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                                  Index



                 Note: Page numbers with italicized f and t refer to figures and tables.

                 abdominal aorta (ABA), 88f                                           live/real time 3D TTE in, 79f
                    dissection, 96f                                                   transaesophageal 3D reconstruction of, 7–8f
                 alcohol-induced septal ablation, 143f                                2D TTE assessment of, 73–6, 78f




                                                                                                                       AL
                 alpha and beta rotation, 9f                                       aortic valve (AV), 72
                 alpha rotation, 9f                                                   aortic regurgitation, 76–81
                 anatomic planes, 26f                                                 aortic stenosis, 72–6



                                                                                                            RI
                 aneurysm, 4f                                                         bicuspid, 193f
                    left ventricular, 128–229                                         endocarditis, 84–5f
                    posterior wall, 132f                                              large vegetations, 9f
                                                                                                          TE
                    pseudo-aneurysm, 128–129, 133f                                    live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 267
                 annual diameters, 19                                                 orifice area, 74t, 77–8f
                 annular nonplanarity, 19                                             “peeling off of layers”, 10f
                                                                                                   MA

                 anomalies of coronary artery, 180–81                                 perforations, 85f
                    left main coronary artery fistula, 192f                            short-axis cropping at tip, 76f
                    live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 190–91f         supravalvar stenosis, 72–6
                    2D transesophageal echocardiography, 189–90f                   aortic valve replacement (AVR)
                 anterior infarction, 291f                                            echo-free space, 120f
                                                                                          ED



                 anterior leaflet, 49f                                                 leaflets, 118f
                 anterior tricuspid valve leaflet, 199f                                multiple abscess cavities, 119f
                 aorta, 267                                                           stenosis, 118f
                                                                                HT




                 aortic angiographic grading                                       aortic valves, 47–8f
                    vena contracta area and, 83f                                      3D matrix TEE acquisitions of, 20f
                    vena contracta width and, 83f                                  aortic-to-mitral annual orientation, 19
                 aortic dissection, 87                                             aortopulmonary window, 178, 183–4f
                                                                        IG




                    live/real time 3D TTE in, 88–91f                               apical approach, 32, 32f, 38–9f
                    2D transthoracic echocardiography in, 87f                      apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 139–41f
                 aortic dissection rupture                                         area change rate, 292f
                                                                R




                    computed tomography assessment of, 93f                         ascending aorta (AA)
                                                             PY




                    live/real time 3D TTE in, 92f                                     aneurysm, 96f
                    real time 2D TTE in, 91–2f                                        live 3D parasternal TTE assessment of, 47f, 49–51f
                    right ventricular outflow tract, 91–3f                             live 3D suprasternal TTE assessment of, 42f
                 aortic pseudoaneurysm, 86f                                           live/real time 3D TTE assessment of, 95f
                                                    CO




                 aortic regurgitation, 76                                             3D image of, 4f
                    color Doppler study, 96f                                       ascending aortic dissection, 269f
                    live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 82f,         atrial appendage (AA), 52–3f
                          119f, 193f, 268f                                         atrial septal defects (ASD), 155–75. See also congenital heart
                    2D transthoracic echocardiography, 192f                                 disease (CHD); ventricular septal defects (VSD)
                    vena contracta, 82f                                               complete atrioventricular septal defects, 169f, 171f
                    vena contracta area, 83f                                          coronary sinus, 155, 167f
                    vena contracta width, 83f                                         foramen ovale, 168f
                 aortic stenosis (AS), 72–6, 182. See also congenital heart           live 3D TTE assessment of, 156f
                          disease (CHD); obstructive lesions                          maximum area, 157f, 159–60f
                    limitations of assessment methods, 75t                            maximum circumference, 157f, 159f
                    live 3D TTE in evaluation of, 73–6, 77f, 79f                      maximum diameters, 157–8f, 160f



                                                                                                                                            295
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           296 Index


           atrial septal defects (ASD) (cont.)                                     fetal echocardiography, 211–14
              ostium primum, 155                                                   transposition of the great arteries, 108
              ostium secundum, 155, 156f                                        coronary artery anomalies, 180–81, 189–91f
              partial atrioventricular septal defects, 172f                     live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 280
              sinus venosus, 155                                                obstructive lesions, 182, 197
              transcatheter closure, 162–5f                                        aortic stenosis, 182
              types of, 155                                                        subaortic stenosis, 182, 197
           atrial septum, live 3D TTE assessment of, 45f                        overview, 155
           azimuth steering, 24f                                                patent ductus arteriosus, 176–8f, 185–8f
           azygos vein (AZ), 43f, 232–3f                                        shunt lesions, 155–75
                                                                                   atrial septal defects, 155–75
           beamforming, 14–17                                                      ventricular septal defects (VSD), 175
           beta rotation, 9f                                                 contrast resolution, 284–5
           bicuspid aortic valve, 192–3f                                     contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), 284–5
           Bland-Altman plots, 157f, 176–8f                                  cor triatriatum sinister, 197, 198f
           bubble study, 30f                                                 coronal cropping, 28
                                                                             coronary arteries, live/real time 3D transthoracic
           carcinoid heart disease, 100, 101f                                         echocardiography, 129–31f
           cardiac catheterization, limitations of, 75t                      coronary artery anomalies, 180–81
           cardiac masses, 218–53                                               left main coronary artery fistula, 192f
              attached to cardiac valves, 231                                   live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography,
              chordomas, 229, 250f                                                    190–91f
              epithelioid hemangioma, 247f                                      2D transesophageal echocardiography, 189–90f
              fibroelastoma, 247–9f                                           coronary sinus (CS), 45–6f, 155, 167f
              fibroma, 240f                                                   coronary stenosis, 128
              hemangioma, 229, 241f                                          coumadin, 222f
              hydatid cyst, 242–6f                                           crista terminalis, 231f
              leiomyosarcoma, 251f                                           cropping, 17
              lipoma, 239–40f                                                cropping planes, 26–8, 26–8f
              myxoma, 235–8f                                                 cysts, hydatid, 242–6f
           cardiomyopathies, 137–53                                             daughter cyst, 246f
              definition of, 137                                                 granddaughter cyst, 246f
              dilated, 138–9f                                                   great granddaughter cyst, 246f
              hypertrophic, 137–41                                              in left ventricle, 242f
              isolated left ventricular noncompaction, 141–53                   live/real time 3D TTE assessment of, 242f
           chamber quantification, 267                                           schematic of, 242f
           Chiari network, 209f, 211
           chordomas, 229. See also tumors                                   data density, 285–6
              live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 250f         data size, 285–6
              metastatic, 250f                                               daughter cyst, 246f
              pathological specimen, 250f                                    defibrillator, detection of vegetation, 234f
              real time 2D transthoracic echocardiography, 250f              descending thoracic aorta
           circumferential strain, 287, 289f                                    dissection, 93–5f
           cleft tricuspid valve, 169                                           live 3D right parasternal TTE assessment of, 52–3f
           clopidogrel, 222f                                                    live 3D TTE assessment of, 86f, 88f
           clutter, 284f                                                        live/real time supraternal echocardiography, 42f
           coagulation cascade, 222f                                         dextro-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA), 198,
           combined left and right ventricular compaction, 145–7f                     204–5f, 207–9f
           commisural lengths, 19                                            diastole, 2f
           common atrioventricular valve (CAV), 170f                         dilated cardiomyopathy, 138–9f
           complete atrioventricular septal defects, 169f, 171f,             direct video planimetry, 66f
                    212–14f                                                  discrete membranous subaortic stenosis, 281f
           congenital heart disease (CHD), 155–216                              live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography,
              aortopulmonary window, 178, 183–4f                                      195f
              complex and other abnormalities, 197–214                       discrete subaortic membrane
                 Chiari network, 209f, 211                                      cardiac catheterization pressure tracings, 197f
                 cor triatriatum sinister, 197, 198f                            live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 196f
                 Ebstein’s anomaly, 197–8                                       2D transthoracic echocardiography, 196f
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                                                                                                                                 Index 297


                 Doppler echocardiography                                           suprasternal approach, 34
                   gating, 15                                                       3D examination protocol, 23–8
                   limitations of, 75t                                              3D imaging, 23
                 ductus arteriosus, 210f
                 dyspnea on exertion (DOE), 57t                                  false lumen, 88f, 91f, 93–4f
                 dyssynchrony imaging, 291f                                      fetal echocardiography, 211–14
                                                                                    fetus with complete atrioventricular septal defect, 212–14f
                 Ebstein’s anomaly, 197–8. See also congenital heart disease        normal fetus, 210f
                          (CHD)                                                  fibrin strands, 255
                    isolated, 201–3f                                             fibroelastoma, 247f. See also tumors
                    leaflets of tricuspid valves, 199f                               histopathology of, 249f
                    live/real time 3D TTE in, 200–203f                              live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 247f
                    oblique section, 202f                                           multiple frond-like structures, 249f
                    transverse section, 201f                                        pulmonary valve, 248f
                    tricuspid valves, 203f                                          tricuspid valve, 247f
                 echocardiography, 3D, 13–21                                     fibroma
                    apical approach, 32, 38–9f                                      real time 2D TTE assessment of, 240f
                    beamforming, 14–17                                              real time 3D TTE assessment of, 240fright ventricular,
                    cropping planes, 26, 26f                                              240f
                    examination protocol, 23                                     flail tricuspid valve, 102f
                    full-volume mode, 15, 25f                                    foramen ovale, 167f, 210f
                    indications for, 19–21                                       4DLV Analysis software, 122
                    information display, 17                                      full-volume imaging, real-time, 283–6
                    left parasternal approach, 28–31, 29f                           clutter, 284f
                    live mode, 15                                                   contrast resolution, 284–5
                    quantification in 3D, 17–19                                      data density, 285–6
                    right parasternal approach, 35–7, 45–53f                        data size, 285–6
                    semiautomated border detection, 18f                             information density, 284
                    subcostal approach, 32–4, 40–41f                                information rate, 283–5
                    supraclavicular approach, 34–5, 43–4f                           overview, 283
                    suprasternal approach, 34, 42f                                  speckle, 284f
                    surface rendering, 17                                           temporal resolution, 284
                    3D imaging in, 23                                               3D vs. stitched image acquisition, 285
                    transducer positions, 25f                                       volume rate, 284f
                    transducers, 13–14                                              volume size, 284
                    true 3D spatial modes, 15                                    full-volume mode, 15, 23
                    volume rendering, 16f, 17
                 echocardiography, history of, 1                                 gated 3D color acquisition, 17f
                 ejection fraction, 143f                                         gating, 15
                 elevation steering, 24f                                         glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, 222f
                 endocarditis, live/real time 3D TTE in, 84–5f                   granddaughter cyst, 246f
                 endocardium, fractional area change of, 292f                    great granddaughter cyst, 246f
                 end-systolic volumes, 143f                                      guidance of percutaneous cardiac interventions, 280–81
                 epithelioid hemangioma, 247f
                    histopathology of, 247f                                      heart
                    live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 247f         regional display of 3D image, 3f
                    transesophageal echocardiography, 247f                         tangential section of 3D image, 3f
                    2D transthoracic echocardiography, 247f                      hemangioma, 229
                 Eustachian valve, 209f                                            left atrial, 241f
                 examination protocol, 31–7                                        live 3D TTE assessment of, 241f
                    apical approach, 31                                          heparin, 222f
                    azimuth steering, 24f                                        hiatal hernia, 231
                    cropping planes, 26–8                                          CT scan images of, 253f
                    elevation steering, 24f                                        2D transthoracic echocardiography, 252–3f
                    left parasternal approach, 28–31                             homograft aortic prosthesis, 119–20f
                    right parasternal approach, 35–7                             hydatid cyst, 242–6f
                    subcostal approach, 31–4                                       daughter cyst, 246f
                    supraclavicular approach, 34–5                                 granddaughter cyst, 246f
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           298 Index


           hydatid cyst (cont.)                                           left main coronary artery, 29f
             great granddaughter cyst, 246f                               left parasternal approach, 28–31, 29f
             in left ventricle, 242f                                      left pulmonary artery (LPA), 52–3f
             live/real time 3D TTE assessment of, 242f                    left subclavian artery (LSA), 42f, 88f
             schematic of, 242f                                           left ventricle, 5f
           hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 137–41                               cut-open, 3D display of, 4f
             apical, 137, 139–41f                                            full-volume acquisition, 16f
             definition of, 137                                               live 3D right parasternal TTE assessment of, 46f
             forms of, 137                                                   live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 95f
             left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in, 137–9             3D image of, 4f
             systolic anterior motion, 137–9                                 3D quantification of, 18
                                                                             3D reconstruction of, 2f, 5–6f
           indications for 3D echocardiography, 19–20                     left ventricular aneurysm, 128–9
           inferior thyroid vein (ITV), 232–3f                            left ventricular angiographic assessment, 66–7f
           inferior tricuspid leaflet, 49f                                 left ventricular cavity, volume cast of, 6f
           inferior vena cava (IVC), 45–51f, 166f                         left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), 122, 124f
           inferolateral infarction, 291f                                 left ventricular end-diastolic volumes (LV EDV), 123f
           information density, 284                                       left ventricular end-systolic volumes (LV ESV), 123f, 125f
           information rate, 283–5                                        left ventricular function, 122–3
           interatrial septum, 8f                                            live/real time 3D TTE assessment of, 125f
           interventricular septal defect, 37f                               sequential processing for, 126
           intracardiac shunt, dynamic 3D images of, 11f                  left ventricular mass (LV MASS), 124f
           intraoperative applications, 280                               left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), 72, 76, 100f, 137–9,
           ischemic heart disease, 128–35                                          141f
              complications of myocardial infarction, 129–32              left ventricular pseudo-aneurysm, 133f
              coronary stenosis, 128                                      left ventricular trabeculations, 152f
              left ventricular aneurysm, 128–9                            leiomyosarcoma. See also tumors
              live/real time 3D TTE of coronary arteries, 129–31f            left atrial, 251f
              overview, 128                                                  live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 251f
              pseudoaneurysm, 128–9, 133f                                    microscopic appearances of, 251f
              septal defect, 134f                                         levo-transposition of the great arteries (L-TGA), 198, 206f
              3D TTE for stress testing, 132                              lipoma. See also tumors
              ventricular septal defect, 135f                                left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), 239f
              wall motion abnormalities, 128–9, 132f                         real time 2D TTE assessment of, 239–40f
           isolated left ventricular noncompaction (ILVNC), 141–53           right ventricular, 240f
              definition of, 141                                           live 3D mode, 15
              live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography,           live imaging, 23
                    149–50, 150f                                          live mode, 15
              2D transthoracic echocardiography, 144f, 149–50, 149f       live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 263–81
           isolated right ventricular noncompaction (IRVNC), live/real       advantage of, 6
                    time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 148f             anatomic planes, 26f
           isopleths, overlay of high- and low-velocity, 2f                  bubble study, 30f
                                                                             chamber quantification, 267
           leaflet surface areas, 19                                          of congenital heart disease, 280
           left anterior oblique (LAO) view, 93f                             guidance of percutaneous cardiac interventions,
           left atrial appendage, 227–8f, 263                                      280–81
           left atrial area (LAA), 55, 66f                                   intraoperative applications, 280
           left atrial end-systolic volumes, 143f                            of mass lesions, 280
           left atrial hemangioma, 241f                                      oblique/coronal section, 27f
           left atrial myxoma, live/real time 3D TTE assessment of,          offline analysis, 267
                    235–7f                                                   overview, 263
           left atrium, 35f, 95f                                             protocol, 263–7
           left atrium appendage (LAA), 52–3f                                   aorta, 267
           left atrium (LA), 45f, 52–3f                                         aortic valve, 267
           left carotid artery (LCA), 42f                                       left atrial appendage, 263
           left heart, 28                                                       lower esophagus, 263
              long-axis view of, 29f                                            mitral valve, 263–4
           left innominate vein (LIV), 42–4f, 232–4f                            patent foramen ovale, 263
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                                                                                                                                Index 299


                      pulmonic valve, 267                                       obstructive lesions, 182–97. See also congenital heart disease
                      tricuspid valve, 267                                             (CHD)
                   sagittal planes, 27f                                           aortic stenosis, 182
                   transducer positions, 25f                                      subaortic stenosis, 182–97
                   transverse section, 28f                                      offline analysis, 267
                   of valvular heart disease, 267–9                             1D array of elements, 13
                 longitudinal strain, 287, 289f, 290                            ostium primum ASDs, 155
                 lower esophagus, optimal four-chamber image, 263               ostium secundum ASDs, 155
                 lung carcinoma, 260f
                                                                                pacemaker, detection of vegetation, 234f
                 Marfan’s syndrome, 96f                                         paraplane, 9f
                 mass lesions, 218–53                                           paravalvular mitral prosthetic regurgitation, 275–9f
                   live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 280        partial atrioventricular septal defects, 172f
                   overview, 218                                                patent ductus arteriosus, 178. See also congenital heart
                   thrombi, 218–29                                                       disease (CHD)
                   tumors, 229–53                                                  en face view of, 188f
                 matrix array, 14                                                  live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 186f
                 microbeamforming, 15                                              thoracic magnetic resonance angiogram, 188f
                 mitral regurgitation, 56–64                                       tilted view of, 188f
                   Doppler imaging of, 270f                                        2D transthoracic echocardiography, 185f, 187–8f
                   with large flow acceleration, 270f                            patent foramen ovale (PFO), 161f, 263
                   live 3D TTE assessment of, 61                                percutaneous aortic valve replacement, 281
                   vena contracta area, 56, 64–7f, 117f                         perforations, 85f
                 mitral stenosis, 55–6                                          pericardial cysts, 261f
                   live 3D echocardiography of, 35f                             pericardial disorders, 255–61
                   live/real time 3D TTE in, 58–63f                                benign lesions, 256
                 mitral valve, 55–69                                               constrictive pericarditis, 261f
                   epithelioid hemangioma, 247f                                    fibrin strands, 255
                   isolated cleft, 173–4f                                          live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 256f,
                   live 3D TTE assessment of, 52–3f, 263–4                               258f
                   mitral regurgitation, 56–64                                     pericardial cysts, 261f
                   mitral stenosis, 55–6                                           pericardial effusion, 256–7f
                   3D matrix TEE acquisitions of, 20f                              pericardial effusion compressing the right atrium, 258f
                   3D quantification of, 20f                                        pericardial hematoma, 259f
                 mitral valve area (MVA), 57t                                      pericardial metastasis from malignant thymoma, 260f
                 mitral valve prolapse, 64, 264–6f                                 3D datasets, 255
                   cropping planes, 68f                                            3D transthoracic echocardiography (3D TTE), 255–8
                   live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography,               tuberculous pericardial effusion, 259f
                         67f                                                       2D transthoracic echocardiography, 255
                   scallop/segment, 68f, 69t                                    pericardial effusion (PE), 49–51f
                 mitral valve replacement (MVR), 115f                           perimembranous ventricular septal defect, 175f, 179f
                   pericardial effusion after, 258f                             Philips iE33, 99, 111, 123–4
                   rocking motion, 118f                                         Philips Medical Systems Inc., 36, 55–6, 99
                 M-mode echocardiography, 13                                    Philips Sonos 7500, 36, 55–6, 99, 122, 124
                 multiplanar reconstruction, 289f                               plasminogen activating factor (PAF), 222f
                 multiplanar transesophageal probe, 5f                          polar map, 289f
                 myocardial infarction, 129–32                                  polycystic kidney, 95f
                 myxoma. See also tumors                                        posterior tricuspid leaflet, 49f
                   left atrial, 235–7f                                          posterior tricuspid valve leaflet, 199f
                   live/real time 3D TTE assessment of, 235–8f                  pressure half-time (PHT) method, 57t
                   real time 2D TTE assessment of, 238f                         pressure recovery phenomenon, 75t
                   right ventricular, 238f                                      probe, 3f
                                                                                prosthetic valves, 114–20
                 nonperfusing lumen, 88f                                           apical four-chamber view, 115f
                 Nyquist limits, 64f                                               homograft aortic prosthesis, 119–20f
                                                                                   live/real time 3D TTE assessment of, 114–15, 115f
                 oblique cropping, 28                                              overview, 114
                 oblique/coronal section, 27f                                      St. Jude aortic prosthesis, 119f
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           300 Index


           prosthetic valves (cont.)                                       right ventricular outflow tract (RV)-pulmonary artery (PA)
             St. Jude mitral prosthesis, 115–18f                                   zone, 4f
             3D TTE assessment of, 114–15                                  right ventricular papillary muscle, 103f
             tissue mitral prosthesis, 118f                                right ventricular sarcoma, 251f
           pseudoaneurysm, 86f, 128–9, 133f                                right ventricular trabeculations, 148f
           pulmonary artery compression, 93f                               rotation (wall motion), 289f
           pulmonary artery (PA), 52–3f                                    ruptured chordae tendinae, 270–71f
           pulmonary regurgitation, 104–13, 110f
             proximal jet width, 105                                       sagittal cropping, 28
             3D TTE assessment of, 111–13                                  sagittal planes, 27f
             2D TTE assessment of, 105                                     sarcoma, 251f
           pulmonary valve (PV), 52f, 99                                   scanning beam, 24f
             regurgitation, 104–13, 110f                                   secundum atrial septal defect, 48f, 156f
           pulmonic valve, 267                                             septal defect, 134f
           pyramidal dataset, 23, 24f, 37f                                 septal leaflet, 100f
                                                                           septal myectomy, 141f
           QLAB software, 55, 69t, 92f, 280                                septal perforator coronary artery-left ventricle fistula,
           quadricuspid aortic valve. See also aortic valve (AV)                    141–2f
             live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography,             septal tricuspid leaflet, 49f
                   194f                                                    septal tricuspid valve leaflet, 199f
             2D transesophageal echocardiography, 194f                     shunt lesions, 155–75. See also congenital heart disease
           quantification in 3D, 17–19                                               (CHD)
                                                                              atrial septal defects, 155–75
           radial strain, 287, 289, 289f                                      ventricular septal defects (VSD), 175
           Rastelli type B, 169f                                           sinus venosus ASDs, 155
           real-time full-volume imaging, 283–6                            speckle, 284f
              clutter, 284f                                                speckle tracking
              contrast resolution, 284–5                                      definition of, 287
              data density, 285–6                                             schemas of, 288f
              data size, 285–6                                                2D, 287
              information density, 284                                        wall motion analysis, 287–8
              information rate, 283–5                                      speckle tracking, 2D
              overview, 283                                                   overview, 287
              speckle, 284f                                                   schema of, 288f
              temporal resolution, 284                                        strain calculation, 287–8
              3D vs. stitched image acquisition, 285                          wall motion analysis, 287–8
              volume rate, 284f                                            speckle tracking, 3D
              volume size, 284                                                area change rate, 292f
           regional strain, 288                                               clinical applications, 289–90
           regurgitant jet area (RJA), 56, 66f, 108–9f                        dyssynchrony imaging, 291f
           right atrial appendage (RAA), 45f, 49–51f                          endocardium projection of 3D displacement,
           right atrial area (RAA), 108–9f                                          290f
           right atrial thrombus, 230f                                        fractional area change, 292f
           right atrium (RA), 43f                                             multiplanar reconstruction, 289f
           right common carotid artery (RCA), 88f                             overview, 287
           right innominate vein (RIV), 43f                                   polar map, 289f
           right lower pulmonary vein (RLPV), 45f                             schema of, 288f
           right parasternal approach, 35–7, 45–53f                           segmentation technology, 290
           right polycystic kidney, 95f                                       3D wire frame, 290f
           right pulmonary artery, 31–4f                                      time curve measurement, 291f
           right pulmonary artery (RPA), 49f, 52–3f                           wall motion analysis, 287–8
           right sinus of Valsalva, 4f                                        wall motion parameters, 289f
           right upper pulmonary vein (RUPV), 45–6f                        St. Jude aortic prosthesis, 117f, 119f
           right ventricle (RV), 45f                                       St. Jude mitral prosthesis, 115–18f
           right ventricular fibroma, 240f                                  stenotic aortic valve, transesophageal 3D reconstruction of,
           right ventricular function, 123–4                                        7
              live/real time 3D TTE assessment of, 125f                    strain calculation, 287–8
           right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), 91–3f                    stress testing, 132
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                                                                                                                                Index 301


                 subaortic stenosis, 182–97. See also congenital heart disease       3D wire frame, 290f
                          (CHD); obstructive lesions                                 time curve measurement, 291f
                    discrete membranous subaortic stenosis, 195f                     wall motion analysis, 287–8
                    2D transthoracic echocardiography, 195f                          wall motion parameters, 289f
                 subcostal approach, 32–4, 40–41f                                 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 263–81
                 summing, 15                                                         advantage of, 6
                 superior vena cava (SVC)                                            anatomic planes, 26f
                    live 3D right parasternal TTE assessment of, 45f, 47f,           bubble study, 30f
                          49–51f, 166f                                               chamber quantification, 267
                    live 3D supraclavicular TTE assessment of, 43–4f                 of congenital heart disease, 280
                    live/real time 3D TTE assessment of, 30–34f                      guidance of percutaneous cardiac interventions, 280–81
                    thrombus in, 231–4f                                              history of, 1–2
                    2D TTE assessment of, 30–34f                                     intraoperative applications, 280
                 supraclavicular approach, 34–5, 43–4f                               of mass lesions, 280
                 suprasternal approach, 34, 42f                                      oblique/coronal section, 27f
                 supravalvar stenosis, 72–6                                          offline analysis, 267
                 supravalvular aortic stenosis, live/real time 3D TTE in,            overview, 263
                          80–81f                                                     probe, 3f
                 surface rendering, 17, 18f                                          protocol, 263–7
                 systole, 2f                                                            aorta, 267
                 systolic anterior motion (SAM), 137–9                                  aortic valve, 267
                                                                                        left atrial appendage, 263
                 temporal resolution, 284                                               lower esophagus, 263
                 3D Color Doppler mode, 15                                              mitral valve, 263–4
                 3D displacement, 289f                                                  patent foramen ovale, 263
                 3D echocardiography, 13–21                                             pulmonic valve, 267
                   apical approach, 32, 38–9f                                           tricuspid valve, 267
                   beamforming, 14–17                                                sagittal planes, 27f
                   cropping planes, 26, 26f                                          transducer positions, 25f
                   examination protocol, 23–8                                        transverse section, 28f
                   full-volume mode, 15, 25f                                         of valvular heart disease, 267–9
                   indications for, 19–21                                         3D zoom mode, 15
                   information display, 17                                        thrombi, 218–29
                   left parasternal approach, 28–31, 29f                             algorithm to evaluate left atrial appendage, 228f
                   live mode, 15                                                     clot lysis, 220f
                   quantification in 3D, 17–19                                        coagulation cascade, 222f
                   right parasternal approach, 35–7, 45–53f                          crista terminalis, 230f
                   semiautomated border detection, 18f                               in innominate veins, 230f, 232–4f
                   subcostal approach, 32–4, 40–41f                                  left atrial appendage, 226f
                   supraclavicular approach, 34–5, 43–4f                             left ventricular, 218, 219–21f
                   suprasternal approach, 34, 42f                                    live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography,
                   surface rendering, 17, 18f                                              219–21f, 224–5f, 232–4f
                   3D imaging in, 23                                                 lysis, 222f
                   transducer positions, 25f                                         real time 2D transesophageal echocardiography, 223f,
                   transducers, 13–14                                                      227f
                   true 3D spatial modes, 15                                         real time 2D transthoracic echocardiography, 223f, 225–7f
                   volume rendering, 16f, 17                                         real-time full-volume scanning, 285f
                 3D speckle tracking                                                 resected, 230f
                   area change rate, 292f                                            right atrial, 230f
                   clinical applications, 289–90                                     right ventricular, 225f
                   dyssynchrony imaging, 291f                                        solid rim, 220f
                   endocardium projection of 3D displacement, 290f                   in superior vena cava, 230f, 232–4f
                   fractional area change, 292f                                   thymoma, 260f
                   multiplanar reconstruction, 289f                               time curve measurement, 291f
                   overview, 287                                                  time-to-peak strain, 290
                   polar map, 289f                                                tissue mitral prosthesis, 118f
                   schema of, 288f                                                Tom Tec Cardio viewRT, 55
                   segmentation technology, 290                                   torsion to base (wall motion), 289f
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           302 Index


           trabecular mass, 148f, 151f                                           transverse section, 28f
           transaesophageal probe, multiplanar, 5f                               of valvular heart disease, 267–9
           transcatheter closure, 162–5f                                      transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), limitations of, 75t
           transducers, 13–14                                                 transversal strain, 287
           transesophageal echocardiography, 2D, 1                            transverse cropping, 28
              of coronary artery anomalies, 189–90f                           transverse section, 28f
              intraoperative, 78f                                             tricuspid regurgitation, 99–104, 100f, 107f
              limitations of, 75t                                             tricuspid stenosis, 99, 100f
              of quadricuspid aortic valve, 194f                              tricuspid valve prosthesis, 120f
              of thrombi, 223f, 227f                                          tricuspid valve (TV), 99–113
           transposition of the great arteries, 198                              cleft, 169
              dextro-transposition, 204–5f, 207–9f                               definition of, 99
              levo-transposition, 206f                                           endocarditis, 102, 106f
           transthoracic echocardiography, 2D, 1–2                               fibroelastoma, 247f
              in aortic dissection, 87f                                          flail, 102
              in aortic dissection rupture, 91–2f                                in isolated Ebstein’s anomaly, 203f
              in aortic regurgitation, 192f                                      leaflets, 199f, 203f
              of aortic stenosis, 73–6, 78f                                      live 3D TTE assessment of, 29f, 45f
              bubble study, 30f                                                  live/real time 3D TTE, 100f
              of chordomas, 250f                                                 non-coaptation area, 49f
              of discrete subaortic membrane, 196f                               papillary muscle and chordae rupture, 104–5f
              of epithelioid hemangioma, 247f                                    prolapse, 101, 101f
              of fibroma, 240f                                                    regurgitation, 99–104, 100f, 107f
              of hiatal hernia, 252–3f                                           septal leaflet, 100f
              image display in, 25                                               stenosis, 99, 100f
              of isolated left ventricular noncompaction, 144f, 149–50,       tumors, 229–53
                    149f                                                         attached to cardiac valves, 231
              of lipoma, 239–40f                                                 chordomas, 229, 250f
              of myxoma, 238f                                                    epithelioid hemangioma, 247f
              of patent ductus arteriosus, 185f, 187–8f                          fibroelastoma, 247–9f
              of pericardial disorders, 255                                      fibroma, 240f
              of pulmonary regurgitation, 105                                    hemangioma, 229, 241f
              of subaortic stenosis, 195f                                        hydatid cyst, 242–6f
              of superior vena cava (SVC), 30–34f                                leiomyosarcoma, 251f
              of thrombi, 223f, 225–7f                                           lipoma, 239–40f
           transthoracic echocardiography, live/real time 3D, 263–81             myxoma, 235–8f
              advantage of, 6                                                 twist (wall motion), 289f
              anatomic planes, 26f                                            2D echocardiography, imaging planes, 25f
              bubble study, 30f                                               2D matrix array, 14
              chamber quantification, 267                                      2D scanning, 13
              of congenital heart disease, 280                                2D speckle tracking
              guidance of percutaneous cardiac interventions, 280–81             overview, 287
              intraoperative applications, 280                                   schema of, 288f
              of mass lesions, 280                                               strain calculation, 287–8
              oblique/coronal section, 27f                                       wall motion analysis, 287–8
              offline analysis, 267                                            2D transesophageal echocardiography, 1
              overview, 263                                                      of coronary artery anomalies, 189–90f
              protocol, 263–7                                                    intraoperative, 78f
                 aorta, 267                                                      of quadricuspid aortic valve, 194f
                 aortic valve, 267                                               of thrombi, 223f, 227f
                 left atrial appendage, 263                                   2D transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE), 1–2
                 lower esophagus, 263                                            in aortic dissection, 87f
                 mitral valve, 263–4                                             in aortic dissection rupture, 91–2f
                 patent foramen ovale, 263                                       in aortic regurgitation, 192f
                 pulmonic valve, 267                                             of aortic stenosis, 73–6, 78f
                 tricuspid valve, 267                                            bubble study, 30f
              sagittal planes, 27f                                               of chordomas, 250f
              transducer positions, 25f                                          of discrete subaortic membrane, 196f
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                                                                                                                                     Index 303


                       of epithelioid hemangioma, 247f                              vena contracta width (VCW), 56, 83f
                       of fibroma, 240f                                              venous valve (VV), 43f
                       of hiatal hernia, 252–3f                                     ventricular septal defects (VSD), 135f, 175. See also atrial
                       image display in, 25                                                 septal defects (ASD); congenital heart disease
                       of isolated left ventricular noncompaction, 144f, 149–50,            (CHD)
                             149f                                                     defect in trabecular ventricular system, 176f
                       limitations of, 75t                                            distances of pulmonary valve and tricuspid valve from,
                       of lipoma, 239–40f                                                   178f
                       of myxoma, 238f                                                interobserver variability in measurement of,
                       of patent ductus arteriosus, 185f, 187–8f                            182f
                       of pericardial disorders, 255                                  live 3D TTE assessment of, 36–7f
                       of pulmonary regurgitation, 105                                maximum area, 178f
                       of subaortic stenosis, 195f                                    maximum circumference, 177f
                       of superior vena cava (SVC), 30–34f                            maximum dimensions, 176–7f
                       of thrombi, 223f, 225–7f                                       perimembranous, 175f, 179f
                                                                                      population with, 180–81f
                 valvular vegetations                                               ventricular septum, 8f, 49f
                    A1 segment and commissure, 272f                                 volume rendering, 17
                    anterior mitral leaflet, 272f                                    volume size, 284
                    aortic valve, 273–4f                                            volume ultrasound, 283–6
                    live/real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography, 271–4f          clutter, 284f
                    mitral annular abscess, 273f                                      contrast resolution, 284–5
                    with perforation in the middle, 273f                              data density, 285–6
                    posterior cusp of bicuspid aortic valve, 274f                     data size, 285–6
                    posterior mitral leaflet, 271f                                     information density, 284
                 vegetations                                                          information rate, 283–5
                    in aortic valve, 9f                                               overview, 283
                    detection on pacemaker/defibrillator lead, 234f                    real time 3D imaging, 285
                 velocity time integral (VTI), 82                                     speckle, 284f
                 vena contracta area (VCA), 82                                        stitched image acquisition, 285
                    aortic angiographic grading and, 83f                              temporal resolution, 284
                    aortic regurgitation, 82f                                         3D vs. stitched image acquisition, 285
                    live 3D color Doppler transthoracic echocardiography,             volume rate, 284f
                          64–6f                                                       volume size, 284
                    of mitral regurgitation, 56, 61                                 voxels, 17
                    of paravalvular mitral regurgitation, 117f
                    vs. pulmonary regurgitation jet width, 111–2f                   wall motion abnormalities, 128–9, 132f
                    regurgitant jet area and, 108–9f                                wall motion analysis, 287–8
                    2D color Doppler transthoracic echocardiography, 67f            waveform, 19
                    2D vs. 3D, 110f                                                 wide-angle pyramidal display images, 37f
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