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True or false Coronary heart disease is also called coronary

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					1.     True or false: Coronary heart disease is also called coronary artery disease.

a. True
b. False


2.     What is coronary heart disease?

a. A narrowing of the blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart.
b. A condition where the heart is missing one of the vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the
       heart.
c. A condition where blood does not reach the brain due to blockage in vessels around the heart.
d. An enlarging of the blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart.


3.     __________ is a condition that occurs when fatty material and plaque accumulate on the
       walls of your arteries.

a. Angina
b. Atherosclerosis
c. Heart attack
d. Stroke


4.     True or false: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for
       adults.

a. True
b. False


5.     Which of the following increases a person’s chances of getting coronary heart disease?

a. Heredity
b. Diabetes
c. High blood pressure
d. All of the above


6.     Which of the following increases a person’s chances of getting coronary heart disease?
a. Abnormal cholesterol levels

b. Smoking
c. Kidney disease
d. All of the above
7.     What is the technical term for chest pain or discomfort?

a. Stroke
b. Atherosclerosis
c. Angina
d. Heart attack


8.     Goals for treating coronary heart disease are?

a. LDL cholesterol level less than or equal to 100 mg/dL
b. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels less than or equal to 7%
c. Blood pressure less than or equal to 120/80 mmHg
d. All of the above


9.     True or false: Taking aspirin helps prevent blood clots in your arteries and reduces your
       chance of having a heart attack.

a. True
b. False


10.    ACE inhibitors are medications that

a. lower heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen use by the heart
b. lower blood pressure and protect your heart
c. relax arteries, lower blood pressure, and reduce strain on your heart
d. stop chest pain and improve blood supply to the heart


11.    Beta-blockers are medications that

a. lower heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen use by the heart
b. lower blood pressure and protect your heart
c. relax arteries, lower blood pressure, and reduce strain on your heart
d. stop chest pain and improve blood supply to the heart


12.    Calcium channel blockers are medications that

a. lower heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen use by the heart
b. lower blood pressure and protect your heart
c. relax arteries, lower blood pressure, and reduce strain on your heart
d. stop chest pain and improve blood supply to the heart
13.    Nitrates are medications that

a. lower heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen use by the heart
b. lower blood pressure and protect your heart
c. relax arteries, lower blood pressure, and reduce strain on your heart
d. stop chest pain and improve blood supply to the heart


14.    True or false: Plaque that builds up in your arteries is made up of fat, cholesterol,
       calcium, and other substances found in the blood.

a. True
b. False


15.    True or false: Plaque increases that chances that blood clots will form in your arteries.

a. True
b. False


16.    A(n)_____________ occurs when blood flow to an area of the heart is blocked, which
       causes that area of the heart to die.

a. Stroke
b. Heart attack
c. Angina attack
d. Atherosclerosis attack


17.    If not treated, coronary heart disease may cause

a. Heart failure
b. Arrhythmias
c. Heart attack
d. All of the above


18.    _____________ is a condition where your heart is unable to pump enough blood
       throughout your body.

a. Heart failure
b. Heart attack
c. Arrhythmia
d. Angina
19.       ____________ is a condition where the speed or rhythm of your heart is altered.

a. Heart failure
b. Heart attack
c. Arrhythmia
d. Angina


20.       True or false: About 82% of people who die from coronary heart disease are 65 years old
          or older.

a. True
b. False


21.       True or false: At older ages, men who have heart attacks are more likely to die within a
          few weeks than women.

a. True
b. False


22.       A smoker’s risk of coronary heart disease is ________ times greater than that of a non-
          smoker.

a. 2-4
b. 4-6
c. 6-8
d. 8-10


23.       How does smoking increase your chances of getting coronary heart disease?

a. Increases blood pressure
b. Decreases exercise tolerance
c. Increases the tendency for a blood clot
d. All of the above


24.       True or false: High blood pressure increases the chance of coronary heart disease by
          increasing the heart’s work load, causing the heart to thicken.

a. True
b. False
25.    Blood that is returning to the heart from veins all over the body flows into the
       ____________.

a. Right atrium
b. Right ventricle
c. Left atrium
d. Left ventricle


26.    After blood flows into the right atrium, it then flows into the ____________.

a. Right atrium
b. Right ventricle
c. Left atrium
d. Left ventricle


27.    The ___________ pumps blood out to the lungs for oxygenation.

a. Right atrium
b. Right ventricle
c. Left atrium
d. Left ventricle


28.    Oxygen-rich blood returns to the ___________ from the lungs.

a. Right atrium
b. Right ventricle
c. Left atrium
d. Left ventricle

29.    Blood flows from the left atrium into the ___________.

a. Right atrium
b. Right ventricle
c. Left atrium
d. Left ventricle

30.    The ___________ pumps blood into the arteries.

a. Right atrium
b. Right ventricle
c. Left atrium
d. Left ventricle
31.    The contraction of the ___________ must be very powerful because this motion is what
       keeps blood flowing throughout the body.

a. Right atrium
b. Right ventricle
c. Left atrium
d. Left ventricle


32.    True or false: The heart has three major coronary arteries.

a. True
b. False


33.    True or false: Plaque is like a hard shell with a soft cholesterol core.

a. True
b. False

34.    Lack of sufficient blood is called _________.

a. Angina
b. Atherosclerosis
c. Ischemia
d. Heart attack


35.    Symptoms of heart disease usually occur during exercise because

a. Exercise increases high blood pressure.
b. Heart disease usually occurs in people who are obese and tend to have difficulty exercising.
c. The heart muscle’s increased demand for oxygen is not being met by the blocked blood
       vessel.
d. Exercise breaks up plaque in the arteries, which is hard on the heart.


36.    The most common symptoms of coronary heart disease are which of the following?

a. Angina during exercise
b. Palpitations
c. Dizziness
d. All of the above
37.    True or false: Lifestyle changes are the most effective way to prevent heart disease from
       getting worse or to prevent it in the first place.

a. True
b. False


38.    True or false: Beta-blockers reduce the amount of lipids in your blood.

a. True
b. False


39.    What is the name of the blood vessel that the left ventricle pumps blood through to the
       rest of the body?

a. Aorta
b. Vena cava
c. Left coronary artery
d. Left pulmonary artery


40.    What is the name of the blood vessel that carries oxygen-poor blood back to your right
       atrium?

a. Aorta
b. Vena cava
c. Right coronary artery
d. Right pulmonary artery


41.    According to the American Heart Association, how many people in the United States
       have some form of coronary heart disease?

a. 5 million
b. 10 million
c. 15 million
d. 20 million


42.    True or false: Women in their 40s have a higher risk of coronary heart disease than men.

a. True
b. False
43.    _____________ is sharp chest pain that comes and goes, but is not associated with
       exercise and is not cured by rest or medicine.

a. Atherosclerosis
b. Ischemia
c. Typical chest pain
d. Atypical chest pain


44.    ______________ is a dull pain that is associated with exercise or activity and can be
       relieved by rest or medicine.

a. Atherosclerosis
b. Ischemia
c. Typical chest pain
d. Atypical chest pain


45.    True or false: Adults with typical chest pain have a higher chance of coronary heart
       disease than those with atypical heart disease.

a. True
b. False


46.    A(n) ______________ is a procedure that uses a special dye and x-rays to examine how
       blood flows through your heart.

a. Exercise stress test
b. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
c. Coronary angiography
d. Echocardiogram


47.    A(n) _______________ is a procedure that records the electrical activity of your heart.

a. Exercise stress test
b. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
c. Coronary angiography
d. Echocardiogram
48.    A(n) _______________ tests the effect of exercise on your heart.

a. Exercise stress test
b. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
c. Coronary angiography
d. Echocardiogram


49.    A(n) _______________ uses sound waves to create a moving picture of your heart,
       which is more detailed than an x-ray.

a. Exercise stress test
b. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
c. Coronary angiography
d. Echocardiogram


50.    A(n) _______________ uses radioactive materials called tracers to show the heart
       chambers.

a. Exercise stress test
b. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
c. Coronary angiography
d. Nuclear ventriculography


51.    ______________ creates a new route for blood and oxygen to reach the heart.

a. Heart bypass surgery
b. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
c. Coronary angiography
d. Nuclear ventriculography


52.    True or false: Your heart continues to beat while you are having heart bypass surgery.

a. True
b. False


53.    True or false: During heart bypass surgery, the surgeon uses a vein or an artery from
       another part of your body to create a graft around the blocked part of the artery.

a. True
b. False
54.    A saphenous vein, which is commonly used in heart bypass surgery, is taken from which
       part of the body?

a. Arm
b. Leg
c. Buttocks
d. Back


55.    Symptoms of a heart attack include which of the following?

a. Chest pain
b. Anxiety
c. Nausea
d. All of the above


56.    True or false: A heart attack with no symptoms is called a “silent heart attack.”

a. True
b. False


57.    Risk factors for heart disease include all of the following EXCEPT which of the
       following?

a. Family history of heart disease
b. Diabetes
c. Smoking
d. Low blood pressure


58.    All of the following blood vessels are composed of three tunics EXCEPT

a. Veins
b. Capillaries
c. Arteries
d. Arterioles


59.    Coronary heart disease is associated with all of the following EXCEPT

a. Smoking
b. Diabetes
c. Hypertension
d. Alcoholism
60.    Dr. Rene Favaloro became the first surgeon to perform a coronary bypass surgery in
       _________.

a. 1957
b. 1964
c. 1977
d. 1984


61.    What is a coronary stent?

a. A vein that is commonly taken from the leg and is used in coronary bypass surgery.
b. A way to test the effects of exercise on your heart.
c. A tube placed in the coronary arteries to keep the arteries open.
d. A procedure that uses a special dye and x-rays to examine how blood flows through your
        heart.


62.    Which of the following biomes is not found in South America?

a. Tundra
b. Desert
c. Grasslands
d. Rainforst


63.    The annual rainfall in tropical rainforests is typically ________.

a. more than 70 inches per year
b. between 90 and 100 inches per year
c. between 100 and 150 inches per year
d. more than 150 inches per year


64.    Which of the following human activity is NOT a threat to the Panatal?

a. Cattle-ranching
b. Movie industry
c. Deforestation
d. Mercury pollution from gold mining operations
65.    The greatest negative impact from gold mining in the Amazon region is probably
       _________.

a. the extraction of potable water from the rivers
b. the removal of layers of rich topsoil
c. from mercury released during amalgamation of the ore
d. sediments suspended in the river water from the mining activity


66.    Which of the regions of the Andes biome is the least populated?

a. Northern
b. Central
c. Southern
d. None of the Andes regions are highly populated


67.    Which of the three regions of the Andes biome is the warmest?

a. Northern
b. Central
c. Southern
d. None of the Andes regions are warm


68.    Which of the three regions of the Andes biome has the mildest climate?

a. Northern
b. Central
c. Southern
d. The climate in all three regions of the Andes biome is cold


69.    True or false: The plants that grow in the Andes Mountains are small to conserve energy

a. True
b. False


70.    Only ______ of the original Polylepis forest in the Andes Mountains remains.

a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 50%
d. 70%
71.    In Latin, the word alps means _________.

a. snowy mountains
b. rainforest
c. cold mountains
d. high mountains


72.    True or false: The wild potato is an endangered species.

a. True
b. False


73.    Threats to the wild potato include _________.

a. Insect pests
b. Disease
c. Fungus
d. All of the above


74.    True or false: Alpacas are not easily domesticated.

a. True
b. False


75.    Which of the following is true of Andean Condors?

a. They mate for life.
b. Both parents take care of their chick.
c. They do not kill animals.
d. All of the above are true


76.    True or false: Condors mainly feed on the carcasses of mammals and the eggs of
       seabirds.

a. True
b. False
77.      True or false: Adult female chinchillas are larger than adult male chinchillas.

a. True
b. False


78.      To make one chinchilla coat, you need ______ chinchilla pelts.

a. 50
b. 100
c. 150
d. 200


79.      True or false: Llamas have more red blood cells per unit volume of blood than any other
         mammal, which allows them to adjust to high altitudes.

a. True
b. False


80.      Llamas have _____ stomach compartment(s).

a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4


81.      Which of the following is NOT an herbivore?

a. Alpaca
b. Llama
c. Chinchilla
d. All of the above are herbivores


82.      Which of the following is the smallest member of the camel family?

a. Alpaca
b. Camel
c. Llama
d. Vicuña
83.    True or false: The lower teeth of a vicuña grow constantly, which allows is to eat tough
       grasses.

a. True
b. False


84.    About _____ of all medicines that we use come from rainforest plants.

a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 40%
d. 50%


85.    What is the largest group of animals that live in the rainforest?

a. Mammals
b. Marsupials
c. Insects
d. Reptiles


86.    Which of the following is a characteristic of the soil in the rainforest?

a. Deep
b. Full of nutrients
c. Lacking in nutrients
d. Full of soluble minerals


87.    How does deforestation affect the soil in the rainforest?

a. Removal of trees releases nutrients into the soil that helps crops grow.
b. Removal of trees allows soil to erode, so more plants cannot grow in that area.
c. Most nutrients are locked in the soil, so removal of trees has no effect.
d. Most nutrients are held in the roots of trees, so when they are removed, the ecosystem
       loses those nutrients and the quality of the soil becomes poor.


88.    The bougainvillea plant occurs in which of the following forms?

a. Vines
b. Trees
c. Shrubs
d. All of the above
89.       Which of the following rainforest plants can be used as a poison in large enough doses?

a. Bougainvillea
b. Curare
c. Durian
d. Jambu


90.       Curare can be used to treat

a. Fever
b. Edema
c. Kidney stones
d. All of the above


91.       Which of the following is NOT a food source for kinkajous?

a. Insects
b. Birds
c. Fruit
d. Small mammals


92.       If a vampire bat does not eat for ____ days it will die.

a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 5


93.       The average temperature of a rainforest is ______ Fahrenheit.

a. 69 °
b. 77 °
c. 86 °
d. 98 °


94.       The Pampas are a(n)

a. Steppe biome
b. Rainforest biome
c. Grassland biome
d. Desert biome
95.     The climate in the Pampas is ________.

a. humid and warm
b. dry and warm
c. dry and cold
d. humid and cold


96.     True or false: Fertilizers and overgrazing have made the Pampas one of the most
        endangered habitats on Earth.

a. True
b. False


97.     Freshly oxygenated blood is first received by the

a. right atrium
b. right ventricle
c. left atrium
d. left ventricle


98.     In comparing a parallel artery and vein, you would find that

a. the artery wall is thicker
b. the artery diameter is greater
c. the vein wall is thicker
d. the artery endothelium is thicker


99.     Which layer of the artery wall thickens most in atherosclerosis?

a. Tunica media
b. Tunica intima
c. Tunica adventitia
d. Tunica externa


100.    Which of the following are associated with aging?

a. Increasing blood pressure
b. Weakening of venous valves
c. Arteriosclerosis
d. All of the above
101.   An increase in blood pressure would be caused by all of the following except

a. increase in SV
b. increase in heart rate
c. increase in the length of ventricular diastole
d. constriction of the arterioles


102.   Which heart chamber forms most of the heart’s inferior surface?

a. Right atrium
b. Right ventricle
c. Left atrium
d. Left ventricle


103.   True or false: The climate is hotter in the northern part of the Andes Mountains than in
       the southern part of the mountain range.

a. True
b. False


104.   Where are rainforests found in the Andes Mountains?

a. Northern Andes Mountains
b. Middle Andes Mountains
c. Southern Andes Mountains
d. There are no rainforests in the Andes Mountains


105.   How have exotic plants affected the Polylepis forest in the Andes?

a. They create new habitats for insect species, which eat the leaves of the native forest trees
b. They grow near the native forest, shading the forest trees from sunlight
c. They have caused an increase in the amount of deforestation by logging
d. The importation of exotic species also brought exotic animal species, which have adapted to
        feed on the native forest trees


106.   Polylepis trees are

a. Deciduous trees
b. Pine trees
c. Evergreen trees
d. Maple trees
107.   How much of Bolivia’s Western Cordillera Polylepis forests remain?

a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 15%
d. 20%


108.   Which native group demonstrated their wealth by the number of Alpacas that they
       owned?

a. Mayas
b. Incas
c. Aymara
d. Mapuche


109.   True or false: The condor is the largest vulture in South America.

a. True
b. False


110.   Condors can soar at altitudes of up to

a. 10,000 ft
b. 13,000 ft
c. 15,000 ft
d. 18,000 ft


111.   True or false: Chinchillas are not considered an endangered species.

a. True
b. False


112.   What is the chinchilla’s main predator?

a. Mountain lions
b. Spectacled bears
c. Humans
d. Snakes
113.   Llamas and alpacas are part of which family?

a. Camelidae
b. Canidae
c. Felidae
d. Silphidae


114.   How many toes do llamas have on each foot?

a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4


115.   How long do the Andes Mountains run along the west cost of South America?

a. 2,000 miles
b. 3,000 miles
c. 4,500 miles
d. 5,500 miles


116.   What types of plants are dominant in the Pampas?

a. Coniferous Trees
b. Grasses
c. Lichens
d. Evergreen Trees


117.   Which of the following is NOT a relative of the Greater Rhea?

a. African ostrich
b. Australian emu
c. Australian cassowary
d. All of the above are relatives of the Greater Rhea


118.   True or false: Greater Rheas typically eat broad-leaved plants and clover, but they will
       also eat small animals and insects.

a. True
b. False
119.     Tropical rainforests receive at least ______ inches of rain each year.

a. 70
b. 90
c. 100
d. 120


120.     The canopy of a rainforest has trees that are _________ feet tall.

a. 25-50
b. 50-100
c. 100-200
d. 200-300


121.     The second level of the rainforest is called the __________.

a. Canopy
b. Understory
c. Shrub Level
d. Floor


122.     When rainforests are destroyed, which gas is released into the atmosphere that
         contributes to the greenhouse effect?

a. Methane
b. Oxygen
c. Ozone
d. Carbon Dioxide


123.     True or false: Mountain ranges act as barriers to air flow.

a. True
b. False


124.     When warm air reaches a mountain range, it _______ and ________.

a. rises; cools
b. sinks; warms
c. rises; warms
d. sinks; cools
125.    The lifting a cooling of air as it moves over a mountain range often causes

a. Large clouds
b. Precipitation
c. Thunderstorms
d. All of the above


126.    True or false: As air rises up the side of a mountain, the moisture is squeezed out.

a. True
b. False


127.    Please put the events of a rain shadow in the appropriate order:
        I: Air rises up the windward side of a mountain, losing moisture
        II: Dry air moves down the leeward side of the mountain
        III: Air passes over the mountain
        IV: As air descends, it warms and expands, reducing the chance of rain

a. III; I; II; IV
b. I; II; III; IV
c. I; III; II; IV
d. IV; II; III; I


128.    True or false: As air descends over the leeward side of a mountain, it condenses and
        increases the chances of a rain shower occurring.

a. True
b. False


129.    True or false: The Atacama desert in Chile is the driest non-Antarctic desert in the world.

a. True
b. False


130.    The Atacama desert in Chile is the driest desert in the world because the _________
        blocks it to the east and the _________ blocks it to the west.

a. high pressure over the Pampas; Andes
b. Andes; high pressure over the Pacific
c. high pressure over the Pacific; Andes
d. Andes; high pressure over the Atlantic
131.   __________ is rain shadowed by westerlies from the Andes.

a. The Brazilian rain forest
b. Pampas
c. Patagonia
d. The Columbian wine valley


132.   True or false: Deep-water currents travel underwater.

a. True
b. False


133.   True or false: Warm air currents are associated with drier climate conditions in coastal
       areas.

a. True
b. False


134.   True or false: Water heats up and cools down more slowly than land air temperature.

a. True
b. False


135.   True or false: Without ocean currents, most of the earth would be uninhabitable.

a. True
b. False


136.   The waters that are involved in deep water currents make up _______ of the water in the
       ocean.

a. 100%
b. 90%
c. 20%
d. 10%
137.   The waters that are involved in surface water currents make up _______ of the water in
       the ocean.

a. 100%
b. 90%
c. 10%
d. 20%


138.   True or false: The Coriolis Force moves water to the left in the Northern Hemisphere.

a. True
b. False


139.   The Humboldt current is a(n) _______ current.

a. dry
b. warm
c. cold
d. air


140.   True or false: A major benefit of the Humboldt Current is upwelling, which brings
       nutrients to the surface, allowing plankton growth.

a. True
b. False


141.   True or false: The waters off the coasts of Peru, Chile, and Ecuador are some of the most
       abundant fishing areas in the world due to the California Current.

a. True
b. False


142.   The highest volcano in the world is Nevados Ojos del Salado, and is located in which
       country?

a. Chile
b. Peru
c. Argentina
d. Brazil
143.   Which country has the highest number of historically active volcanoes in South America?

a. Peru
b. Chile
c. Argentina
d. Brazil


144.   Volcanoes in the Andes Mountains are active due to the subduction of the Nazca and
       Antarctic plates under the __________.

a. Mexican plate
b. South America plate
c. North America plate
d. Pacific plate


145.   The Chaiten volcano is still active since its last eruption and is located in which country?

a. Peru
b. Argentina
c. Chile
d. Brazil


146.   The Ubinas volcano is located in which country?

a. Peru
b. Argentina
c. Chile
d. Brazil


147.   The Tungurahua volcano is located in which country?

a. Peru
b. Argentina
c. Chile
d. Ecuador
148.   What is the highest peak in the Andes?

a. Mt. Chimborazo
b. Mt. Altiplano
c. Mt. Aconcagua
d. Mt. Ojos del Salado


149.   Which of the following cities is NOT in the Andes mountains?

a. Buenos Aires
b. Lima
c. Quito
d. Santiago


150. The tallest mountain in the Andes Mountains is found in which country?
a. Argentina
b. Chile
c. Columbia
d. Peru


151.   Which statement about mining in the Andes is FALSE?

a. Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid died in Bolivia attempting to rob a mule train carrying
        silver
b. In the 1920’s, tin replaced silver as the most important export from Bolivia
c. The silver and tin mining industries provided Bolivian peasants with a way out of
        poverty
d. So much silver was mined during a period of 200 years from Bolivia’s Cerro Rico region that
        a bridge could have been built from there to Madrid


152.   Which of the following statements about the Andes is FALSE?

a. The Andes Mountains are found in 7 of the 12 independent countries of South America
b. The Atacama Desert is found east of the Andes Mountains
c. LaPaz is the world’s highest capital city
d. The Andes Mountains are still growing because one tectonic plate is sliding under an adjacent
       one
153.   The Pampa is found primarily in which country?

a. Bolivia
b. Brazil
c. Venezuela
d. Argentina


154.   Which statement about the American rhea is FALSE?

a. Rheas are omnivorous
b. The male is the predominant caregiver
c. It is found primarily in the Patagonia region
d. It is a flightless bird with long legs and a long neck


155.   The Geoffroy’s cat of the Pampas ________.

a. is not edible meat for humans
b. seeks out human companionship
c. is the most abundant large cat in the Pampas
d. is easy to catch and easy to tame


156.   The Atacama Desert in Chile is the driest desert on Earth because ________.

a. moisture is blocked by the Andes to the west
b. it is too cold to rain
c. the altitude is too high and humidity too low to rain
d. moisture is blocked by the Andes to the east and high pressure over the Pacific at a
          latitude too high to rain


157.   The very deep blue color of icebergs in the southernmost part of Chile indicates
       ________.

a. that they are formed mostly from snow
b. the high salt content found in that area’s water
c. that nearly all of the oxygen has been squeezed out of them by high compression
d. that they are from very “young” glaciers
158.    The Patagonia region is found almost entirely in _________.

a. Bolivia
b. Argentina
c. Brazil
d. Chile


159.    Which of the following is not found in Patagonia?

a. Ski resort
b. Glaciers
c. Petrified forests
d. Rain forests


160.    The type of geologic activity which occurs at convergent boundaries depends on
        ________.

a. the types of crusts
b. the previous activity
c. the temperature of the crusts
d. the time of year


161.    The largest earthquake in Chile, magnitude 9.5 on the Richter scale, occurred in _______.

a. July 1920
b. February 2010
c. May 1960
d. December 1940


162.    The climate of the Andes Mountains is not the same throughout the biome because
        ________.

a. some regions receive more rain than others
b. it is not very populated
c. they are separated into 3 regions
d. it is hotter closer to the equator
163.   The precipitation in the Argentine pampas _______.

a. provides sources of drinking water
b. is plentiful only in the fall
c. decreases from east to west
d. is only found along rivers and streams


164.   True or false: El Niño is characterized by unusually cool temperatures in the Equatorial
       Pacific.

a. True
b. False


165.   True or false: La Niña is characterized by unusually cool temperatures in the Equatorial
       Pacific.

a. True
b. False


166.   The El Niña/La Niña Southern Oscillation occurs in roughly___ year intervals.

a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 5


167.   The first signs of El Niño include

a. Fall in surface pressure over the Indian Ocean, Indonesia, and Australia
b. Warm air rises near Peru, causing rain in the northern Peruvian deserts
c. Warm water spreads from the east Pacific to the west Pacific
d. Rise in air pressure over Tahiti and the rest of the central and eastern Pacific Ocean


168.   Every 5-7 years the fish off the coast of Peru and Ecuador nearly vanish due to

a. overfishing
b. over predation
c. El Niño
d. La Niña
169.   True or false: Typically the Pacific Trade Winds travel from east to west.

a. True
b. False


170.   The thermocline tilt is

a. The change in temperature depending on the tilt of the earth
b. The gradient of temperature from the equator to the poles
c. An east-west temperature gradient in the ocean along the equator
d. A change in temperature depending on the trade winds


171.   When trade winds do not replenish or reverse direction and cause water in the east to
       warm, this is characteristic of

a. El Niño
b. La Niña
c. trade winds
d. ocean current


172.   The warm waters of El Niño prevent an upwelling of cool waters, which causes

a. a lack of nutrients being brought up from the bottom of the ocean
b. death of phytoplankton
c. death of large fish that eat phytoplankton
d. all of the above


173.   True or false: Fishermen in Peru and Ecuador suffer heavy losses in their anchovy and
       sardine industries due to El Niño.

a. True
b. False


174.   True or false: As warm water reaches the coast of South America, it expands and

a. prevents upwelling of cold water
b. causes ocean levels to rise
c. causes ocean levels to lower
d. both a and b
175.   True or false: A severe El Niño will enhance the jet stream over the western Pacific and
       shift it eastward, leading to stronger winter storms over California and the southern
       United States.

a. True
b. False


176.   True or false: El Niño can cause severe droughts over Australia, Indonesia, and parts of
       southern Asia.

a. True
b. False


177.   Climate is

a. The global pattern of weather
b. The regional pattern of precipitation
c. The long-term average weather pattern at the local, regional, or global level
d. The long-term temperature patterns of a region


178.   Which of the following statements is false? Climatic patterns on Earth

a. are influenced by the redistribution of heat and moisture
b. are determined by the intensity of solar radiation
c. are responsible for modifying the greenhouse effect
d. are influenced by topography at a fine spatial scale


179.   Where are the trade winds found?

a. In Hadley Cells
b. In Ferrel Cells
c. In the polar cells
d. Only in the Northern Hemisphere


180.   From which direction do the winds blow between 30° N latitude and 60° N latitude?

a. The winds blow from the Southeast
b. The winds blow from the Southwest
c. The winds blow from the north
d. The winds blow from the east
181.   Cool oceanic currents that flow toward the equator are found

a. along western coastlines in the Northern Hemisphere and eastern coastlines in the Southern
        Hemisphere
b. along eastern coastlines in the Northern Hemisphere and western coastlines in the Southern
        Hemisphere
c. along eastern coastlines in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres
d. along western coastlines in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres


182.   Which of the following areas is associated with low rainfall?

a. Areas of low pressure where air rises
b. The windward side of mountain ranges
c. Areas of high pressure where air descends
d. At 60 degrees latitude


183.   Which of the following statements about the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is
       true?

a. Peru experiences droughts during ENSO
b. Upwelling in the eastern Pacific is reduced and surface waters warm
c. ENSO is a regional climatic event restricted to the Southern Hemisphere
d. Drenching rains soak Australia and Indonesia during ENSO


184.   In the Northern Hemisphere, the _____-facing sides of mountains, anthills, and trees are
       characterized by cool, moist, and uniform conditions as opposed to the ______-facing
       sides.

a. south; north
b. north; south
c. east; west
d. west; east


185.   Which of the following statements is false?

a. Lakes are responsible for creating microclimates
b. Vegetation is responsible for creating microclimates
c. Mountains are responsible for creating microclimates
d. Gyres are responsible for creating microclimates
186.   Where on the Earth's surface is there no discernible annual variation in climate?

a. Equator
b. North Pole
c. South Pole
d. There is seasonal variation in climate at all latitudes


187.   Which of the following causes rain shadows?

a. Trade Winds
b. The Coriolis Effect
c. Mountainous topography
d. El Niño-Southern Oscillation


188.   Gyres are

a. Regional precipitation patterns related to ENSO events
b. Regional wind patterns related to ENSO events
c. Circular movements of ocean water influenced by the Coriolis effect
d. Circular wind patterns caused by the Coriolis effect


189.   During La Niña events

a. Eastern Pacific surface waters cool, and South America experiences decreased
        precipitation
b. Eastern Pacific surface waters cool, and eastern Australia experiences drought conditions
c. Eastern Pacific surface waters warm up, and South America experiences increased
        precipitation
d. Eastern Pacific surface waters warm up, and eastern Australia experiences increased
        precipitation


190.   The large-scale distribution of plants in terrestrial environments is determined primarily
       by

a. temperature and wind
b. temperature and precipitation
c. wind patterns alone
d. temperature alone
191.   Which of the following statements is false?

a. Climatic factors can influence soil formation by determining the contour of the land
b. Climatic factors can influence soil formation by contributing to water erosion
c. Climatic factors can influence soil formation by contributing to wind erosion
d. Climatic factors can influence soil formation by determining the types of plants that can grow
       in the environment


192. As a general relationship, the amount of light available at a given height in a forest
canopy is _____ to the leaf area index above that height

a. unrelated
b. positively correlated
c. indirectly related
d. inversely related


193.   The amount of light at any depth in a forest canopy is affected by the leaves above. The
       best way to measure the impact of those leaves on light availability is to

a. determine their total volume
b. determine their total number
c. determine their total area
d. determine their total chlorophyll content


194.   Which of the following statements is false?

a. Tropical forests in Madagascar are currently 90 percent of their original area
b. Up to 140,000 km2 of tropical forests are destroyed each year
c. The Brazilian rainforest is currently about half of what it once was before humans started
       clearing it
d. Tropical forests have received a large amount of attention from conservation biologists
       because of their high species diversity


195.   The primary cause of species extinction from human activities is

a. Over-fishing
b. Habitat destruction
c. Poisoning
d. Hunting pressure
196.   Which of the following statements is true?

a. Deforestation is primarily a problem of tropical rain forests
b. Natural grasslands have only been reduced in area by about 10%
c. North American prairie has shrunk considerably, but the remaining tracts are largely
        continuous
d. Pollution and other human impacts on aquatic ecosystems have had effects similar to the
        clearing of forests


197.   Non-native species that are introduced to new habitats by humans are called __________
       species and may have many negative impacts on native species

a. exotic
b. alien
c. invasive
d. All of the above


198.   Which of the following statements about introduced species is false?

a. Introduced predators can greatly simplify food webs
b. Islands are the least vulnerable areas to introduced species
c. Invasive species are a problem in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
d. Introduced species can cause the extinction of native species through predatory or competitive
        interactions or by modifying the environment


199.   True or false: When magma reaches the surface it is called lava.

a. True
b. False


200.   True or false: The Richter Scale is subjective and the Mercalli Scale is based on seismic
       waves.

a. True
b. False


1A
2A
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4A
5D
6D
7C
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