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Metal Casting Design_ Materials_ Economics

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					                                                                                                                                            10/25/2009




                                                                               Design of Cast Parts
        Metal Casting                                                Avoid sharp corners, angles & fillets
                                                                         They act as stress raisers
Design, Materials, Economics                                         Select fillet radii to reduce stress
                                                                     concentrations and ensure proper liquid metal
                                                                     flow
                                                                                 (1/8”-
                                                                         3-25 mm (1/8”-3”)
          Text Reference: “Manufacturing
           Engineering and Technology”,                              Seek uniform cross sections and wall
          Kalpakjian & Schmid, 6/e, 2010                             thickness throughout casting
                                                                         Larger sections become hot spots leading to
                    Chapter 12                                           shrinkage cavities and porosity




                                                                      FIGURE 12.2 Examples of designs showing the importance of
FIGURE 12.1 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in
                                                                    maintaining uniform cross sections in castings to avoid hot spots and
castings. Source: Courtesy of the American Die Casting Institute.
                                                                                            shrinkage cavities.




                                                                    TABLE 12.1 Normal Shrinkage Allowance for Some Metals Cast in
    Design of Cast Parts                           (continued)                             Sand Molds


 Avoid large flat areas
   May warp during cooling because of
   temperature gradients
   May have uneven finish due to uneven flow
   during pouring
   Incorporate staggered ribs & serrations
 Allow for metal shrinkage during
 solidification




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 Extract from “Cast Irons”, ASM, Chapter on                          carbon equivalent
   Foundry Practice for Cast Irons, p.140                               (metallurgy)
“The precipitation of graphite during eutectic            An empirical relationship of the total
solidification causes an expansion, which offsets some    carbon (TC), silicon (Si) and phosphorus
of the contraction usually experienced during             (P) content of gray iron:
solidification of a metal. In fact a Class 20 iron
precipitates enough graphite to create sufficient
expansion so that feeding is not required. As the CE of   CE = %TC + 0.3(%Si + %P).
the iron decreases, less graphite is precipitated and
feeding requirements increase. A Class 50 iron
requires approximately 4% volumetric feeding to offset
the contraction of the iron.”




      Design of Cast Parts              (continued)         Design of Cast Parts                 (continued)



   Provide a small draft (taper) to enable removal        Tolerances should be a wide as possible
   of pattern without damaging mold                                             +/-
                                                            For small castings: +/- 0.8 mm (1/32”)
                                                                                +/-
                                                            For large castings: +/- 6 mm (0.25”)
                                                          C   id finishing      ti
                                                          Consider fi i hi operations
                                                            E.g. Locate holes on flat surfaces
                                                          Select appropriate casting process
                                                            Casting process can influence casting design




      Design of Cast Parts              (continued)         Design of Cast Parts                 (continued)



   Location of parting line                                               gates:
                                                          Design & locate gates:
     Along a flat plane (not contoured)                     Multiple gates for large parts
     At corners or edges (not on flat surfaces)             At thick sections of castings
     Locate critical surfaces facing downwards                               g                g
                                                            Use fillet where gate meets casting
     (reduced porosity)                                     Allow space between sprue and casting
     Placed to allow ease of metal flow                                            3-
                                                            Minimum gate length 3-5 times diameter
                                                            Cross section smaller than runner but large
     Affects mold design – locate sprue well, gates         enough for flow
     & runners at parting line in drag (bottom)
                                                            Avoid curved gates




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                                                                       Design Issues:
   Design of Cast Parts                       (continued)
                                                                   Expendable Mold Casting
Use multiple runners for more complicated                    Mold Layout
castings                                                        Solidification progress uniformly across mold,
Runners trap dross                                              risers last
Use a pouring basin to ensure even metal flow                Machining Allowance
into sprue and collect dross
                                                                Pattern dimensions include material for later
                                                                finishing; grinding & machining
Use good molten metal                                           Increase with size & section thickness
Pour molten metal evenly, without interruption




         Design Issues:                                     FIGURE 12.3 Examples of undesirable (poor) and desirable (good)
                                                                                                      Die-
                                                                    casting designs. Permanent Mold & Die-casting.
     Expendable Mold Casting                                                   Source: Courtesy of American Die Casting Institute.




Riser Design Rules
   Riser must solidify after casting
   Riser volume with sufficient metal to compensate for
   shrinkage during cooling
   No hot spots at junction between casting & riser
   Proper placement of risers so that liquid metal flows
   where needed
   Provide sufficient pressure to drive liquid where
   needed in cavity.
      More useful for higher density metals
   Riser pressure head sufficient to encourage complete
   cavity filling




 Computer Modeling of Casting
                                                                            Casting Alloys
          Process
Casting involves complex interactions among many             Important considerations for alloys:
variables
New modeling techniques can simultaneously handle
                                                                Casting characteristics
fluid flow, heat transfer, microstructures during               Machinability
solidification, etc.                                                      y
                                                                Weldability
Modeling of fluid flow uses Bernoulli’s and continuity
equations                                                    The tables on the following slides
Heat transfer models model the effects of surface            summarize:
conditions, thermal properties, convection on cooling           Properties and applications of cast metals and
Microstructures models encompass heat flow,                     their alloys
temperature gradients, nucleation, crystal growth, etc.
                                                                Casting and manufacturing characteristics




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FIGURE 12.4 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys.        FIGURE 12.4 (continued) Mechanical properties for various groups
Note that even within the same group, the properties vary over a wide        of cast alloys. Note that even within the same group, the properties
range, particularly for cast steels. Source: Courtesy of Steel Founders’   vary over a wide range, particularly for cast steels. Source: Courtesy of
                           Society of America.                                                Steel Founders’ Society of America.




     TABLE 12.2 Typical Applications for Castings and Casting              TABLE 12.5 Properties and Typical Applications of Nonferrous Cast
                        Characteristics                                                               Alloys




         Aluminum-
         Aluminum-based Alloys                                                      Aluminum-
                                                                                    Aluminum-based Alloys
  High electrical conductivity                                               Applications:
  Good atmospheric corrosion resistance                                          Architectural & decorative
                                                                                 Automobiles
  Poor resistance to some acids and all                                              Engine blocks
   lk li
  alkalis                                                                            Cylinder heads
      Avoid/prevent galvanic corrosion                                               Intake manifolds
                                                                                     Transmission cases
  Nontoxic, lightweight, good machinability                                          Suspension components
  Low resistance to wear and abrasion                                                Wheels
      Improves with addition of silicon                                              Brakes




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   Magnesium-
   Magnesium-based Alloys                              Copper-
                                                       Copper-based Alloys
The lowest density of all commercial           Relatively expensive
casting alloys                                 Good electrical conductivity
Good corrosion resistance                      Good thermal conductivity
M d t t         th
Moderate strength                              Good corrosion resistance
  Strength depends on heat treatment           Nontoxic
Applications:
                               air-
  Automotive wheels, housings, air-cooled
  engine blocks




         Zinc-
         Zinc-based Alloys                              Non-
                                                  Other Non-ferrous Alloys
Low melting point                              Tin-
                                               Tin-based
                                                 Low strength; Good corrosion resistance
Good corrosion resistance                        Use for bearing surfaces
Good fluidity                                  Lead-based
                                               Lead-
                                                 Similar to Tin; toxic
                                                 Si il t Ti t i
Moderate strength
                                               High-
                                               High-temperature
Applications:                                    Wide range of properties
  Die casting                                    Require temperatures up to 1650oC (3000oF) for
                                                 Titanium; higher for Mo, Nb, W, Ta
  Parts with thin walls and intricate shapes
                                                 Utilize specialized casting techniques




     Ferrous Casting Alloys                    TABLE 12.3 Properties and Typical Applications of Cast Irons



Cast Irons
  Can be easily cast into intricate shapes
  Good wear resistance
  High hardness
  Good machinability
The term ‘C.I.’ includes a family of alloys
General properties and applications in
Tables 12.3, 12.4




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   TABLE 12.4 Mechanical Properties of Gray Cast Irons                Gray Cast iron
                                                         Relatively few shrinkage cavities
                                                         Low porosity
                                                         Properties vary: ferritic, pearlitic, martensitic
                                                         Applications:
                                                                          electric-
                                                           Engine blocks, electric-motor housings, pipes, wear
                                                           surfaces for machines
                                                           Machine tool bases
                                                         2-digit ASTM classification
                                                           Class 20 : Minimum 20 ksi (140 MPa) tensile strength




      Ductile (Nodular) Iron                                         White Cast Iron
Typically used for machine parts,                        Has extreme hardness
housings, gears, pipe, rolls for rolling mills,          Is brittle
automotive crankshafts                                   Very good wear resistance
      80-55-
Grade 80-55-06                                           Primary uses:
  Minimum 80 ksi (550 MPa) tensile strength
                                                           Rolls for rolling mills
  Minimum 55 ksi (380 MPa) yield strength
                                                           Railroad-car brake shoes
                                                           Railroad-
  6% elongation in 2” (50 mm)
                                                           Liners in machinery for processing abrasive
                                                           materials




              Malleable Iron                                Compacted-Graphite Iron
                                                            Compacted-
Good ductility, strength and shock                       Has the good damping and thermal
resistance                                               properties of gray iron
Applications:                                            Has the good strength and stiffness
  R/R equipment                                          p p
                                                         properties of ductile iron
  Hardware & fittings                                    These properties permit smaller, lighter
  Components for electrical applications                 parts
Classification example: 35018                            Easy to cast and has good machinability
  35 ksi (240 MPa)                                       Used for automotive engine blocks and
  18% elongation in 2” (50 mm)                           cylinder heads




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                Cast Steels                                          Cast Stainless Steels
Require high temperatures (1650oC or 3000oF)                 Similar to steels
to melt
Steel castings have properties that are more                 Possess long freezing ranges and high melting
uniform than those made by mechanical working                temperatures
processes                                                    Can be heat treated and welded
Can be welded; heat alters microstructure                    Have high heat and corrosion resistance
  Affects strength, ductility, toughness
  Restore original properties by heat treatment              Applications:
Applications:                                                   Chemical & food industries
  Mining, chemical plants, oil fields, heavy construction,      In severely corrosive environments
  R/R equipment
                                                                For very high temperature service




      Economics of Casting                                   TABLE 12.6 General Cost Characteristics of Casting Processes



Unit cost (of castings, as for all processes)
depends on costs of materials, equipment
and labour
Preparations for casting include production
of molds and dies that also have similar
costs




      Economics of Casting                                                       Summary
Cost components:                                             General guidelines developed covering
  Molds (extremes: sand - low; die - high)                   shape of casting and design of process to
  Melting & pouring metal
  Heat-treating
  Heat-                                                      reduce hot spots; important to follow good
  Cleaningg                                                  casting practice for control of metal flow
  Inspection                                                                         non-
                                                             Numerous ferrous and non-ferrous alloys
  Labour varies according to skill and time required
                                                             with wide range of characteristics and
                                                             production requirements
Sand casting economic for low volumes
Sustained high production rates can justify high             Economic considerations are as important
cost of dies and machinery;                                  as technical considerations




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