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					               Proposal




Mobile Wireless Electrocardiogram




    ECE4007 Senior Design Project

    Section L01, J and the Three J’s

      Joe Richard, Team Leader
             John Farner
             Jason Fritts
            Julian Jaeger




               Submitted

           September 17, 2007
                                                    TABLE OF CONTENTS


Executive Summary ......................................................................................................... iii

1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................1

     1.1       Objective .............................................................................................................1
     1.2       Motivation ...........................................................................................................2
     1.3       Background .........................................................................................................2

2. Project Description and Goals ....................................................................................3

3. Technical Specification ................................................................................................3

4. Design Approach and Details

     4.1 Design Approach ..................................................................................................5
     4.2 Codes and Standards .............................................................................................8
     4.3 Constraints, Alternatives, and Tradeoffs ..............................................................9

5. Schedule, Tasks, and Milestones...............................................................................10

6. Project Demonstration...............................................................................................11

7. Marketing and Cost Analysis ....................................................................................11

     7.1 Marketing Analysis .............................................................................................11
     7.2 Cost Analysis ......................................................................................................12

8. Summary .....................................................................................................................13

9. References ...................................................................................................................14

Appendix A .......................................................................................................................16

Appendix B .......................................................................................................................17




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                                                          ii
                                   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

        The Mobile Wireless Electrocardiogram (EKG) is a medical telemetry instrument used by

medical personnel to monitor a patient’s EKG signal while allowing the patient to remain fully

mobile and comfortable. This EKG measures small electrical signals from the patient’s chest caused

by the heart beating. Using these signals, doctors and other medical staff can monitor the patient’s

well being and predict future problems. While EKGs are commonly used in hospitals, many patients

would benefit from the ability to perform usual tasks while remaining monitored on an EKG. In

environments such as nursing homes and assisted living centers this technology would allow the

elderly to retain their freedom of movement and still allow nursing staff to monitor important cases

and patients. The wireless data relay ability would allow many patients to be monitored from a

single base station with limited staff. This feature would be extremely valuable to hospital

administrators and management. With a small fleet of these devices an entire nursing home or

hospital floor could be well looked after by a small nursing staff.

        Each device will cost about $850 to provide for design, production costs, and a sizeable

profit margin. This price is well below usual prices for modern day EKGs. These devices will likely

be marketed in packaged groups of anywhere from 5 to 50 devices in a package. The base stations

could be small banks of personnel computers linked to a local LAN network with minimal additional

cost. The base stations could even use existing equipment. The primary customer of this device

would be hospitals, nursing homes, and assisted living centers. By the end of the design process a

working prototype as well as all the documentation for replication should be completed and available

for testing and demonstration.




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                 iii
                             Mobile Wireless Electrocardiogram


1.      INTRODUCTION


        Electrocardiograms (EKG) have long been used in the hospital environment to diagnose

cardiac arrhythmias and screen for heart disease. However, until recently patients had to be

tethered to the EKG machine by a few feet of wire [1]. The mobile EKG system is an

electrocardiogram with wireless data transmission capabilities, and a monitoring base station

used to receive and monitor the patient’s condition. With the invention of the mobile EKG,

patients can now move freely around their environment allowing their caregivers to easily

monitor the patient’s status at any location.


1.1     Objective

        The objective of this project is to provide hospitals with a wireless electrocardiogram with

the ability to operate away from its monitoring station. Hospitals around the country use

electrocardiograms everyday to monitor patients’ heart condition using stationary bedside EKG

units. Our objective is to allow caregivers the ability to move their patients around their

environments without ever having to disconnect and reconnect EKG wires. Using the same EKG

design used in hospitals today, we will add wireless capabilities to the unit by adding an IEEE

802.11g Wi-Fi adapter for data transmission. With the addition of a mobile battery pack, the EKG

base unit will be able to travel with the patient wherever they go. We will also design a monitoring

station that will receive the base station’s Wi-Fi signal using another IEEE 802.11g Wi-Fi adapter.

Software will be designed to interpret this signal and display it to caregivers at the remote

monitoring station.



J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                  1
1.2     Motivation

        Using current electrocardiograms in hospitals can be a time consuming and unsanitary task

[2]. Connecting and disconnecting EKG leads from hospital room to hospital room takes up valuable

time that nurses could be using to focus on the patient’s ailment. Changing wires also introduces

bacteria to the patient, further increasing the risk of infection.


        Using a mobile EKG the hospital staff only has to connect wires to the patient once. This

feature will save the caregivers time and decrease the risk of bacteria being introduced to the

patient. The patient will also be “more comfortable in their beds and getting up and around”

since they are free from unnecessary wires [2]. This project was motivated by the realization that

wires are unnecessary given the current state of wireless communication technologies.


1.3     Background

        Currently there are a few wireless electrocardiograms being tested on the market. LifeSync

has a mobile EKG system being tested in thirteen hospitals across the country. LifeSync’s system

uses Bluetooth for its wireless capabilities, giving it a range of thirty to forty feet [1]. The main goal

of this device is to “provide a mobile interface to existing EKG monitors in the hospital” [3].


        Phillips provides a wireless “IntelliVue Telemetry System” that can be used to monitor a

patients EKG measurement. This system relies on a 2.4 GHz cellular network using fixed

antennas installed throughout the hospital [4].




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                      2
2.      PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND GOALS

        The proposed project is a mobile electrocardiogram. A patient will wear a mobile EKG that

will gather heart rhythm data, store the data, and transmit it wirelessly to a remote base station for

analysis by a health care professional. This EKG monitoring system can be marketed to hospitals,

nursing homes, and other health care facilities based on these goals.

        -       Safe for user
        -       Reliable EKG data under a variety of circumstances
        -       Base station interface
        -       Easy to use mobile system
        -       Lightweight and small size
        -       Wireless data transfer
        -       Sufficient wireless range

        One of the primary goals of the mobile EKG is reliable heart rhythm representation. The

EKG readouts should be comparable to standard EKG units that are currently being used. Similarly,

the mobile EKG must satisfy the same safety standards as present systems.

        Since the unit will be worn by a patient for the majority of its functional operation, the EKG

interface must be easy to understand. The unit must also be small and light enough to allow the

patient to move unrestricted.


        Finally, the advantage of this system is its mobility. The wireless capabilities are the

ultimate determining factor for the applications of this system.


3.      TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

        The goals stated in the project description lead to the quantifiable specifications of the

mobile EKG. Each of these specifications determines the scope of usefulness of the design. The

technical specifications are given below in Table 1.




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                     3
 Table 1. Mobile EKG Technical Specifications

                                        Specification                  Description
                                                             The eBox 2300 uses 15W of
                                                             power. Using a 9.6V battery
  Battery Life                          ≈ 1.25 hours         pack with approximately
                                                             2200mAh gives this lifetime.

                                                             This is a typical range for
  Wireless range                           ≈ 38 m            802.11g wireless networks.
                                                             Sufficient isolation will protect
                                                             the patient from electrical
  Isolation CCT protection                  TBD
                                                             shock.

                                                             This is the maximum allowable
  Electrode power                        0.1 W/cm            power to the EKG electrodes.
                                                             This includes the weight/size
  Weight of unit                          < 1.3 kg
                                                             of the eBox, battery pack, EKG
                                                             circuit, and packaging.
  Size of unit                     150mm x 115mm x 80mm
                                                             A sufficient resolution will
  Resolution                                TBD              ensure accurate analysis.
                                                             With heartbeats providing a
                                                             signal on the order of a
  EKG gain                                  1000             millivolt, the amplification
                                                             circuit must have a gain of
                                                             1000.

        Safety is of primary importance for the mobile EKG. Adequate isolation from the mobile

pack’s electronics and a minimum amount of power applied to the EKG electrodes will help ensure

the patient’s safety.

        Long battery life and wireless range help determine locations of a hospital or nursing home

in which the EKG can be used. A patient’s freedom is greatly increased by the mobile EKG, but

specifications must be chosen such that the patient is not hindered by their distance from or time

spent away from a base station. Similarly, the weight and size of the unit must not constrict the

movement of the patient.




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                     4
          The accuracy of the mobile EKG must be comparable to that of existing electrocardiographic

monitoring equipment. The gain of the amplification circuit will be high enough to obtain a clear

heart rhythm reading. Since the heart rhythm data will be sent through an analog-to-digital

converter, the resolution will be great enough to ensure accurate analysis.


4.        DESIGN APPROACH AND DETAILS


4.1       Design Approach

          The mobile EKG design consists of two major sections as shown in Figure 1. First, the

analog signal input will take the signal reading from the user, amplify the signal, filter out any noise,

and convert the signal from analog to digital form [16]. The second part will wirelessly transmit the

data back to a computer base station, store the data, and allow for analysis by physicians or medical

personnel.




      Figure 1. Design flow chart.

          The analog signal input can further be divided into parts consisting of signal measurement,

amplification, signal filtering, safety isolation, and the A/D conversion. The signal will be measured

using three electrode leads attached to the body with an adhesive and conductive gel spread between



J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                    5
the body and the electrodes. The gel will insure the electrodes stay on the body while the patient

moves as well as improve the measurement by creating good conductive contact between the

electrodes and the body. Figure 2 displays the lead placement on the body. The leads are named after

the appendage they are closest to (i.e. RA for Right Arm).

                                                  The electrodes will be attached through shielded

                                           wire to an input amplifier. For this amplifier an AD624AD

                                           high-precision instrumentation amplifier has been chosen.

                                           The average voltage measured from the human body is the

                                           in the range of 0.1 mV to 1.0 mV [16]. This amplifier will

                                           be able to amplify the signal up to 1000 times. With the

                                           signal strength increased, filtering and the A/D conversion

       Figure 2. EKG lead placement.       will be easier. Figure 3 displays the circuit diagram of the

                                           amplifier. [17]

                                                  Measuring the signal from the body and transferring

                                           the signal through wires between the body and the

                                           amplifier will create noise in the signal that will need to be

                                           filtered out. A linear notch filter will be implemented to

                                           remove this noise. The average EKG signal is usually

Figure 3. Amplifier circuit.               between 3 and 20 Hz [16]. Above these frequencies excess

noise is taken in by the wires from the surrounding environment. Below 3 Hz the leads will pick up

signals from other bodily functions such as breathing and muscle movement [16]. A 311 or 741 op

amp will be used to create this filter, as they are cheap and readily available.




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                     6
        One item not yet addressed is the safety precaution within the circuit to prevent short circuits

from redirecting current back through the user’s chest. Since this device is powered by a small

battery, there is not as much danger as an EKG powered by a 120-volt wall receptacle. However, it

is an important issue that must be addressed. There are two main options to deal with this problem.

The first is to use an optical isolation amplifier between the amplification and filtering phase. The

second is to use diodes at the input of the signal to disallow any outbound signals. Due to cost and

availability of parts this design will use the diode option.

        After amplification and filtering the signal will be passed into an A/D converter. For this

design a Phidget Board was decided on to perform the A/D conversion. The availability of this item

in the design environment as well as its ease of transferring the signal onto the next stage contributed

to the decision to use this product for this part of the design. The process for the actual conversion

using the Phidget Board is yet to be determined. If the Phidget Board proves to be unusable, another

comparable product will be researched and chosen for this conversion.

        From here the signal will enter the second stage of the design. The Phidget Board will

transfer the digital signal onto the eBox-2300. The eBox, using Windows CE, will be able to store

data, transfer it wirelessly to the computer base station, and possibly perform some analysis on the

signal before transfer. Using wireless LAN and the IEEE 108.11g standard, the eBox will transfer

data back to the computer base station. At the base station the data will be displayed, stored, and can

be analyzed by medical personnel. The process of wireless transfer is still under design. Real time

transfer would be ideal, but seems improbable given available equipment and time constraints. Most

likely data will be transferred in blocks at regular intervals. All else failing, the eBox would be able

to store the data and transfer it a later time over a wire to a computer base station for storage and

analysis.




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                      7
        The two major stages can be designed and tested separately, but each must be finished before

they can be tested together. All the major items discussed here are critical items to the

implementation of a mobile EKG, and all must be completed for a successful product.


4.2     Codes and Standards

        One of the most fundamental electrical standards for medical equipment is the International

Electrotechnical Commission’s standard IEC 60601-1. The first section of this standard is referred to

as the base standard, and provides requirements for the prevention of electrical shock, mechanical,

ignition, flammable anesthetics, excessive output and flame hazards [5].

        The hazard most relevant to the mobile EKG, the electrical shock hazard, is outlined in

section three of IEC 60601-1 [6]. Limiting exposure to 25 VAC, 60 VDC, circuit separation, and

proper grounding are all stated by this standard [5]. Product safety has already guided design

decisions regarding battery size and amplifier design. The battery voltages and subsequent amplifier

rail voltages, have been made as low as possible. An isolating diode circuit has been integrated into

the EKG amplifier design for further patient safety.

        The second type of IEC 60601 sections are referred to as specific standards. The standard

IEC 60601-2-27 specifies safety requirements and essential performance for electrocardiographic

monitoring equipment specifically [5]. This standard is applicable to EKG equipment used outside

of the hospital environment, but does not apply to home usage.

        Other International Electrotechnical Commission standards include IEC 61000-4-2 and IEC

61000-4-3, which regulate electrostatic discharge and radiated electromagnetic fields respectively.

Most electronic devices are required to pass an electrostatic discharge, ESD, test in accordance with

the IEC 61000-4-2, IEC 801-2, or the EN61000-4-2 standards. These standards plot out methods for

producing electrical stresses for testing purposes [7]. Similarly, the IEC 61000-4-3 standard outlines



J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                  8
methods for testing design responses to electromagnetic radiation, such as those produced by cell

phones, pagers, and small radio transceivers [8].


        Finally, a standard for wireless LAN connections is the IEEE 802.11g. This standard

provides a mandatory maximum data transfer rate of 54 Mbps [9]. The decision to use a

standardized wireless communication technology ensures the most reliable interface between

different systems within the project.


4.3     Constraints, Alternatives, and Tradeoffs

        Safety is a primary medical standard, which narrowed the options of the amplification circuit

design. To prevent the EKG patient from potentially lethal shocks from the amplification circuit an

isolation circuit was needed. Our two choices were a diode based isolator or an optical isolator.

Isolating diode circuits provide excellent safety, are widely available, and cost much less than

optical isolators [10]. For its safety benefits and availability the isolating diode circuit design was

chosen.

        The desired mobile range of 38 meters determined the wireless system chosen. One of the

wireless EKG’s goals is to allow the patient to move around their environment freely. For the patient

to freely move around their environment, the EKG’s wireless system must have a large wireless

range. We considered three wireless systems for our project: IEEE 802.11g Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and a

cellular communication system. The IEEE 802.11g Wi-Fi system gave us the greatest benefit based

on the range and ease of setup comparison. IEEE 802.11g Wi-Fi provides a range of up to 38 meters,

and can be easily installed in a hospital using Wi-Fi routers available at any computer retailer [9].

Bluetooth currently has a range of 9 to 12 meters which is not sufficient to cover an entire hospital.

A cellular based system would require installing cellular antennas throughout the hospital and would




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                     9
likely take our entire budget [4]. For its wireless range, price, and ease of installation the IEEE

802.11g was chosen as the mobile EKG’s wireless system.


5.       SCHEDULE, TASKS, AND MILESTONES

         As shown in the Gantt chart located in appendix A, there are nine major milestones that need

to be reached before the unit can begin the final test phase. At least two engineers are assigned to

most of these tasks. This method will not only bring more knowledge to each task, but it also ensures

that separate engineers hold each other accountable. All nine tasks are equally important and crucial

to successful completion of the prototype.


     Table 2. Degrees of Difficulty.

                        Task Name                       Degree of Difficulty            Risk
     1             Build Amplifier Circuit                   Medium                     High
     2             Build Filter Circuit                        Medium                 Medium
     3    Complete “Hello World” eBox program                  Medium                  Low
     4      Test Amplifier and Filter Circuits                 Medium                  High
     5     Combine Phidgets Sensors and eBox                     High                  Low
     6     Combine Circuit with other Hardware                   High                 Medium
     7        Program Wi-Fi to transmit data                     High                  Low
     8        Design Packaging for Hardware                      Low                  Medium
     9          Program Computer Interface                       High                 Medium




         The degree of difficulty and risk of each task can be seen in Table 2. The risk associated

with each task is the result of combined risk factors regarding safety and equipment investment.

The degree of difficulty was ranked based on the expected time to completion, required effort,

and likelihood of project delay.




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                      10
6.      PROJECT DEMONSTRATION

        The project will be demonstrated in two different stages. First there will be a live

demonstration. This demonstration will show that the unit is functional. The unit will be connected

to a person, and that person’s heartbeat will be transmitted wirelessly to a computer in the same

room. The second stage of the demonstration is a video. It is intended to show the product

functioning under more extreme circumstances. The video will show the heartbeat output of a person

performing basic activities such as walking and climbing stairs. However, the video will also show

the heartbeat of a person running and performing strenuous physical activity. One of the goals of the

final unit is the ability to correctly display heartbeats under any circumstances. By having a two

stage demonstration this goal can be shown. Ease of use and mobility can also be validated during

the live demonstration.

        The design process is divided into several different stages. Testing is an important part of

each smaller design phase. Once each stage has been fully tested the different design processes can

be combined to produce the final product. Due to the extensive testing before combing all the parts,

fewer problems will arise. However, once the prototype is built it will undergo a severe testing

phase. This phase will ensure that the final unit meets all customer specifications.


7.      MARKETING AND COST ANALYSIS


7.1     Marketing Analysis

        There are many electrocardiograms available on the market today, but only a few wireless

electrocardiograms have ever been marketed. These systems include the LifeSync Wireless ECG

System, and Phillip’s IntelliVue Telemetry System described in Section 1.3 [3] [4]. Both of these

systems are meant to provide a wireless interface for an already existing electrocardiogram system.



J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                   11
The LifeSync system uses Bluetooth for its wireless transmission giving it a range of only 30 feet.

[18]. The Phillips system uses a cellular network that requires cellular antennas to be installed

throughout the hospital.


        The mobile EKG system will be a standalone product, which does not require an existing

EKG system. The system may also be sold in packages of 5 to 50 units. An existing EKG

machine can cost as much as $4,500, whereas our project’s estimated price is $850 [19]. The

mobile EKG will also use IEEE 802.11g for its wireless capabilities giving it a range of up to 38

meters [9].


7.2     Cost Analysis

        Building the prototype will cost about $140 in parts and $19,200 in labor as shown in the

cost calculation in appendix B. This cost assumes four engineers work for 160 hours each at a pay

rate of $30 per hour. Including fringe benefits and overhead, the developmental cost of the prototype

is about $37,417. The cost of parts is relatively low for the prototype because many of the needed

parts are already in stock. The main required parts that are currently not available yet are the

AD624AD Precision Instrumentation Amplifier which costs $19.32 [11], a Phidget Voltage Sensor,

which costs $19.83 [12], and a 5V Switching Voltage Regulator, which costs $29.95 [13]. Shipping

costs, a couple of other smaller items and packaging make up the rest of the required $140 for

building the prototype.

        When mass producing the mobile EKG unit, part costs will be higher due to the fact that

other parts need to be ordered for every single unit. Every unit requires an eBox-2300 which costs

about $133 [14] and a Phidget Interface Kit which costs $76 [15]. This will raise the cost of parts to

$310. With assembly and labor costs being fairly low, each unit will cost $762 to produce. This is




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                    12
assuming 2,000 units can be sold every year for five years. At a selling price of $850, around $88 or

10.3% profit would be made on every single unit. Selling 10,000 units over five years would lead to

a total profit of $875,083.


8.      SUMMARY


        Currently stage one and two of the design are under development separately. The

amplifier circuit has been simulated and designed. The circuit will be assembled and tested as

parts are received. The filter circuit is in the simulation phase. Its design is being tested and

optimized. The eBox and Phidgets board are being tested, and their operation is being researched

and implemented. Soon the entire front-end circuit will be combined for testing. As the

electrodes are acquired, we will begin testing real bodily signals with the circuits designed thus

far.




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                     13
9.      REFERENCES

[1]     Life Sync Corp., “Why the LifeSync System ?,” [Sales Literature], [citied 2007 Sep 4]
        Available HTTP: http://www.lifesynccorp.com/healthcareproviders/why-lifesync.html

[2]     D. Wood, RN (2004, August). “Wireless ECGs Make for Flexibility, Freedom.” Nurse
        Spectrum. [Trade magazine]. (pp. 2-3). [cited 2007 Sep 4], Available:
        http://www.lifesynccorp.com/assets/pdfs/press/NurseSpectrum1.pdf

[3]     I. Noorzaie, CSE 574 “Survey Paper: Medical Applications of Wireless Networks,” [Survey
        Paper], Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, December 2006. Available
        HTTP: http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse574-06/medical_wireless.htm

[4]     Philips Electronics, “IntelliVue Telemetry System,” [Sales Literature], [cited 2007 Sep 4],
        Available HTTP:
        http://www.medical.philips.com/main/products/patient_monitoring/products/telemetry/

[5]     L. Eisner, R. Brown, and D. Modi, “A Primer for IEC 60601-1,” [Online document] 2003
        Sep, [cited 2007 Sep 13], Available HTTP:
        http://www.devicelink.com/mddi/archive/03/09/015.html

[6]     International Electrotechnical Commission, International Standard IEC 60601-1-1, 2nd
        Edition, Geneva: International Electrotechnical Commission, 2000

[7]     R. A. Mayes Company, Inc, “IEC 61000-4-2 ESD Test,” [Online document] 2007 Sep 6,
        [cited 2007 Sep 13] , Available HTTP:
        http://www.ramayes.com/EMC_Test_Specifications/ESD_Testing_per_IEC_61000-4-2.htm

[8]     DLS, “IEC 61000-4-3 Testing,” [Online document] 2007, [cited 2007 Sep 13], Available
        HTTP:
        http://www.dlsemc.com/index.htm?emc/testing/ec/en61000_4_03/03.htm~mainFrame

[9]     Broadcom, “The New Mainstream Wireless LAN Standard,” White Paper, [Online serial]
        2007 Jul 3, Available HTTP:
        http://www.dell.com/downloads/global/shared/broadcom_802_11_g.pdf

[10]    Jaycar Electronics, “Optocouplers: When & How To Use Them”, [Company Website], [cited
        2007 Sep 14], Available HTTP: http://www1.jaycar.com.au/images_uploaded/optocoup.pdf

[11]    Digi-Key, “AD624ADZ-ND Order Form”, [Company Website], [cited 2007 Sep 17],
        Available HTTP:
        http://www.digikey.com/scripts/DkSearch/dksus.dll?Detail?name=AD624ADZ-ND

[12]    Phidgets Inc., “Analog Sensors”, [Company Website], [cited 2007 Sep 17], Available HTTP:
        http://www.phidgets.com/products.php?category=2




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                                14
[13]    RoboticsConnection.com, “5V Switching Voltage Regulator”, [Company Website], [cited
        2007 Sep 17], Available HTTP: http://www.roboticsconnection.com/p-38-5v-switching-
        voltage-regulator.aspx

[14]    WDL Systems, “Online Buyers Guide: eBOX-2300 200MHz VESA PC (Mini PCI, 2xRS-
        232)”, [Company Website], [cited 2007 Sep 17], Available HTTP:
        http://www.wdlsystems.com/modperl/view_services.cgi?r=list_aisle.plate&aisle_id=1007

[15]    Phidgets Inc., “PhidgetInterfaceKit 8/8/8”, [Company Website], [cited 2007 Sep 17],
        Available HTTP: http://www.phidgets.com/products.php?product_id=1018

[16]    E. Company-Bosch and E. Hartmann, “ECG Front-End Design is Simplified with
        MicroConverter®,” Analog Dialogue, [Online Serial] vol. 37, Nov., 2003, Available HTTP:
        http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/archives/37-11/ecg.html

[17]    S. Carlson, “Amateur Scientist: Home is Where the ECG Is,” Scientific American, [Online
        Serial] June, 2000, Available HTTP:
        http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000C74E4-5172-1C74-9B81809EC588EF21

[18]    Commil, “Bluetooth vs. Wi-Fi,” [Company Website], [cited 2007 Sep 4], Available HTTP:
        http://www.commil.com/bluetooth_vs.htm

[19]    EKG Machines, “Interpretive EKG/ECG Machines,” [Company Website], [cited 2007 Sep
        13], Available HTTP: http://www.ekg-machines.com/ekg-machines.html




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)                                                              15
APPENDIX A. Gantt Chart

                                   .




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)       16
APPENDIX B. Cost Analysis




J and the Three J’s (ECE4007L01)   17

				
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