Substance abuse

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Substance abuse Powered By Docstoc
					SUBSTANCE
ABUSE
ADDICTION
REASONS WHY TEENS USE
SUBSTANCES
Addiction
              : condition in which a person
  can no longer control his or her drug use
 Develop a physical need for the drug
 Brain
     Brain reward good behavior
     Neurotransmitters release of dopamine
        Dopamine lets us feel pleasure

     Drugs will          the brain into thinking this is
      a good thing for the body
Path to Addiction
 Use   of a drug
     Drug use produces                      in the
      brain
     Teens brains – more vulnerable, brains are
      still developing
 Tolerance
                            : condition in which a
      user needs more of a drug to get the same
      effect
Path to Addiction cont.
 Dependence
                                 : condition in which
      the body relies on a given drug in order to
      function
                                    : state of
      emotionally or physically needing a drug in
      order to function
 Addiction
   Lose control of
   Learns how to use drugs to deal with
    emotional problems
   Lie, steal, distrustful, paranoid
Path to Addiction cont.
 Withdrawal
                      : uncomfortable physical
     and psychological symptoms produced when a
     physically dependent drug user stops using
     drugs
    Symptoms are the                  of the drug’s
     effects
    Addict feels normal only when the drug is in
     the body
Drug use activates   The drug user needs   The drug user experiences     The drug user has
 The brain reward     More of the drug      Uncomfortable withdrawal     Lost control of his
System (pleasure       To produce the      Symptoms if he or she tries   Or her drug-taking
    System)             Same effect          To stop using the drug            Habit




 No one starts using drugs to become an
addict, but every addict starts as someone
        experimenting with drugs.
Addiction is a treatable disease
 Fightingaddiction is
 Treatment programs
     Getting off the drug
     Counseling to understand the addiction & cope
      with life
 Earlier   the treatment the
COST OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE
     NEGATIVE
  CONSEQUENCES
GREATLY OUTWEIGH
   ANY IMAGINED
     BENEFITS
TOBACCO
WHAT IS IN CIGARETTES?
 Each puff – 43 chemicals known to cause
  cancer
              : cancer-causing substances
                – poisonous, colorless liquid with a
      bitter-almond odor; blocks the ability to body cells
      to use oxygen
                        – used as a disinfectant,
      insecticide, fungicide, and deodorant
                    – extremely poisonous semi metallic
      element used commercially in manufacturing of
      glass
WHAT IS IN CIGARETTES? CONT.
                  : addictive drug in cigarettes
                : a drug that increases the action
  of the central nervous system, heart, and
  other organs
         : a thick, sticky, dark fluid produced
  when tobacco burns
                         : colorless, poisonous gas
  in cigarette smoke that passes through the
  lungs into the blood
OTHER FORMS OF TOBACCO
                       : tobacco that is
  sniffed through the nose or chewed
 Smoking
       Inhale less smoke but more likely to develop
        cancer because more tar and other chemicals
 Specialty     cigarettes
       Made with strong tobacco and contain spices that
        make them taste and smell sweet
       Contain more cancer-causing tars
DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
                   – destruction of the
    tiny air sacs, less surface area, more
    breaths than before
DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM CONT.
                    – bronchi irritated by
    smoke, cilia are destroyed and extra mucus
    present, develop cough, cancerous cells grow
    in these conditions, block the bronchi, and
    move into the lungs
DISEASE OF THE CIRCULATORY
SYSTEM
               the blood vessels, build up of
  plaque in the blood vessels
 Arteriosclerosis – hardening of the arteries
 Raises
 Increase stroke
DANGERS OF SMOKELESS
TOBACCO
 Spit,   tar, and other chemicals can be

 Tooth decay & discolored teeth
 Gums pulled away

 Bad breath

 Decrease ability to
DANGERS OF SMOKELESS TOBACCO
CONT.
                                   :
                   thickened white,
                   leathery-
                   appearing spots
                   on the inside of a
                   smokeless tobacco
                   user’s mouth that
                   can develop into
                   cancer
                              : lip,
                     mouth, or throat
SECONDHAND SMOKE
                    : cigarette, cigar, or pipe
    smoke inhaled by nonsmokers – smoke that
    remains in a closed environment after the
    smoker is through smoking
       Eye irritation, headache, coughing, ear infections,
        asthma attacks, respiratory problems, heart and
        lung diseases
                          : smoke that a smoker
    blows off
                           : smoke that comes from
    burning tobacco
RIGHTS OF THE NONSMOKER
        nonsmokers report they are
  bothered by smoke but only       will ask
  someone to stop
 Smokers need to take responsibility of
  their smoke
WHAT CAN BE DONE TO WORK
TOWARD A SMOKE-FREE SOCIETY
ALCOHOL
WHAT IS ALCOHOL?
               : the type of alcohol found in
    alcoholic beverages
       Made synthetically or fermentation
                          : chemical action of yeast on
        sugars
           Fruits, vegetables, or grains
 Beers,       wines, or liquors (whiskey, gin, and
  vodka)
 At first alcohol may give a certain energy or
  “         ”
WHAT IS ALCOHOL? CONT.
 Soon followed by                 – causing the
  central nervous system to slow down
                      : physical and mental
  impairment resulting from the use of alcohol
  – inability to walk or unconsciousness
     The amount of alcohol varies between people
EQUAL AMOUNTS OF ALCOHOL




         4   oz of wine
          2 oz of liquor

           12 oz beer
WHAT ALCOHOL DOES TO THE BODY
SHORT-TERM EFFECTS
             – depresses the activity, slowing
    down the work of the central nervous system
       Decision making can be badly affected
               – oxidation – changes alcohol to
    water, carbon dioxide, and energy
       1/3 to ½ an ounce per hour
                    – dilate or widen, increase
    blood flow (making the skin feel flush and
    warm), body temperature actually decreases
WHAT ALCOHOL DOES TO THE BODY
SHORT-TERM EFFECTS CONT.

               - increase heart rate and
  increase blood pressure, can lead to
  arrhythmias, abnormal heartbeat, heart
  attack, and stroke
               – affects the pituitary gland
  which affects the kidney to produce more
  urine (why the person feels dehydrated)
              – molecule are very small so they
  do not need to be digested, immediate
  absorption, the more alcohol the more gastric
  juices
WHAT ALCOHOL DOES TO THE BODY
LONG-TERM EFFECTS

        robs the body of its ability to absorb
 Alcohol
 key nutrients and long-term overuse may lead
 to
     Vitamin deficiencies
 Stomach     and skin problems
     Liver problems
 Loss of appetite
 Brain
   Decrease brain size
   Intellectual abilities
   Memory
   Problem solving
DUI OR DWI
  Driving  Under the Influence (DUI) or
   Driving While Intoxicated (DWI)
                                   : the
   amount of alcohol in a person’s blood
   expressed as a percentage
  Percentage varies
  Factors – gender, weight, metabolism,
   amount of alcohol, whether food is
   present, time between drinks, and time of
   last drink
DUI OR DWI CONT.
 Drivers   ability
     Reduces the ability
         Distance, speed, and turns

         Accurately ones own capabilities and
          limitations
         Concentrate

     Increase the tendency to
     Slows reflexes
     Adds to                   to take precautions such
      as using signals when turning
DUI OR DWI CONT.
 Consequences    of DUI
  11 teens killed over 350 injured each day
  Harmful for
         of crashes which passenger dies occur
   because of DWI
  Confiscation of license, jail, court, fine, higher
   insurance, possible lawsuit
THE MULTIPLIER EFFECT
                        – occurs when 2 or
    more medicines are taken simultaneously
        Alcohol combined with other drugs or
         medicines produces an interaction known as
         the multiplier effect
 Many
PATTERNS OF ALCOHOL ABUSE
                           : periodic excessive
    drinking
       Popular with high school and college students
                     : dangerous toxic
    condition that occurs when a person
    drinks a large amount of alcohol
       4 times a legal limit
ALCOHOLISM
                        : physical and
  psychological dependence on the drug
  ethanol - it is disease
 Stage 1 -
       Drinking becomes necessary to manage stress
       Drink and become intoxicated regularly
       Drinker makes excuses and tries to rationalize
        his or her behaviors
ALCOHOLISM CONT.
 Stage   2-
   Physical dependence
   Drink alone, drink everyday, craving for alcohol
   Defensive behavior - deny that there is a problem
 Stage   3-
   Problem no longer can be denied
   Malnutrition
   Person falls apart physically, mentally,
    emotionally, and socially
   Reverse tolerance - takes less alcohol
                          (DTs): dramatic physical and
    psychological effects of alcohol withdrawal
      Hot and cold flashes, severe tremors,
       nightmares, hallucinations, fear of people and
       animals - need prompt medical attention
CHOOSING TO BE ALCOHOL-FREE
 Saying    no to alcohol
     Practice
     Keep it brief, polite, confident, and to the point
DRUGS
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
                     : any unnecessary or
  improper use of chemical substance for
  nonmedical purposes
                : street drugs, these
  substances are against the law for people
  of any age to manufacture, possess, buy,
  or sell
       Some occur naturally
                             : chemical substances
        produced artificially in a laboratory
SUBSTANCE ABUSE CONT.
                       : the use or sale of
    any substances that are illegal or other
    wise not permitted
       Includes selling of prescription drugs on the
        street
                   : drugs that often lead to
    other serious and dangerous drug use
       Alcohol and nicotine
DANGERS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE
 Side   effects -
                  : strong or even fatal reaction to
      taking a large amount of a drug
 No control or means of monitoring drugs
 for quality, purity, or strength
PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS
 Stimulants

 Depressants

 Narcotics

 Hallucinogens
STIMULANTS
                  : drugs that speed up the
    central nervous system
        Cause increased heart and respiratory rates, high
         blood pressure, dilated pupils, and decreased
         appetite
        Experience sweating, headaches, blurred vision,
         dizziness, and sleeplessness
        Inhalation or injection - increase blood pressure,
         stroke, high fever, or heart failure
        Moodiness, restlessness, and anxiety
        Chronic users - hallucinations, delusions, and
         paranoia
                         : irrational suspiciousness or
            distrust of others
STIMULANTS CONT.



       Stay awake, alert, lose weight, offset the effects of
        depressant drugs, and temporary high
                    : a feeling of tense well being or
        elation that maybe followed by a complete “crash”
        or meltdown
                        - crank, speed, ice, meth
       Suppressed appetite, interference with sleeping
        behaviors, mood swings, unpredictability, tremors
        & convulsions
       Very quick addiction and the effects to the body
        are dramatic
METH PICTURES
   http://www.drugfree.org/Portal/DrugIssue/MethR
    esources/faces/index.html
STIMULANTS CONT.

       White powder from the coca bush (South America)
       Regular use - depression, edginess, weight loss,
        physiological dependence
       Nasal damage, holes in the septum
       Crack - smokeable form of cocaine
          Extremely addictive - effects are felt within seconds
DEPRESSANTS
                 : drugs that tend to slow down
    the central nervous system
      Relax muscles, relieve feelings of tension and
       worry, bring on sleep
      Slows down heart and breathing rate, reduced
       blood pressure



        Sedative hypnotic drugs (induce sleepiness)
        Feeling similar to that of intoxication and
         counteracts the effects of stimulants
DEPRESSANTS CONT.

       Reduce muscular activity, coordination, and
        attention span
       Some medical uses

       Originally prescribed to reduce anxiety and to help
        with insomnia
       Temporary euphoria
       Effects - rapid dependence, headache, diarrhea,
        dizziness, convulsions, and coma
       People die by combining this depressant with
        alcohol
NARCOTICS
                : drugs derived from the opium
    plant that have a sedative effects
       Opiates - opium from poppy flower

     Natural compound in opium
     Used to reduce severe pain
     Appetite suppressant, cause severe constipation,
      and lead to addiction

       Used in cough medications to stop coughing
NARCOTICS CONT.

     Made from morphine
     Depress the central nervous system and slows
      breathing and pulse rate
     Tolerance develops quickly
     More dangerous because the purity is 10 times
      stronger than it was in the 80’s
 HALLUCINOGENS
                 : drugs that alter moods, thoughts,
  sense perceptions (vision, hearing, smell, & touch)
        - angel dust
       Feel distant and detached
       Time and body movement are slow, muscles
        coordination, sense of touch and pain are dulled
       Feel strong and powerful - resulting tragic death,
        serious accidents, and terrible acts of violence
              - acid
       Very similar to PCP

       Psychoactive ingredient of the peyote cactus
       “Bad trip”
       Vicious stomach cramps and vomiting
    STEROIDS
                     synthetic derivatives of the
  male hormone testosterone
 Medicine - help
 Cause - mood swings, abnormal violence and
  aggressive behavior (“roid rage”)
       High blood pressure, acne, baldness, increased risk of
        liver damage, heart disease, increased growth of body
        & facial hair, stroke from blood clots, depression,
        decrease sperm production, testicle size, increase
        breast size (females decrease)
 Misconception  that it makes you stronger -
    makes the muscles bigger
CANNABIS DERIVATIVES
 Cannabis   - scientific name for hemp plant
                    : cannabis that is smoked,
  eaten, or drunk for intoxicating effects
                  : “Hash” dark brown resin
  collected from the tops of the cannabis plant
     Smoked in a pipe
     Boiled to make hashish oil - then combined with
      tobacco
PHYSICAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL
EFFECTS OF CANNABIS
                   - same effects as depression and
  stimulant
 Alters your senses, coordination, and reaction time

 Interrupt your ability to make rational and
  healthful decision
 Stimulate

 Personality problems with regular marijuana users
  - loss of willpower, motivation, lack of energy, and
  paranoia
 Affects, memory, ability to recall things, ability to
  pay attention
PHYSICAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL
EFFECTS OF CANNABIS CONT.
 Cannabis  smoke contains more cancer-
  causing chemicals than cigarette smoke
          - lower levels of testosterone,
  decrease sperm production
             - still birth, lower birth weight
  conditions similar to fetal alcohol syndrome
INHALANTS
                     : substances with
    breathable fumes that are sniffed and
    inhaled to give hallucinogenic or mind-
    altering high
        Glues, paints, aerosols, lighter fluid and
         gasoline
             the central nervous system and
  produce similar effects as alcohol
 Immediate effects - nausea, sneezing,
  coughing, nosebleeds, fatigue, lack of
  coordination, loss of appetite
INHALANTS CONT.
 Long-term effects - liver and kidney damage,
 changes in bone marrow, permanent brain
 damage
     Hearing loss, limb spasm, blood oxygen depletion
 Coma,  vegetative state, respiratory problem -
  from one use
 High concentrations of inhalants can cause
  suffocation
                  - move onto something
  stronger
     Peak age - 14
DESIGNER DRUGS
                     : synthetic substances
  meant to imitate the effects of narcotics and
  hallucinogens
 Several hundred times stronger
 Symptoms - uncontrollable tremors, drooling,
  impaired speech, paralysis, irreversible brain
  damage
          - short-term feelings of euphoria
       Resulting - confusion, depression, paranoia,
        psychosis, increase heart rate and blood pressure
       Long-term damage to brain cells
LOOK-ALIKE DRUGS
                          : made to physically
    resemble specific drugs
       Never know what you are getting
“            ” might contain high doses of caffeine
    plus cold medicines
       Cause dangerously fast heart rates, changes in
        blood pressure, strange behaviors, nervousness, and
        breathing problems
 Sometimes       they are just sugar pills - for huge
  profits
 Hard to diagnose - makes treatments very
  difficult - they do not know what drugs were
  used
SCHOOL EFFORTS TO STOP DRUGS
                                   : areas
  within 1,000 feet of schools and designated by
  signs, within which people caught selling
  drugs will receive especially tough penalties
 What else is being done: