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					Physical Education VCE

       Unit 4
 TOPIC SUMMARIES




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              Physical Education VCE Unit 4: Area of Study 1

                              Topic Review: Activity Analysis

1. The main purpose of conducting an activity analysis is to gather data and information that enables
    coaches and physiologists to determine the major fitness and physiological requirements of an activity or
    sport.
2. When undertaking activity analysis we are particularly interested in gaining data about energy system
    requirements; movement patterns, types and intensities; work:rest ratios; muscle groups and actions;
    and skill requirements.
3. A range of activity analysis methods are available including - observation; observation with statistical
    data collection; video recording and statistical data collection; and the use of global positioning satellite
    (GPS) tracking devices and statistical data collection
4. Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; however, with new computer technology,
    video recording linked with computer analysis and GPS data collection are seen to be the way of the
    future (at least at the elite level) as this type of data is much more reliable.
5. In analysing the data the aim is to identify patterns in data, recognise relationships, make connections
    and draw inferences. The better the quality of the data and the more skilled the analyst, the more useful
    the analysis will be to the coach and player(s).




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              Physical Education VCE Unit 4: Area of Study 1

                       Topic Review: The Concept of Fitness

1.    Fitness can be defined as the ability to carry out daily tasks (work and play) with vigour and alertness,
      without undue fatigue and with ample reserve of energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and to meet
      unforeseen emergencies.
2.    When being specific about the fitness requirements of a sport or the fitness attributes of an athlete, we
      refer to fitness components.
3.    Fitness components ban be classified as either physiological or neuromuscular.
4.    Physiological fitness components include – muscular strength, muscular power, local muscular
      endurance, speed, agility, flexibility, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power
5.    Neuromuscular fitness components include – balance, reaction time and coordination
6.    Most of the fitness components are linked to the anaerobic energy systems.
7.    The exception is aerobic capacity (cardio-respiratory endurance), which is associated with the aerobic
      energy system.
8.    Muscular strength - “The force or tension that a muscle or muscle group can exert against a
      resistance in a single maximal effort or contraction”.
             Factors affecting muscular strength include – cross-sectional area of the muscle; speed of
              muscle contraction; length of the muscle; the joint angle of the muscle; muscle fibre type; age
              of the performer and gender of the performer
9.    Muscular power - the ability to use strength quickly to produce an explosive effort.
10.   Local Muscular Endurance - the ability of a particular muscle or muscle group to keep working at the
      required level of effort for a period of time.
             Factors affecting LME - Contraction intensity and frequency; muscle fibre type (slow twitch as
              opposed to fast twitch fibres); blood supply to muscle
11. Speed - the ability to move the whole body from one point to another in the shortest possible time. Also
      refers to the ability to move body parts as quickly as possible to complete a movement or skill.
12.   Agility - combines speed with flexibility and balance, allowing the athlete to change direction with
      maximal speed and control.
13.   Flexibility - the range of movement possible about a joint or sequence of joints. It refers to the ability
      of the body‟s muscles, ligaments and tendons to allow a large range of movement about a particular
      joint or sequence of joints.
             Static flexibility -refers to the ability to move a joint to its maximum range of motion.
             Dynamic flexibility - refers to how readily a body part can be moved through its range of
              motion whilst performing a skill or activity.
             Factors affecting flexibility include – joint type and structure; length of muscles, ligaments and
              tendons; muscle and joint temperature; age; gender; body build; and previous injury.
14.   Anaerobic power - the ability to produce energy quickly and to sustain high intensity efforts without
      using oxygen.




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15.   Aerobic capacity - the ability of the heart, blood vessels and lungs (circulatory and respiratory
      systems) to deliver oxygen and other nutrients to the cells of the body and to remove the waste
      products of cellular functions.
16.   Balance - the ability of the body to remain in a state of equilibrium while performing a desired task or
      movement.
17.   Coordination - the ability to execute a series of linked movements or actions so that they appear to be
      smoothly controlled and efficiently performed.
18.   Reaction time - the speed at which an individual can react to an external stimulus. It is the amount of
      time taken by the brain to receive and process information from the senses, and then formulate,
      transmit and activate a response.




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            Physical Education VCE Unit 4: Area of Study 1

                     Topic Review: Assessment of Fitness
1.   Fitness testing can be undertaken before, during and after engaging in a training program.
2.   Testing athletes is important for four main reasons.
               i. Identifying specific attributes - The capacity to perform certain tasks and specific
               personal attributes can be identified.
               ii. Identifying strengths and weaknesses - this information allows for the design of a
               specific individual training program geared to maintaining strengths and improving
               weaknesses.
               iii. Monitoring progress - Regular fitness testing allows for the effectiveness of training
               programs to be evaluated.
               iv. Providing motivation and incentive - test results can provide strong motivation and
               incentive for athletes to continue training and to strive for improvement.
3.   The criteria for test selection include – tests must be relevant and specific to the requirements of the
     sport or activity; tests must be reliable and valid (that is, they should measure what they claim to
     measure and must produce consistently accurate results); tests must be interpretable and provide
     comparable results.
4.   There are two types of fitness testing  laboratory testing and field testing. Each has advantages
     and disadvantages.
5.   Lab testing provides the most accurate results but tends to be expensive because sophisticated
     equipment and qualified personnel are required to conduct the test. Lab tests also tend to be more
     time consuming.
6.   Field testing, although generally not as accurate as lab testing, tends to be used more often because
     it is easier to administer, requires less expertise and requires minimal equipment.
7.   There is a wide range of tests available for each fitness component.
8.   Where available, an athlete may make use of „norms‟ (standards that are „normal‟ or typical for a
     group) but caution should be exercised in referring to these norms.




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                Physical Education VCE Unit 4: Area of Study 1

     Topic Review: Training Principles and Training Methods

1.   Adhering to a set of key training principles aids an athlete in getting the most from a training
     program.
2.   The five key training principles are specificity, frequency, intensity, duration and progressive
     overload.
3.   The principle of specificity is the process of replicating the characteristics of an activity in training to
     ensure it benefits performance. Athletes must train the specific energy systems, fitness components
     and muscle groups for optimal fitness gains.
4.   The frequency principle - the more frequently an athlete trains and the longer the training program,
     the greater the fitness benefits (provided adequate rest is obtained).
5.   Intensity refers to how hard the training sessions are and is generally measured in terms of heart-rate
     response to exercise (% of max HR).
6.   Duration may refer to either the length of time of each training session or the length of the training
     program (in weeks or months).
7.   Progressive overload principle states that to gain maximum benefit from training, workloads must be
     gradually adjusted upwards as adaptation to stress takes place.
8.   A general rule in applying progressive overload to a training program is that only one factor is adjusted
     upwards and that the increments are gradual.
9.   There is a wide range of training methods available including:
              Continuous – involves continuous sub-maximal activity of at least 20+ minutes duration. Its
               purpose is to improve aerobic capacity, raise the lactate threshold and improve local muscular
               endurance.
               Fartlek - is a variation on continuous training that involves continuous activity with short bursts
                of intense work at regular stages throughout the activity.
               Interval- periods of work interspersed with periods of rest/recovery
               Resistance - often referred to as weight training, although it does not necessarily involve the
                use of weights. One‟s own body or gravity can be used as the resistance.
               Circuit - comprises working at a number of exercise stations (usually between 5 -15) in
                sequence.
               Plyometrics - a form of training designed to improve muscular power in sports where an
                explosive powerful movement is required. It involves a rapid eccentric contraction (stretching
                of the muscle) followed by a rapid concentric contraction (shortening of the muscle).
               Flexibility - is about improving the range of motion at the desired joints that are important for
                maximum performance in the designated activity. For improvement in flexibility, an athlete
                generally needs to undertake a stretching program 3 - 4 times per week. Three recognised
                methods of stretching are:
                    o   Static or passive stretching
                    o   PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) stretching


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       o   Dynamic stretching
   Pilates - is an exercise method involving stretching and strengthening exercises that tones
    and strengthens core muscles and develops/improves body alignment and posture.




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          Physical Education VCE Unit 4: Area of Study 2

                Topic Review: Managing a Training Program
1. Steps in planning and implementing a training program include:
         i.          Conduct an activity analysis – determine requirements of the activity
         ii.         Undertake a fitness assessment – determine attributes/strengths/weaknesses
         iii.        Select a range of appropriate training methods
         iv.         Determine the duration and periodisation of the program
         v.          Plan specific training sessions – apply training principles appropriately
         vi.         Determine a training timetable (week by week, session by session program)
2. Periodisation is the process of dividing a training program into shorter phases of training or discrete
    time periods or cycles.
3. Periodisation of training has traditionally divided the training year into three phases of training -
    preparatory (pre-season) phase; competition (in-season) phase; and transition (off-season)
    phase
4. Periodisation of training can also be thought of in terms of macrocycles, mesocycles and
    microcycles.
5. In the preparatory phase the major objective is to provide a suitable fitness and skill base for the
    competition phase. This phase usually lasts 2 - 4 months.
6. In the competition phase the athlete should have achieved optimal fitness and skill levels. The
    emphasis of training during this phase should be on maintaining these attributes, and further
    developing and refining strategies, tactics and game plans. This phase usually lasts 4 -6 months
    (elite level sport).
7. The transition phase is designed to provide the athlete with both a physiological and psychological
    respite from the rigours of competition and training. The off-season phase usually lasts somewhere
    between 6-12 weeks.
8. Peaking refers to the planning of training so that an athlete reaches their optimum state of readiness
    to perform at a particular predetermined time.
9. Tapering involves a decrease in training levels over the course of the final few weeks prior to the
    specified event. This reduction in training allows the athlete time for extra recovery and for their
    energy stores to be fully restored prior to the event.
10. A typical training session consists of:
               1. Warm-up - involving some form of light aerobic activity, possibly stretching and some
                   sports specific movements
               2. Skill development component
               3. conditioning component
               4. Cool-down - again involving light aerobic activity of a reduced intensity and stretching).




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                  Physical Education VCE Unit 4: Area of Study 2

                      Topic Review: Recovery and Overtraining
1.    When planning training requirements for an athlete, it is essential to include adequate recovery time in
      the program.
2.    Adequate and effective recovery is essential in order to provide the body with the opportunity to repair
      and rebuild in readiness for the next training session or exercise bout. Without sufficient time for
      recovery, subsequent performance will be compromised and the symptoms of overtraining could
      develop.
3.    Recovery strategies can include a range of strategies including - cool-down (active recovery);
      passive rest; replenishment of fuel and food stores (carbohydrate replenishment and protein
      intake); rehydration; and a variety of regenerative therapies.
4.    A cool-down or active recovery has been shown to aid recovery by preventing venous pooling of
      blood immediately after cessation of exercise. It also acts to accelerate the process of removing
      accumulated metabolic by-products (eg lactate and hydrogen ions) from the muscle tissue.
5.    Carbohydrate replenishment - It is essential during the recovery process that athletes replenish
      depleted carbohydrates (glycogen) stores.The type of carbohydrates consumed and the timing of
      their ingestion during the recovery period are very important in achieving this replenishment.
                 There is a critical two-hour window immediately after the cessation of exercise when
                  carbohydrate-rich foods with a high glycemic index (that is, foods that release glucose
                  quickly) should be consumed.
                 In fact, the first 15 minutes post-exercise is considered to be a vital period in terms of
                  carbohydrate ingestion. Within this first 15 minutes, approximately 50-100 grams of
                  carbohydrates in the form of easily digestible high GI foods should be consumed.
6.    Protein Intake - foods high in protein are also required since they are useful in the repair and
      regeneration of muscle fibres following exercise.
7.    Rehydration following exercise is also important - a convenient way to assess the required amount of
      fluid is to compare pre-and post-exercise weight changes. For every kilogram of body weight lost
      during exercise, at least one litre of fluid should be consumed in order to rehydrate adequately.
8.    Regenerative techniques and therapies include:
                   Hydrotherapy
                   Cryotherapy
                   Hot and cold contrast therapy
                   Spas and mineral springs
                   Massage
                   Stretching
                   Hyperbaric oxygen therapy
9.    Psychological skills for aiding recovery could involve meditation, progressive muscle relaxation and
      breathing exercises.
10.   Overtraining is a cumulative exhaustion following prolonged and repeated stresses of training to the
      point where the rest provided does not permit adequate recovery. Overtraining syndrome can be

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defined as – “a physical condition characterised by decreased athletic performance, increased fatigue,
persistent muscle soreness, mood disturbances, and a feeling of being burnt out or stale”.
       A well-designed, individualised training program with gradual increases in training stimulus
        along with a high priority for rest and recovery will avoid exposing an athlete to overtraining.
       Psychological signs and symptoms include - moodiness; increased anxiety and depressive
        symptoms; loss of competitive drive and enthusiasm for physical activity; reduced
        concentration; apathy; inability to relax; altered sleep patterns including insomnia; and reduced
        confidence.
       Physiological signs and symptoms include - persistent muscle soreness and body aches;
        increased incidence of injuries; prolonged fatigue; loss of appetite and weight loss; increased
        susceptibility to infections; hyperactivity; and menstrual irregularities.
       If overtraining has occurred it is important to identify the factors that led to overtraining and
        make adjustments to rectify this.
       The recommended way of treating overtraining is rest and seeking medical treatment where
        necessary.




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             Physical Education VCE Unit 4: Area of Study 2

                  Topic Review: Chronic Training Adaptations
1.    Chronic Adaptations - long term responses that develop over a period of time (usually a minimum of
      six to eight weeks) when training is repeated regularly.
2.    The combined effect of all chronic adaptations is known as the training effect.
3.    Essentially the type of training undertaken will determine the nature of the adaptations that occur.
      Training can be classified as being either aerobic or anaerobic in nature. Adaptations are also
      dependant upon the frequency, intensity and duration of training.
4.    Chronic adaptations may occur at both the system level – that is the cardiovascular and respiratory
      systems - and/or at the tissue level - that is within the muscles themselves.
5.    Chronic adaptations from aerobic (endurance) training usually became evident after 6 – 8 weeks of
      training. They are best achieved through continuous, fartlek and longer interval type training.
6.    Chronic cardiovascular and respiratory system adaptations are primarily designed to bring about the
      more efficient delivery of larger quantities of oxygen to working muscles. These adaptations lead to
      improvements in oxygen uptake, transport and use, resulting in improved aerobic energy system
      capacity.
7.   Cardiovascular adaptations to aerobic training include:

           cardiac hypertrophy (enlargement)
           Increased stroke volume

           Increased capillarisation of the heart muscle

           lower resting heart rate

           lower heart rate during sub-maximal workloads
           improved heart rate recovery rates

           increased cardiac output at maximum workloads

           Lower blood pressure

           Increased arterio-venous oxygen difference (a-VO2 diff)
           Increased blood volume

           Increased haemoglobin levels

           Increased capillarisation of skeletal muscle
           Decreases in blood cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels

           Increased high-density to low-density lipoprotein ratio
8.    In summary, the heart becomes more efficient in response to aerobic training. It is able to pump out
      larger volumes of blood (and therefore oxygen) with each beat and at both rest and sub-maximal levels
      does not need to beat as much to supply the body with its demands. The increases in blood volume,
      haemoglobin levels and capillarisation of skeletal muscle also result in increased delivery of oxygen to
      muscle cells.




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9.    Respiratory system adaptations to aerobic training include:
        Increased lung ventilation
           Increased pulmonary diffusion

           Increased maximum oxygen uptake (max VO2).
10.   At the muscular level, aerobic training results in:
           Increased oxygen utilisation
                    Increased size of mitochondria
                    Increased number of mitochondria
                    Increased myoglobin stores
           Increased muscular fuel stores:
                    Glycogen
                    Triglycerides
                    Free fatty acids
                    Oxidative enzymes (Kreb‟s cycle enzymes)
           Increased oxidation of fats
           Decreased utilisation of the anaerobic glycolysis (lactic acid) system
           Increased lactate threshold
           Muscle fibre type adaptations
11.   Anaerobic training effects are best developed through sprint training (shorter, faster interval
      training), plyometric training, circuit training, and resistance (strength and power) training.
12.   The greatest adaptations from anaerobic training occur at the muscle tissue level.
13.   Muscle tissue adaptations from anaerobic training include:
           Muscular hypertrophy
           Increased capacity of the ATP-PC system
                o    Increased stores of ATP
                o    Increased stores of PC
           Increased glycolytic capacity
                o    Increased storage of glycogen
                o    Increased levels of glycolytic enzymes
           Increased speed and force of contraction
           Cardiac hypertrophy – increased thickness of ventricular wall
14.   Adaptations are reversible and the loss of physiological adaptations is known as detraining. This
      usually occurs more quickly than the time it took for the adaptations to occur during training.
15.   Training induces a catabolic, or destructive, tiring effect that is then followed by an anabolic or
      constructive effect during the recovery period. It is during the recovery periods between heavy
      workouts that many of the physiological adaptations develop.




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                 Physical Education VCE Unit 4: Area of Study 2

            Topic Review: Dietary Enhancement of Performance
1.    Proper nutrition and manipulation of an athlete‟s diet can serve to enhance training adaptations,
      improve event performance and aid in recovery from both training and competition.
2.   The nutritional needs of athletes can basically be categorised into three main areas:
                 Nutritional preparation prior to performance or training (pre-event preparation)
                 Nutritional intake during performance or training
                 Nutritional intake after performance (post-event or recovery practices)\
3.    Pre-event preparation involves the following considerations and strategies:
            Pre-event meal - a high carbohydrate meal consumed 2 - 4 hours before exercise. It should be
             easily digestible, high in carbohydrates, low in fat, low fibre and known not to cause
             gastrointestinal upset eg fresh fruits and juices, bread, toast, pancakes, cereal with low fat or
             skim milk.
            Carbohydrate loading - commonly utilised by endurance athletes to improve their
             performance. Aim is to increase the muscle storage of glycogen prior to athletic performance.
             The preferred model for carbohydrate loading is one of increased carbohydrate intake
             accompanied by a decrease in training volume in the 2 – 3 days prior to athletic performance.
4.    Dietary considerations during performance include the following:
            Carbohydration - If exercise lasts longer than 60 - 90 minutes, it is advisable to consume some
             carbohydrate during exercise to top up blood glucose levels and delay fatigue – eg consume
             sports drinks which can deliver both fluids and carbohydrates to the body. Low fat and low fibre
             food choices with a high GI, such as jelly type lollies and sandwiches made with white bread, are
             also ideal.
5.    Post-event or recovery nutritional practices involve the following considerations and strategies:
            Carbohydrate (glycogen) replenishment - to replenish glycogen stores after exercise, foods
             with a high GI should be consumed in the two hours following the cessation of exercise. In fact,
             the first 15-20 minutes immediately after exercise is a critical period for glycogen replenishment.
             Over the next 24 hours foods high in carbohydrate, with a low to moderate GI should be
             consumed.
            Protein replenishment - also plays a key role in post-exercise recovery and repair. It is
             essential to consume some protein in order to provide the basic building blocks for muscle repair
             following strenuous physical activity. Protein needs are generally met by following a high
             carbohydrate diet, because many foods – especially cereal-based foods – are a combination of
             carbohydrate and protein.
            Rehydration - athletes should consume 1litre of water for every 0.8 to 1.0 kg of weight lost
             during exercise. Whilst water itself is suitable for most hydration purposes, it does not always
             provide the most efficient fluid replacement, especially if fluid losses have been high. Sports
             drinks may be useful in endurance events (greater than 90 minutes) or when a quick recovery is
             necessary after exercise. Sports drinks can offer the following advantages over water:


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                   Enhanced fluid consumption dure to taste and palatability
                   Faster rate of gastric emptying - Sports drinks with a carbohydrate concentration of
                    between 6 - 8% are emptied from the stomach at a rate slightly faster than plain water.
                    Some studies report increases in the rate of gastric emptying of up to 30% faster with
                    sports drinks as compared to plain water
                   Carbohydrate replenishment as well – dissolved carbohydrates within sports drinks aid
                    in glycogen replenishment, another key aspect of the recovery process
                   Electrolyte replenishment
6.   Athletes are also often attracted to the use of a variety of other dietary and nutritional supplements
     including creatine, colostrum and caffeine to enhance their performance.
7.   Creatine supplementation is expensive, but some studies have found that its use can benefit well-
     trained athletes involved in sports requiring repeated high intensity efforts such as sprints.
           Side-effects and risks associated with its use include weight gain, stomach cramps and gastro-
            intestinal upsets.
8.   Colostrum - the thin, yellow, milky fluid secreted by the mammary gland a few days before or after
     child-birth.
           Colostrum used as a nutritional supplement is derived from cows' milk (bovine colostrum)
           Colostrum has been used increasingly over the past 5 - 10 years and some studies have found it
            to be beneficial to athletes‟ immune systems and protein-synthesis mechanisms (muscle
            growth).
           However, more research is needed to support definite performance benefits or to define the
            target group who might benefit from the use of colostrum supplementation.
9.   Caffeine - is a central nervous system stimulant that also has a diuretic effect.
           Some exercise physiologists believe that caffeine ingestion might improve endurance
            performance by increasing fat oxidation and conserving muscle glycogen, in other words by
            having a glycogen sparing effect.
           However, side effects of caffeine use include headaches, insomnia, increased heart rate and
            blood pressure, and increased urine production (with increased risk of dehydration)




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                 Physical Education VCE Unit 4: Area of Study 2

                                            Topic Review:
 Performance Enhancement from a Psychological Perspective

1.    Psychological performance enhancing practices can focus on areas such as goal setting, arousal,
      mental rehearsal, confidence building and concentration.
2.    Goal setting has been shown to increase work output by up to 40 or 50 per cent. Goals need to be set
      for both training and competitions.
3.    There are three types of sporting goals:
       Outcome goals focus on end results, times, finishing place or medals.
       Performance goals focus on comparing present performance levels with those attained previously,
        and are independent of other competitors.
       Process goals focus on actions such as physical movements and game strategies that athletes
        must execute during a game in order to maximise their performance.
4.    Goals can be either short-term or long term.
5.    Short-term goals continually provide a more manageable focus point for athletes and act as the
      stepping stones for achieving long-term goals, as well as bringing about improved performances.
6.    The acronym ‘SMARTER’ is an effective way of goal setting. It stands for:
      Specific, Measurable, Accepted, Realistic, Time-phased, Exciting, Recorded goals
7.    The relationship between arousal and performance is commonly referred to as the „inverted-U‟
      hypothesis (or graph). It is possible to experience situations of under-arousal, optimal arousal (also
      referred to as being in the „zone‟) and over-arousal.
8.    Arousal reduction techniques include controlled breathing, progressive muscle relaxation,
      listening to calming music and using set routines.
9.    Arousal promotion techniques include rapid breathing, acting energetically and positively, positive
      talk and energising imagery and participating in pre-game work-outs or preparation.
10.   Athletes can attain optimum arousal and concentration levels by trying to imagine themselves
      performing skills before actually doing them. This is known as mental rehearsal, mental imagery or
      visualisation.
11.   Effective imagery involves a lot more that simply „seeing‟ how a performance should be executed. It
      calls on as many senses as possible during the rehearsal stage  typically kinaesthetic, auditory and
      tactile.
12.   Imagery improves performance by improving neural pathways between the brain and muscles;
      providing a mental template of rehearsed sequences; enabling athletes to prepare for a range of
      events and eventualities; working in conjunction with other psychological skills; and allowing athletes to
      pre-experience the achievement of goals that build confidence.
13.   Concentration and attention are used interchangeably in sports psychology and typically contain three
      parts: focusing on relevant environmental cues; maintaining attention focus over time; and having
      awareness of the situation.


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14.   There can be four possible types of attention:
       broad-internal focus – used to focus on thoughts and feelings
       broad-external focus  used to focus outwards on opponent‟s actions
       narrow-internal focus  used to focus thoughts and mentally rehearse upcoming movements
       narrow-external focus  used to focus on very few external cues.
15.   Many factors can lead to an athlete experiencing inappropriate attention focus and their performance
      can deteriorate as a consequence  for example, focusing on environmental distractions, focusing on
      past performances, future-oriented thinking, fatigue, muscle tension, negative self-talk, poor handling
      of game pressure(s) and not sticking to game plans.
16.   Cue words, selective attention training, routines, over-learning and maximum confidence levels all
      ensure that concentration levels remain optimal.




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               Physical Education VCE Unit 4: Area of Study 2

               Topic Review: Sports Injury Risk Management

1.   Risk is the chance of something happening. It can be measured in terms of likelihood (i.e. the
     probability and frequency of it occurring) and consequences (the likely outcome of an event or
     situation).
2.   Risk management is the process of measuring or assessing risk and then developing strategies to
     manage the risk.
3.   There are four main categories of risk:
                  Physical – can someone be injured?
                  Legal – am I or the organisation at risk of being negligent?
                  Moral/ethical – am I or the organisation responsible for minimising the risk?
                  Financial – am I or the organisation financially at risk?
4.   Some of the steps involved in the risk management process are as follows:
                  Identify all possible risks or threats to players, coaches, officials, spectators, etc
                  Assess the level of each of the risks
                  Determine strategies and plans to avoid or reduce the risks
                  Formulate and document the risk-management action plan
                  Implement the plan
                  On-going monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of the plan
5.   The principles of risk management can be considered in terms of the athlete; the equipment and
     facilities used; and the nature of the sport/activity itself.
6.   An effective risk management strategy takes into account the characteristics of the athlete including:
                  Age
                  Level of playing experience
                  Fitness and skill levels
                  Health conditions or problems
                  Past injury record or history
                  Personal characteristics and personality type
7.   Possible actions for minimising risk under risk management could include a complete identification,
     assessment and prioritisation of risks; the development of policy statements and procedures in a
     number of key areas such as facility inspections, safe use of equipment, mandatory wearing of
     protective equipment, injury assessment and injury treatment.
8.   Equipment and facilities play a huge role in the prevention and reduction of sports injuries.
     Equipment should be:
                  Appropriate for the type of activity and age group of players – for example, modified
                   equipment should be used for younger players.
                  Fully functional and in good working order


9.   Facilities should be:

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               Free from hazards – for example, grounds should be checked for hazards before play and
                goal posts should be padded
               Provide adequate lighting, ventilation, shade, etc
10.   There exists a correlation between the characteristics of certain sports and the likelihood of injury to
      players. Sports and activities that feature the following characteristics are more prone to injuries than
      other types of sports :
               high levels of physical contact (eg Aussie Rules football and rugby)
               heavy physical demands (e.g. weightlifting)
               high training loads (eg swimming)
11.   Appropriate strategies need to be implemented in such sports to reduce the incidence and severity of
      any injuries sustained. These strategies might include:
               ensuring players wear all necessary protective equipment
               ensuring players have adequate fitness and skill levels
               ensuring players know, understand and apply the rules of the game
               having properly trained medical personnel available to treat injuries.
12.   Other possible actions for minimising risk under risk management could include a complete
      identification, assessment and prioritisation of risks; the development of policy statements and
      procedures in a number of key areas such as facility inspections, safe use of equipment, mandatory
      wearing of protective equipment, injury assessment and injury treatment.




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             Physical Education VCE Unit 4: Area of Study 2

                          Topic Review:
     Ethics Associated with Performance Enhancing Practices

1.   Athletes and coaches often advocate the use of a variety of performance enhancing (ergogenic)
     practices to enhance sporting achievement and assist in training and recovery. These include a variety
     of dietary/nutritional practices and performance enhancing drugs, as well as practices such as
     intravenous hydration and local anaesthetics (painkillers).
2.   The ethical issues related to some of these practices need to be carefully considered by all parties
     involved. The issues can also be viewed differently by athletes, coaches, sports administrators,
     spectators, sponsors and members of the public.
3.   There are many practices – some legal, some illegal - in sport today that pose potential ethical
     dilemmas and concerns.
          Legal practices are those practices which do not contravene any criminal laws or are not
           subjected to widespread banning by sporting bodies and associations.
          Illegal practices are those practices that contravene criminal laws or which are outlawed by the
           rules and regulations of sporting bodies and associations.
4.   Some legal practices that present ethical issues include:
          The use of intravenous drips for recovery purposes (rehydration and refueling) after competition
           or training
          The use of local anaesthetic (pain-killing) injections that enable athletes to continue to perform
           even when injured
          The injection of vitamin supplements
5.   Illegal practices with ethical issues associated with them include:
          The use of performance enhancing drugs and methods
          Genetic therapy and manipulation
6.   Many reasons, other than the need to win at all costs, are given to justify why athletes resort to the use
     of these ethically questionable and/or illegal practices.




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