
  20. Vertebral hemangioma
  21. Chordoma
  22. Optic nerve meningioma
  23. Thyroid ophthalmopathy
  24. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy
  25. Herpes encephalitis
  26. CNS infections in newborn
  27. Atherosclerotic plaque assessment
  28. Mucocele of Paranasal sinus
  29. Juvenile angiofibroma
  30. Carotid and vertebral artery dissection
  31. MRI findings in intracerebral hemorrhage
  32. Diastometamyelia
  33. Adrenoleukodystrophy (AL)
  34. Metachromatic leukodystrophy
  35. MR features in Parkinsonism
  36. Normal pressure hydrocephalus
  37. ADEM
  38. Pulsatile tinnitus
  39. Infundibular masses
  40. Vein of galen malformation
  41. Cavernous angioma
  42. Migration anomalies of the brain.
43. Arnold chairi malformation
44. Retinoblastoma
45. Transcranial Doppler
46. Moya Moya disease
47. Mesial temporal sclerosis
48. MR imaging in spinal trauma
49. MR venography of brain
50. Lissencephaly
51. Septo-Optic dysplasia
52. Unilateral Megalencephaly
53. Non accidental cranio cerebral trauma in children
54. Orbital pseudotumour
55. Arachnoid cyst
56. Epidermoid
57. Dandy walker malformation
58. Cystic malformation of posterior fossa
59. Imaging in otitis media
60. Neurofibromatosis type II
61. Osmotic demyelination
62. Hypertensive encephalopathy
63. CNS sarcoidosis
64. Atypical meningioma
65. Craniopharyngioma
66. Medulloblastoma
67. DNET (Dysembroyoplastic Neuro epithelial tumour)
68. Oligodendroglioma
69. Gliomatosis Cerebri
70. Pituitary microadenoma
71. Imaging subarachnoid haemorrhage
72. Lacunar infarcts
73. Spinal vascular malformations
74. Herpes simplex encephalitis
75. Cerebritis and cerebral abscess
76. CNS fungal infection
77. Toxoplasmosis
78. Carotico cavernous fistula
79. Leukocoria
80. Sacro coccygeal teratoma
81. CNS Lymphoma
82. Cerebral metastases
83. Esthesioneuroblastoma
84. Acoustic neuroma
85. Pituitary macroadenoma
86. Caudal regression syndrome
87. Lumbar spinal stenosis
88. Basal ganglia hyperintensity
89. MR Diffusion and perfusion imaging in cerebral ischemia
90. Differential diagnosis of T2W hyperintensity in the Pons.
91. Cholesteatoma
92. Neurofibromatosis I.
93. Radio-isotops in thyroid disorders.
94. Whiplash injury.
95. Intraocular tumours.
96. Basilar invagination and basilar impression.
97. Solitary thyroid nodule.

Major questions

   1. Describe the calcium metabolism and discuss radiological changes in

   2. Discuss etiopathogenesis and imaging appearances in Avascular necrosis of
      femoral head.

   3. Classify bone tumours. Discuss the radiological approach in diagnosing bone
      tumours. Discuss in detail various types of osteosarcomas.

   4. What are the causes of hip pain in early childhood? Discuss the imaging findings
      in congenital dislocation of hip/Developmental dysplasia of hip.

   5. Discuss the role of Radionuclide scan in evaluation of a skeletal lesion

   6. What are the seronegative arthropathies? Discuss in detail their Radiological

   7. Discuss the imaging features of skeletal tuberculosis

   8. What are the causes of soft tissue ossification and calcification. Describe the
      radiological features of the various causes

   9. What are the various crystal deposition diseases. Discuss their imaging features.

   10. Discuss the differential diagnosis of a expanding lesion at the end of a long bone.

   11. Role of MRI in evaluation of ligamental and meniscal injury of the knee.

   12. Discuss Vitamin D metabolism – Describe role of imaging in Vit D deficiency

   13. Discuss various bone tumours of the vertebral column.

   14. What are the different types of periosteal reactions? Discuss the imaging
       features of osteomyelitis.

   15. Discuss the role of imaging in the pathologies of the shoulder joint.

   16. Discuss the role of imaging in evaluation of chondrogenic bone tumours.
17. Discuss the role of antenatal sonography in evaluation of the fetal skeletal
    system. Describe the features of various lethal skeletal dysplasias.

18. What is the imaging approach to a case of monoarthritis. Describe in detail
    individual conditions that can present with monoarthritis.

20. Discuss the role of imaging in spinal trauma.
                                      BONES (2009)


1. Differential diagnosis of expanding lesions of mandible
2. Pyknodysostosis
3. Benign cartilaginous bone tumours
4. Paget’s disease of bone
5. Sero negative spondyloarthropathies
6. Acro-oteolysis
7. Osteoid osteoma
8. Sclerosing bone displasias
9. Atlantoaxial dislocation
10. Degenerative disc disease
11. Metastatic osseous disease
12. Solid/continous periosteal reaction
13. Fluorosis
14. Marfan’s syndrome
15. Isotopes in bone imaging
16. Perthe’s disease
17. Atypical osteosarcoma
28. Renal rickets
29. Pigmented villonodular synovitis
30. Chondrosarcoma
31. Fractures of craniovertebral junction
32. Rib notching
33. Ankylosing spondylitis
34. Hypertrophic osteo arthropathy
35. Osteoporosis
36. Osteopetrosis
37. Achondroplasia
38. Neuropathic joints
39. Giant Cell Tumor
40. Histiocytosis
41. Scurvy
42. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperosteosis
43. Discal calcification
44. Enchondroma
45. Developmental dysplasia of hip
46. Cleidocranial dysplasia
47. Osteogenesis imperfecta
48. Fibrous dysplasia
49. Diaphyseal Achalasis
50. Morquio’s disease
51. Down’s syndrome
52. Osteomyelitis in infants
53. Brodie’s abscess
54. Congenital syphillis
55. Caffey’s disease
56. Early radiographic findings in Rheumatoid arthritis
57. Psoriatic arthritis
58. Reiter’s syndrome
59. Interrupted perioteal reaction
60. Anterior knee pain
61. Osteoarthritis
62. Gout
63. Osteoblastoma
64. Conventional osteosarcoma
65. Osteochondroma
66. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst
67. Hemangioma of bone
68. Solitary bone cyst
69. Ewing’s sarcoma
70. Adamantinoma
71. Thalassemia
72. Sickle cell anaemia
73. Skeletal manifestation of leukemia
74. Primary bone lymphoma
75. Hemophilia
76. Radiological features of Hyperparathyroidism
79. Radiological Features of Hypothyroidism
77. Myositis ossificans
78. Salter Harris fractures
79. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
80. Renal osteodystrophy
83. Pyogenic and tuberculous osteomyelitis in the spine
84. Septic arthritis
86. MRI in intervertebral disc prolapse.
87. MRI in avascular necrosis of hip.
88. MRI in cruciate ligament tear
89. Spinal tuberculosis
90. Discoid Meniscus
91. Synovial osteochondromatosis.
92. Metaphyseal lucent bands.
93. Metaphyseal dense bands
94. Erlenmeyer flask deformity
95. Bone infarct
96. Maffucci syndrome
97. Role of CT in faciomaxillary trauma
98. MRI in meniscal injuries
99. Carpal tunnel syndrome
100.Radiography in shoulder dislocation
101.Radiography in Cervical spine trauma
102.Ivory vertebra
104.Plasma cell disorders
106.Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
107.Reflex symphathetic dystrophy syndrome
111. Radiography In Assessment Of Wrist Pathologies
112. Role of skeletal radiography in age estimation.
113. MR imaging of the spinal bone marrow.


1. How as a Radiologist do you approach a suspected case of congenital heart
   disease. Discuss in detail various cyanotic congenital heart diseases.

2. Discuss coronary artery anatomy and its congenital variations. Elaborate on the
   role of computed tomography in assessment of coronary artery disease.

3. Briefly describe the pulmonary arterial anatomy. Discuss in detail the role of a
   Radiologist in management of a suspected case of pulmonary thromboembolism.

4. Discuss the role of a Radiologist in management of a case presenting to the ER
   with suspected acute condition of the aorta.

5. Discuss the principles, techniques, advantages, limitations and complications of
   catheter angiography.

6. Discuss the role of MDCT in evaluation of a elderly patient presenting to the ER
   with acute chest pain.

7. Briefly describe the embryological development of the heart. Discuss the imaging
   features of Acyanotic congenital heart disease.

8. Discuss the principles, techniques, advantages, limitations of CTA and MRA

9. Discuss the role of a radiologist in management of a patient with vascular
   claudicating pain.

1. Cardiac and pericardiac calcification

2. Pulmonary stenosis

3. Cardiac tumours

4. Ebsten’s anomaly.

5. Ultrasound and colour Doppler features of DVT

6. Ventricular aneurysm

7. Role of Radio isotope in pulmonary embolism

8. Ultrasound in peripheral vascular disease

9. Mitral valvular disease

10. Anomalies of aortic arch and its major branches.

11. Radio-isotopes in cardiac imaging

12. Imaging of non – neoplastic pericardial disease

13. Fetal circulation

14. Left to right shunts

15. Pulmonary venous hypertension

16. Cardiogenic Vs non-Cardiogenic pulmonary edema

17. Acute and chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension

18. Thoracic aortic aneurysm

19. Radiography in cardiomegaly and individual chamber enlargement.

20. Pre operative assessment of A.V. fistula

21. Imaging in cardiomyopathies

22. Coronary artery anomalies
23. Co-arctation of aorta

24. Normal pericardial anatomy

25. Embolic agents

26. Subclavian steal syndrome

27. Lower limb varicose veins

28. Total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage.

29. Tetralogy of Falot

30. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage.

31. VSD

32. ASD

33. Aorto-arteritis.

34. Aortic dissection
BREAST (2009)

 1. Discuss the role of a Radiologist in management of palpable and non palpable

    breast lesions utilizing X-ray mammography and sonomammography.

 2. Discuss the differential diagnosis of an incidentally discovered breast lump and
    the different modes of investigation you will adopt to arrive at a provisional

 3. Breast calcifications: Mammographic evaluation
                               SHORT NOTES

 1. Benign calcifications / Calcifications in benign breast disease4

2. Mammograpic (views) projections


2. Calcifications in malignant breast disease

3. Pre-operative localization of non palpable breast disease.

4. Benign breast masses

5. Mammographic signs of malignancy

6. Sonomammography

7. Benign breast conditions that mimic malignancy

8. Microcalcifications in mammography

9. Cystic lesions of the breast

10.   Post operative breast imaging
                                      GIT 2009


  1. Describe barium swallow examination. Discuss the imaging approach to an
     elderly patient presenting with dysphagia.

  2. Discuss the role of a radiologist in management of jaundice in an adult patient.

  3. Discuss the role of imaging in gastrointestinal obstruction in neonatal and
     pediatric age group.

  4. Classify pancreatic neoplasms. Discuss the role of imaging in evaluation of
     these tumours.

  5. Discuss the role of an interventional radiologist in hepatic and biliary disease.

  6. Enumerate the causes of upper GI tract bleeding. How will you approach to
     investigate and manage a case of hematemesis.

  7. Discuss the role of a radiologist in a 40 yr old male patient presenting to the ER
     with acute abdominal pain in the right hypochondrium & epigastrium.

  8. Discuss the role of Radiologist in a 35 yr old female presenting with lower
     abdominal pain.

  9. Discuss the principle, technique & utility of various imaging modalities with
     special emphasis on enteroclysis in evaluation of the small bowel. Discuss in
     detail malabsorption syndrome.

  10. Discuss the role of imaging in evaluation of pediatric abdominal masses.

  11. Enumerate the causes of lower GIT bleed and discuss the role of Radiology in
      evaluation and management of lower GI bleed.

  12. Discuss the principles, technique and utility of various imaging modalities in
    evaluation of large bowel. Discuss role of imaging in evaluation of inflammatory
    diseases of the colon.

  13. Discuss the role of imaging in hepatic tumours in adults.

  14. Imaging assessment and management of Pancreatitis.
15. Discuss the cross sectional anatomy of retro peritoneum and describe in detail
    primary retroperitoneal tumors.

16. Enumerate pre-malignant conditions of GIT. Describe imaging features of small
    and large bowel malignancies

17. Discuss the technique of barium meal examination. Describe radiological and
    imaging features of gastric pathologies.

18. Discuss the role of Imaging in a case of blunt abdominal trauma.

19. Describe imaging appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

20. Discuss the Imaging of intestinal obstruction in adults.

21. Describe the blood supply of the large and small intestine. Discuss the role of a
    radiologist in evaluation and management of a suspected case of bowel

22. Discuss the imaging in a case with suspected acute appendicitis.

23. Describe embryology of gut rotation and fixation. Discuss the differential
    diagnosis of a neonate with bilious vomiting.

24. Discuss the role of imaging in upper GI obstruction in pediatric age group.

25. Describe the anatomy of pancreas. Discuss imaging in pancreatic islet cell

26. Discuss the role of Ultrasound and CT diffuse liver disease.

27. Plain radiography in evaluation of acute abdomen.

28. Discuss the imaging of abdominal lymphoma.

29. Discuss the imaging approach in a 50 year old male presenting with right iliac
    fossa mass.


 1. Pharmacoradiology in the Gastrointestinal tract
 2. Inflammatory fatty masses of the abdomen
 3. Radiological interventions of the hollow viscera
 4. Gastro intestinal scintigraphy
 5. Endoscopic ultrasound
 6. Coeliac plexus block
 7. CT colonography
 8. Ultrasonography in evaluation of Gall bladder
 9. Choledochal cyst
 10. Budd chiari syndrome
 11. Hiatus Hernia
 12. Ultrasonography in jaundice.
  14. Barium enema technique and findings in colonic malignancy.
 13. Cystic lesions of liver
 14. Cystic neoplasms of pancreas
 15. Sialography
 16. Cystic lesions of jaw
 17. Mechanical small bowel obstruction
 18. CT Imaging of acute pancreatitis
 19. Oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula
 20. Pre-malignant conditions of the intestine.
 21. Ulcerative colitis
 22. Benign gastric tumors
 23. Radio-isotopes in Hepatobiliary diseases
 24. Ultrasound in evaluation of bowel diseases
 25. Ileocaecal tuberculosis
 26. Ultrasonography in abdominal tuberculosis
 27. Ultrasound and Doppler sonography in portal hypertension.
 28. Ultrasound imaging of appendicitis
29. Anorectal malformation
30. Pheochromocytoma
31. Gastric ulcer
32. Achalasia cardia
33. Meconium ileus
34. Superior mesentric artery syndrome
35. Gastrointestinal manifestations of AIDS
36. Oesophageal Diverticuli.
37. Megacolon
38. Ultrasound in liver abscess
39. Pneumobilia
40. Splenic masses
41. Meckel’s diverticulum
42. Malrotation of the intestine
43. Biliary strictures
44. Intussusception
45. Oesophageal varices
46. Haemangioma of the liver
47. Neuro enteric cyst
48. Normal and abnormal extrinsic impressions on a esophagogram.
49. Gastric volvulus
50. Crohn’s Colitis
51. Lymphoma of the GIT
52. Pneumoperitoneum
53. Gastric leiomyoma
54. Duodenal tumours
55. Barium findings in coeliac disease
56. Hirschprung’s disease
57. Intramural air in G.I.T.
58. Subphrenic abscess
59. CT Imaging of hepatocellular Carcinoma
60. Imaging of Cholangio Carcinoma
61. Liver metastasis
 62. Hepatic hydatid disease
 63. Ultrasound in pancreatitis
 64. Pancreatic pseudocyst
 65. Biliary atresia
 66. Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
 67. Sigmoid volvulus
 81. Cholecystitis
 68. Development of pancreas and its developmental anomalies.
 69. Gastrooesophageal junction.
 70. Necrotising enterocolitis
 71. Segmental anatomy of liver and its importance
 72. Vascular complications of pancreatitis
 73. Endocrine tumours of pancreas
 74. Syndromes with GIT polyposis.
 75. Retroperitoneal Fibrosis.
 76. MRI in liver masses
 77. Hepatic masses of childhood.
 78. Small bowel neoplasms
 95. Role of Angiography in lower G.I tract bleeding
 96. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
 97. TACE.
 98. Adenomyomatosis of the gall bladder
100. Carcinoid tumour
101.Internal abdominal Hernias
105.Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
106. CT & PET-CT in oesophageal carcinoma
107. Motility disorder of oesophagus
108. Barium preparations for GIT studies
109. Hypotonic duodenography
110. Enteroclysis
112. Radionuclide imaging of GIT
114. Alimentary tract manifestations of systemic sclerosis
115. CT colonography
116. Diverticular disease of colon
117. Fistula – in – ano
118. Peritoneal neoplastic disease
120. Meconeum ileus
121. MDCT Protocol of evaluation of liver
123. Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH)
124. Hepatic adenoma
127. Portal hypertension
128. Imaging in hepatic trauma
129. Imaging in splenic trauma.
131. PTC
132. Primary sclerosing cholangitis
133. Percutaneous liver tumour ablation
135. CT severity index in acute pancreatitis
136. MRCP
137. Radiology of the post operative stomach
138.Neonatal Jaundice.
                              RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


  1. Discuss the imaging of cystic and cavitating lesions of the lung
  2. Classify mediastinal masses and discuss the imaging findings of anterior
     mediastinal masses

  3. Briefly mention the causes of respiratory distress in newborn. Discuss their
     imaging findings in detail.

  4. Classify the tumors of lung. Discuss the imaging features and staging of
     bronchogenic carcinoma

  5. Describe the technical aspects of HRCT of the lung. Describe the imaging
     features of collagen vascular diseases in lung.

  6. Discuss the imaging in occupational lung diseases.

  7. Discuss the pre and postnatal imaging features of congenital lung diseases

  8. Discuss the anatomy of diaphragm and normal variation. Discuss the imaging
     findings of diaphragm and related pathologies

  9. Describe mediastinal anatomy. Discuss the imaging findings in posterior
     mediastinal mass.

  10. Discuss in detail the imaging manifestations of AIDS in the chest.

  11. Describe the mechanism and causes of lung collapse. Discuss the imaging of
      various pattern of lung collapse.

  12. Discuss the imaging findings of various lesions involving the ribs

  13. Describe the radiological anatomy of hypopharynx and larynx and discuss the
      role of imaging in assessment of laryngeal pathologies.

  14. How will you approach a case of solitary pulmonary nodule?

  15. Discuss the anatomy of secondary pulmonary lobule. Discuss the pattern of
      interstitial lung diseases on HRCT and briefly discuss their differential diagnosis.

  16. Imaging of the pleural and chest wall pathologies
  17. Discuss the imaging of various interstitial pneumonias on HRCT.

  18. Thoracic imaging in intensive care patient.
                             RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

  1. Wegener’s granulomatosis
  2. Thoracic manifestations of histocytosis
  3. Lung changes in mitral stenosis
  4. Unilateral opaque hemithorax
  5. Ventillation perfusion studies by Radionuclide scanning
  6. Pulmonary sarcoidosis
  7. Fungus ball and its differential diagnosis.
  8. Lymphangitis carcinomatosis
  9. Fine needle aspiration of lung lesion
  10. Metastatic lung lesion
  11. Radiological anatomy of bronchopulmonary segments
  12. Superior sulcus tumours
  13. Bronchogenic cyst
  14. Pneumomediastinum
  15. Mc Leod’s syndrome
  16. Agenesis of lung
  17. Alveolar Microlithiasis
  18. Round atelectasis
  19. Sub pulmonic effusion
  20. Bilateral upper lobe fibrosis of the lung
  21. Cystic adenomatoid malformations
  22. Scimitar syndrome
  23. Congenital lobar emphysema
  24. Mediastinal lymphnodes and lymphatic drainage of the lungs
  25. Mediastinal lines & stripes
  26. Diaphragmatic hernias
  27. Pneumothorax
  28. Thymic tumours
  29. Neuroenteric cyst
  30. Broncho alveolar carcinoma
  31. Lung abscess
  32. Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia
  33. Hydatid cyst in lung
  34. Bronchiectasis
  35. Asbestosis
  36. Pulmonary odema
  37. Rheumatoid lung
  38. Silicosis
  39. Radiation pneumonitis
  40. Coal workers pneumoconiosis.
  41. Bacterial pneumonias in adults
  42. Respiratory distress Syndrome.
  43. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.
  44. Bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
45. Pulmonary hamartoma.
46. Cystic mediastinal tumours
47. Cystic fibrosis
48. Duplication cyst
49. Fibrosing mediastinitis
50. Germ cell tumours of mediastinum
51. Hiatus hernia
52. Pleural tumours
53. Viral pneumonias
54. Empyema thoracic
55. Primary pulmonary tuberculosis
56. Post primary tuberculosis
57. CT in evaluation of tracheo bronchial disease
58. Emphysema
59. BOOP
60. Bronchial carcinoid
61. Systemic sclerosis
62. Drug induced lung disease
63. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
64. Diaphragmatic rupture
65. Bronchopleural fistula
66. Intravascular catheters in chest
67. Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage
68. Bronchial artery embolisation
69. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
70. Oesophageal atresia and trachea oesophageal fistula
71. Ultrasound in assessment of chest diseases
72. Pulmonary sarcoidosis
73. Pulmonary sequestration
74. CT bronchoscopy and its utility
75. Rheumatoid lung disease
76. Injuries to the lung
77. Imaging in thymic lesions
78. Eventration of the diaphragm
79. Pulmonary infarction
80. Fungal diseases of the lung
                             GENITOURINARY TRACT (GUT)


   1. Discuss the embryology and congenital anomalies of the kidney, ureter,
      bladder and urethra. Discuss the role of imaging in their evaluation.

   2. Classify renal tumours in adults. Describe in detail imaging findings in
      malignant renal tumours.

   3. Discuss role of Radiologist in evaluating suspected case of hypertension of
      renal origin.

   4. Discuss imaging of hypertension in a young adult.

   5. Imaging in Renal transplantation.

   6. What are the causes of hematuria? Describe the imaging approach in a case
      of hematuria.

   7. Imaging approach in evaluation of a mass in the lumbar region in neonatal and
      pediatric age group.

   8. Imaging approach in evaluation of a mass in the lumbar region in adults.

   9. Discuss the evaluation of renal cystic lesions and cystic diseases of the kidney.

   10. Describe radiology and Imaging features in tuberculosis of genito urinary tract.

   11. What are the categories of renal injury. Discuss the role of Radiologist in
       evaluation and management of Renal trauma.

   12. Discuss the role of radiology in imaging and management of female infertility

   13. Describe the types of IUGR. Discuss the role of Radiologist in evaluation of

   14. Classify ovarian tumours. Discuss the role of imaging in ovarian tumours.

   15. Discuss the role of ultrasound in congenital anomalies of brain, GIT and GUT in
       antenatal examinations of a pregnant woman.

   16. Enumerate renal masses in children. Describe in detail the radiological and
       imaging features of Wilm’s tumour
17. Describe the radiological and imaging approach in male infertility

18. Describe the embryology of the female genital tract. Discuss the imaging of
    mullerian duct anomalies.

19. Discuss imaging of adnexal masses.

20. Describe ultrasound features of first trimester pregnancy. Enumerate the
    causes of bleeding in first trimester and discuss their imaging features

21. Role of ultrasound in first trimester of pregnancy

22. Describe the role of imaging in Acute pelvic pain in females

23. Role of CT & MRI in gynaecological malignancies

24. Enumerate the causes and discuss the role of imaging in urinary tract

25. Discuss the imaging features of infective diseases of the kidney

26. Ultrasonography of the scrotum: Discuss the anatomy and pathologic entities

27. Discuss the imaging of placenta

28. Classify adrenal lesions. Discuss the role of CT & MR in evaluation of adrenal

29. Describe the role of radionuclide studies in urinary system

30. Sonographic markers of chromosomal anomalies

1. Renal cyst
2. Anatomy of male urethra & ASU
3. Infantile polycystic disease of kidneys
4. Nephrocalcinosis
5. Vesicular mole
6. Papillary necrosis
7. Posterior urethral valve
8. Vesico ureteral reflux
9. Percutaneous nephrostomy
10. Pelvimetry
11. Prune belly syndrome
12. Fetal viability in first trimester
13. Hysterosalphingography
14. Pseudotumours of kkidney
15. Horse-Shoe kidney
16. Neurogenic bladder
17. Retroperitoneal fibrosis
18. Phaeochromocytoma
19. Acute pyelonephritis
20. Chronic pyelonephritis
21. Renal vein thrombosis
22. Pelviureteric junction obstruction
23. Ureteric stricture
24. Filling defect in the urinary bladder
25. Medullary sponge kidney
26. Ureterocoele
27. Varicocoele
28. Retrocaval ureter
29. Role of CT in adrenal tumours
30. Imaging in lower urinary tract obstruction
31. Adenomyosis
32. Sonohysterography
33. Unilateral large kidney
34. Fibromuscular dysplasia of renal artery
35. Zonal anatomy of prostate
36. Role of USG and colour Doppler in renal failure
37. Imaging of intrauterine foetal death
38. Polycystic ovarian disease
39. Imaging of uterine fibroid
40. Epispadias exstrophy complex
41. Radionuclide imaging of urinary tract
42. Hypersecretion disorders of supra renals.
43. Endometriosis
44. Sonography in bleeding in first trimester
45. Merits and demerits of captopril renogram in renovascular hypertension
46. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis
47. Renal angiomyolipoma
48. Doppler finding in renal artery stenosis
49. Benign tumours of kidney
50. Alimentary tract anomalies diagnosable in utero
51. Polyhydraminos
52. Testicular tumours
53. Acute scrotum
54. Neuroblastoma
55. CT in renal infections
56. Erectile dysfunction
57. Ovarian dermoid
58. 99-Tc DTPA
59. Role of sonography in transplant kidney
60. Renal rickets
61. Extra-uterine pregnancy
62. P N D T Act
63. Placenta praevia & Abruptio placenta
64. MR in Carcinoma cervix
65. Abnormal uterine bleeding in peri and post menopausal women
66. Gestational trophoblastic disease
67. MRI in evaluation of uterine anomalies
68. Imaging in chronic pelvic pain in a adult female
69. Adrenal adenoma
70. Adrenal incidentiloma
71. Biophysical profile
72. Urachal anomalies
73. Fallopian tube recanalisation
74. Sonography in placenta
75. Imaging of placenta
76. Imaging of cervix in pregnancy
77. Abdominal wall defects in fetus
78. CT & MR Urography
79. Imaging of donor transplant kidney
80. MIBG scan
81. Multicystic dysplastic kidney
82. Ovarian torsion
83. Adrenal haemorrhage
84. Antenatal assessment of fetal lung masses and mass like lesions
85. Role of unenhanced CT in acute abdomen
86. MCU
87. Emphysematous Pylonephritis
88. Multilocular cystic renal neoplasm
89. Wilm’s tumour
100.Sonographic markers of Down syndrome
102.Ovarian follicular monitoring
103.MRI technique and normal anatomy of the uterus.
                                  BASIC SCIENCES
 1. Classify intravenous contrast media. What are the advantages of newer
    generation of contrast media. Discuss their adverse reactions.
 2. Describe the basic construction of a Xray tube and its recent advances.
 3. Describe in detail the constituent of developer and fixer used in manual
    processing. Explain the formation of radiographic image on a film
 4. What is an image intensifier. Draw a diagram and write in detail its construction
    and uses in radiology
 5. Enumerate factors affecting radiographic image quality. How will you improve
    radiographic image quality.
 6. What is maximum permissible dose? Describe the methods of radiation
    protection to the patient and staff in diagnostic radiology.
 7. Describe in detail the structure and principle of Intensifying screen. Discuss the
    newer phosphor technology.
 8. Discuss the principle of acoustics applicable to ultrasound imaging. Describe in
    brief the construction of transducers used in real time ultrasound.
 9. Discuss in detail digital substraction angiography.
 10. Describe the principles of computed radiography (CR) and digital radiography
 11. Write the radiographic technique of the following:
  a) Towne’s view                 b) Scaphoid bone views
  c) Skyline view of patella        d) Schuller’s view
 12. Write the radiographic technique of the following
     a) Base of the skull         b) Craniovertebral junction
     c) Apicogram                 d) Calcaneum
 13. Write the radiographic technique of the following:
    a) Carpal tunnel view               b) Water’s view
    c) Nogaards Ball catcher view       d) Sacroiliac joint
13. Discuss the principles of Doppler sonography and instrumentation. Discuss
   various Doppler controls and operating modes used in clinical Doppler
14. Discuss the CT anatomy of temporal bone
15. Discuss principles of CT and changes in technology over the years
16. What are the properties of x.rays and its harmful effects
17. Discuss the cross sectional anatomy of neck spaces
18. Discuss the imaging anatomy of the orbit
19. Discuss the imaging anatomy of the knee joint.
20. Discuss basic interaction of Xrays with matter.
21. Discuss the basic principles of MRI
22. Discuss the basic physics and Instrumentation of a mammographic unit. What
   are the different mammographic projections.
23. Discuss in detail the construction of a grid and explain how it helps in improving
   the radiographic quality
24. What are isotopes? What is the principle of SPECT. Mention the common
   application of radionuclide isotopes in diagnostic radiology.
25. Discuss the imaging anatomy of the shoulder joint.
                               SHORT NOTES

1. Embryology and anatomy of pancreas
2. Rectification
3. Describe the cross sectional details of the conventional Xray film and that of a
   one side coated film
4. Film processor
5. Scattered Radiation
6. High KV technique in chest Xray
7. Dark room safelight
8. Focal spot of Xray tube
9. Autotransformer
10. Rotating Anode
11. Peizo electric effect
12. Co2 Angiography
13. Personnel dosimetry systems
14. Compton effect
15. Anode Heel effect
16. Iohexol
17. Wedge filter
18. Paramagnetic contrast media
19. Fetal circulation
20. Macroradiography
21. Superior orbital fissure
22. Mobile xray unit
23. Air gap technique
24. Thermionic emission
25. Transformer
26. Sialography
27. MR angiography
28. 99 mTechnetium labeled radionuclide scans
29. Methods of evaluation of grid performance
30. Cross sectional anatomy of peritoneal spaces
31. Segmental anatomy of liver and its importance
32. Cross sectional anatomy of suprarenal glands. Enumerate hormones secreted
   by zones of suprarenal glands
33. MR myelography
34. Computed Radiograpy (CR) Artefacts
35. Xray beam restrictors
36. Line focus principle
37. Time gain compensation (TGC) and dynamic range in ultrasound
38. Myelography
39. CT artifacts
40. Dacryocystography
41. T-tube cholangiography
42. CT enterography
43. CT numbers
44. Post processing techniques in MDCT and their utility
45. Inversion Recovery sequence
46. PACS
47. Electromagnetic Reduction
48. I.V.U.
49. Process of Xray generation
50. Electrical circuits
51. Types of Xray film
52. Intra operative ultrasound
53. Principles of Gamma camera
54. MRI artifacts
55. Ultrasound artifacts
56. Tissue harmonic imaging
57. Bone densitometry
58. Paramagnetic MR contrast media
59. Iodixanol
60. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
61. Half value layer
62. CSF pathways
63. A.E.R.B and its controlling functions in radiology
64. High Frequency Generators
                                RECENT ADVANCES

  1. Discuss the principles of diffusion weighted imaging and its utility.
  2. Discuss the role of MRI in obstetrics, especially in areas where it overcomes the
     limitations of ultrasonography and scores over it.
  3. Describe the fundamentals of MR spectroscopy. Discuss its role in neuroimaging
  4. Discuss imaging of aneurysms and CNS vascular malformations and the recent
     trends in their management.
  5. Discuss the role of MRI in breast diseases.
  6. Role of MRI in entrapment and compressive neuropathy of peripheral nerves of
     the upper extremity.
  7. Hepatobiliary contrast agents.
  8. Multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate.
  9. Functional MR in neuroimaging.
  10. Discuss the principles and basis of CT perfusion imaging and its various
     assessment parameters. Elaborate on the role of CT perfusion in Neuroimaging.
  11. Describe segmental anatomy of the liver. Discuss imaging in liver transplantation.
  12. Discuss the principles, instrumentation and methodology of PET imaging.
     Elaborate on its clinical applications in neuroimaging.
  13. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) – Principle, Instrumentation and its
  14. Discuss various images guided Musculoskeletal interventions
  15. MR evaluation of pregnant patient with acute abdominal pain
  16. Describe the instrumentation and principles of Radiofrequency ablation. Discuss
     the indications, patient selection, procedure and complications of its various
  17. Discuss the principles, instrumentation and methodology of PET imaging.
     Elaborate on its role in head and neck cancers
  18. Recent trends in minimal invasive image guided therapies for hepatic
19. Discuss the principles and basis of CT perfusion imaging and its various
   assessment parameters .Define the role of CT perfusion in oncoimaging.
20. Describe the anatomy of the limbic system. Discuss imaging in temporal lobe
21. Discuss the role of MRI in imaging of the myocardium.
22. Discuss the advances in imaging and management of ischemic stroke.
23. Imaging in diffuse liver disease with emphasis on role of MRI.
                                   RECENT ADVANCES


  1. MR Imaging of placenta
  2. MRI in pelvic floor imaging
  3. TRUS guided interventions
  4. MR enteroclysis
  5. MRI hepatobiliary specific contrast agent
  6. 3D & 4D ultrasound in foetal imaging
  7. Extra CNS utility of diffusion weighted imaging
  8. MR tractography
  9. Diffusion and perfusion weighted imaging in stroke
  10. USG in Rheumatoid arthritis
  11. MRI in temporomandibular joint
  12. Peritoneal and kinematic imaging of spine
  13. Comparision of CT & MR arthrography
  14. Cine MR imaging and its utility
  15. Flat panel detector
  16. Cartilage imaging
  17. Carotid stenting
  18. CT cholangiography
  19. Ultrasound contrast media
  20. Post processing techniques in HRCT lung
  21. Gradient echo imaging
  22. Chemical shift imaging
  23. Echoplanar imaging
  24. Super paramagnetic MR contrast media
  25. Imaging of the brachial plexus
  26. Susceptability weighted imaging
  27. Intrauterine foetal intervention
28. Recent advances in CT detector technology
29. Ultrasound elastography
30. Advantage and disadvantages of CR & DR
31. Dual source CT
32. SLAP and FLAP tear in shoulder joint
33. MR pelvimetry
34. Denta CT and its clinical applications
35. Factors affecting SNR in MRI
36. Pharmacological agents used in cardiac CT & MRI
37. MR coronary angiography
38. Describe the principles of parallel imaging technology and its clinical applications
39. Imaging of breast implant
40. Intraluminal MR contrast Agents
41. CT dosimetry
42. Vascular and biliary variants in the liver – implication for liver surgery
43. Steady state MR imaging sequences
44. Intraductal papillary mucinous tumour of pancreas
45. Whole body diffusion weighted imaging
46. Cardiac stress imaging
47. Carotid and vertebral artery dissection
48. MR perfusion weighted imaging
49. Nodal imaging on MR
50. Newer MR contrast media
51. MRI in endometrial pathologies
52. In phase and out of phase MRI imaging
53. MRI in bone marrow disease
54. PET in evaluation of lymphoma
55. PET in evaluation of GIT

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