GMPLS Optical Networks - University of Virginia by wuxiangyu


									  GMPLS optical networks
           Malathi Veeraraghavan
Charles L. Brown Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering
                   University of Virginia

                    ETRI, Korea
                     Feb. 2009
GMPLS: Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switched networks
• Telcom “transport network”
• Cheetah vs. Dragon Approach
  – Theoretical concepts
• GMPLS networks
  – Technologies, off-the-shelf switches, control-plane
• State of the art on different applications
  & networks
  – Commercial
  – Research-and-Education (REN) networks

                  Spectrum of services
             Leased lines are used to connect IP routers.
             Network that offers leased line service is called
 Leased line “transport network” by telcom industry                      IP

            Circuit technologies: time/frequency division multiplexing
PDH: T1, T3              SONET/SDH:                 DWDM: OTU1-OTU3
switch: Digital          OC3-OC768                  Switch: optical WDM
Cross Connect            Switch: SONET/SDH          crossconnects
(DCS)                    crossconnects

              Packet technologies: virtual circuit switches
     ATM                         MPLS               Carrier-grade Ethernet

                  All the above: Data-plane technologies                      3
                    IP and leased line
                   service deployment
                                         Leased line
Circuit or virtual circuit (VC) switch                 Telco service provider
                                                       (transport network) owns
                                                       circuit/VC switches

           Internet service provider or
           enterprise owns IP routers              IP Router
                    Management plane
                 (in transport network)
                                                (2) NMS computes path with
(1) Admins use              Network
                                                available bandwidth
Web interface              management
to request leased            system
                                                    (3) NMS sends
line creation
                                                    provisioning signals to
                                   Customer         each switch on path
                                  edge device       using SNMP/CLI/TL1

    Customer                                               Customer
   edge device                                            edge device

                     Customer              Customer
                                                        switch controller
                    edge device           edge device   has minimal software
                                                        (SNMP agent, CLI/TL1
              Spectrum of services
                  New service: rapid provisioning

Leased line    Verizon Bandwidth-on-Demand (BoD)    IP

                    Management plane
                     + control plane
                                                  (2) NMS still computes path
(1) Admins use               Network
                                                  with available bandwidth
Web interface               management
to request leased             system
line creation
         (3) TL1/CLI to                               (4) hop-by-hop
         edge node                                    distributed signaling
                                    edge device
                                                      for circuit/VC

    Customer                                                    Customer
   edge device                                                 edge device

                       Customer          Customer       switch controllers
                      edge device       edge device     have RSVP-TE software
              Progress made in
               telcom industry
• Data-plane progress
   – Excellent: interesting new switching technologies being
     invented for transport networks
• Control-plane
   – Switch controllers implement RSVP-TE capable of
     distributed route computation and admission control
   – But only provisioning phase is distributed
• Requests for circuits/VCs are still handled
  through management plane with involvement of
  administrators even in “Dynamic” scenarios
• Why is this an issue?
   – Limits access to “transport” circuit/VC network
           Difference with R&E thinking
                                                           (2) scheduler computes path
  (1) application software             Scheduler
  running at end host                                      with available bandwidth
  initiates request for
                      (3) TL1/CLI to
                      edge node                              (4) hop-by-hop
                                                             distributed signaling
                                                             for circuit/VC
       external                                              provisioning


                                                               switch controllers
                                                               have RSVP-TE software
                             (3a) configure router to filter
                             packets for long flow on to circuit/VC
Effect of opening up access to
circuit/VC “transport” network
• Application software running on end hosts deep
  inside enterprises can access dynamic circuit/VC
  services of the backbone transport network
• Circuit network reach does not need to extend all
  the way to the desktop
• With additional high-speed line from enterprise
  edge router into transport network, high-speed
  access can be enabled for short durations
• High call volume of setup/release: automatic
  generation of calls by software
• New applications!
                Spectrum of services
                               New services

  Leased line    Verizon BoD       eScience      10G POTS          IP

Book-ahead (BA) mode                Plain Old Telephone Service (64kbps)
 • call duration specified          Immediate-Request (IR) mode
Current solution:                     • unspecified call duration
 • centralized per-domain path      Low call setup overhead
   computation/admission control        ( holding times can be shorter)
Low call handling volume            Distributed path computation/admission
     OSCARS/DRAGON                  control
                                    High call handling volume
                                                CHEETAH                 11
• Telcom “transport network”
 Cheetah vs. Dragon Approach
  – Theoretical concepts
• GMPLS networks
  – Technologies, off-the-shelf switches, control-plane
• State of the art on different applications
  & networks
  – Commercial
  – Research-and-Education (REN) networks

• "Many e-science experiments ... are
  optimized to provide maximum throughput
  to a few facilities, as opposed to moderate
  throughput to millions of users, which is
  the raison d'etre for commercial
• Networks should be scalable:
  – Metcalfe's statement: Value of a network
    increases exponentially with the number of

       Key difference between
• DRAGON focus:
  – For eScience
     • Small number of users
     • High throughput to a few facilities
  – Transfer technology to Internet2
     • Implement and deploy software for book-ahead reservations
       and circuit provisionining by teaming with ESNet and DANTE
• CHEETAH focus:
  – General-purpose commercial network goal to bring GMPLS
    services to millions of users
  – But not with just moderate throughput, but also high-rate
  – Analyze GMPLS network bandwidth sharing modes (BA + IR)
  – Implementation: IR
• Types of switches
• Types of bandwidth-sharing modes
  – IP networks vs connection-oriented
    (GMPLS) networks
• Tradeoffs in GMPLS network modes
  – Immediate-request mode (e.g., Plain Old
    Telephone Service)
  – Book-ahead (advance-reservation)

              Types of switches
     Multiplexing technique on   Circuit      Packet switch (PS)
             data-plane links    switch (CS) - header based
Admission                        - position
control in                       (port, time,
control plane?                   lambda)
Connectionless (CL)              Not an      e.g., Ethernet
- no admission control           option
Connection-oriented (CO)         e.g.,     Virtual-circuit
- admission control              telephone e.g., MPLS, ATM,
                                 SONET     PBBTE
                                 WDM, SDM

                    GMPLS network                             16
                Difference between
           bandwidth (BW)-sharing modes
• In connectionless networks (e.g., IP)
   – Pre-1988 IP network:
      • Just send data without reservations or any mechanism to adjust
        rates  congestion collapses in the Internet in the 80s!
   – Van Jacobson's 1988 contribution:
      • Added congestion control to TCP
      • Sending TCP adjusts rate
   – TCP congestion-control pros and cons:
      • Pros: Proportional fairness and high utilization
      • Cons: No rate guarantees & No temporal fairness (job seniority)
• In connection-oriented networks (e.g., GMPLS)
   – Key: Admission control

                 Bandwidth sharing modes
                    in GMPLS networks
•   Can execute admission control in two ways:
     – Bufferless (immediate-request)
     – With buffers (book-ahead is effectively the same as having buffers to hold
       calls to start in the future)
•   Immediate-request: M/G/m/m model
     – m: number of channels on a link (servers)
     – if all channels are occupied, reject call
•   Book-ahead: M/G/m/p model
     –   p: max number in system: advance-reservation window K = p/m timeslots
     –   waiting time and call blocking
     –   K cannot be : need to block calls if per-server traffic intensity can be > 1
     –   Or engineer the system so per-server traffic intensity ≤ 1
•   Difference:
     – Not as the names suggest: IR calls need bandwidth immediately
          •   Misconception: BA with book-ahead time of “now”  IR  NOT TRUE
     – Instead, call duration needs to be specified to support BA mode
     – For IR mode, applications do not need to specify duration
               IR mode: M/G/m/m
                ErlangB formula
                 m / m!            : offered traffic load in Erlangs
       Pb                          : call arrival rate
                m k
                / k!             1/: mean call holding time
             k 0                 /m: per-server traffic intensity
                                   m: number of circuits
            (1  Pb )  
       ub                          Pb: call blocking probability
                  m                 ub: utilization

       For a 1% call blocking probability, i.e., Pb = 0.01
                      m      ua
                                          If m is small, high
                      4     24.8%         utilization can only be
                                          achieved along with high
           10         17    58.2%
                                          call blocking probability
           100        117   84.6%
     Comparison of Immediate-Request (IR)
        and Book-Ahead (BA) schemes
• Example
  – To achieve a 90% utilization
    with a call blocking probability
    less than 10%
    • BA-First schemes are needed
      when m < 59

  – To achieve a 90% utilization
    with a call blocking probability
    less than 20%
    • BA-First schemes are needed
      when m < 32

U: utilization
K: number of time periods in            Link capacity C = 10Gbps
   advance-reservation window           m = 10 if per-call allocation = 1Gbps

       IR m=10, U = 80%: PB = 23.6%        BA m=10, K=10, U = 80%: PB = 0.4%
            m=100, U = 80%: PB = 0.4%                                           20
               Bandwidth sharing mechanisms
                    in GMPLS networks
 Needed if per-call
 circuit rate is a large            Bandwidth sharing mechanisms
 fraction of link capacity
 (e.g., 1Gbps circuits on a
 10Gbps link, m = 10)       Book-ahead                      Immediate-request
                     call duration specified                      unspecified call duration

            BA-n/BA-First                                   VBDS
  session-type requests: BW, duration          (Varying-Bandwidth Delayed Start)
                                                       data-type requests: file size
       BA-n                BA-First                   (can assign any rate, even vary
Users specify a set of    Users are given first       rate in different time ranges)
n call-initiation time    available timeslot

           X. Zhu, Ph.D. Thesis, UVA,
          Relate BW sharing modes to
                 network types
Bandwidth-         Book-Ahead (BA)                    Immediate-Request (IR)
sharing            (high rate per call)               (moderate rate per call)
eScience           Very large (TB, PB) file           What applications?
networks           transfers need high-BW and         Centralized control-plane
(small number of   long holding time + remote viz.    (DRAGON)
users)             need to reserve other
                   resources such as displays.
                   Centralized control-plane
                   solution sufficient, since call
                   durations are high
general-purpose    To assign 1Gb/s on 10Gb/s per      Moderately large (100MB, GB)
networks           file transfer, m=10, need BA       file transfers assigned
(large number of   mode. Need distributed             moderate-BW (100-300Mbps)
users)             control-plane solution: small      (CHEETAH)
                   durations implies high call
                   arrival rate at same util (load)
 References on bandwidth sharing modes
• IR mode for file transfers with moderate-BW allocation
  (100Mbps on 10Gbps link)
   – X. Fang and M. Veeraraghavan, “On using a hybrid architecture for file
     transfers,” acceptedto IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed
     Systems, 2009.
   – X. Fang and M. Veeraraghavan, On using circuit-switched networks for
     file transfers,” in IEEE Globecom, New Orleans, LA, Nov. 2008.
   – X. Zhu, X. Zheng, and M. Veeraraghavan, "Experiences in implementing
     an experimental wide-area GMPLS network," IEEE Journal on Selected
     Areas in Communications (JSAC), Apr. 2007.
   – M. Veeraraghavan, X. Fang, and X. Zheng, “On the suitability of
     applications for GMPLS networks,” in IEEE Globecom, San Francisco,
     CA, Nov. 2006.
• Large-scale deployment of BA mode: (mean waiting time,
  blocking rate)
   – X. Zhu and M. Veeraraghavan, "Analysis and Design of Book-ahead
     Bandwidth-Sharing Mechanisms," IEEE Transactions on
     Communications, Dec. 08.
   – X. Zhu, M. E. McGinley, T. Li, and M. Veeraraghavan, "An Analytical
     Model for a Book-ahead Bandwidth Scheduler," in IEEE Globecom
     Washington, DC, Nov. 2007.
                                  Heterogeneous rate allocation               23
         Is an opportunity being missed if distributed IR
             bandwidth sharing mode is not explored?

• Yes. Four reasons:
  1. Increase end-to-end rate relative to IP service; possible in the presence
     of admission control (programmable patch panels to share ports)
  2. Enable the creation of large-scale circuit/VC networks with moderate-
     rate circuits that can support a brand new class of applications
          • economic value for the networking industry
  3. A "reservations-oriented" mode of networking to complement today's
     connectionless Internet
          • analogy: airlines complement roadways
  4. Alternative pricing models for bandwidth
     •    Leased lines and IP service are at two extremes
     •    Usage based pricing
     •    Dedicated (moderately high) bandwidth for short durations instead of low bandwidth for
          all time

   To increase end-to-end rate
• Problem:
   – WDM allows 40Gbps/channel with 80 channels/port
   – But, end-to-end rate is still on the order of tens of Mbps
   – Why? Access link rates: both for enterprises and residences
• Inter-domain link cost:
   – Internet2 charges $250K/year for a 1Gbps Ethernet connection
   – Why so high? High router port cost and no sharing
• Router port cost:
   – One-port 10Gbps or ten-port 1Gbps interface card costs $150-200K
• 2007 data for local access links in US:
   – 1.5M T1, 183K T3, 44K OC3, 21K OC12, 2K OC48 and 2.5K OC192
• Add leased lines to terminate on a space-division switch -
  for moderate rate, connect to sub-Gbps ports
   – With admission control for ports, connect high-speed link for short
     duration for single flows based on request from file-transfer apps.
What "brand new class of applications?"

• Moderate-bandwidth
  – Video: “Harry Potter” application,
    multiple-cameras/automated cameraman
    for video-tel/conf, distance-learning,
    virtual reality
  – Cloud computing, gaming
  – Teleoperations, telemedicine
• High-bandwidth, short-held calls
  – Web, P2P, storage, CDN file transfers
• Cheetah vs. Dragon Approach
  – Theoretical concepts
GMPLS networks
  – Technologies, off-the-shelf switches, control-
    plane protocols
• State of the art on different
  applications & networks
  – Commercial
  – Research-and-Education (REN) networks
   GMPLS related technologies
• GMPLS networks
   – Data-(user-) plane protocols
       • packet-switched: MPLS, VLAN Ethernet (PBBTE)
       • circuit-switched: SONET/SDH, WDM, SDM (space div. mux)
   – Control-plane protocols:
       • RSVP-TE: signaling protocol
       • OSPF-TE: routing protocol
       • LMP: link management protocol
• Internetworking: Ethernet-over SONET/MPLS/WDM
   – PWE3 for MPLS networks
   – Digital wrapper for OTN

        Why internetworking?
• GMPLS networks do not exist as standalone
  entities as data-sourcing end hosts do not have
• Instead they need to be internetworked with
  Ethernet interface cards:
   – Common usage: IP layer internetworking
      • IP routers with Packet-over-SONET (PoS) interfaces
   – Newer usage: Ethernet layer internetworking
      • Ethernet over MPLS/SONET/WDM/SDM
          – Port-mapped
          – VLAN-mapped (probably not supported with SDM)
      • Ethernet interface could be on hosts or routers
  Off-the-shelf GMPLS switches
Vendor/system        Data-plane                Control-plane
Cisco 12000 series   MPLS switching;           RSVP-TE, OSPF-TE
                     PWE3 Ethernet-over-MPLS
Juniper T640         MPLS switching;           RSVP-TE, OSPF-TE
                     PWE3 Ethernet-over-MPLS
Sycamore SN16000     SONET switching;          RSVP-TE, OSPF-TE
                     GFP/VCAT Ethernet-over-   for SONET circuits;
                     SONET (EoS)               no support for EoS
Ciena CDCI           SONET switching;          Proprietary signaling/routing
                     GFP/VCAT EoS              protocols
Movaz (now Adva)     WDM switching;            RSVP-TE, OSPF-TE
RayExpress           G.709 Eth-over-WDM
Calient              SDM switching;            RSVP-TE, OSPF-TE (?)
Force10 E600         Ethernet VLAN switching   None

     GMPLS control-plane scope
• RSVP-TE and OSPF-TE do not have parameters to
  support admission control for BA calls
  – e.g., call duration, optional desired call-initiation time
• Strengths:
  – Distributed routing and call setup/release functions for
    high-call volume IR calls
  – OSPF-TE (in each switch controller)
      • Loading conditions shared only intra-area
      • Link-state + Distance vector (even basic OSPF)
  – RSVP-TE (in each switch controller)
      • Route computation and admission control
          – CSPF can be done only intra-area by ingress switch
          – Any switch could be an ingress switch – hence highly scalable
      • Switch fabric configuration (i.e., provisioning)                    31
       Control-plane for BA calls

• Run an external scheduler to perform
   – path computation and admission control for future start time
   – add authentication and authorization
• Centralized scheduler - one per domain
• Inter-domain scheduler-to-scheduler protocol:
   – Abstracted topology exchange
   – Reservation phase (path computation + admission control)
   – Signaling phase (not clear why RSVP-TE is not used interdomain)
• Intradomain
   – Provisioning phase: RSVP-TE is used
   – OSPF-TE data is read out from switch controllers by scheduler for intra-
     domain path computation
• Not a scalable solution to support short-duration, high-BW calls
• Cheetah vs. Dragon Approach
  – Theoretical concepts
• GMPLS networks
  – Technologies, off-the-shelf switches, control-
    plane protocols
State of the art on different
 applications & networks
  – Commercial
  – Research-and-Education (REN) networks
              Spectrum of services
                             New services

Leased line    Verizon BoD     eScience     10G POTS   IP

          Commercial uses
• Semi-permanent MPLS virtual circuits
  – Traffic engineering
  – Voice over IP
    • QoS concerns: telephony has a 150ms one-
      way delay requirement (with echo cancellers)
  – Business or service provider interconnect
    • interconnecting geographically distributed
      campuses of an enterprise
    • interconnecting wide-area routers of an ISP
      service provider
      Traffic engineering (TE)
• Since BGP and OSPF routing protocols mainly
  spread reachability information, routing tables are
  such that some links become heavily congested
  while others are lightly loaded
• MPLS virtual circuits are used to alleviate this
   – e.g., NY to SF traffic could be directed to take an MPLS
     virtual circuit on a lightly loaded route avoiding all paths
     on which more local traffic may compete
• This is an application of MPLS VCs without
  bandwidth allocation

  Business or service provider
   interconnect (leased lines)
• Multiple options:
  – TDM circuits (traditional private line, T1, T3,
    OC3, OC12, etc.)
  – Ethernet private line
     • point-to-point (Ethernet over MPLS/SONET/WDM)
     • VPNs (called Virtual private LAN service)
  – WDM lightpaths
  – Dark fiber

Dynamic circuits/virtual circuit
    (GMPLS control-plane)
• Commercial:
  – fast restoration
     • circuit/VC setup delay significant
  – rapid provisioning
     • Verizon: Bandwidth on Demand (Just-in-Time
     • AT&T: Shared mesh networks
        – Customer Applications for dynamic network configuration
            » Key industries: Financial, Media & Entertainment
            » Corporate Utility Backbone Networks (e.g. reconfigure
              for disaster recovery)
            » Distribution of real-time content (e.g., Video)
     • Level3: Vyvx service
                Spectrum of services
                               New services

  Leased line    Verizon BoD       eScience   10G POTS   IP

Book-ahead (BA) mode
 • call duration specifie d
Current solution:
 • centralized per-domain path
   computation/admission control
Low call handling volume

        Research & Education
         (G)MPLS networks
•   Internet2’s Dynamic Circuit network
•   NSF-funded DRAGON
•   DOE's ESnet - Science Data Network
•   DOE's Ultra Science Network (USN)

Internet2 DWDM network

                                                       DWDM system
                  Rick Summerhill talk (10/11/2007)
Dynamic Circuit (DC) network

                                                          Ciena CD-CI
                  Rick Summerhill talk (10/11/2007)
Internet2 IP-routed network
               IP-router-to-router links on one wavelength
            SONET switch-to-switch links on another wavelength

                                                             Ciena CD-CI

                                                        T640 IP router
                   Rick Summerhill talk (10/11/2007)
   Equipment at each PoP

                  Rick Summerhill talk (10/11/2007)
     Control-plane software
        (for DC network)
• OSCARS implemented in InterDomain
  Controller (IDC) - one per domain
  – Abstracted topology exchange
  – Interdomain scheduling
  – Interdomain signaling (for provisioning)
• DRAGON (intradomain control-plane)
  – Used in Internet2’s DC network
  – Intradomain routing, path computation,
    signaling (for provisioning)
• On-demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation
  System (OSCARS)
• DOE Office of Science and ESnet project
• Co-development with Internet2
• Web Service based provisioning infrastructure, which
  includes scheduling, AAA architecture using X.509
     – Extended to include the DICE IDCP
     – Reservations held in SQL database
• Recall no support for book-ahead in GMPLS control protocols
                      Talk by Tom Lehman, Sep. 28, 2008                 46
•   Washington DC metro-area network:
     – Adva (old Movaz) WDM switches and Ethernet switches (G.709)
•   Control-plane software:
     – Network Aware Resource Broker – NARB
         • Intradomain listener, Path Computation
     – Virtual Label Swapping Router – VLSR
         • Implements OSPF-TE, RSVP-TE
         • Run on control PCs external to switches (since not all switches implement
           these GMPLS control-plane protocols)
         • Communicates with switches via SNMP, TL1, CLI to configure circuits.
     – Client System Agent – CSA
         • End system software for signaling into network (UNI or peer mode)
     – Application Specific Topology Builder – ASTB
         • User Interface and processing which build topologies on behalf of users
         • Topologies are a user specific configuration of multiple LSPs

                Open Source
             DCN Software Suite
     – Open source project maintained by ESNet and Internet2
     – Uses WDSL, XML, SQL database to store reservations
     – Reservations accepted with 1 minute granularity
     – NSF-funded Open source project maintained by USC ISI
       EASTand MAX
• Version 0.4 of DCNSS current deployed release
• DCN workshops offered for training:
                      Talk by Tom Lehman, Sep. 28, 2008                 48
                        DICE IDCP
• Dante, Internet2, CANARIE, ESNet
• IDCP: InterDomain Controller Protocol
• wsdl - web service definition of message
  types and formats
• xsd – definition of schemas used for
  network topology descriptions and path
                      Talk by Tom Lehman, Sep. 28, 2008                 49
            InterDomain Controller (IDC)
                  Protocol (IDCP)
•   The following organizations have implemented/deployed systems which are
    compatible with this IDCP
     –   Internet2 Dynamic Circuit Network (DCN)
     –   ESNet Science Data Network (SDN)
     –   GÉANT2 AutoBahn System
     –   Nortel (via a wrapper on top of their commercial DRAC System)
     –   Surfnet (via use of above Nortel solution)
     –   LHCNet (use of I2 DCN Software Suite)
     –   Nysernet (use of I2 DCN Software Suite)
     –   LEARN (use of I2 DCN Software Suite)
     –   LONI (use of I2 DCN Software Suite)
     –   Northrop Grumman (use of I2 DCN Software Suite)
     –   University of Amsterdam (use of I2 DCN Software Suite)
     –   DRAGON Network
•   The following "higher level service applications" have adapted their existing
    systems to communicate via the user request side of the IDCP:
     –    LambdaStation (FermiLab) – CMS project on Large Hadron Collider
     –   TeraPaths (Brookhaven) - ATLAS project on Large Hadron Collider
     –   Phoebus
                      Talk by Tom Lehman, Sep. 28, 2008                 50
       Heterogeneous Network Technologies
            Complex End to End Paths
       Example: DRAGON                 Example: Internet2 DC
                                                           Example: ESNet SDN
                                       AS 2
          AS 1                    IP Control Plane                  AS 3
          IP Control Plane                                IP Control Plane


                                                     Router MPLS LSP
                                    Ethernet over
VLSR                                   SONET
              Ethernet over WDM                                      End
             System                 Lambda Switch            Ethernet Segment
                                                           VLSR Established VLAN
                                    SONET Switch
   Ethernet Segment
 VLSR Established VLAN                Router
                          Rick Summerhill talk (10/11/2007)
                        IDCP operation
                                                                         Route selection,
                                                                         admission control
                                                                         centralized per
                                                                         domain at IDC

•   Advance reservation request and circuit provisioning at scheduled time:
     •   End user signals IDC with a reservation request
     •   Authenticate requester and check authorization
     •   Request reservation (create time, bandwidth, VLAN tag)
     •   Signaling: creation of circuit (automatic or in response to message to IDC)
•   Topology exchange: interdomain (abstracted topology information)
•   Monitoring
     Intra-domain operations
• Using DRAGON in Internet2 DCN
  – NARB does intra-domain path computation after
    collecting routing information by listening to OSPF-TE
    exchanges between VLSRs
  – These intradomain paths are provided to IDC for use
    during resource scheduling (upto 3 path options are
  – 5 VLSRs serve 22 CD-CIs: “subnets of CD-CIs”
  – In Signaling phase, VLSR sends TL1 command to edge CD-
    CI, which initiates proprietary hop-by-hop signaling to
    configure circuit through subnet

GOLE: GLIF open lightpath exchange
               DOE networks
• ESnet and Science Data Network (SDN)
  – OSCARS: an advance-reservation system
  – Science Data Network: MPLS network
• UltraScience Network
  – Research network for DoE labs
  – GbE and SONET (Ciena CD-CI)
  – Centralized scheduler for advance-reservation calls
  – 5-PoP network: ORNL, Atlanta, Chicago, Seattle,
  – Connections to Fermi Lab, PNNL, SLAC, CalTech
• Lambdastation: CMS project
  – Between Fermi Lab and Univ. of Nebraska
              Spectrum of services
                             New services

Leased line    Verizon BoD     eScience       10G POTS          IP

                                 Plain Old Telephone Service (64kbps)
                                 Immediate-Request (IR) mode
                                   • unspecified call duration
                                 Low call setup overhead
                                     ( holding times can be shorter)
                                 Distributed path computation/admission
                                 High call handling volume
                                             CHEETAH                 56
                NSF-funded CHEETAH network
                   GbEthernet and SONET
                    TN PoP                            GbE                         CUNY
                      SN16000        GbE
               OC192 Control GbE/        End hosts                    NCSU
               card  card    10GbE

              GA PoP                                    NC PoP
                  SN16000                                   SN16000
          GbE GbE/
                    Control OC192
End   hosts   10GbE card                             OC192 Control GbE/ GbE
                            cards                                  10GbE
              card                                   card  card             End   hosts

                                  OC-192                               GbE
              GbE                                                                    57
 ORNL                           Sycamore SN16000                             GaTech
                       SONET switch with GbE/10GbE interfaces
         Networking software
• Sycamore switch comes with built-in GMPLS
  control-plane protocols:
• We developed CHEETAH software for Linux
  end hosts:
   – circuit-requestor
     • allows users and applications to issue RSVP-TE
       call setup and release messages asking for
       dedicated circuits to remote end hosts
  – CircuitTCP (CTCP) code

                                CHEETAH network usage

                                                                                                                 End Host
End Host                 CHEETAH                                                        CHEETAH
                         software                                                       software
                         DNS client                       network                       DNS client

                       RSVP-TE module                                               RSVP-TE module
Application                                         SONET circuit-                                             Application
                                                   switched network

              TCP/IP                                                                                 TCP/IP

                                      NIC 1    Circuit                Circuit   NIC 1
        CTCP/IP                               Gateway                Gateway                                  CTCP/IP
                                      NIC 2                                     NIC 2

           • Bandwidth-sharing mode:
                  •    Immediate-request mode (blocked calls fall back to IP path)
                  •    Heterogeneous rate allocation under high loads:
                        • higher BW for large files than for small files
           • Applications:
                  •    Common file transfers (web, P2P, CDN, storage)
                         •    attempts circuits for large files (if blocked, use IP-routed path)
                         •    use IP-routed path for small files                             59
             End-to-end call setup delay
•   Delays incurred in setting up a circuit between host zelda1 (in Atlanta, GA) and
    host wuneng (in Raleigh, NC) across the CHEETAH network

         Circuit type       End-to-end          Processing delay for        Processing delay for
                           circuit setup          Path message at             Resv message at
                             delay (s)          the NC SN16000 (s)          the NC SN16000 (s)
            OC-1             0.166103                 0.091119                   0.008689
            OC-3             0.165450                 0.090852                   0.008650
         1Gb/s EoS           1.645673                 1.566932                   0.008697
    Round-trip signaling message propagation plus emission delay between GA SN16000 and NC SN16000:

•   Observations:
     –     Setup delays for SONET circuits (OC1, OC3) are small (166ms)
     –     Setup delays for Ethernet-over-SONET (EoS) hybrid circuits are much higher (1.6s)
           (no standard; proprietary implementation)
     –     Signaling message processing delays dominate end-to-end circuit setup delays

•   Need BA service if the per-call bandwidth allocation is a significant
    fraction of link capacity (1Gbps on a 10Gbps link)
•   Key differentiator between BA and IR: BA calls specify call
•   GMPLS control-plane protocols are designed for distributed
    scalable implementation of IR service
•   GMPLS control-plane protocols do not have parameters to support
    BA service (e.g., call duration in RSVP-TE)
•   BA service with centralized schedulers per domain suitable for long
    call-duration eScience applications (small number of users)
•   To support BA service for general-purpose applications, e.g., large
    file transfers in Web, P2P, storage, CDN, with short call durations,
    need to design scalable control-plane solution for BA calls
•   Four reasons to develop an IR service with moderate per-BW calls

     Item 7: Related Items on
         Future Internet
• US National Science Foundation (NSF) interest
   – CyberPhysical Systems to create an "Internet of Things“
   – "Network Science"
   – Ty Znati (Director of Computer Network Systems
     division in the NSF's CISE directorate):
• GENI effort to build a global network for


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